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I.

Objectives
At the end of the lesson the students should be able to:
1.

Classify sentences according to their uses.

2.

Construct declarative, interrogative, imperative, and exclamatory sentences.

3.

Read sentences correctly and clearly with expressions.

4.

Show teamwork and cooperation through participating in a group activity.

II. Contents
Topic

References

Materials

Different Types of Sentence

Grammar and Composition 4 by

Visual Aids, Charts, Flash Cards,

According to Structure

Prentice Hall

Pictures, Name Tags

Proficiency in English 8 by
Simeon Tabunda

Procedure
A. Learning Activities
Teachers Activity

Students Activity

Good Morning Class...

Good Morning Maam!

Let us pray first...

(One Student will lead the Prayer)

(Checking of Attendance)

(Students will tell whos absent for the


day)

So hows your day? Is it good so far?

It was great Maam!

Teachers Activity

Students Activity

Thats good to know. So, are you to discuss our new topic today?

Yes Maam!

Okay thats good, so lets begin this with a group activity! Are you

Yes Maam!

ready?

Motivation
Group Activity:
The students will be divided in to four; each group will be given pieces of paper with
words written on them. They will be asked to arrange the words in order to make a
sentence.
They will come up with the following sentences:
1.

Philippines is rich in natural resources.

2.

When did you go visit the white island?

3.

Please give the certificate.

4.

I cant believe it! We won!

Teacher

Students

Presentation

(Students will give their answers)

Very nice! I am very pleased you were able to finish the task given to
you. Now lets discuss your answers. Anybody who can tell me what
he/she notices with the following sentences?
Discussion

(Student will volunteer to read the firs

Teacher

Students
sentence: A declarative sentence

Very good observation! Now, let me introduce you the four types of

states a fact or opinion and ends with

sentences. Would someone read this sentence for me?

period.)

Thanks. Now, lets take a look at the sentence that group 1 came up

(Student answers: Maam, because it

with. This one is a declarative sentence. Could you tell me the reason

gives an idea and it states a fact. It als

why its classified as declarative?

ends with a period)

Very good. Well said. Now, can somebody give me an example of a

(Students answer)

declarative sentence?
Nice answers! Now lets talk about the second type of sentence.

(Student will volunteer to read the firs

Would someone read the definition written on the board?

sentence: An interrogative sentence


asks a question and ends with a
question mark.)

Nice one and could you give me an example as well?

(The student will give an example.)

Very good! Its easy to understand, right? Remember that an

Yes, Maam!

interrogative sentence ends with a question mark. The sentence that


group 2 came up with is an example of it! Did you get it?
I also want to remind you that you have to read an interrogative

Yes, Maam!

sentence well. You have to sound like youre really asking a question.
Dont just read it as if its a declarative sentence so you wont be
misunderstood when someone listens to you.
That is wonderful! So lets proceed to the next type of sentence which

An imperative sentence expresses a

is the imperative sentence. Read the definition, ____________.

request or gives a command or

Teacher

Students
direction. It also and ends with a
period or exclamation mark.

Thanks. Now, lets check the sentence that group 3 came up with. It

(A student volunteers and answers:

ends with a period but that doesnt mean its a declarative sentence.

Maam, its because the sentence do

Can somebody explain the class why?

not state a fact an opinion. It states a


request.)

You got it! Perfect! Now, I want you class to give me an example of

(students volunteer to give their

an imperative sentence that gives an order or direction.

answers)

Oh! Well done! So, what about an imperative sentence that expresses

(students volunteer to give their

a request?

answers)

Oh! I could see that you got a little confused with the imperative

(Student reads: An exclamatory

sentence but I am glad you were able to get its function. Nice try for

sentence conveys emotion and ends

those who gave their answers! Now lets discuss the last type of

with an exclamation mark.)

sentence. Exclamatory sentence. Read the definition, ___________.


Thanks. Thats good. Now, I know youll find it very easy to

(students volunteer to give their

understand its function. Can somebody give me an example?

answers)

Well done, class! Do you have any questions? Any clarifications?

(students says no)/(students asks


questions)

Analysis

Nice. I am pleased with your participation. Now lets have a short


activity before you take the quiz.

(students answer)

Teacher

Students

Using the pictures shown on the board, I want you to form different

(students answer)

types of sentences according to function.


Picture 1

(student answers:

1. Declarative: Daniel Padilla is an


actor.
2. Interrogative: Is he famous?
3. Imperative: Could you please give
me his phone number?
4. Exclamatory: OMG! Its I saw
Daniel Padilla!)
Picture 2

(student answers:

1. Declarative: They are asking for


directions.
2. Interrogative: Are they lost?

3. Imperative: Would you please tell u


how to get there?
4. Exclamatory: Help! We are lost!)
Picture 3

(student answers:

1. Declarative: The team won the

Teacher

Students
contest.
2. Interrogative: Did they win the
contest?

3. Imperative: Lets clap our hands fo


the winning team!
4. Exclamatory: Hurray! We won!)
Picture 4

(student answers:

1. Declarative: She reach the mountai


top.
2. Interrogative: Did she hike alone?
3. Imperative: Please take me to the
mountain top.
4. Exclamatory: At last! I reached the
top!)
Generalization

Now, class, lets remember that sentences have four functions. They
can be declarative, interrogative, imperative or exclamatory. Can you
again tell me the differences of the four?

And let us also remember the right punctuations to use when forming

(students answer)

Teacher

Students

a sentence.

Application
Group Activity: Make a short presentation depicting different situations. Make sure to
use all types of sentences.
Group 1: You and your friends are in a concert.
Group 2: You are lost when you meet a group of friends having fun on the road.
Group 3: A famous actress visited your village.
Group 4: Your teacher informed you about your failing marks.
Evaluation
Directions: Read each sentence carefully and identify their function. Write DC if it is
declarative, INC if it is interrogative, IMC if it is imperative and EC if it is
Exclamatory.
1.

Samar Island is known for its beautiful caves and water falls.

2.

Did the organization approve her proposal?

3.

Isnt her voice magnificent!

4.

Its a baby boy!

5.

Call the insurance agent, please.

6.

Watch out for that car!

7.

What harm did the delay cause?

8.

Most people do enjoy taking risks.

9.

Is there anything else that I can get you?

10. Keep off the grass.


Assignment
Write a short narrative about your most unforgettable experience. Use at least 4
declarative, 4 imperative, 4 exclamatory and 4 interrogative sentences.
LESSON PLAN ADJECTIVES ORDER
1. 1. October 18, 2012I. OBJECTIVES A. Determine the correct order of adjectives in a
sentence B. Complete the sentence by putting adjectives in correct sequence C. Participate
actively in the class activitiesII. SUBJECT MATTER A. Grammar: Order of Adjectives B.
Materials: Powerpoint presentation, MCARTIII. PROCEDURE A. Opening Activity 1.
Describe the picture Students will work on the correct arrangement of adjectives to
properly describe the picture. Refer to the powerpoint exercise. See the example slide below.
Answer: an interesting small Spanish book What do you consider in ordering the series of
adjectives? B. Presentation In English, it is common to use more than one adjective before a
noun - for example, "Hes a silly young fool," or "shes a smart, energetic woman." When you
use more than one adjective, you have to put them in the right order, according to type.
These are the different types of adjectives and the correct order for them. C. Practice
Choose the correct order of adjectives in the following sentences. The pdf file is flashed
using MCART. See sample items below.
2. 2. D. Evaluation Watch the video snippet from avatar, and do the next task. The following
statements are based from the film. Determine the correct sequence of the adjectives inside
the parentheses. 1. NaVis are a race of (extraterrestrial / intelligent/ tall) humanoids who
inhabit the (dense / lush / jungle) moon of Pandora. 2. NaVishave a (blue / bright / smooth)
skin, accentuated with (thin/darker/cyan) stripes. 3. Their bodies have feline-like
characteristics, such as (long/elegant/sweeping) tails, (beautiful/pointed /blue) ears, and
(golden/large/ hypnotic) eyes. 4. They have a (v-shaped/upper/ wide) back. 5. They have
developed a (evolved/ nervous/ complex) system. 6. They make use of (primitive/ effective/
wooden/ killing) weapons, such as a bow and arrows. Key: 1. (intelligent/tall/extraterrestrial) /
(dense/lush/jungle) 2. (smooth/bright/blue) / (thin/darker/cyan) 3. (elegant/long/sweeping) /
(beautiful/pointed/blue) / (hypnotic/large/golden) 4. (wide/v-shaped/ upper) 5.
(complex/evolved/nervous) 6. (effective/primitive/wooden/killing)IV. ASSIGNMENT What is
poetry? What are the different forms and types of poems?

I. Objectives

At the end of the lesson the students should be able to:


1. Classify sentences according to their uses.
2. Construct declarative, interrogative, imperative, and
exclamatory sentences.
3. Read sentences correctly and clearly with expressions.
4. Show teamwork and cooperation through participating in a
group activity.
II. Contents
Topic

References

Materials

Different Types of Sentence

Grammar and Composition 4

Visual Aids, Charts, Flash Cards

According to Structure

by Prentice Hall

Pictures, Name Tags

Proficiency in English 8 by
Simeon Tabunda

Procedure

A. Learning Activities
Teachers Activity

Students Activity

Good Morning Class...

Good Morning Maam!

Let us pray first...

(One Student will lead the Prayer)

Teachers Activity

Students Activity

(Checking of Attendance)

(Students will tell whos absent fo


the day)

So hows your day? Is it good so far?

It was great Maam!

Thats good to know. So, are you to discuss our new topic

Yes Maam!

today?
Okay thats good, so lets begin this with a group activity!

Yes Maam!

Are you ready?

Motivation

Group Activity:
The students will be divided in to four; each group will be given pieces of paper with
words written on them. They will be asked to arrange the words in order to make a
sentence.
They will come up with the following sentences:
1. Philippines is rich in natural resources.
2. When did you go visit the white island?
3. Please give the certificate.
4. I cant believe it! We won!

Teacher

Students

Presentation

(Students will give their answers

Very nice! I am very pleased you were able to finish the task
given to you. Now lets discuss your answers. Anybody who
can tell me what he/she notices with the following
sentences?
Discussion

(Student will volunteer to read

the first sentence: A declarative


Very good observation! Now, let me introduce you the four

sentence states a fact or opinion

types of sentences. Would someone read this sentence for

and ends with a period.)

me?
Thanks. Now, lets take a look at the sentence that group 1

(Student answers: Maam,

came up with. This one is a declarative sentence. Could you

because it gives an idea and it

tell me the reason why its classified as declarative?

states a fact. It also ends with a


period)

Very good. Well said. Now, can somebody give me an

(Students answer)

example of a declarative sentence?


Nice answers! Now lets talk about the second type of

(Student will volunteer to read

sentence. Would someone read the definition written on the

the first sentence: An

board?

interrogative sentence asks a


question and ends with a

Teacher

Students

question mark.)
Nice one and could you give me an example as well?

(The student will give an


example.)

Very good! Its easy to understand, right? Remember that an

Yes, Maam!

interrogative sentence ends with a question mark. The


sentence that group 2 came up with is an example of it! Did
you get it?
I also want to remind you that you have to read an

Yes, Maam!

interrogative sentence well. You have to sound like youre


really asking a question. Dont just read it as if its a
declarative sentence so you wont be misunderstood when
someone listens to you.
That is wonderful! So lets proceed to the next type of

An imperative sentence

sentence which is the imperative sentence. Read the

expresses a request or gives a

definition, ____________.

command or direction. It also and

ends with a period or exclamatio


mark.
Thanks. Now, lets check the sentence that group 3 came up

(A student volunteers and

with. It ends with a period but that doesnt mean its a

answers: Maam, its because the

declarative sentence. Can somebody explain the class why?

sentence do not state a fact an


opinion. It states a request.)

Teacher

Students

You got it! Perfect! Now, I want you class to give me an

(students volunteer to give their

example of an imperative sentence that gives an order or

answers)

direction.
Oh! Well done! So, what about an imperative sentence that

(students volunteer to give their

expresses a request?

answers)

Oh! I could see that you got a little confused with the

(Student reads: An exclamatory

imperative sentence but I am glad you were able to get its

sentence conveys emotion and

function. Nice try for those who gave their answers! Now lets

ends with an exclamation mark.

discuss the last type of sentence. Exclamatory sentence.


Read the definition, ___________.
Thanks. Thats good. Now, I know youll find it very easy to

(students volunteer to give their

understand its function. Can somebody give me an

answers)

example?
Well done, class! Do you have any questions? Any

(students says no)/(students ask

clarifications?

questions)

Analysis

(students answer)

Nice. I am pleased with your participation. Now lets have a


short activity before you take the quiz.

Teacher

Students

Using the pictures shown on the board, I want you to form

(students answer)

different types of sentences according to function.


Picture 1

(student answers:

1. Declarative: Daniel Padilla is


an actor.
2. Interrogative: Is he famous?
3. Imperative: Could you please
give me his phone number?
4. Exclamatory: OMG! Its I saw
Daniel Padilla!)
Picture 2

(student answers:

1. Declarative: They are asking


for directions.
2. Interrogative: Are they lost?
3. Imperative: Would you please
tell us how to get there?
4. Exclamatory: Help! We are
lost!)
Picture 3

(student answers:

Teacher

Students

1. Declarative: The team won the


contest.

2. Interrogative: Did they win the


contest?
3. Imperative: Lets clap our
hands for the winning team!

4. Exclamatory: Hurray! We won!


Picture 4

(student answers:

1. Declarative: She reach the


mountain top.
2. Interrogative: Did she hike
alone?
3. Imperative: Please take me to
the mountain top.

4. Exclamatory: At last! I reached


the top!)
Generalization

Now, class, lets remember that sentences have four


functions. They can be declarative, interrogative, imperative
or exclamatory. Can you again tell me the differences of the

(students answer)

Teacher

Students

four?

And let us also remember the right punctuations to use


when forming a sentence.

Adjective Lesson Plan English Adjectives Activity


In English, it is common to use more than one adjective before a noun for example,
Hes a silly young fool, or shes a smart, energetic woman. When you use more than
one adjective, you have to put them in the right order, according to type. This page will
explain the different types of adjectives and the correct order for them.

Opinion An opinion adjective explains what you think about something (other people may not agree
you).
Examples: silly, beautiful, horrible, difficult
Size
A size adjective, of course, tells you how big or small something is.
Examples: large, tiny, enormous, little
Age
An age adjective tells you how young or old something or someone is.
Examples: ancient, new, young, old
Shape A shape adjective describes the shape of something.
Examples: square, round, flat, rectangular
Colour A colour adjective, of course, describes the colour of something.
Examples: blue, pink, reddish, grey
Origin An origin adjective describes where something comes from.
Examples: French, lunar, American, eastern, Greek
Material A material adjective describes what something is made from.
Examples: wooden, metal, cotton, paper
Purpose A purpose adjective describes what something is used for. These adjectives often end with
Examples: sleeping (as in sleeping bag), roasting (as in roasting tin)
Some examples of adjective order
Opi
nio
n

Si
z
e

A
ge

Sh
ap
e

Col Ori
our gin

Mat
eria
l

Pur
pos
e

a silly

yo
un
g

hu
ge

s
m
all

Eng
lish

rou
nd

m
an

meta
l
red

1. Which is the correct order?


a small Canadian thin lady
a Canadian small thin lady
a small thin Canadian lady
a thin small Canadian lady

2. Which is the correct order?


a carving steel new knife
a new steel carving knife
a steel new carving knife
a new carving steel knife

3. Which is the correct order?


a beautiful blue sailing boat
a blue beautiful sailing boat
a sailing beautiful blue boat
a blue sailing beautiful boat

4. Which is the correct order?


an old wooden square table
a square wooden old table
an old square wooden table

bo
wl
sleep ba
ing
g

a wooden old square table

5. Which is the correct order?


an new French exciting band
a French new exciting band
an exciting French new band
an exciting new French band

6. Which is the correct order?


a red big plastic hat
a big red plastic hat
a plastic big red hat
a big plastic red hat

7. Which is the correct order?


a small Japanese serving bowl
a Japanese small serving bowl
a small serving Japanese bowl
a serving small Japanese bowl

8. Which is the correct order?


a cotton dirty old tie
a dirty cotton old tie
an old cotton dirty tie
a dirty old cotton tie

Order of adjectives
How to order adjectives in English
In many languages, adjectives denoting attributes usually occur in a specific order. Generally, the
adjective order in English is:
1.

Quantity or number

2.

Quality or opinion

3.

Size

4.

Age

5.

Shape

6.

Color

7.

Proper adjective (often nationality, other place of origin, or material)

8.

Purpose or qualifier

9. Order of adjectives
10.When more than one adjective comes before a noun, the adjectives are
normally in a particular order. Adjectives which describe opinions or attitudes
(e.g. amazing) usually come first, before more neutral, factual ones (e.g. red):
11. She was wearing an amazing red coat.
12.Not: red amazing coat
13.If we dont want to emphasise any one of the adjectives, the most usual
sequence of adjectives is:

order

relating to

examples

opinion

unusual, lovely, beautiful

size

big, small, tall

order

relating to

examples

physical quality

thin, rough, untidy

shape

round, square, rectangular

age

young, old, youthful

colour

blue, red, pink

origin

Dutch, Japanese, Turkish

material

metal, wood, plastic

type

general-purpose, four-sided, U-shaped

10

purpose

cleaning, hammering, cooking

14.It was made of a 1strange, 6green, 8metallic material.


15.Its a 4long, 8narrow, 10plastic brush.
16.Panettone is a 4round, 7Italian, 9bread-like Christmas cake.
17.Here are some invented examples of longer adjective phrases. A noun phrase
which included all these types would be extremely rare.
18.She was a 1beautiful, 2tall, 3thin, 5young, 6black-haired, 7Scottish woman.
19.What an 1amazing, 2little, 5old, 7Chinese cup and saucer!

20.Adjectives joined by and


21.When more than one adjective occurs after a verb such as be (a linking verb),
the second last adjective is normally connected to the last adjective by and:
22.Home was always a warm, welcoming place. Now it is sad, dark and cold.
23.And is less common when more than one adjective comes before the noun
(e.g. a warm, welcoming place). However, we can use and when there are two
or more adjectives of the same type, or when the adjectives refer to different
parts of the same thing:
24.It was a blue and green cotton shirt.

25.

Adjective Order

26.

Introduction

27.In English, it is common to use more than one adjective before a noun for
example, He's a silly young fool, or She's a smart energetic woman.
When you use more than one adjective, you have to put them in the right
order, according to type. This page will explain the different types of
adjectives and the correct order for them.

28.
Opinio

1. The basic types of adjectives


An opinion adjective explains what you think about something (other

people may not agree with you).


For example: silly, beautiful, horrible, difficult

Size

A size adjective, of course, tells you how big or small something is.
For example: large, tiny, enormous, little

Age

An age adjective tells you how young or old something or someone


is.
For example: ancient, new, young, old

Shape

A shape adjective describes the shape of something.


For example: square, round, flat, rectangular

Colour

A colour adjective, of course, describes the colour of something.


For example: blue, pink, reddish, grey

Origin

An origin adjective describes where something comes from.


For example: French, lunar, American, eastern, Greek

Materi
al

A material adjective describes what something is made from.


For example: wooden, metal, cotton, paper

Purpo
se

A purpose adjective describes what something is used for. These


adjectives often end with -ing.
For example: sleeping (as in sleeping bag), roasting (as in roasting
tin)

29.

2. Some examples of adjective order

Opini
on

Siz
e

Age

Sha
pe

you
ng

silly

hug

Colo
ur

Orig
in

Mate
rial

Engli
sh
roun

Purp
ose
ma
n

metal

bo

Opini
on

Siz
e

Age

Sha
pe

Colo
ur

Mate
rial

Purp
ose

sm
all

Orig
in

wl

red

sleepi
ng

ba
g

Types of Adjectives
Before the adjectives you will normally have the Determiner.
Determiner: The determiner tells us if the noun is singular or plural, definite or indefinite

a, an, the, my, your, four, those, some etc

And then we have the adjectives that refer to


Opinion: Explains what we think about something. This is usually our opinion, attitude or
observations. These adjectives almost always come before all other adjectives.

beautiful, boring, stupid, delicious, useful, lovely, comfortable

Size: Tells us how big or small something is.

big, small, tall, huge, tiny

Shape / Weight / Length: Tells about the shape of something or how long or short it is. It can also
refer to the weight of someone or something.

round, square, circular, skinny, fat, heavy, straight, long, short,

Condition: Tells us the general condition or state of something

broken, cold, hot, wet, hungry, rich, easy, difficult, dirty

Age: Tells us how old someone or something is.

old, young, new, ancient, antique

Colour: The colour or approximate colour of something.

green, white, blue, reddish, purple

Pattern: The pattern or design of something.

striped, spotted, checked, flowery

Origin: Tells us where something is from.

American, British, Italian, eastern, Australian, Chilean

Material: What is the thing made of or constructed of?

gold, wooden, silk, paper, synthetic, cotton, woollen

Purpose/Qualifier/Use: What is it for? These adjectives often end in ing.

sleeping (bag), gardening (gloves), shopping (bag), wedding (dress)

If you look at the examples above, you can ask what are the gloves used for? (gardening) What is
the bag used for? (shopping)
And after these we adjectives we have the
Noun: The person or thing that is being described

Examples of the order of adjectives before a noun


Something to have in mind is that it does not sound natural using three or more adjectives in the
same sentence and it is very rare to hear four adjectives together before a noun.

A big fat dog.

An interesting old Indian rug.

A striped silk shirt

Some comfortable black sleeping bags

Four small round wooden tables

Those funny little old men

Lesson Topic: Using Adjectives and the Order of

Adjectives

Let's say you want to buy a new car. You could not go to the car
dealer and say, "I have been dreaming about having a car for a long
time. I know exactly what I want. Please give it to me."

Of course he would think you are a bit crazy, but he would also ask
you a very important question: "What does your dream car look like?"
You would need to describe it to the car dealer, or you simply wouldn't
get the car you had been dreaming about. You would most likely get
the automobile the dealer couldn't sell. That wouldn't be a dream car;
it would be a nightmare!

Fortunately, you could use words to describe the car of your dreams.
The words that describe things are called adjectives. Adjectives
describe nouns (nouns are people, places, and things). Adjectives are
a terrific way to make your writing a lot more interesting, too. Take a
look at the following sentence:
I want to buy a car.

Is this an interesting sentence? Does it describe the kind of car you


want to buy? The answers are NO and NO! The listener/reader
doesn't know what kind of car you want. Do you want a big car or little
car? Fast or slow? Red or blue? Old or new? It is quite unclear. It is
also poor writing because it is very boring. Would you buy a book
that was written like this? Probably not. Unfortunately, many students
and writers write like this. It is a very common problem which is quite
easy to fix.

So what kind of car do you want? Well, um, . . .


I want to buy a blue car.

I want to buy a new car.


I want to buy a European car.
I want to buy a beautiful car.

Did you find the adjectives? They are the words that describe the car.
The adjectives above are blue, new, European, andbeautiful. The

above 4 sentences are written as if the writer wants 4


different cars. However, if the writer just wants 1 car, how
would he/she combine the sentences into 1 sentence? The
writer needs to put all of the adjectives together. Therefore,
we get
I want to buy
a blue, new, European,beautiful car.

How's that? Are there any problems? YES, there are


problems! The ORDER of adjectives is quite important in
English. There is an order of adjectives that native speakers
of English normally follow. The list below shows how the
order of adjectives is usually presented; however, there are
exceptions and different combinations depending on the
situation.

OPINION

good
bad

APPEARA
NCE

usually
follows this
order:

beautiful

AGE

red

Korean

antique

purple

Chinese brass

old

pink

French

size/measure young

smart

big

dumb

small

low

shape

MATERI
AL

new

ugly

high

COLOR ORIGIN

dark green Italian

iron

cotton
gold

two-year- navy blue American wooden


old*
vegetable

Using the above list, we can put all four adjectives together
to get the following sentence:

Adding adjectives is very important if you want to make your


writing more interesting. It helps the reader/listener form a
picture in his/her mind.

For example, which of these two sentences is more

descriptive and interesting? Which draws a picture in the


reader's mind?

Of course the second sentence is more descriptive and


interesting. The reader can see the car in his/her mind. If
you would like to learn more ways to make your writing
interesting, please see our other lessons on this topic. Just
go to http://www.MyEnglishTeacher.net/previous.html.

Quiz

Directions: Look at the following sentences and adjectives.

1. Aunt Betty wants a square, gray, stone coffee table.


2. The king took an exhausting, 2-week trip.
*exhausting refers to opinion

3. These are delicious, huge, chocolate chip cookies!


*chocolate chip refers to a material used to make the cookies

4. Alice prefers black, Italian, leather furniture.


5. Archeologists get very excited when they find large, prehistoric, animal bones.
*prehistoric refers to age

Rules to Remember!
1

Use commas after each adjective except the last one (no comma between the last
adjective and the noun). For example,
Alice prefers black, Italian, leather furniture.

If an adjective has 2 words, do not put a comma between the words. For example,
These are delicious, huge, chocolate

chip cookies!

It is not necessary to use adjectives with all nouns. It is suggested that you use
adjectives to describe things that are important to both the writer and the reader.

Learn English Grammar


English Adjectives
ADJECTIVE ORDER
OVERVIEW | ORDER | COMPARATIVE | POSSESSIVE | SUPERLATIVE
Adjectives can be used to describe lots of things, from physical size, age, shape, colour, material, to
more abstract things like opinion, origin and purpose.

We can use adjectives together to give a detailed description of something.


Adjectives that express opinions usually come before all others, but it can sometimes depend on
what exactly you want to emphasise.
For example:
"That's a nice, big, blue bag." (You like the bag.)
"That's a nice blue." (You like the colour.)
When we group adjectives together there is a general (sometimes flexible) rule for the position of
each type of adjective, these are:-

Position 1st*
2nd*
3rd
Opinion Size
Age
Nice
Small
Old
Ugly
Big
New

4th
5th
Shape
Colour
Square
Black
Circular
Blue

6th
7th
8th
Material Origin
Purpose
Plastic
British
Racing
Cotton American Running

You might swap adjectives that express an opinion and an adjective based on fact depending on
what you wish to emphasise:For example:

"She had a long, ugly nose." emphasising the length of her nose.

"He was a silly, little man." emphasising that the man was silly.

This is just for fun as you wouldn't normally see so many adjectives in one description.
For example:

"She had a big, ugly, old, baggy, blue, stripey, cotton, British, knitting bag."

Does it matter if you get it wrong? Well outside of exams and tests, it won't kill you, but people
reading or listening to you will find it odd if you mix up the order.
- See more at: http://www.learnenglish.de/grammar/adjectiveorder.html#sthash.Wwwg1fkM.dpuf

COMMON ADJECTIVES TABLE


Appearance | Condition | Feeling | Shape | Size | Sound | Speed
| Taste | Time | Touch
(A list of English adjectives with dictionary look up - double click on any word for its definition and
pronunciation)

Recommended Books
GRAMMAR BOOKS

Shape
broad
crooked
curved
deep
even
flat
hilly
jagged
round
shallow
square
steep
straight
thick
thin
triangular
uneven

Size

Sound
average
big
fat
gigantic
huge
large
little
long
massive
medium
miniature
narrow
petite
short
skinny
small
tall
tiny
wide

cooing
deafening
faint
harsh
high-pitched
hissing
hushed
husky
loud
melodic
moaning
mute
noisy
purring
quiet
raspy
screeching
shrill
silent
soft
squeaky
squealing

thundering
voiceless
whispering
Speed

Taste
fast
quick
rapid
slow
swift

Touch
blunt
boiling
breakable
breezy
broken
bumpy
chilly
clean
cold
cool
crooked
cuddly
curly
damaged
damp
different

Time
bitter
bland
delicious
different
fresh
greasy
hot
juicy
repulsive
revolting
ripe
rotten
salty
sour
spicy
stale
strong
sweet
tasteless
tasty
terrible
wonderful

ancient
brief
early
late
long
modern
new
old
old-fashioned
quick
short
young

dirty
dry
dusty
filthy
flaky
fluffy
fuzzy
greasy
grubby
hard
icy
loose
plastic
prickly
ripe
rough
rubbery
scratchy
shaky
shaggy
sharp
silky
slimy
slippery
smooth
soft
solid
steady
sticky
tight
uneven
unusual
unripe
warm
weak
wet
wooden
wooly

FEELINGS
FeelingsFeeli
Feelings
ngs negativ neutr
positive
e
al

afraid alrigh agreeabl


angry
t
e
annoyed calm alert
differ amused
anxious ent brave
arrogant fair bright
fine charmin
ashamed OK
g
pleasa cheerful
awful
nt comforta
bad puzzl ble
bewilder ed cooperat
ed
ive
bored
courage
concern
ous
ed
delightfu
condem
l
ned
determin
confuse
ed
d
eager
creepy
elated
cruel
enchanti
dangero
ng
us
encoura
defeated
ging
energetic
defiant
enthusia
depresse
stic
d
excited
disguste
exubera
d
nt
disturbe
faithful
d
fantastic
doubtful
friendly
frownin

eerie
embarra
ssed
envious
evil
fierce
foolish
frantic
frighten
ed
grieving
guilty
helpless
hungry
hurt
ill
jealous
lonely
mad
naughty
nervous
obnoxio
us
outrageo
us
panicky
repulsiv
e
safe
scared
shy
sleepy
sore
strange
tense

g
funny
gentle
glorious
good
happy
healthy
helpful
hilarious
innocent
jolly
kind
lively
lovely
lucky
obedient
perfect
proud
relaxed
relieved
silly
smiling
splendid
successf
ul
thoughtf
ul
victoriou
s
vivaciou
s
well
witty
wonderf

terrible
tired
troubled
unusual
upset
uptight
weary
wicked
worried

ul

Appearance

Condition
adorable
alert
average
beautiful
blonde
bloody
blushing
bright
clean
clear
cloudy
colourful
concerned
crowded
curious
cute
dark
dirty
drab
distinct
dull
elegant
fancy

alive
brainy
broken
busy
careful
cautious
clever
crazy
damaged
dead
difficult
easy
fake
false
famous
forward
fragile
guilty
helpful
helpless
important
impossible
infamous
innocent
inquisitive
mad
modern
open
outgoing
outstanding

filthy
glamorous
gleaming
graceful
grotesque
homely
light
misty
motionless
muddy
plain
poised
quaint
scary
shiny
smoggy
sparkling
spotless
stormy
strange
ugly
unsightly
unusual

poor
powerful
puzzled
real
rich
right
robust
sane
scary
shy
sleepy
stupid
super
tame
thick
tired
wild

An adjective describes how something 'is'. For this reason, we often use the verb 'to be'
when using adjectives. Adjectives are used to describe nouns. Example: He is a good
doctor. TheyRule: Adjectives describe nouns. Here are two types of sentences we use
with adjectives.
Subject + To be + Adjective
Tom is shy.
Alice is happy.
Subject + Verb + Adjective + Noun
That is a big building!
Peter has a fast car.

The adjective is always invariable.


Example: beautiful trees, they are happy
Be careful!

Adjectives don't have a singular and plural form OR a masculine, femine and
neuter form.
Adjectives are always the same! Never add a final -s to an adjective.
Adjectives can also be placed at the end of a sentence if they describe the
subject of a sentence. Example: My doctor is excellent.
NOT!!: difficults books
Rule: Adjectives are placed before the noun.
Example: a wonderful book very interesting people
Be careful!

Don't place an adjective after the noun


AN ADJECTIVE

Adjective is a distinct category of words that function as modifiers to nouns or noun phrases. An
adjective describes a noun with qualities such as size, shape, color, worth, age, origin, and so on.
ADJECTIVE NOUN

Red leaves are falling.


See Adjective Order.

NOUN + ADJECTIVE (POST-POSITION)

We saw something red. See Unbreakable Words.


We saw leaves galore / aplenty.
There was water available.

BE + ADJECTIVE

The leaves are red. ("predicate adjective")


See Be + Adj Comp.

PREDICATE + OBJECT NOUN ADJECTIVE

Fall turns the leaves red. (resultative adjective)


Verb + Adj Comp.

A NOUN / PARTICIPLE / PREP PHRASE / CLAUSE

Other words, phrases and structures can also function as modifiers. Nouns and participles are placed
before the noun, whereas phrases and clauses are placed after the noun (noun complements).
NOUN (N)

Autumn leaves are falling. (N)


See Noun Modifiers.

PARTICIPLE

The falling leaves are covering the ground. (present participle)


The fallen leaves cover the ground. (past participle)
See Participle Modifiers 1 | Participle Modifiers 2.

PREPOSITIONAL PHRASE (PP)

The leaves on the ground are a variety of colors.


See Preps for Place.

MODIFYING CLAUSE (FINITE)

The leaves that are lying on the ground are a variety of colors.
See That / Which.

REDUCED CLAUSE (NONFINITE)

The leaves lying on the ground are a variety of colors.


Falling, the leaves glimmered in the sunlight.
See Clause Reduc 2 | Misrelated Clauses.

Noun Complements prepositional phrases or clauses that add additional information about the noun
Also see Adjective Suffixes | Adjective Order.
The leaf was two inches wide. Modifiers to Adj
There are a few post-position adjectives: He was a dollar short. There were stars galore. He is the
President elect. He has problems aplenty. There was money available. He is a Poet Laureate and an
AttorneyGeneral.
(Huddleston "Postpositive-only adjectives" 560)

Adjective Phrases
Modifiers to Adjectives

Modifiers to Adjectives
ADVERB / ADJECTIVE MODIFIERS

An adverb for degree or another adjective can modify an adjective. The determiner, modifer and
adjective are an adjective phrase.
DETERMINER

The

DETERMINER

ADV of DEGREE

very / rather/ pretty / so /


moderately / rather / quite
MODIFIER

ADJ + NOUN

tall bridge
high bridge
long bridge
ADJ + NOUN

Some

bright
dull
pale

green leaves.
brown leaves.
yellow leaves.

NOUN MODiFIERS

A number-noun or a noun can function as a modifier to an adjective.

DETERMINER

The

NUMBER-NOUN

227-meter
200-foot
one-kilometer

DETERMINER

A(n)

NOUN

emerald
walnut
lemon

ADJ + NOUN

tall bridge
high bridge
long bridge
ADJE + NOUN

green leaf.
brown leaf.
yellow leaf.

See Modifiers to Adjectives (Adjective Phrases) for detailed examples and practices.
See Clause Phrases for the parts that make up a clause.

Adjective
Properties

Tests for the Adjective Category


1) CAN MODIFY A NOUN

2) CAN COMPLEMENT A STATIC VERB

Adjective is a distinct class of descriptive words indicating qualities


An adjective can be used after a static verb such as b
such as size, shape, color, worth, age, and so on. An adjective modifies appear, act, look.
a noun.
He is an early bird. (Yes)

He seems early. (Yes)

It is a falling leaf. (Yes)

*It looks falling. (No)

It is a red leaf. (Yes)

It looks red. (Yes)

It is a frozen leaf. (Yes)

It appears frozen. (Yes)

property (N) an essential or distinctive attribute or quality of a thing


*Not adjectival. See Participle Modifiers 2
(Huddleston 533, 541)

Show Grammar Notes?

Practice 1
Why do leaves fall?

Read the Context


Why do leaves fall in autumn? Does the wind blow them off or is it the cold weather that kills
them? In spring, a tree takes water from the ground and uses stored energy to grow new leaves.
The leaves are "food factories" that capture sunlight and carbon dioxide. Chlorophyll, which gives
plants their green color, helps change carbon dioxide, water, and sunlight into oxygen and
glucose (sugar).
This process is called photosynthesis, a Greek word meaning "putting together with light". The tree
uses and stores this food for later use.
Throughout the summer, the tree leaves remain green. As winter comes, trees prepare for cold
and freezing weather. Trees conserve energy by shedding leaves that would likely be damaged in
the winter.
GLOSSARY
autumn (N) another word for fall, the season after summer and before winter
capture (V) collect
carbon dioxide a compound CO 2; carbonic acid-gas
conserve (V) save, keep
factory (N) a large building where a product is made
"food factories" quotes indicate that this is an unusual sense of the words
glucose (N) a form of sugar
likely (Adv) probably, more certainly
shed (V) let fall; A snake sheds its skin.
store (V) to keep and save for later
waste (N) decayed material, used up material

Which word, phrase or clause is the modifier?


1.

Select one or more items as your response.

2.

Compare your response to the feedback by clicking the "Check" or "Check 1-10" button.

1.
Why do leaves fall in autumn?

leaves

fall

None (There is no modifier. )

Feedback 2

2.
Does the wind blow them off or is it the cold weather?

wind

off

cold

None

Feedback 2
3.
In spring, a tree takes water from the ground and uses stored energy to grow new leaves.

water

from the ground

stored

new

Feedback 3
4.

The leaves are "food factories" that capture sunlight and carbon dioxide.

leaves

food

that capture sunlight and carbon dioxide

carbon

Feedback 4
5.
Chlorophyll, which gives plants their green color, helps change carbon dioxide, water and sunlight into
oxygen and sugar (glucose).

green

which gives plants their green color

sunlight

carbon

Feedback 5
6.
This process is called photosynthesis, a Greek word meaning "putting together with light".

process

Greek

meaning "putting together with light"

a Greek word meaning "putting together with light"

Feedback 6
7.
The tree uses and stores this food for later use.

tree

this

later

None

Feedback 7
8.
Throughout the summer, the tree leaves remain green.

tree

leaves

green

None

Feedback 8
9.
As winter comes, trees prepare for cold and freezing weather.

trees

cold

freezing

None

Feedback 9
10.
Trees conserve energy by shedding leaves that would likely be damaged in the winter.

conserve

likely

damaged

that would likely be damaged in the winter

Feedback 10
Reset

One could argue that carbon-dioxide is a compound word or that it is a noun carbon modifying a particular type
of dioxide (different from sulfur dioxide, titanium dioxide, uranium dioxide, etc.)

Practice 2
Nature's Scissors

Read the Context


In

fall, special cells

thicken

at

the

base of

the stems

of the leaves. The

cells

are

called abscission cells because they function like scissors. These cells block the tubes through
which water flows. The cells eventually separate the leaves from the tree.
This process of shedding leaves protects the tree from the loss of energy and freeze damage. With
less

water,

the bright green

chlorophyll

fades.

More

of

the

leaf

color

shows

when

the greenchlorophyll is not present.


Waste that is in the leaf makes it appear brown. Anthocyanin, a pigment also found in grapes,
apples and beets, makes the leaf redder.

It's not clear how the red color in the leaves helps the tree; however, the color does make the
tree more desirable for planting.
GLOSSARY
abscission (N) the act of cutting off; the normal separation of flowers, fruit and leaves from plants
cell (N) in biology, the basic structural unit of all plants and animals (Also, a small unit, room, or compartment)
chlorophyll (N) s green substance in plants that helps make food for the plant
damage (N) injury, harm, cause something to be hurt
freeze (N) state of being frozen; below 0 degrees; freeze damage, a deep freeze (meteorology)
eventually (Adv) at a later time it certainly will happen
pigments (N) any substance whose presence in the tissues or cells of animals or plants colors them
scissors (N) a household tool used for cutting paper or cloth
shed (V) let fall; A snake sheds its skin.

Identify the word form of the modifier highlighted in the sentence.


1.

Select your response from the list.

2.

Compare your response to the feedback by clicking each "check" or the "check 11-20" button.

11.
In fall, special cells thicken at the base of the stems of the leaves.

Feedback 11
12.
The cells are called abscission cells because they function like "scissors".

Feedback 12
13.
These cells block the tubes through which water flows.

Feedback 13
14.
The cells eventually separate the leaves from the tree.

Feedback 14
15.
This process of shedding leaves protects the tree from the loss of energy and freeze damage.

Feedback 15

16.
With less water, the bright green chlorophyll fades.

Feedback 16

17.

More of the leaf color shows when the green chlorophyll is not present.

Feedback 17

18.
Waste that is in the leaf makes it appear brown.

Feedback 18

19.
Anthocyanin, a pigment also found in grapes, apples and beets, makes a leaf redder.

Feedback 19

20.

It's not clear how the red color in the leaves helps the tree; however, the color does make the tree more
desirable for planting.

Feedback 20

Reset

Practice 3
Blueberry Buds

Read for Errors

Spring is the time when blueberry plants begin to take up water and nutrients from the ground
and sunlight from the sky so that they can feed themselves and can grow again.
The first sign of awakening is the appearance of tiny little brown buds on the branches of the
plant. A bud is an outgrowth from the plant which can develop into a flower or a leaf. Buds may
be specialized to develop flowers or to develop shoots. The first buds appear on the part of the
branch that is near the center of the plant rather than far away at the tip of the branches. That is
to say, the buds develop from the inner part of the branch and then out to the tip
As the weather warms up, the buds begin to swell. The flowers that are emerging push open the
scales, which eventually fall away from the flower.
The flowers attract bees that collect the flowers' yellow, sticky, sweet pollen and carry it to other
flowers. Other flowers receive the insects and their pollen, which is a necessity part of the
pollination process. Pollinating flowers can then develop into fruitblueberries.
After the flowers petals emerge, the leaves begin to emerge, grow, flatten, and turn toward the
sky. The leaves take in sunny light, water and nutrients to feed the rest of the plant. Within a few
months, the bright, blue, delicious blueberries will ripe and edible.
awakening (N) the process of waking from sleep or a dormant state (inactive)
edible (Adj) fit or suitable for human consumption; not poisonous
emerge (V) come out of an enclosure or smaller space
gamete (N) genetic information
nutrients (N) vitamins and minerals from the soil, the ground
outgrowth (N) something that develops from something else, as a natural result of it
pollinate (N) the transfer of pollen grains to the female reproductive structure
ripe (Adj) mature; finished growing
scale (N) covering of the flower in the bud form
sign (N) information, a warning, an instructive symbol
shoots (N) new green growth (not flower)
swell (V) enlarge

Edit for Errors (adjectives and other modifiers)


1.

Edit the sentence(s) in the text box. (Look word form, punctuation and modifier position errors.)

2.

Compare your response to the feedback by clicking each "check" or the "check 21-30" button.

21.
The first sign of awakening is the appearance of tiny little brown buds on the branches of the plant.

Edit 21

Feedback 21

22.
A bud is an outgrowth from the plant which can develop into a flower or a leaf.

Edit 22

Feedback 22

23.
The first buds appear on the part of the branch that is near the center of the plant rather than far away at the tip
of the branches.

Edit 23

Feedback 23

24.
The flowers that are emerging push open the scales, which eventually fall away from the flower.

Edit 24

Feedback 24

25.
The flowers attract bees that collect the flowers' yellow, sticky, sweet pollen and carry it to other flowers.

Edit 25

Feedback 25

26.
Other flowers receive the insects and their pollen, which is a necessity part of the pollination process.

Edit 26

Feedback 26

27.
Pollinating flowers can then develop into fruitblueberries.

Edit 27

Feedback 27

28.
After the flowers petals emerge, the leaves begin to emerge, grow, flatten, and turn toward the sky.

Edit 28

Feedback 28

29.
The leaves take in sunny light, water and nutrients to f

ADJECTIVES and ADVERBS


Adjectives are words that are used to modify (identify, describe or limit) a noun. Adverbs are words that
are used to modify the meaning of a verb, an adjective, or another adverb.
1) ADJECTIVES - used to describe the condition of subjects.
Examples:
The time they had together was short.
He took all reasonable measures to mitigate the loss.
a) Comparison Adjectives Though there are some unmodified adjectives that are used for
comparisons (i.e. best, better) many adjectives form the comparative of persons or things by
adding er or est to the word or by prefixing the adjective with words such as: more, most,
less, or least.
Comparison Adjective examples:

John is the best athlete on the team.


Last years crop grew higher than this years.
Her new car is better than that old one she drove.
He was the greatest boss I ever had.
My utilities are less expensive than yours.
By far, he is the most successful salesperson in the company.

b) Proper Adjectives are descriptive adjectives derived from proper nouns. Capitalize proper
adjectives.
Examples:
American history
French cuisine
c) Senses verbs need adjectives: (look, smell, taste, feel, sound) - these adjectives indicate
the quality or condition of the subject through the senses.
Examples:
His eyes always look cheerful.
This food tastes delicious.
The flowers smell nice.
2) ADVERBS are used to explain the actions of verbs.
Examples:
The siren sounded loudly, waking the troops.
She waited by the telephone patiently.

a) Placement of Adverbs An adverb should be placed as near as possible to the word it


modifies as the position of it affects the meaning of the sentence.
Examples:
John only nominated Bates for chairman. (...meaning he didnt vote for him)
John nominated only Bates for chairman (...meaning he didnt nominate anyone else)
b) Unnecessary Adverbs should be avoided.
Examples:
He asked her to repeat it. (not repeat it again)
They returned home. (not returned back home)
We will divide the proceeds at the end. (not divide up the proceeds)
Some words have the same form whether they are used as adjectives or adverbs.
Examples:
(Adjective) - That is a fast speedboat.
(Adverb) - He stood up so fast he knocked his chair over.
(Adjective) - The ground was hard like a rock.
(Adverb) - They all worked hard to meet the project deadline.
Some words have two forms and can be used as adjectives or adverbs.
Examples:

(Adjective) - His instructions were clear to us all.


(Adverb) - She clearly understood the instructions.
(Adjective) - She is a slow driver.
(Adverb) - Please go slow around that curve.
(Adverb) - He drove slowly up the hill.

Examples of adjectives
Typical adjective endings
1.

They live in a beautiful house.

2.

Lisa is wearing a sleeveless shirt today. This soup is not edible.

3.

She wore a beautiful dress.

4.

He writes meaningless letters.

5.

This shop is much nicer.

6.

She wore a beautiful dress.

7.

Ben is an adorable baby.

8.

Lindas hair is gorgeous.

9.

This glass is breakable.

10.

I met a homeless person in NY.

11. Adjectives
12.

What is an adjective?

13. Adjectives are words that describe or modify other words, making your writing and speaking
much more specific, and a whole lot more interesting. Words like small, blue, and sharp are
descriptive, and they are all examples of adjectives. Because adjectives are used to identify
or quantify individual people and unique things, they are usually positioned before
the noun or pronoun that they modify. Some sentences contain multiple adjectives.
14.

Adjectives and adverbs


1.

Use number words: one to five

2.

Compare pictures using comparative and superlative adjectives

3.

Identify adverbs

4.

Is the word an adjective or adverb?

5.

Spell adjectives that compare


See all 165 skills

Capitalization and punctuation


1.

Capitalizing the names of people and pets

2.

Capitalizing titles

3.

Decide whether ellipses are used appropriately

4.

What does the punctuation suggest?

5.

Use colons and commas to introduce lists, quotations, and appositives


See all 260 skills

Figurative language
1.

Determine the meanings of similes and metaphors

2.

Determine the meaning of idioms from context: set 1

3.

Use personification

4.

Classify the figure of speech: euphemism, hyperbole, oxymoron, paradox

5.

Classify the figure of speech: anaphora, antithesis, apostrophe, assonance,


chiasmus, understatement
See all 62 skills

Grammar
1.

Complete the sentence with a noun to match the picture

2.

Select the best preposition to match the picture

3.

Use possessive pronouns

4.

Correct errors with signs

5.

Correct errors with subject-verb agreement


See all 892 skills

Nouns
1.

Complete the sentence with a noun to match the picture

2.

Identify plurals, singular possessives, and plural possessives

3.

Use regular plurals with -s, -es, -ies, and -ves

4.

Form and use plurals of compound nouns

5.

Identify appositives and appositive phrases


See all 133 skills

Phonics
1.

Identify frequently confused letters

2.

Sort consonants and vowels

3.

Blend the sounds together to make a word

4.

Complete the short o word

5.

Find the long u word


See all 92 skills

Pronouns
1.

Pronoun-verb agreement: Complete the sentence with the best verb

2.

Use possessive pronouns

3.

Replace the noun with a pronoun

4.

Identify relative pronouns

5.

Identify pronouns and their antecedents


See all 144 skills

Reading comprehension
1.

Multiple-meaning words with pictures

2.

Identify supporting details in literary texts

3.

Match causes with their effects

4.

Identify audience and purpose

5.

Domain-specific vocabulary in context: science and technical subjects


See all 148 skills

Reference skills
1.

Identify book parts and features

2.

Put the letters in ABC order

3.

Order alphabetically: challenge

4.

Use thesaurus entries

5.

Use dictionary entries to determine correct usage


See all 79 skills

Sentences
1.

Choose the sentence that is spaced correctly

2.

Complete the sentence

3.

Is the sentence simple or compound?

4.

Is the sentence simple, compound, or complex?

5.

Is it a phrase or a clause?
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Verbs
1.

Identify action verbs

2.

Identify action verbs

3.

Is the sentence in the past, present, or future tense?

4.

Identify transitive and intransitive verbs

5.

Identify infinitives and infinitive phrases


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Vocabulary
1.

Choose the synonyms

2.

Find synonyms in context

3.

Use context to identify the meaning of a word

4.

Explore words with new or contested usages

5.

Domain-specific vocabulary in context: science and technical subjects


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Word analysis
1.

Sort words into categories

2.

Use the correct homophone

3.

Words with pre-

4.

Use etymologies to determine the meanings of words

5.

Word pattern sentences


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Writing and composition


1.

Put the sentences in order

2.

Identify vague pronoun references

3.

Use personification

4.

Avoid double, illogical, and unclear comparisons

5.

Choose punctuation to avoid fragments and run-ons


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Lesson Plan Title: Personification Concept / Topic To Teach: How to use


personification in student writing. Standards Addressed: California State Board of
Education, English Language Arts, 1997* General Goal(s): To teach student the use
personification in literature through applied practice in a student composition.
Specific Objectives: Use of personification student writing. Students learn to think of
objects as persons and write about these objects in a short poem composition.
Required Materials: Sample Poem Examples Character Web Worksheet Sharp Pencil
and Composition Paper Time: One Hour Anticipatory Set (Lead-In): Write the word
person on the whiteboard. Check background knowledge. Ask students to define
what a person is. Reward good oral responses. Write the ending ify to the end of
the word person on board. Ask students if they know what ify does to a noun.
Ask students: Does anyone like to drink a smoothie? Tell them that to make a
smoothie, they must liquefy the ingredients. Tell them that ify means to make
into. Ask students: Does anyone know the word magnify? Ask them to define it.
Tell them that today they will personify an object of their choice. Erase the y
from the word personify on the board, and write at the end ication so that the
word on the board shown is personification. Tell them that once they have
completed the act of personifying an object, what they have made is a
personification of that thing a noun. Define personification for class. Step-By-Step
Procedure: Format: Example poems, discussion. Group participation. Individual
writing. Reading and brief discussion of the example poems (appropriate to grade
level). Explain that in poetry, an author will often times personify an object or idea.
Pass out Character Web worksheet to all students and have pencil and composition
paper on student desks. Draw a square on the board, with ovals surrounding, to
model the worksheet on student desks. Ask students whether there are any
musicians in the class. Raise of hands. What instrument do you play? (Piano.) Write

oral response in square. Ask students if they like to make art? What kind of art do
you make? Ask student to tell you the name of a tool that he uses to make art with.
(Paintbrush.) Write it in square on board. Ask students their favorite color (Green.)
Write in square on board. There are now three responses written on board inside the
square: piano, paintbrush, green. Students may be prompted for objects they use in
sports, hobbies, travel. Tell students that you are going to make a personification of
the first object in the square (piano). If the piano had a best friend, whom would it
be? Raise of hands. Write student oral response in ONE of any of the four of the
ovals connected to the square. Reward good oral responses (guitar). Ask students:
What do the guitar and piano do together as friends? Write oral response below
the word guitar in the oval. Read aloud the sentence: The Pianos best friend is the
Guitar and together they play in a band. Ask the students, were they to smell the
piano, how does it smell? Write oral responses in any SECOND oval outside the
square. The piano smells like ocean waves. Write complete sentence in oval. Read
aloud the two sentences: Pianos best friend is Guitar. He smells like ocean waves.
Turn to class and ask them to write the name of an object (single noun) in the
square on their worksheet at desk. Ask for oral responses for the words they have
written. Ask them If the thing you have written in the square had a best friend,
whom would it be? Ask them to write oral responses in ONE of the ovals on the
worksheet. Ask for oral responses to give students the opportunity to say aloud
their ideas. Reward good responses. (The soccer balls best friend is the shoe.
Together they win games. Or, The paintbrushs best friend is the color red, and
together they paint a picture of the moon.) Return to board. Point out the other two
words in the square (paintbrush, green). Point out that the same questions you
asked of the piano could be asked of paintbrush or green. Model responses to the
questions: Paintbrushs best friend is Canvas. Greens best friend is Yellow. Now turn
to the class and ask them What makes a piano happy? Write best oral response
inside the THIRD oval on board. A piano is happiest when he is playing F#m.
Verbally model and conjoin all three sentences for the students. Pianos best friend
is Guitar. Together they play in a band. Piano is happiest when playing F#m. Ask
students to write a sentence in the THIRD oval on worksheet describing what brings
happiness to the subject they have written in the square on their worksheet. For the
final oval, give the students several options. Write on the board the following:
Jealous of Embarrassed if Proud of Magic (if a piano could make magic,
what would it do?) Afraid of Loves Happiest when Lost and found (if a
piano lost something, what would it be?) Add to the above list or shorten it,
depending on grade level. Explain that one of the most fundamental aspects of our
being human is our feelings. Tell them that poetry often, but not always, is about
feelings. Write a short list of feelings on the board (love, joy, anger, sadness,
happiness, fear). Add to the above list or shorten it, depending on grade level. Ask
the class Were the piano to fall in love, with whom would it fall in love? Reward
good responses. Tell them that, in their own writing, they are to use ONE of the
words of feeling you have written on the board. Add or shorten the list of emotions,
depending on grade level. Pick one topic from the list on board and point to it.
(Magic). Make up a sentence. When Piano makes magic, he changes music into
birds. Ask students to write a sentence in the FOURTH oval describing an answer to
one of the prompts from the list above. Students are ready to write poem. Tell them
they are to transfer their answers from their worksheets to the composition paper in
ANY ORDER they choose. Tell them to pick their favorite response from the
worksheet and use THAT line as their starter line. Ten minute silent writing. Circle

room to check for student progress and further prompt slow writers. About SEVEN
minutes into the silent writing exercise, announce to the whole class the following.
Consider now that the thing you are writing about is YOU. Finish your poem and
make a statement about the subject, but as you write, think that you are writing
about YOU. Allow students several more minutes to finish writing poems. As you
circle room, read (to yourself) the student writing-in-progress. Encourage and ask
for further details. End silent writing time. Ask for VOLUNTEERS to come to front and
share writing. Do not force anyone to share if he does not feel comfortable. Author
at front of class may ask the class for raise of hands to give oral response to
authors poem. What do you like about my poem? Encourage all responses to
author. Give author at front the opportunity to pick students with raised hands. Plan
For Independent Practice: Ask students to revise and complete poems. Closure
(Reflect Anticipatory Set): Ask class how they may use what they have learned
about personification in other school writing assignments. Ask class to illustrate
poems with drawings. Assessment Based On Objectives: Did student write at least
four sentences of personification for their subject? Did they answer some of the
questions on the board? Did the students write in complete sentences? Did student
give details? Did student use words for emotion? Were students enthusiastic about
sharing their writing aloud with class at the end of exercise? Did students have fun?
Adaptations and Modifications (For Students With Learning Disabilities). Special
Education: Reduce number of responses from four to two (best friend, favorite
activity). Allow students to use phrases rather than complete sentences. Consult
with IEP to apply learning objectives for Reading/Writing to this lesson. Ask early
finishers to collaborate with late finishers and act as scribe. Early finisher writes
down oral response from late finisher on worksheet. Teacher takes dictation from
Special Ed. student oral responses and writes oral responses for student on
worksheet. ELL/ELD: Ask for images of cultural artifacts, sports, hobbies, foods from
students native culture. Extensions (For Gifted Students): GATE students write more
than ten lines. Ask them to use more than one word for emotion in composition.
Illustrate compositions when complete. Place compositions on poster paper and
hang throughout the classroom. Possible Connections To Other Subjects: Crossdiscipline with science, history, math. Ask students to pick subject from another
discipline and describe that subject as a person. For math: were the number seven
to have a best friend, whom would it be? What would the two friends do together?
With whom would the number seven fall in love? If seven had an aroma, describe it?
If an historical event had a favorite color, describe the color and tell why. Lesson
Plan Title: Personification Poetry Writing by Scott Reid is licensed under a Creative
Commons Attribution-Noncommercial 3.0 United States License.
http://scotts.members.sonic.net/albany/ * California ELA Contents Standards Grade
Four: Reading 3.0 Literary Response and Analysis 3.5 Define figurative language
(e.g., simile, metaphor, hyperbole, personification) and identify its use in literary
works. Grades Eleven and Twelve: Reading 3.0 Literary Response and Analysis 3.4
Analyze ways in which poets use imagery, personification, figures of speech, and
sounds to evoke readers emotions. Sample Poems Piano Piano gets lonely when
there are no vibrations on her stings. She feels the smoothness of her keys. She
feels herself getting embarrassed when a bad chord is played. She is in love with
F#m. Her joy is when her singer sings along. Green Green is not afraid. He is bright
and shiny. If red were to go to the store he would buy toothpaste. If you taste Green,
it would be like orchids. Greens younger sister is mean to him.

Onomatopoeia A Mentor Text Lesson Plan by Marcie Flinchum Atkins Writing Skills
Focus: Onomatopoeia Word choice Revision Sensory words Creating an
image with your words Target Audience: 2nd grade-5th grade (but adaptable for K-1)
Objectives: The student will recognize onomatopoeic words in mentor texts. The
student will gather onomatopoeic words and make a list of them. The student will
utilize onomatopoeic words in their own writing. Marcie Flinchum Atkins E-mail:
marcie@marcieatkins.com http://www.marcieatkins.com Please seek permission
before posting on another website. Standards: Virginia Standards of Learning:
Standards are listed here for referencing by number in your lesson plans. For link to
complete standards, go to:
http://www.doe.virginia.gov/testing/sol/standards_docs/english/2010/stds_all_english
.pdf 2nd Grade Standards 2.12 c,d 3rd Grade Standards 3.9 g 4th Grade Standards
4.5 g, 4.7 i 5th Grade Standards 5.7 f Common Core: Standards are listed here for
referencing by number in your lesson plans. For link to complete standards, go to:
http://www.corestandards.org/assets/CCSSI_ELA%20Standards.pdf 2nd Grade
Standards CCSS.ELA.W 2.5 3rd Grade Standards CCSS.ELA.W 3.3b, 3.4, 3.5, 3.10
CCSS.ELA.L 3.3 a 4th Grade Standards CCSS.ELA.W 4.3b, d, 4.4, 4.5, 4.10
CCSS.ELA.L 4.3a, 4.6 5th Grade Standards CCSS.ELA.W 5.3b,d, 5.4, 5.5, 5.10 Marcie
Flinchum Atkins E-mail: marcie@marcieatkins.com http://www.marcieatkins.com
Please seek permission before posting on another website. Text(s): BIRDSONDS by
Betsy Franco, illustrated by Steve Jenkins CENTRAL PARK SERENADE by Laura
Godwin, illustrated by Barry Root THE CHICKEN CHASING QUEEN OF LAMAR COUNTY
by Janice N. Harrington, illustrated by Shelley Jackson CREEPY CARROTS by Aaron
Reynolds, illustrated by Peter Brown THE GREAT FUZZ FRENZY by Janet Stevens and
Susan Stevens Crummel THE LISTENING WALK by Paul Showers, illustrated by Aliki
MR. DUCK MEANS BUSINESS by Tammi Sauer, illustrated by Jeff Mack MUD by Mary
Lyn Ray, illustrated by Lauren Stringer PEEK: A THAI HIDE AND SEEK by Minfong Ho,
illustrated by Holly Meade RATTLETRAP CAR by Phyllis Root, illustrated by Jill Barton
ROADWORK by Sally Sutton, illustrated by Brian Lovelock SNOW SOUNDS: AN
ONOMATOPOEIC STORY written and illustrated by David A. Johnson TIPPY-TIPPYTIPPY, HIDE! by Candice Fleming, illustrated by G. Brian Karas TRUCKS: WHIZZ!
ZOOM! RUMBLE! By Patricia Hubbell, illustrated by Megan Halsey WATER HOLE
WAITING by Jane and Christopher Kurtz, illustrated by Lee Christiansen WELCOME
TO THE GREEN HOUSE by Jane Yolen, illustrated by Laura Regan Other Materials
Needed: Onomatopoeia notes (attached) Noisy words chart (attached) (*Note:
the original idea for this handout came from here:
http://writingfix.com/PDFs/Writing_Tools/Alpha_Boxes.pdf, but I tweaked it to fit my
needs. You can do alphaboxes with a number of writing projects.) Recent rough
draft Before and after examples (attached) Colored pens or colored pencils
Lesson: Setting the purpose: Use the notes page to guide you through helping
students understand what an onomatopoeic word is and WHY an author would want
to use them. Also, discuss why they make a text interesting to a reader. Students
can put these notes in their notebooks or folders for future reference. Marcie
Flinchum Atkins E-mail: marcie@marcieatkins.com http://www.marcieatkins.com
Please seek permission before posting on another website. Utilizing the Mentor Text
Onomatopoeia Scavenger Hunt Gather a dozen or more picture books. The list
above gives a good place to get started, but you might have many more to add to
this. Students dont have to be familiar with the books. They are going to scan the

texts for onomatopoeia. Give each student a copy of the Noisy Words alphabet
chart. Students can record their onomatopoeia words in the chart. When they are
finished, they will have a miniature onomatopoeic dictionary for their notebook to
use as a reference later. If time, students can share and compare lists. Transferring
the Skill to Student Writing Remind students that one of the things that
onomatopoeic words do is to help the reader really feel like they are there in the
story. These sound words are sensory words that appeal to the sense of hearing.
Share the Before and After examples with the students. Discuss if the
onomatopoeic words help the reader feel more like a part of the story. Have
students reread a recent rough draft. They are rereading to locate one or two places
where an onomatopoeic word could be inserted to help the reader really hear whats
going on in the scene. Using a pen or colored pencil, have them choose a place to
insert an onomatopoeic word or rewrite a sentence or two to include an
onomatopoeic word. If a student is having difficulty finding one on their own, a
friend could guide them or the teacher could guide them to a place. Then
encourage them to verbalize what it might sound like. Sound effects are okay to
use. They dont have to be words one would find in a dictionary. Have students
share their rewritten sentences. If time, students can even share their sentence
before (make sure they dont erase them) and after. Marcie Flinchum Atkins E-mail:
marcie@marcieatkins.com http://www.marcieatkins.com Please seek permission
before posting on another website. Onomatopoeia Word that mimics a sound. In
poetry or in stories, they are used because they appeal to the senses (sense of
sound). Examples: buzz hiss sizzle cuckoo meow honk slurp whack ring-ring beep
Onomatopoeia Word that mimics a sound. In poetry or in stories, they are used
because they appeal to the senses (sense of sound). Examples: buzz hiss sizzle
cuckoo meow honk slurp whack ring-ring beep Marcie Flinchum Atkins E-mail:
marcie@marcieatkins.com http://www.marcieatkins.com Please seek permission
before posting on another website. Noisy Words Onomatopoeia A B C D E F G H I J K
L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z Marcie Flinchum Atkins E-mail:
marcie@marcieatkins.com http://www.marcieatkins.com Please seek permission
before posting on another website. Before and After Examples of Using
Onomatopoeic in Your Writing Before I could hear the car horn from my room. After
Honk! Honk! Hoooooonk! I could hear my impatient sister laying on the horn all
the way from my room. Before Bella walked on the leaf-covered trail back to the
campsite. After The dry leaves crunched and crackled under Bellas feet. She knew
everyone at the campsite could hear her coming.