5 views

Uploaded by Arie Amri Marta

semuanya gak ribet

semuanya gak ribet

© All Rights Reserved

- Mitutoyo - Sondy Indukcyjne i Wskaźniki Mu-Checker - E13003(2) - 2016 EN
- Inductor Design with Core
- CAR_66
- ICAT Syllbus For Part 66
- Coil for Electro
- DESIGN AND STATIC ANALYSIS OF REGENERATIVE SHOCK ABSORBER.pdf
- 37939987 Electric Machinery Fundamentals 1
- DIY 1000 Watt Wind Turbine
- talki walki.pdf
- Edc
- mech_eng_te (1)
- Motionless Electromagnetic Generator (MEG)
- Stanely Induction Heating
- 1-s2.0-S1359835X05003957-main
- Relay Data
- Test 25thdate
- Lesson 1.1.pptx
- Linear FM 50Watt
- d4c Dsheet Csm580 OMRON
- Nidhi > EM > Task_17b

You are on page 1of 7

http://www.ijsat.com

analysis of power system using advanced controlled

STATCOM-SMES

Anil Kumar Dahiya

Ratna Dahiya

National Institute of Technology

Kurukshetra-136 119, India

E-mail: anildau@yahoo.co.in

National Institute of Technology

Kurukshetra-136 119, India

E-mail: ratna_dahiya@yahoo.co.in

D.P. Kothari

Director general

Vindhya Institute of Technology & Science

Indore (M.P.), India

E-mail: dpk0710@yahoo.com

vital role in improving the dynamic performance of power system

during transient conditions. Single Machine Infinite Bus (SMIB)

system is considered along with Static Synchronous

Compensator-Supercounducting Magnetic Energy Storage

(STATCOM-SMES). In the present work, PI controller has been

replaced with fuzzy logic controller (FLC) and Artificial Neural

Network controller (ANN). The dynamic performance of the

proposed work is evaluated through digital simulation by using

SimPower of SIMULINK/MATLAB and through the energy

function to analyze damping and stability of SMIB system.

Keywords: SMES; STATCOM; Energy function; fuzzy logic;

ANN; Transient Stability; Directs methods;

I.

INTRODUCTION

of stability analysis has proven its effectiveness in recent years

[1-2]. In the present paper Lyapunov Function has been

developed to study the transient stability [3] of SMIB system

connected with STATCOM-SMES. The Superconducting

Magnetic Energy Storage (SMES) has been recognized as most

viable energy storing device as well as prominent Flexible AC

transmission System (FACTS) due to its high efficiency and

fast response [4]. The integration of the SMES with a

STATCOM controller has been developed. The fast response

and the capability to follow nonlinear changes are the key

aspect of a controller to compensate the real and reactive

powers effectively during transients in power system [5].

stability of power system after being subjected to some

disturbances [6-7].

II.

STATCOM, SMES, dc-dc chopper and controller as explained

in the next subsection.

A. STATCOM-SMES

A 48-pulse, three levels, neutral point clamped (NPC), gate

turn off thyristors (GTO) voltage source inverter (VSI) is the

basic component of STATCOM used. The major advantages of

using 48-pulse three-level, NPC topologies for VSI are

reduction of Total Harmonic Distortion (THD), voltage stress

of each thyristor and additional flexibility of a level in the

output voltage [8]. An SMES coil has been attached to the DC

bus of STATCOM through a dc-dc chopper. A two quadrant,

three level dc-dc chopper is used as an interfacing between

STATCOM and SMES to control the rate of charge/discharge

of SMES coil without affecting the dc bus voltage of

STATCOM [9].

Artificial Neural Network (ANN) controller have been

developed in MATLAB environment and implemented in

STATCOM-SMES to enhance the transient stability. The

integrated STATCOM-SMES can also be used as stabilizer to

41

http://www.ijsat.com

controller is shown in Table 1. The logic of rule definition is

Figure 1. Block representation of STATCOM-SMES

2.0 H and a resistance of 0.01 . The maximum operating

voltage VL of SMES is restricted by insulation of the

superconducting coil, while the maximum SMES current is

limited by the maximum rate of change under constant

voltage. The current and voltage of the superconducting inductor are related as given by the following equation:

iL

1

V dt I L0

L t L

(1)

Figure 4. Output membership function

and IL0 is the initial current of the inductor.

The the rated power (P in Watt) and inductively stored

energy (E in Joule) of SMES can be expressed as follows:

P = VLIL

(2)

E = 1/2L(IL)2

(3)

should absorb active power from the power system. Similarly,

when the frequency is low and decreasing, it should supply

active power to the power system and during the steady state

condition of power system it remains in standby mode.

TABLE 1. Rule base of fuzzy controller

d /dt

nnb

nb

z

pb

ppb

voltage Vsm at SMES terminal to the VSI average dc bus

voltage Vd as follow:

Vsm=mVd

(4)

nnb

nb

pb

ppb

nb

nb

n

p

p

nb

nb

n

p

p

n

n

z

p

p

n

n

p

pb

pb

n

n

p

pb

pb

m = - (1-D1- D2) chopper boost mode.

where m is modulation index, D1 and D2 are the duty cycles

for buck and boost mode respectively.

B. Fuzzy logic controller

The Mamdanis fuzzy controller, which uses if-then rules

for inference engine has been used in the present work [10].

The deviation of frequency and derivative of frequency are

used as input variables and fuzzified by proper membership

functions. Crisp output is calculated by Center of Area (COA)

method.

The input and output membership functions assigned to

each input variable are shown in Fig. 2, Fig. 3 and Fig. 4

Z=zero, p=positive small, pb=positive big,

ppb=positive very big, n=negative small,

nb=negative big and nnb=negative very big.

Based on two input variables ( and d /dt), the output

and hence the rate of charging/discharging of SMES coil is

determined.

C.

The back propagation algorithm has been used for the training

of feed-forward neural networks as it updates the network weights

and biases in the direction so that the performance function,

usually the sum of square errors, decreases most rapidly [11-12].

The Neural Network is trained for two input variables, i.e.

deviation of frequency and derivative of frequency, and

Kurukshetra, India.

42

http://www.ijsat.com

required signals at its output. The output signal of controller is fed

to the GTOs firing circuit of dc-chopper and voltage phase angle

controller. The 2 layers and 10 neurons network controller is

trained with the help of nntool box of MATLAB using the

TRAINLIM Transfer function, and LERNGDM Adaptation

learning function.

III.

Hz. The model system consists of a synchronous generator feeding

an infinite bus having a short circuit rating of 10000 MVA, through

a transformer and single circuit line shown in Fig. 5. The 500 MVA,

11kV, 50 Hz synchronous generator is powered by tandem

compound steam turbine prime mover including speed governor

system. The three phases to ground (3-LG) fault is applied near the

infinite bus. at time t = 5.2 s and cleared at t=5.3 s, with automatic

breaker re-closing. The integrated STATCOM-SMES controller is

placed near the sending end of transmission line.The major test

system data related to transformer, synchronous machine, line and

STATCOM-SMES are summarized in Appendix.

11kV

Synchronous

Generator

E =

E fd =

Excitation voltage

D=

Damping coefficient

X 'd

Xd

Direct axis reactance

Xl =

Xt =

Line reactance

Transformer reactance

Inertia constant of machine

direct axis current

M =

id =

SMES coil of STATCOM-SMES, (6) can be represented as :

1

[ Pm Pe Psm D ]

M

PCC

Fault

(10)

Psm I smVsm

(11)

400kV

X 'd

swing. Thus the change in SMES power Psm is proportional

Infinite

Bus

expressed as :

STATCOM

SMES

Psm K D

(12)

shown in Fig.5 may be model as d-q axis as follows:

=

1

=

M

E

(5)

(

Pm Pe D ) ]

(6)

1

[ E ( X d X ' d )id E fd ] (7)

T 'd 0

EV

Pe

sin

X 'd X t X l

E V cos

id

X 'd X t X l

(8)

where as

(13)

Vsmo 0

Hence

(14)

the converter. The firing angle controlled is proportional to

speed deviation.

Vsm

Where

KS

1 pTS

(15)

Psm

(9)

I sm0 K S

1 pTs

(16)

where

=

=

Angle velocity rad/s

KD

Psm

I sm0 K S

at

(17)

43

http://www.ijsat.com

x A ( x) F ( x)

Similarly the deviation of Pe and id may be given [2]. Since the

parameter is defined the above equation may enter as

followed.

(18)

Pe f ( , e)

V ( x)

i n j n

(19)

Vt K e e K f f ( , e)

(20)

ke

vq0

Xe

;

X e X 'd VT0

V

kf 0 0

E B cos 0

(D K D )

M

0

0

0

0

2 g ( )

0

0

V ( x) P T ( x) ( x)

n

i Pkl

k 1 l 1

l i

(28)

k ( )

l :

xi

0

Xl

i=1,2,3,4, . N.

Where

(29)

( x) [ 1 ( x) 2 ( x) 3 ( x)......... n ( x)]

0

0

2

4

Q ( AT P T PA)

(30)

V ( x) X T QX

For the validity of Lyapunove function V(x) there are several

ways to assure the sign-definiteness of the derivative of V(x),

here To assure the sign-definiteness of V (x) for validity of

V(x) as a Lyapunov function the one condition is

If one can state

(24)

F ( x) AP T 1 ( x) 0

X d X 'd

T 'd 0

K

1

1

; 4

; 5 R K e ;

TR

T 'd 0

TR

K

6 R K f ;

TR

IV.

(26)

(27)

Where

;

( )d i

Xe Xd

X e X 'd

(23)

where

ij

1

V ( x) [ P T 1V ( x)]T Q[ P T 1V ( x)] V T ( x)[ F ( x) AP T 1 ( x)]

2

Xq

v q0

v0

X 'd

cos 0 d0

sin 0 0

X e X 'd

VT

VT

X e X q

(22)

j 1

(21)

1

[ K R VT ]

TR

f ( , e)

+

e

Where

Xi

P

i 1

id B 0 e g ( )

(25)

LYAPUNOV FUNCTION

generalized Persidskii system as given by

(31)

For all x, if Q is positive definite or positive semi-definite

then function V(x) has negative definite derivative or negative

semi-definite derivative then the origin of (25) is a stable

equilibrium point.

The Q matrix is then given as

P1

1

D

P2 6 P14

5 P14

4 P14 P41

2 P1 ( D K D ) M

M

M

P

P

1 P2 6 P14

0

0

P4 6 41

Q M

M

5 P14

0

21 P3

5 P4 3 P3

(D K D )

P41

6 P4 2 P3 5 P4

2 4 P4

4 P14 P41

M

M

(32)

44

http://www.ijsat.com

2

e2 2

1

V ( x) (1 M 3 6 1 )M 2 f ( , e)d 1 1 3

2

25

2 2 2 25

0

V.

(33)

AND AVR ACTION

1

M

0 f ( )

(34)

2D 0

Q

0 0

increase the value of the term represents the potential energy

of the system and further enhancement of the stability of the

system.

VI.

performance of system (24) without SMES the factor K D ,

action of field decay and AVR is neglected from equation

(24). Then the system is represented as

D

M

1

(35)

RESULTS

Lyapunove Function concedering the effect of SMES of

STATCOM-SMIB system. The Matrix Q is semi-definite

positive, hence the system is stable.

The performance of controllers in STATCOM-SMES has

been analyzed through the simulation results. The simulation

results for 3-LG fault in Fig. 6-9. The rotor seed and angle of

machine have been compared in Fig. 6 and 7 respectively. The

active power output and terminal voltage of machine have

been compared in Fig. 8 and 9 respectively. These results

clearly revels that the SMIB system is stable and the dynamic

responses of machine are improved more effectively with

neural network controller as compared with fuzzy logic and PI

controller.

of the system the factor K D is considered and the system is

represented as

(D K D )

M

1

1

M f ( )

(36)

V ( , )

1

M 2 f ( )d

2

0

(37)

1

M 2 represent the transient kinetic

2

energy and the last term represent the potential energy of the

system. The function V ( , ) is the sum of kinetic and

potential energies and remains constant once the fault is

cleared since the system is conservative. This energy must be

absorbed by the system once the fault is cleared if the system

to be stabile.

The related Q matrix is

2( D K D ) 0

Q

0

0

(38)

because the effect of SMES is to increase the damping of the

system. If the time constant of the system is considered there

45

http://www.ijsat.com

been found best among all the controllers used. The overall

dynamic response of power system has been improved

significantly with STATCOM-SMES using intelligent

controllers.

REFERENCES

G.M. Dhole and. M.K. Khedkar Antigen Energy Function: A New

Energy Function for Transient Stability Assessment, Electric Power

System Research 74, pp 315-322, 2005.

[2] L.D.Colvara, S.C.B.Araujo and E.B.Festraits Stability Analysis of

Power System Including FACTS(TCSC) effect by Direct Method

Approach, IJEPES, vol. 27,Issue 4, pp 264-274,May 2005.

[3] A. Ghosh and D. Chatterjee, Transient Stability Assessment of Power

System Containing Series and Shunt Compensators, IEEE Trans. on

Power System, vol. 22, Issue 3, pp. 210-220, 2007.

[4] ] M.H. Ali, Wu Bin and R.A. Dougal, An Overview of SMES

Applications in Power and Energy Systems, IEEE Trans. on

Sustainable Energy, Vol. 1, Issue 1, 2010, pp. 38-47.

[5] D. Sutanto and K.W. E. Cheng, Superconducting magnetic energy

storage systems for power system applications, Procd. Int. Conf. on

Applied Superconductivity and Electromagnetic Devices 2009 (ASEMD

2009), pp. 377 380, Sept. 2009.

[6] P. F. Ribeiro, Aysen Arsoy and Yilu Liu, Transmission Power Quality

benefits realized by a SMES-FACTS controller, Procd. of Int. Conf. on

Harmonics and Quality of Power, vol. 1, 1-4, pp. 307-312, Oct. 2000.

[7] A. K. Dahiya, R. Dahiya and D. P. Kothari, Fuzzy Controlled

STATCOM-SMES for Enhancing Transient Stability of SMIB, IJESC,

Vol. 2, No. 2, pp. 81-88, 2010.

[8] A. B. Arsoy, Y. Liu, P. F. Rebeiro and F. Wang, STATCOM-SMES,

Industry Applications Magazine, IEEE, vol. 9, Issue 2, pp. 21-28. MarApr 2003.

[9] M. G. Molina, P. E. Mercado and E. H Watanabe, Dynamic

Performance of a Static Synchronous Compensator with

Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage, IEEE 36th Conf. on Power

Electronics Specialists Conference 2005, pp. 224230, June 16, 2005.

[10] M. H. Ali, T. Murata and J. Tamura, A Fuzzy Logic-Controlled

superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage for Transient Stability

Augmentation, IEEE Transaction on Control System technology, vol.

15, Issue 1, pp. 114-150, 2007.

[11] D. P. Kothari, Application of neural networks to power systems, IEEE

Proc. of International Conference on Industrial Technology 2000, Vol.

1, pp. 621-626, 2000.

[12] A. M. Hemeida, Artificial Neural Network PI Controlled

Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage, SMES for Augmentation of

Power Systems Stability, Power System Conference, 2008. MEPCON

2008, 12th International Middle-East, March 2008, pp. 187191, 2008.

[1]

VII. CONCLUSION

Lyapunove second method is used to include the effect of

STATCOM-SMES on the stability of a SMIB power system

with Automatic Voltage Regular. The LF is energy-type and

the influence of each of the control devices appears on the

energy, synchronization torque, and damping torque. The

method applied to the SMIB system considering the effect of

SMES, LF formulation has shown very effective result with

respect to oscillation damping. During the fault SMES is

capable to absorb the excess electrical energy of the system

which is the main cause of instability of the system hence

increasing the critical clearing time. This excess energy is

stored in SMES and can be utilized during peak demand

hours.

The transient stability of SMIB system connected

with STATCOM-SMES also has been analyzed through the

simulation using SimPowerSystems of MATLAB. The

analysis of results reveal that system is stabile when subjected

to three phase to ground fault. The performances of various

controllers (PI, Fuzzy and ANN) used in STATCOM-SMES

also have been studied. The performances of intelligent

controllers (Fuzzy and ANN) have been found better than PI

APPENDIX

DATA USED:

M=0.0544 , D=0.0054 s;

X d = X q =0.7245 pu;

T ' d 0 5.35s; Pe0 =1.5pu; V=0.9945 pu; VT0 =1.0pu

Lsm 0.5H , I sm0 0.2018 pu,

Vsm 0 , Tdc 0.026 , K s 1.060

46

http://www.ijsat.com

Engg. College, Gorakhpur, India and received M.Tech degrees in

Electrical Power Systems from REC Kurukshetra in 1995. He has

served at various technical institutes and industry. He is currently an

Assistant Professor in the Dept. of Elect. Engg, NIT, Kurukshetra. His

fields of interest are Control and applications of FACTS devices.

University, India and received M.Tech and P.hD degrees in Electrical

Enginnering from REC Kurukshetra in 1988 and 2002 respectively. She

is currently an Associate Professor in the Dept. of Elect. Engg, NIT,

Kurukshetra. Her fields of interest include Power System, Power

Electronics and FACTS devices.

Technology & Science, Indore, India. Former Vice-Chancellor of VIT

University Vellore Tamilnadu, Director I/C IIT Delhi, Principal VREC

Nagpur, Professor and Head of the Centre for Energy Studies IIT Delhi

India. He is Fellow of IEEE, National Academy of Engineering, and

National Academy of Sciences. His fields of interest include Power

System, Optimization, Reliability and Energy Conservation.

47

- Mitutoyo - Sondy Indukcyjne i Wskaźniki Mu-Checker - E13003(2) - 2016 ENUploaded byD.T.
- Inductor Design with CoreUploaded byunKnown CopyCat
- CAR_66Uploaded byKevin Alexander
- ICAT Syllbus For Part 66Uploaded byAzriSafwanRusli
- Coil for ElectroUploaded byCreaza Websiteuri
- DESIGN AND STATIC ANALYSIS OF REGENERATIVE SHOCK ABSORBER.pdfUploaded byKarthek Sp
- 37939987 Electric Machinery Fundamentals 1Uploaded bySyam Yasin
- DIY 1000 Watt Wind TurbineUploaded bygraham4877
- talki walki.pdfUploaded byyarbay03602
- EdcUploaded byMad Damn
- mech_eng_te (1)Uploaded bykarim
- Motionless Electromagnetic Generator (MEG)Uploaded bydundonalds
- Stanely Induction HeatingUploaded byRaja Bharath Donthi
- 1-s2.0-S1359835X05003957-mainUploaded byZe Mari
- Relay DataUploaded bycallkalai
- Test 25thdateUploaded byManish Mishra
- Lesson 1.1.pptxUploaded bysherif ahmed moussa
- Linear FM 50WattUploaded byfranc0
- d4c Dsheet Csm580 OMRONUploaded byJose Arturo Campos Medel
- Nidhi > EM > Task_17bUploaded byapi-26910047
- 2Physics ClassXII Sample Paper 2008Uploaded byhi_gauravarora
- 1 Magnetic TheoryUploaded byKrishnan Krish
- IntroductionUploaded bysachin dubey
- Physical Principles of Clinical Measurements 1966Uploaded byviaerea
- 1610.03094Uploaded bySorn Darong
- Wolfendale_Ap- ¦éndice Cap 5Uploaded bysborgo92
- Msa BarkhousenUploaded byWagner Fernandes
- A Basic Filter Building BlockUploaded bybehzad1031
- FU_X_2017_Study on Induction Heating of Workpiece Before Gear Rolling ProcessUploaded bysteelprop
- lm2576asdfasdffUploaded byAlvaro AG

- Speed Control of Single Phase Induction Motor using AC Chopper by Asymmetrical PWM TechniqueUploaded byGRD Journals
- Rincian Dana e Light 44 (Lengkap)Uploaded byArie Amri Marta
- soldw1Uploaded byArie Amri Marta
- Industrial Automation Using 8051 MikrokontrollerUploaded byArie Amri Marta
- 8_1_2Uploaded bysirishad_2011
- Development of Spin Coating System Based on AC Universal Motor for Deposition of Polymer FilmsUploaded byArie Amri Marta
- Research and Design of AC Motor Fuzzy Soft-Start ControllerUploaded byArie Amri Marta
- The Impact of Constraints on Brushless AC Motor PerformanceUploaded byArie Amri Marta
- Measurement of Heat in the Stator Windings of an Open Loop Controlled Three Phase Induction Motor Using AC FiltersUploaded byArie Amri Marta
- DSpace Platform for Speed Estimation AC Slip-Ring Motor in Crane Mechatronic System.pdfUploaded byArie Amri Marta
- im speed control.pdfUploaded byseshubabu_999
- Load Sensing SystemUploaded bypiyush_aggarwal79
- An AC motor closed loop performances with different rotor flux observers.pdfUploaded byArie Amri Marta
- Elimination of Harmonics in Ac Induction Motor DriveUploaded byArie Amri Marta
- epe97Uploaded byArie Amri Marta
- Tugas 2( Arie Amri Marta 1310951072)Uploaded byArie Amri Marta

- W49F002U-12BUploaded byUniversidad Tecnológica De Torreón
- A4050_EN_manual_Tibo.pdfUploaded byMlinárik Andrea
- PCC Application Form 270215Uploaded bybattlestroker
- My Engg Management Chapter 1Uploaded bymusmankhan
- 57_80Uploaded byhusam
- 03-Pap05_Nivel ceraunico Arabia Saudita.docUploaded byYilhennys Regalado
- Hangzhou Fuchuan Electric Equipment Co.,Ltd_PPTUploaded byRahmat Nur Ilham
- Taruna ThreadUploaded byboja 01
- Security Advisory ReportUploaded byAndreSatriaAlJamby
- Project ChecklistUploaded byarunurs1
- TBIT 50 & TBIT 51 _ SCNUploaded byJessica Alvarez
- How to Apply for a Niv Visa Using the Ds160Uploaded byAli Mahdi Lafta
- Labmanual+for+8085Uploaded bydeepika_srivastav_1
- C n C++Uploaded byVenkat Raj Marka
- 23. Almario vs Philippine AirlinesUploaded byJoshua Santos
- HUMAN RESOURCE Assignment.docxUploaded byDavid Gideon Stephens
- Tumeric & Chinese Goldthread Prostrate CancerUploaded byrustycarmelina
- DataStage-IUploaded bybirjubrijesh
- Catheterization 2Uploaded byYanna Habib
- LT 7 TractorUploaded bysergesx
- Growing Ginseng in the Forest.pdfUploaded bybateriamea
- Modelling of Deflagration Establishing Material Data Into ANSYS Autodyns Powder Burn Model (2)Uploaded byAli Javed
- Resumão Protocolos - BSCIUploaded byClaudio Thomas
- 6CH05_01_que_20120619Uploaded byYuan Xintong
- Carrier Manual Confort LinkUploaded byEufemia Paucarima
- AbgUploaded byChin Chan
- njit-etd1984-008Uploaded bybpd21
- Dcm Shriram 2014 (1)Uploaded byMailtodisposableMailtodisposable
- dogfish shark dissectionUploaded byapi-318665838
- AUDIT-1Uploaded byzanmatto22