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.

..


( )


2006

...4
1 ..5
1.1 . 5
1.2 . ...9
1.3 10
1.4 . ....11
1.5 . ..13
2 ..16
2.1 -. ...16
2.2 -18
3 .19
3.1 . .19
3.2 . .20
3.3 . . ,
.26
3.4 .28
3.5 ..30
4 32
4.1 32
4.2 . ....37
4.3 ....42
4.4 ...51
4.5 ...56
4.6 ..59
4.7 . .65
5 .
..69

3
5.1 . .
..69
5.2 -. 73
5.3 . .
.79
6 84
6.1 . .84
6.2 87
7 . .92
7.1 ..92
7.2 ..98
7.3 . ..103
8 ..106
8.1 ..106
8.2 ..109
8.3 ......112
9 .
- -.114
10 ...119
10.1 ....119
10.2 .
.126
10.3 ...128
10.4 .132
10.5 .
.......133
..140
.140


,
, , , ,
, , .

,
,
. ,
, ,
. , ,
,
. , , ,
,
, -
, .
,
. ,
, ,
.. ,


.
.
, .

5
1

20 ,
: .
, , ..

.
,

,
. ,

,
. , , :
, ,
, .
1.1 .

, , ,
.
.

r r .
R ,
.

6
(

2 c / , c - ). ,
d , dR ..
d dR d ,
:

dR = r d ,
r

(1.1)

- .

R r d .

(1.2)

, :

R r d ,

(1.3)

r r r d r d

2c

2
.
r r 2 r
2c

(1.4)

,
, ..

R T 4 ,

(1.5)

=5.6710-8 /(2 4 ) - - ,
(1.5) - .

r , ,

Tmax b ,

(1.6)

b =2.9 10-3 .

.
,
r .

,
:

r 24c kT ,

(1.7)

k = 1.3810-23 / - .
, ,

, ..
. (1.7)
0

(1.3)

. ,
, .
,
, 1900 . ,
( ) ,
,

h ,

h 6.62 10-34 - . (

, 2 ,

h / 2 = ,

h / 2 .)

3
4 2 c 2

1
,
exp( / kT ) 1

(1.8)

4 2 c 2

1
exp( 2c / kT ) 1

(1.9)

(1.8), (1.9),
,
. . 1

.

r ,
/310
13

1
2

,
. 1
, . 1 = 6000 , 2= 4500 .
,
-,
- , ,
, , .
, ,
,

9
, .. .

, .
1.2 .
()
.

. . 1988-1989 .
.
.
,
,
- .
. 1905 . ,
, , (
), .
Aout ,
. ,
:
Aout

2
mVmax

,
2

(1.10)

(1.10) .
(1.10) ,
Aout , . ,
,
. ,
, :

10

max

2 c

(1.11)

Aout

, ,

,
.
1.3
( )
,
, .

,
, .

, ,

, :

1
1
R 2 2 ,

m
n
1

(1.12)

n =1, 2, 3 ...- , m=n+1, n+2, n+3, , R- ,


R=109737,3 -1 .
n
(n=1- ), (n=2- ), (n=3 , n=4-, n=5- ) .
,
, , ,
.

11
1.4 .
1903 , ,

, .
,

. F
r
:

F r

e
4 0R

r
3

0 r R ,

(1.13)

e - , R - .
-
( ), ,
:

f e F

e2
4 0 R

k
r
.
3

(1.14)

(1.14),
k e 2 / 4 0 R 3 .
, ,
:

k
e2

m
4 0 mR 3

(1.15)

(1.15), , :

R3

e2
.
4 0 m 2

(1.16)

31015 /. (1.16)

12
, R 3 10 10 ,
, .

,
.
-
( )
( ). , -
,
( 1 10 000 ) ,
180 .
, 1911 .
. ,
,
. , ,
, 10-15 .

- ,
. ,
, (),

, .
, ,
, .

13
1.5 .

,

,
. , , :
- , .
, ,
, ;
- ,
, ,

L r mv , ..

mvn rn n ,

(1.17)

n =1,2,3, ... , v n

n - , rn

;
- ()
,
..

En Em ,

(1.18)

E n , Em n- m- .

,
.
,
+ e , :
v2
e2
me

,
r 4 0 r 2

(1.19)

14
me .
, (1.17), ,
vn / me rn n , , (1.19), n -
:

rn

4 0 2
me e

n2 .

(1.20)

4 0 2
a0

0
.
529
A
.
me e2

(1.21)

,
,
:
me v 2
e2
E

.
2
4 0 r

(1.22)

(1.19) r / 2 , :
me v 2 1 e 2

.
2
2 4 0 r

(1.23)

(1.22),
:

1 e2
2 4 0 r

(1.24)

(1.20)
:

En

me e 4

2(4 0 ) 2 n 2

(1.25)

15
(1.25),
, .
m n :

Em En

me e 4

1
1
2 2 .
2(4 0 ) m
n

(1.26)

, :

me e 4 1
1
1

.
2c 2(4 0 ) 2 n 2 m 2
1

(1.27)

(1.27) (1.12),
R :

me e 4
1
R
2c 2(4 0 ) 2

(1.28)

(1.28) me , e

.
, ,
.

. ,
.
. ,
:
. ,
,
.

16
2 .
2.1 -.
(, ,
..), ,
( - ..).
,
, , ,
,
-- 1924

,
. - ,

. - , ,
, E ,

p mv , , - ,

, :

p k ,
E ,

(2.1)

2
k - , k
,

, m , v ,

(r , t ) Cei (

t kr )

(2.2)

h / mv -.
-
(1927.), .

17
,
. ,
, ,
-.
, ,
, , , .
,
. , .
,
,
.

, , ,
. ,
(
), , .

x , px
x , , ,

, :

x px ,
..

(2.3)

.
y z -, ..
y p y ,

z pz ,
:

(2.4)
(2.5)

18

E t .

(2.6)

,
,
- .
2.2 -.
- .

.
.
, ,
,
, .
-,

: -
. ,
-
.

19
3
3.1 .

, .

,
,
(x , y , z , t ) .

.
2

(r , t ) (r , t ) (r , t )
, ..
dw d 3 r dxdydz :

2
dW (r , t ) d 3 r .

(3.1)

V1
:

2
w(V1 , t ) (r , t ) d 3 r .

(3.2)

V1

,
, .
, ,
, ,
2
(r , t )
V , ,

20
,
, ..

(r , t )

d 3r 1

(3.3)

(3.3) .
1 - , ,
A (,
) A1 , 2 - ,
, A A2 .
,
, 1 2 ,
, , . .

c11 c22

(3.4)
A

A1 , A2 ,
c1
c 2 , . . w1 A1 w1 = 1
A2 w2 = 2

3.2 .


. ,
, .

21
, ,
.
, .. ,

A , A .

A - , , ,
. . :

A Ai wi ,

(3.5)

Ai - , , wi . ,
,
wi ci

ci ci ,

Ai

A Ai ci ci

(3.6)

,

. ,

A
, :

A A d 3r ,

(3.7)

.

, .
,

.
, :

22
A (c ) cA ,

(3.8)

A (1 2 ) A 1 A 2 .

(3.9)


, . . ()
:

A A .

(3.10)

, (3.7),
, :

A d 3r = A d 3r .

(3.11)

(3.11) .
~
A A , ,

~
3

d
r
= A d 3r .

(3.12)

,
:
~ 3

A
=

d
r
dr

(3.13)

(3.12) (3.13) ,
:
~
A A .

(3.14)

, ,
. ,
.
A ,
:
A A ,

(3.15)

23
A - A ,
. , (3.15),
, ,
, A1 , A2 , A3 , .. An .
, .
(3.15) A ,
.

. n m -
A ,
. ,
:

mnd

r mn ,

(3.16)

mn :

1, m n
.
0, m n

mn

(3.17)

(3.16)
(3.15).
n m - A ,
(3.15) :
A n An n ,

(3.18)

A m Am m .

(3.19)

(3.19).

, :
A n An n ,
A m Am m .

(3.20)
(3.21)

24
(3.20) ( ) m

(3.21) - n , ,
:
m A n n A m ( An Am )n m .

(3.22)

m A n d 3 r n A m d 3 r ( An Am ) n m d 3 r .

(3.23)

~
A A ,

(3.13) ,
(3.23) , :
( An Am ) n m d 3 r 0 .

(3.24)

m n , ..

m n d

r 0 ,

n n d

r 1

(3.16).
,

n . ,

, ..

(r ) cn n (r ) ,

(3.25)

c n :

cn n (r )(r )d 3r .

(3.26)

, (3.25) m (r ) ,


, :
3
3

(
r
)

(
r
)
d
r

(
r
)

(
r
)d r cn nm .

m
n
m
n

(3.27)

25
n , m n ,
(3.26).

cn

1.

(3.28)

(3.28) (r )

(r ) (3.25) (3.3).

:
3

cm m (r ) cn n (r )d r 1.
m

(3.29)

cm cn m (r ) n (r )d 3r cm cn mn cn

m, n

m,n

1.

(3.30)

A ,

(r ) :

A (r ) A (r )d 3r .

(3.31)

(r )

A ,

(3.15), :

A cm
cn m (r ) A n (r )d 3r cm
cn m (r ) An n (r )d 3r
m, n

cm
cn An

m, n

m, n

m (r )n (r )d 3r

cm
cn An mn

cn An .

m, n

(3.32)

:
A wn An ,
n

(3.33)

26
wn - n . (3.32) (3.33)
, wn ,
A An , :
2

wn cn .

(3.34)

3.3 . . ,

D
A B (,

), D A B ,
:
D ( A B ) A B .

(3.35)

,
A B . A B
, A
B , ..
:
A n An n ,

(3.36)

B n Bn n .

(3.37)

D :
D n ( A B )n A n B n ( An Bn )n Dn n .

(3.38)

,
D ,
Dn An Bn .

27
, A B
, ,
,
.. :
D A B A B .

(3.39)

A
B , ,

D A B . , ,

D A B
A B .
D
A B ,
D A B ,

( B ) , ( A )
, . .
D A B A ( B ) .

(3.40)

, A B B A , . ., ,
. ,

C A B C A , B A B B A .
, ,
, ..
.
A B ,
, n , ..
A n An n

B n Bn n .

n , :

C A , B

28
D n A ( B n ) B ( A n ) A Bn n B An n
Bn A n An B n Bn An n An Bn n 0.

(3.41)

, ,
, . ,
, ,
.
3.4

, ,

. 1.

29
1 .

x, y, z

p px i p y j pz k


L r p

x x , y y, z z


p i i( i
j k)
x
y
z


L r p


Lx ypz zpz ,

Ly zpx xpz ,
Lz xp y ypz .

Lx i y z ,
y
z


L y i z
x ,
z
x

L z i x y .
x
y

p2
K
,
2m

p 2

K
,
2m


U ([ x, y, z ),

U ([ x, y, z ),

p2
E
U ( x, y , z )
2m

p 2

H
U ( x, y , z )
2m
2 2

H
U ( x, y , z )
2m
2 2
2
2

U ( x, y , z )
2m x 2 y 2 z 2

30
3.5

. , ,
t,
, ..
( ) .
:


H .
t

(3.42)

(3.42)

.
,
.
, ..
. ,
,
H , ..
:
H E ,

(3.43)

E .

(3.43)

.
(3.42) (3.43).
(3.43) (3.42) :

(r , t )
i
E(r , t ) .
t
, :

(3.44)

31

i
ln (r , t )
Et Const .

(3.45),

(3.45)

i
(r , t ) const exp Et .

(3.46)

t 0

(r , t ) (r ,0) (r ) . , ,
:

i
(r , t ) (r ) exp Et .

(3.47)

, (r , t ) ,
,

i
(r ) exp Et ,


, .. H E .

E
,

E / ,
, :

(r , t ) expit (r ) .

(3.48)

. ,

32
.
.
4

4.1

, U ( x, y, z )
, , .
,
. , .
,
:

U 0 ; x 0;

U ( x) 0; 0 x l
U , x l
0

(4.1)

,
, .2.

U(x)
U0
I

II

III

. 2
.

33

.
( x, t ) :
i
( x, t ) exp Et ( x) ,

(4.2)

(x) :
H ( x) E ( x) ,

(4.3)

, , :

2 2
U ( x) E .
2m x 2

(4.4)

, (4.4)
.
, :

2 2
U 0 E,
2m x 2
2 2
E,
2m x 2

, x 0,

,0 x l ,

2 2
U 0 E,
2m x 2

, x l,

(4.4)

(4.5)

(4.6)

, ,
.. , U 0 . ,
, .. ,
. , I III
.
:
w1

dx 0 ,

(4.7)

34

w3 3 dx 0 ,
2

(4.8)

, 1 0 3 0 .
(4.5).
, :

2 2mE
2 0.
2
x

k 2

2
x

(4.9)

2mE
2

, (4.9) :

k 2 0 .

(4.10)

(4.10)
, :
( x) A sin( kx ) ,

(4.11)

, ,

. ,
:
( x) 0 x 0 x l .

(4.12)

:
A sin( ) 0 ,

(4.13)

0 , , x l , :
A sin( kl ) 0 .

(4.14)

(4.14) ,
kl n,

(4.15)

n 1,2,3,... - .
, ,
,

35
k, ,
k n / l , .. k :

kn

n
l

(4.16)

k k 2

2mE
2

2k 2
E
, (4.16) , ,
2m

, ,
:

2 2 n 2
En
.
2ml 2

(4.17)

(4.17) ,
, :

Emin

2 2
0
2ml 2

(4.18)

, ,
.
, x -
, .. x l ,
(2.3) , x - px / l .
x -
px / l , E p 2 / 2m

Emin

2
,

2ml 2

(4.17),
.
(4.17) ,
:

36

2 2 (n 1) 2 2 2 n 2 2 2
En1 En

(2n 1) ,
2ml 2
2ml 2
2ml 2

(4.19)

.. n .

. 3.
E
n=3

E3

n=2
E2
n=1
E1
0
.


, k
(4.16), (4.11) :
nx
( x) A sin
.
a

(4.20)

A ,
:

( x) dx 1

(4.21)

, [ ,0] [a, ]
( x) 0 , (4.21) :

37
2
2 nx
dx 1 .
A sin
l

(4.22)

2
2 sin 2 ( x) 1 cos(2 x) , A

1
2
l 1 . A
.
2
l

n ( x)

2 nx
sin
.
l
l

(4.23)

(4.23) (n 1)
( ),
(n 2) ()
x l / 2 , (n 3)
x l / 3 x (2 / 3)l .. ()


.
4.2 .
, .. ,
,
U ( x, y, z ) 0 . , (3.48),

(4.24)
(r , t ) expit (r ) ,

E / , E - , (r ) ,
(3.43).
, ,
. (3.42) :

38

2 2
0 E .
2m x 2

(4.25)

, , :

2
k 2 0 ,
2
x

(4.26)

k 2 2mE / 2 .
(4.26) :

( x) A expikx B exp(ikx) .

(4.27)

(4.27) ,
, :

( x, t ) A exp i(t kx) B exp i(t kx) .

(4.28)

(4.28)
k 2 / ,
X .
,
. ,
C C C ,
C - . C
x - p x i

, :
x

C i A exp(i(t kx) i ik A exp i(t kx k .


x

(4.29)

, (4.28)
, :

px k .

(4.30)

k 2 / , , (4.30),

px h / . ,

39

X , -.
,
:

(r , t ) A exp i(t k r ) B exp i (t k r ) .

k 2 k x2 k y2 k z2

(4.31)

2mE
, ..
2

k .

, ,
, .
n
:

n
divjn 0 ,
t

(4.32)

jn - .

V ,

N nd 3r .
V

N
n
n(r )d 3r d 3r divjn d 3r .
t t V
V t
V

(4.33)

- ,
V , :


N
jn dS .
t
S

(4.34)

40
w

V :
2

w d 3r .

(4.35)

:
*
w

* 3
2
d r
d 3r *d 3r ( * )d 3r

t t V
t V

t
V
V

(4.36)

(3.42)
, (4.36), :

w i
H ** * H d 3r .
t V

(4.37)

2
H H *
U ( x, y, z, t ) ,
2m

(4.38)

, (4.37), :

w i 2 2 *
2 2
*
*


U
*U d 3r

t V 2m

2m

2 * * 2 d 3r

2m V

(4.39)

, :

2 * * 2 div * * , (4.39) :

w
i

div * * d 3r .

t
2m V

(4.40)

(4.40) , :

w
i

* * dS .
t
2m

(4.41)

(4.41) (4.34),
, ,

41
, ..
V ,
, .

, jw ,

i
j
* * ,
2m

(4.42)

w
div jw 0 ,
t

(4.43)

(4.32)
.

, , ..
, .

jw (4.42)
(4.28),
,

X ,

k 2 2
jw
A v A ,
m

(4.44)

v .

,
, .. ,

, .. jw 1. , (4.44)

A 1 / v , ,
X

42
( x, t )

1
E
exp( i( t kx)) .

(4.45)

4.3
,
.

, . 4, ,
U0 .

U(x)
U0

. 4.

,
U0 , ,

U0 , .
. ,
, ,
,
, , ..
.

43
,
, ,
, ,
.
,
. , X

U0 l , .5.

U(x)

U0
E

II

III

. 5.

,
, :
0, x 0

U ( x) U 0 , 0 x l .
0, x l

(4.46)

44
,
,
:

( x, t ) exp i t ( x) ,

(4.47)

E / , (x )
,
:

2 2
U ( x) E .
2m x 2

(4.48)

(4.48)
- ,
:
2

2m
2

2m
2

2m

2
E, x 0,
x 2
2
U 0 E, 0 x l ,
,
x 2
2
E, x l.
x 2

(4.49)

,
, k 2

2mE

, 2

2m
(U 0 E ) ,
2

(4.49) :
2
2
2 k 0, x 0
x
2
2
2 0, 0 x l ,
x
2
2
2 k 0, x l
x

, (4.50), :

(4.50)

45
1 A1 exp( ikx) B1 exp( ikx),

x 0,

(4.51)

2 A2 exp( x) B2 exp( x),

0 xl,

(4.52)

3 A3 exp( ikx) B3 exp( ikx),

xl.

(4.53)

(4.51) ,
( ),
( ). ,
(4.53) ,

B3 exp(ikx) ,
. ,
B3 0 . ,

3 A3 exp( ikx),

x l.

(4.54)

, R ,

, ..
j1( )
R () .
j1

(4.55)

D ,
,

, ..
j3( )
D () .
j1

(4.56)

,
R D 1.

(4.42)
(4.51) (4.54)
, :

46

j1( )

k
k
k
2
2
2
A1 , j1( )
B1 , j3( )
A3 .
m
m
m

(4.57)

(4.57) (4.55) (4.56)


R D :
2

B
R 1 ,
A1

(4.58)

A
D 3 .
A1

(4.59)

A1, B1, A2 , B2 , A3
,
, ..
:
1 (0) 2 (0);

1(0) 2 (0) ,

2 (l ) 3 (l );

2 (l ) 3 (l ) .

A1 B1 A2 B2
ikA ikB A B
1
1
2
2

A2 exp( l ) B2 exp( l ) A3 exp( ikl )


A2 expl B2 exp l ikA3 expikl

(4.60)

(4.58) (4.59)
A1, B1, A3 ,
( B1 / A1 ),

( A3 / A1 ) . ,

(4.60) A1 .

b1 ( B1 / A1) , a2 ( A2 / A1) , b2 ( B2 / A1) , a3 ( A3 / A1) ,


:

47

1 b1 a2 b2

ik ikb1 a2 b2

.
a2 exp( l ) b2 exp( l ) a3 exp( ikl )
a exp( l ) b exp( l ) ika exp( ikl )
2
3
2

(4.61)

()

:
2

R b1 , D a3 .

(4.62)

b1 a3 ,
. (4.61) ik
, ik
.
a2 b2 :

2ik ( ik )a2 ( ik )b2


.

( ik )a2 exp( l ) ( ik )b2 exp( l ) 0

(4.63)

(4.63) a2

a2

ik exp( 2 l )b .
2
ik

(4.64)

a2
(4.63) b2 , :

b2

2ik ( ik ) exp( l )

ik 2 exp( l ) ik 2 exp( l )

(4.65)

(4.65) (4.64) a2
:

a2

48
2ik ( ik ) exp( l )

ik 2 exp( l ) ik 2 exp( l

(4.66)

a3

(4.65) (4.66) (4.61).


:
a3

ik

4 ik exp( ikl )

exp( l ) ik 2 exp( l )

(4.67)

(4.62)
a3 :

16 2 k 2

D a3

ik

exp( l ) ik exp( l )

(4.68)

, l ,

U0 E . R
; (4.61)
2

b1 R b1 , D ,
R 1 D .

(4.68) . ,
,

l 1 .

,
:
D

16 2 k 2
exp( 2 l ) .
( 2 k 2 )2

(4.69)

(4.69)
,
:

49

(U 0 E )
.
E

(4.70)

(4.69) :
D

16
exp( 2 l ) .
(1 ) 2

(4.71)

,
,
:

D exp( 2 l ) exp
2m (U 0 E ) l .

(4.72)

(4.72)
( )
.
1
, (U0 E) 2
.
1.
(U0 E) 2

l, A

1.5

10

0.235

0.114

0.055

0.013

7.210-4

3.910-5

5.110-7

50
dU ( x)
p3

, ..
.
dx
m

,
:

2 b

D exp
2m (U ( x) E )dx ,
a

(4.73)

a b , U ( x) E ( . 6).
,
, .
;
, .

U(x)
E

X
a
b
. 6.

.
- , ()
, pn , pn -
..

51
4.4
, ,
,
. ,
, ,
, ,
. ,

U0 .

:
0, x 0 ,
U ( x)
,
U
,
0

(4.74)

U(x)
E

U0
I

II

0
. 7 ,
U0
I II :
2

2m
2

2m

2
E, x 0,
x 2
,
2

U 0 E, 0 x
x 2

(4.75)

52
,
, :

2
k12 0
2
x

x 0,

(4.76)

2
k22 0,
2
x

0 x .,

(4.77)

k12 2mE / 2 ,

k22 2m( E U0 ) / 2 .

(4.76) (4.77) ,
, ,
:
1 ( x) A1eik1 x B1e ik1 x ,

(4.76)

2 ( x) A2eik 2 x .

(4.79)

A1,

B1,

A2


, .. 1(0) 2 (0) 1(0) 2 (0) , :
A1 B1 A2 ,

ik1 A1 ik1B1 ik 2 A2 .

(4.80)

:
b1 (k1 k 2 ) /(k1 k 2 ),

a2 2k1 /(k1 k 2 ) .

(4.81)

, R
:
R b1

( 1) 2
( 1) 2

(4.82)

53
E /U 0 - ,
. . 8
.
,
, , ..
.
.
R

. 8 R
=E/U0

.
U0 l (. 5).
I, II III ,
:
1 A1 exp( ik1 x) B1 exp( ik1 x),

2 A2 exp( ik2 x) B2 exp( ik2 x),

x 0,

0 xl,

(4.83)
(4.84)

54
3 A3 exp( ikx) B3 exp( ikx),

xl.

(4.85)

k1 2mE / , k2 2m( E U0 ) / .

, 2.3. ,
(4.51)- (4.53) (4.83) (4.85),
ik 2 . ,
:

D
R

1
,
1 sin 2 (k2l ) / 4 ( 1)

(4.86)

1
.
1 4 ( 1) / sin 2 (k2l )

(4.87)

(4.86) (4.87),

.
.

D 1,

sin 2 (k2l ) =0

R 0 . ,
.
:

k2l n ,

(4.88)

n 1,2,3,... - .
k 2 / , - -,
(4.88) ,
, (2 / ) l n l n / 2 , ..
-.

Dmin ,

55
( )
sin 2 (k 2l ) 1 , :

Dmin

4 ( 1)
.
4 ( 1) 1

(4.89)

. 9
U 0 2

l 5 A .
D

E,
. 9
.
U0 =2 , 1 - l=10 , 2- l=5

,
.
.
4.5
,
, () .
,

56
.
, (
). ,
.
, ,
,
.

U0 (. 10).

U(x)

U0
I

II
0

III
l

X
. 10

, F U (r ) .
,
. I II
, , ..
I ( x) A1eik1 x B1e ik1 x ,

(4.90)

57
2 ( x) A2eik 2 x B2e ik 2 x ,

(4.91)

, k1 2m( E U 0 ) / , k 2 2mE / .

:
3 ( x) A3eik 2 x .

(4.92)


A3 B1
A1 ,
:

1
,
1 sin (k2l ) / 4 ( 1)

(4.93)

1
.
1 4 ( 1) / sin 2 (k2l )

(4.94)

(4.93) (4.94)

(4.86) (4.87)
.

k 2 , , -.

k2 2m( E U0 ) / ,
k 2 2mE / . ,
()
D R ,
. . 11
,
, , .9.

58

E,
. 11
. U0 =2
, . 1 - l=10 , 2 - l=5

59
4.6
x x0 ,

( ) ,
. ,

,
. ,

. :

U ( x ) U ( x0 ) a ( x x0 )

kx 2
...
2

U
x

,k
x x0

(4.95)
2U
x 2

x x0

, ,

x x0 . , a 0 , k 0 . ,

. ,
:

k ( x x0 )2
U ( x)
.
2

(4.96)

, ,
:

Fx

U ( x)
k ( x x0 ) .
x

(4.97)

(4.97), ,
,
, .. .

60
,
.

..

x0 0 .

:
U ( x) kx 2 / 2 .

(4.98)

, (4.97),
:

02 k / m .

(4.99)

x(t ) A cos(0t ) ,

(4.100)

V (t ) A0 sin(0t ) ,

(4.101)

A - , - .
:
E E

mV 2 kx2 kA2

.
2
2
2

(4.102)

(4.102),
. ,
, .
(4.98) ,

(4.99), :
U ( x) m 02 x 2 / 2 .

(4.103)

2 2 m 02 x 2

E .
2m x 2
2

(4.104)

61

.
:

2 m202 x 2
2mE

0.
2
2
2
x

(4.105)


. (4.105)

L
2

m 2 02 1
m 2 02

2 4 .
2
L

a0 / m 0

( x / a0 ) 2E / 0 .
(4.105)
:
2
2 0 .
2

(4.106)


. , ,
.
2 , (4.106) :
2
2 0 .
2

(4.107)

const exp 2 / 2 .

(4.108)


+ :

( ) ( ) exp 2 / 2 ,

(4.109)

62
, .
(4.109) (4.106). ,
,
2

1 0 .

(4.110)

(4.110)
ak , .. :

ak k .

(4.111)

k 0

(4.111) (4.110),
:

k
(ak 2 (k 1)(k 2) ( 1 2k )ak ) 0 .

k 0

(4.112)

,
,

ak 2 (k 1)(k 2) (2k 1 )ak 0 .

(4.113)

, ak

a( k 2)

( 2k 1 )
ak .
(k 2)(k 1)

(4.114)

(4.106)

const exp( 2 / 2) const ( ak k ) exp( 2 / 2) .


k 0

(4.115)

(4.115)
, , ..
k , ..
- k n .

63
, :
( 2n 1 ) 0 .

(4.116)

, ,
, :

2n 1,

(4.117)

n 0, 1, 2, 3, - .
,
(4.114) ,
- H n ( ) .

H n ( ) (1) exp
n

dn
exp( 2 ) .
n
d

(4.118)

(4.118)

H 0 1,

H1 2 ,

H 2 4 2 2 .

(4.119)

2E / 0 ,
, (4.117),
, ,

En 0 n 1/ 2 .

(4.120)

(4.120) , ,
n 0 ,

E0 0 / 2 .

(4.121)

n ( x)

1
n

2 n!a0

H n x / a0 exp ( x / a0 ) 2 .
2

(4.122)

64
, ,
, :

0 ( x)
1 ( x)
2 ( x)

1
a0
1
2a0
1
8a0

exp ( x / a0 ) 2 ,
2

(4.123)

2x / a0 exp ( x / a0 ) 2 ,
2

(4.124)

(4x / a0 2 2) exp ( x / a0 ) 2 .
2

(4.125)

. 12. ,
,
, x 0 ,
x a0 .

n=0
(x/a0)

n=1

x/a0

n=2
. 12. (n=0)
(n=1,2)

65

,
.
4.7 .


. ,

q V

, :


(4.126)
FL q[V B] ,

B 0 - , 0 4 107 /
.
,
,
. :
R mV sin /(qB) ,

(4.127)

l 2mV cos /(qB).

(4.128)

H qB / m .

(4.129)


, .
.
, ,
:

1
H
( p q0 A)2 ,
2m

(4.130)

66
- ,

rotA .

(4.131)

(4.130) ,
,
:
1 2 q 0 q 2 02 2
H
p
( pA Ap)
A .
2m
2m
2m

(4.132)

,
:


p A Ap idivA .

(4.133)

, ,
,
, . ,
, ,
:
1
A [ r ]
2

(4.134)

,
z .
:

Ax y , Ay 0 , Az 0 .

(4.135)

(4.130)
:
2

p y p z2
1
,
H
( p x qBy ) 2

2m
2m 2m

B 0 - .

(4.136)

67
(4.136) x z ,
p x p z , (4.136).
,

p x p z

(4.136),

i
( px x pz z)
e
( y) .

(4.137)

(4.137)
(4.136) ( y )
:
2 m 2 H2
2m
p z2
2

( y y0 ) 2 ( E
) 0 .
2m
y 2
2

(4.138)

y0 px / qB .
(4.138) (4.105)
,

H y0 . ,
p z2
) ,
, ( E
2m

, , (n 1/ 2) H .
, ,
, :
E (n 1 / 2) H p z2 / 2m .

(4.139)

,
,
. .
, (4.139)
(4.122) :

68

n ( y)

1
n

2 n!a0

1 y y 2
y y0
0
exp
H n
.

a
2
a


H
H

(4.140)

aH / m H .

, ,
. ,
XY X
Y , / 2 .

,
x0 y0 .
,
(4.136),

y0

y0 ,

.
Y , , , y
. ,

(4.136)

y 0

x0 p y / qB x ,

x - .
x0 y 0 ,
x0 y0 .

69
5 .

5.1

.

. ,
,

,
, ,
.
:
2
2 2 1
e2
H ( i2
k )

2
m
2
M
2
4

r
i
k
j i i
k
0 i rj
Z j Z k e2
Zk e
1
1


2 i k 40 ri Rk 2 j k k 40 R j Rk
2

(5.1)



ri , r j - , R j , Rk - ,
Z j , Z k - .

,
,
.
, . , M k m .
,
,
.
.

70

R j 0 , Rk 0 .
,
. ,

(5.1)


. ,
,
, .
,
. ,
,
. ,

:



2 2 1
e2
( i
U i (ri )) (r1 , r2 ,...rN ) E (r1 , r2 ,...rN )
2 j i i 40 ri r j i
i 2m

(5.2)

N - .

Z k e2

1
U i (ri )
,
2 k 40 ri Rk 0

i - , ,
, .
, (5.2)
,
, . ,

(5.2),

, i - j - .

. ,

71
i -
,
, .. :
1
e2
~

U i (ri ) ,
2 i j i 40 ri r j i

(5.3)

~
U i (ri ) - i - ,

.
, (5.2) :



2 2
~
( i U i (ri ) U i (ri ))(r1, r2 ,...rN ) E(r1, r2 ,...rN ) .
i 2m
i
i

(5.4)



2 2
( i Vi (ri ))(r1, r2 ,...rN ) E(r1, r2 ,...rN ) .
2m
i

(5.5)

(5.5) i -

~
Vi (ri ) U i (ri ) + U i (ri ) ,
:


( H i )(r1, r2 ,...rN ) E(r1, r2 ,...rN ) .

(5.6)

,

, (r1, r2 ,...rN ) ,
(5.6),

..
(ri ) ,

(r1, r2 ,...rN ) (r1 ) (r2 ) ... (rN ) (ri ) ,


i

H i (ri ) Ei (ri ) .

(5.7)

,
(5.2) N (5.7).

72
i , (5.7)
:

2 2
(r ) V (r ) (r ) E (r ) .
(5.8)
2m

(5.8) V (r ) ,

, V (r )

. V (r )
,

, V (r )
, .
:

n n1a n2b n3c ,

(5.9)


n1, n2 , n3 - , a , b , c -

.
:

V (r n ) V (r ) .

(5.10)

, n

. (r n )

(r ) , ..

(r n ) ei (r ) .

(5.11)

. :

(r n n ) ei (r n ) (ei ) 2 (r ) .
(5.12)

i
ik n
, e e , k -
. (5.11) :

ikn
(r n ) e (r ) ,

(5.13)

73

(5.13) , k

. (5.13) (r ) , :


ikn
(r ) e (r n ) .

(5.14)

, :

ikr
uk ( r ) e ( r ) .

(5.15)


, , (r n )

(r n) eik ( r n )uk (r n) .

(5.16)

(5.16) (5.14)

(r ) :

(r ) eikn (r n) eikn eik (r n )uk (r n) eikr uk (r n) .

(5.17)

,
, .
(5.15) (5.13) , :

ik ( r n )
ik ( r n )
ikn
ikr
uk ( r n ) e
(r n ) e
e ( r ) e ( r ) uk ( r ) ,

(5.18)

.. .

(5.18) (r ) (5.17) :

ikr
(r ) uk (r )e .

(5.19)

, ,

(r ) ,

ikr

uk (r ) .

5.2 -. .
,

74

V (r ) , .
, ,
. 13.

V(x)
V0
a

b
X

c=a+b
. 13.

,
:
0,
V ( x)
V0 ,

0 x a nc
.
a x (a b) nc

(5.20)

2m
2

2m

2
0 E
x 2
2
V0 E
x 2

0 x a nc
,

(5.21)

a x (a b) nc

(5.21).
. :
2
2
2 0
x
2
2 0
x 2

0 x a nc

,
a x (a b) nc

(5.22)

75
2mE
2m(V0 E )
2 2 , 2
.

2
, ,
,
( x) eikx uk ( x) .

(5.23)

uk (x) - . (5.23) (5.22)


, uk (x) :
2u k
uk
(k 2 2 )uk 0
2 2ik
x
x
2
uk 2ik uk (k 2 2 )u 0
k
x 2
x

0 x a nc

(5.24)
a x (a b) nc

(5.24) :
u1 ( x) A1 exp( i ( k ) x) B1 exp( i ( k ) x)

u2 ( x) A2 exp(( ik ) x) B2 exp( ( ik ) x)

0 x a nc
a x (a b) nc

(5.25)

A1, A2 , B1, B2 ,

, :
x 0 nc,
u1 ( x) u2 ( x)
u ( x) u ( x),
x a nc,
2
1
u1 ( x) u2 ( x)

x 0 nc,
x
x
u1 ( x) u2 ( x)

x a nc.
.
x
x

(5.26)

(5.25) u1 ( x) u2 ( x)
,

A1, A2 , B1, B2 .

,
. :

76

2 2
sh( b) sin(a) ch ( b) cos(a) cosk a b .
2

(5.27)

(5.27) ,
.
, , .. , b 0, V0 ,
b 0 , 2b .
.
, sh( b) b , ch ( b) 1

2b 2
2

b
(5.27) :

2 2
b sin(a) cos(a) cos(ka) .
2

(5.28)

2 ab sin(a)
cos(a) cos(ka) .
2
a

2ba
2

(5.29)
.

.
, P
, , ,
.
(5.29) :

sin(a)
cos(a) cos(ka) .
a

(5.30)

(5.30) (

2mE
) k .
2

77
, ,
,
k , ..
E (k ) E (k ) .

(5.31)

,
, (5.30) ,
. . 14
(5.30) a .
,
, (5.30)
, (5.30) .
Psin(a)/ (a)+cos(a)

. 14. (5.30)
a.

78
E 2 2 /(2m) ,

( ).
, .
. 15 .

. 15.
.
,
,
. ,
, , .
5.3 . .
.
(5.30)
.

79
,

(5.30)

P,


.
:

P 0 -

P -

.
P 0 V0 0 , ..
.
(5.30) :
cos(a) cos(ka) ,

(5.32)

k , E
k :
E

2 2 2 k 2

.
2m
2m

(5.33)


.
, ,
.

, .
, P ,
.
(5.30)
.
(5.30) :

sin(a)
0,
a

(5.34)

80
a n , n =1,2,- .
:

2 2 2 2 n 2
.

2m
2ma2

(5.35)

,
, ,
.
(5.30).
, P ,
, .. :

a n ,

(5.36)

, n . (5.36) (5.30).
:

sin(n )
cos(n ) cos(ka) .
n

(5.37)

(5.37).
, :

1
(sin(n) cos() cos(n) sin( ))
.
n
cos(n) cos() sin(n) sin( ) cos(ka)
P

(5.38)

1
((1) n sin( )) (1) n cos() cos(ka) .
n

(5.39))

(5.39)
, :

1
(1) n (1) n cos(ka) .
n

(5.40)

, :

n
P

((1) n cos(ka) 1) .

(5.41)

81
(5.41) , , n ,
, P .
(5.36),
:

n
1 1 1 cos(ka) .
a P

(5.42)

2 2 2 2 n 2 2

1 1 1n cos(ka) .
2
2m
2ma P

(5.43)

(5.43)
.
(5.43) ,

, k , ..
2

E (k ) E k
a

l
,

(5.44)

l . . 16

.

,
,
0 k 2 / a / a k / a .

82

k
-3/a

-2/a

-/a

/a

2/a

3/a

. 16.

/ a

/ a

. / a 2 / a

/ a 2 / a - ..

83
,
,
E (k ) . . 17
.
E(k)

-/a

/a

. 17.

. 17,
, , k / a , .
,
k . cos(ka)
ka ,
. , ..

n 1:
2 2
2 2 2
k 2a 2
2
E (k )
1 (1 1
)
1 1 cos(ka)
2
2ma 2 P
2ma 2 P

4 2k a
k
1

10
2mP
2ma 2 P
2ma 2 2 P
2

2 2

2 2

(5.45)

84

2 2 4
E10
1 - .
2ma 2 P

:
2k 2
E
.
2m

(5.46)

1
2
,

m* mP

(5.47)

,
, :

E (k )

2k 2
.
2m*

(5.48)

(5.48)
,
, , , m* ,
,
.

6
6.1 .
, :

L r p .

(6.1)

85
.
.
:


L r p ,

(6.2)

L x i( y z ) ,
z
y

L y i( z x ) ,
x
z

(6.3)

L z i( x y ) .
y
x

Lx , Ly L z ,
.. ,
.
, , Lz . ,
:

[ Li , L j ] ieijk Lk ,

(6.4)

eijk - (
), e123 e231 e312 1,

e213 e132 e321 1 .


:

L2 L2x L2y L2z .

(6.5)

,
, ..
[ L2 , Li ] 0 .

(6.6)

86
, (
)
. , ,
l ,
z .
L x L y
L L x iL y L L x iL y (
1
1
L ( L x iL y ) L ( L x iL y ) ).
2
2

L , L L L L L Lx iL y Lx iL y Lx iL y Lx iL y
L x L x iL y L x iL y iL x L y L y L y L x L x iL y L x iL x L y L y L y
,

2i L y Lx Lx L y 2iL y , Lx
2i iL z 2L z
Lz , L L ,
Lz , L L .

(6.7)

(6.8)
(6.9)

,
:

L2 L L L2z L z .

(6.10)

, ,

:
x r sin( ) cos( )

y r sin( ) sin( ) .
z r cos( )

(6.11)

87

dxdydz r 2 drSin( )dd .

L z i
,

(6.12)



,
L e i
ictg

1

1
2
L2 2
sin

2
2
sin

sin

(6.13)

1 1
2 r2 2
r r r r

1

1
2
.
sin
2

2
sin

sin

(6.14)

(6.13) (6.14) ,

.
6.2

,
,
, ,
z .
z -
:
L z l z ,

(6.15)

88
- L z , l z - .
(6.15) :
i

lz .

(6.16)

:
il
(r , , ) f (r , ) exp z .

(6.17)

(6.17) ( ) ,
..
il
( ) const exp z .

(6.18)

2 Z
, , :
( ) ( 2 ) .

(6.19)

, :
lz
m,

(6.20)

m 0,1,2,3, .. . ,
z - ,

lz m ,

(6.21)

:
m ( ) const eim .

(6.22)

,
, ..
2

*
m ( ) m ( )d 1 .

(6.23)

89
, const 1 / 2 ,
:

m ( )

1
2

eim .

(6.24)

Z ,
.
,
m
m .
m - ,

L2 Z , ..
m . z -
:
L z m mm .

(6.25)

(6.8),

:
L z L m ( L L z L )m L L z m L m m 1L m .

(6.26)

, L
L z .
, L :
L z L m (m 1) L m

(6.27)

(6.26) (6.27) , L m
(m 1) z - ,

90
L m

(m 1) z -

.
l m , .
m (l 1), (l 2) , .
L l , ,
(l 1) , ..
L l 0 .

(6.28)

(6.10), L L
:
L L L2 L2z L z .

(6.29)

, (6.28) :
L L l 0 ,

(6.30)

, (6.29), :

L2l Lz 2l Lz l .

(6.31)

L z l ll ,
l :

L2 l 2 l 2 l l .

(6.32)

,
2l l 1 , l l 1 .

Ylm ( , ).
:
L2Yl m ( , ) 2l (l 1)Yl m ( , ) .

(6.33)


(6.13), (6.33) :

91
2

1
m
1 2Yl m
2l (l 1)Yl m .

Yl 2
sin
2

sin
sin

(6.34)

1
m
1 2Yl m
sin

l (l 1)Yl m 0 .

l
2
2
sin

sin

(6.35)

.
:
Yl m , f ( )m ( ) ,

m ( )

(6.36)

1 im
- L z .
e
2

(6.36) (6.35).

f :

1
f
m2
sin

f l (l 1) f 0

sin
sin 2
,
l m ,

Plm (cos ) .
. , ,
, :
Yl m ( , ) constPlm (cos ) m ( ) .

(6.37)

, .. :
m* m
Yl Yl d ll mm

, l 0, m 0;
l 1, m 0,1; l 2, m 0,1,2 :

(6.38)

92
Y00
Y20

3
1
cos( ) ,
, Y10
4
4

Y11

3
sin( )e i ,
8

(6.39)

5
15
15
3 cos2 ( ) 1 ; Y21
cos( ) sin( )e i ; Y2 2
sin 2 ( )e 2i .
16
8
32

Yl m ( , )
.
7 .

7.1
,
, ..
:
U (r )

(7.1)

- . ,
,
:
U (r )

e2
4 0 r

(7.2)

e2
.
4 0

,

. (6.14)
,
:

93
2 1 2
1

1 2
e2
( (r

)
( Sin
)
)
E
, (7.3)
2me r 2 r
r Sin

4 0 r
Sin2 2

me - .
, ,
(7.3),
,
(6.13). (7.3)
:
2 1 2
1
e2
2

L
E .
r

2me r 2 r r 2me r 2
4 0 r

(7.4)

L2 , :
(r , , ) R(r )Yl m ( , ) ,

(7.5)

Yl m ( , ) -
, , R (r ) .
(7.5) (7.4), ,
L2Yl m ( , ) 2l (l 1)Yl m ( , ) , :

2 m
1 R(r )
1

Yl ( , ) 2 r 2
2l (l 1) R(r )Yl m ( , )

2
2me
r 2me r
r r

e2
4 0 r

. (7.6)

R(r )Yl m ( , ) ER (r )Yl m ( , )

Yl m ( , ) ,

(7.6) ,
R (r ) :

94
2 1 2 R(r )
2
e2

l (l 1) R(r )
R(r ) ER (r ) .
r

2me r 2 r
r 2me r 2
4 0 r

(7.7)

(2me / 2 ) ,
(7.7) :

2mee 2
2me
2R
1 R 1

l
(
l

1
)
R

ER 0 .
r r r 2
r 2
2 4 0 r
2

(7.8)

, (7.8)

me e 2

2 4 0

me 2 1
, , ..
.
4

0 L

a0

40 2
10

0
.
529

10

0
.
529
A
me2

r
.
a0

, (7.8)
:

1 2R
2 R 2
l (l 1) 2mE

2 R 0 ,
2 2
2
2
2

a0 a0
a0

a0

(7.9)

, a02 , :

2 R 2 R 2 l (l 1) 2ma 02 E

R 0.
2
2
2

(7.10)

(7.10)
, ,

95

2ma02 2m(40 2 ) 2 2(40) 2


,

2
2 m 2e 4
me4
1 me 4
13.55 ,
. E1
2 (4 0 ) 2

Ry .

E
(7.10) :
E1

2 R 2 R 2 l (l 1)

R 0 .

2
2

(7.11)


:
1.
, 0 ;
2.
, 0 .

.
,
.. , .

n , (7.11)
:
2 R 2 R 2 l (l 1) 1


2 R 0 .
2
2
n

(7.12)

(7.12) r 0 ,
r . ,
, n n l 1 .
(7.12) :

96
Rnl ( ) N nl e

l L2nll1 ( ) ,

(7.13)

2 2r

.
n
na0

(7.13) Nnl ,

, Rnl (r ) r 2 dr 1, L2nll1 ( )
0

.
Lsk ( )

:
Lsk

ds
s Lk ( ) ,
d

(7.14)

Lk ( ) :
Lk ( ) e

d k k
(e )
d k

(7.15)

R10

2
a03

e r / a0 ,

R20

R30

r 2 a0
1
e

,
3
2
a
0
2 a0
1

2
3 3a03

r
3a 0

2r
2r 2
(1

),
3a0 27a02

8
r
3a 0 r
R31
e
(
1

),
a0
6a0
27 6a03

r 2a0
R21
e
,
3 a
2 6 a0 0
1

(7.16)
r

r 2 3a 0
R32
e
.
2
81 30a03 a0
4

:
nlm (r , , ) Rnl (r )lm ( , ) .

(7.17)

97
,
n, l , m . Rnl (r )
n l , lm ( , ) l m .
, l ,
, ,
:

L l (l 1) .

(7.18)

m , ,
Z
.

Lz m

(7.19)

, ,
.
n , ,

1 me 4
E
n 1/ n . , E1
,
E1
2 (40 ) 2
2


me 4
1
En
.
2 2
2 (4 0) n

(7.20)

,
, n
l m . ,
. ,
n 2 . ( )
l , ..
n l .
(7.20),
, (1.25),

98
.
.
7.2

r , , , :

dwnlm (r , , ) nlm (r , , ) r 2 drd = Rnl (r ) r 2 dr Ylm d .


2

(7.21)

d sin dd - .
(7.21)
,
r r dr , ..
r r dr , :
2

dw(r ) Rnl (r ) r dr d sin d Ylm .


2 2

(7.22)

,
(6.38) :
2

dw(r ) Rnl (r ) r 2 dr .

(7.23)

,
f (r ) :
2

f nl (r ) Rnl (r ) r 2 .

(7.24)

f (r ) ,
.
(7.24), n l . . 18-20
.

99

f10 (r)

.18.
n=1, l=0

f2l(r)
2

. 19.
: 1 - n=2, l=0 ; 2 n=2, l=1

100

f3l(r)

2
1

. 20.
: 1 - n=3, l=0 ; 2 n=3, l=1; 3-n=3,l=2

. 18-20, ,
,

. ,
. n=1,
l=0 r=a0 , ..
. ,
n. , ,
. 19 20 n,
l . ,
n l .
,
, (7.21) r 0 .
,

101
Rnl (r ) ,
d :
dw() Ylm ( , ) d .
2

(7.25)

Ylm ( , ) , Ylm ( , )
2

, :
2
dw( ) Nlm
Plm (cos ) d ,
2

(7.26)

Nlm - .
,
f nl ( )
2
f nl ( ) Nlm
Plm (cos ) .
2

(7.27)

,
,
( Z ). l 0 s - .

:

f 00 ( )

1
.
4

(7.28)

, l 0, m 0
.
, . 21.

. 21. s.

102
l 1
m 0, 1 p - . ,

f10

3
cos2 ,
4

f11

3
sin 2 .
8
(7.29)

. 22.

l=1, m=0

l=1, m=1

. 22. p.
,
l 1, m 0 0 , l 1, m 1
/ 2 .
.
l 2
m 0, 1, 2 d - . ,

f 20

2
5
15
15
1 3 cos2 ; f 2 1
cos2 sin 2 ; f 2 2
sin 4 .
16
8
32

,
d - , . 23.

103

l=2, m=1

l=2 ,m=0

l=2, m=2

.23. d .

,
,
, ,
, ,
,
,
.

7.3 .
, , ,
, .

(4.42),

i
j
* * ,
2me

(7.30)

104
e ,

je ,
:

ie
je
* * .
2me

(7.31)

r ,
:
r

1
1

,
,
. ,
r
r
r sin

je jr , j
j :
*
nlm
ie
* nlm
jr
(nlm
nlm
) 0,
2me
r
r

(7.32)

*
nlm
ie
* nlm
j
(nlm
nlm
) 0,
2me r

(7.33)

e m
me r sin

(nlm

*
nlm
ie
2
* nlm
nlm
)
nlm .

2me r sin

(7.34)

(7.32) (7.33) , Rnl (r )

Plm (cos ) r .
,
,
, . dI ,
d , :
dI j d .

(7.35)

105
d z dI S j S d ,

(7.36)

S - , dI ,

S r 2 sin 2 . , d z ,
dI , :

d z

e m
2me

2 r sin d nlm .
2

(7.37)

,
. , (7.37)

e m
2me

nlm 2 r sin d .
2

(7.38)

2 r sin d ,
(7.38) nlm

,
, ,
:

em
B m ,
2me

(7.39)

e
9.27 10 21 / 9.27 1024 /- .
2me
(7.38), , ..

e
,
2me

(7.40)

m B ,

106
m ,
.
8
8.1

, ,

L , ,

l . , ,
,
. ,
,
. (spin , .)
,
,
, ..

:
1. .
2. .
3. .
4. .

, .
,
,
. ,
s - , ..

107
. ,
. ,

,
.

(8.1)

,

.
,
B .
.
, .
.
, ,
,
. , ,
, 2 p 1s
1 5895,93

2 5899,96 .
( )
,
.
.
.
, , ,
, .

108
,
, ,
. .

,

e
e
, .. ,
.
m
2m
M

, (
),
, ,
( Z ) :

sz ,
2

(8.2)

s , :

sz B

e
.
2me

(8.3)

(8.2) (8.3) ,
, . ,
, :

sz
Sz

e
,
me

(8.4)

, .

, ,
.

109
8.2
, ,
.
x, y, z sx , s y sz . ,
,
L x , L y L z , ..
:
sx s y s y sx isz ,
s y sz sz s y isx ,

(8.5)

sz sx sx sz is y .

,
2

.
:

sx x , s y
2
x , y

y , sz z ,
(8.6)
2
2
z ,

1. (8.6) (8.5),
x , y z :

x y x i z ,
y z z y i x ,
z x x z i y .

(8.7)

x , y z 1,
x2 , y2 z2 +1, ..
:

x2

1 0
,
0 1

y2

1 0
,
0 1

z2

1 0
.
0 1

(8.8)

110
x , y z ,
(8.5).
, z , ..

1 0
.
0 1

(8.9)

x y :

0 1
1 0

0 i
.
i 0

(8.10)

(8.8) (8.6),
:

3 1 0
.
s 2 sx2 s 2y sz2 2
4 0 1

(8.11)


L2 Lz . :
s 2 2ls (ls 1) ,

sz ms ,

(8.12)

1
1
, ms .
2
2

L s .

l s

:

J L s .

(8.13)

J ,

L s .

S z
:

1(r , t, / 2) 2 (r , t, / 2) .

111
(8.14)

, :

1 0
,
2 0

(8.15)

1* 2*
0

1(r , t, / 2) 2 (r , t , / 2)

,
.. ,

(r , t , sz )

( r , t ) S ( s z ) , ..

(r , t , sz ) (r , t )S (sz ) ,

(8.16)

1,2 , ,
Z , :

S1( / 2) 1, S1 ( / 2) 0; S2 ( / 2) 0, S2 ( / 2) 1 .

(8.17)

.
, ,

1 0 1

0 1 2

1
0 2

0
.
0

(8.18)

L s . :

J Ls
(8.19)

112
l s l s, l s 1, l s .

J J ,
, :


J J L S ,

(8.20)

L L - , S S

.
,
,
. ,
, , , .

. l s

,

( L 2 S ) ,

(8.21)

- .

8.3


.
.
,

() ,

113
, ,

S 2S .
. ,

H L L .
,
, :

ELS ( S H L ) .

(8.22)

H L

, ,
(8.22), ,
.
.
, ,
:

VLS ( L S ) ,

(8.23)

- ,
. S
L.

,
L B . :

HL

L
a

B
a3

a , ( a 108 ).
(8.22),
, ELS 5 103 ,

114
,
n l . ,
,
,
.
( ),
. ,
,
.
9 .
- -
, ,

- ,
- , , ,
,
, , .
,
, , ..
. , , -
, ..
. , ,
, , ,
(), .. ,
, , ,
, ,
.

115
, ,
,
, , , , ,
,

, .

, .
, .
x, y, z sz .
i i .
, , N ,

.. 1, 2 ,...,i ,..., N

Pi, j ,
i - j - , ..
:

Pij (1, 2 ,..., i , j ,..., N ) (1, 2 ,..., j , i ,..., N )

(8.24)

,
i j , ..

, ei .
:

(1, 2 ,..., j ,i ,..., N ) ei (1, 2 ,..., i , j ,..., N )

(8.25)

Pij

ei .

116
(1,2 ,...,i , j ,..., N ) .
,
ei . , :
(1 , 2 ,..., i , j ,..., N ) (ei ) 2 (1 , 2 ,..., i , j ,..., N )

(8.26)


, , ,
, , :
( e i ) 2 1

(8.27)

ei 1.

(8.28)

, ,
, ,
, .. S ,
A .
:

S (1,2 ,...,i , j ,..., N ) S (1,2 ,..., j ,i ,..., N )

(8.29)

A (1,2 ,...,i , j ,..., N ) A (1,2 ,..., j ,i ,..., N )

(8.30)

, ,
. ,
, -
.

, -
. - -,
- -.

117
, ,
, .
,
.
, N ,
. 1, 2 ,...-
,
.
, , ..
,

1, 2 ,...,

. , (- ), .
p1, p2 ,...pN - ,
. , .
,

(1,2 ,... N ) ,
,
. , -,
:

(1, 2 )

1
( p1 (1 ) p2 ( 2 ) p1 ( 2 ) p2 (1 )) .
2

(8.31)

, N -,
:
(1 , 2 ,... N )

N1! N 2!...
( p1 (1 ) p 2 ( 2 )..... p N ( N ) ,
N!

(8.32)

118
p1, p2 ,...pN ,
Ni , i ,
, Ni N .
i

-,

(1,2 ,... N )
.
(1 , 2 )

1
( p1 (1 ) p 2 ( 2 ) p1 ( 2 ) p 2 (1 )) .
2

(8.33)

, N -,

(1 , 2 ,... N )

p1 (1 ) p1 ( 2 ) p1 ( N )
1 p 2 (1 ) p 2 ( 2 ) p 2 ( N )
N!

p N (1 ) p N ( 2 ) p N ( N )

(8.34)

(8.34)

, , ,
, .
(8.34) , p1, p2 ,...pN
, ,
.
, .
:
, .

119
10 .
10.1

.
.

.
, :
H H 0 V ,

(10.1)

H 0 - ,
, V -
( V
).
: .
,
, .

,
, H 0 .
,
.

.

:
( H 0 V ) E ,

(10.2)

120

H 0 , .. :

H 0 mo Em0 m(0) ,

(10.3)

Em0 m( 0 )

H 0 .
, (10.2)

H 0 :
cm m(0) ,

(10.4)

cm - .
(10.4) (10.2).
(10.3) :

cmVm(0) ( E Em(0) )
m

cm m(0) .

(10.5)

(10.5) k(0)*

( 0 )*

( 0) 3
( 0 )*
( 0)
( 0) 3
cmVm d r k ( E Em ) cm m d r .
m

(10.6)

k( 0 )*
, :
( 0 )*
( 0) 3
( 0)
( 0 )* ( 0 ) 3
cm k Vm d r cm ( E Em ) k m d r .
m

(10.7)

(0)* (0) 3
k m d r km ,

cmVkm ck ( E Ek(0) ) ,
m

(10.8)

121

Vk m k(0)*Vm(0) d 3r -

(10.8)

cm
. :
cm cm(0) cm(1) cm( 2) ... ,

(10.9)

E E (0) E (1) E (2) ...

(10.10)

cm(1) , cm( 2) , E (1) , E (2) , ..


.
,
.

1)
n .
cn( 0) 1, m n cm( 0) 0 .

, :
cm cm(0) cm(1) ,

(10.11)

En En(0) En(1) .

(10.12)

(10.11) (10.12) (10.8)


( 0)
(1)
0
1
(0)
(1)
(0)
(cm cm )Vkm (ck ck )( En En Ek ) .

(10.13)

(10.13) ,

:
( 0)
( 0 ) (1)
(1)
0
( 0)
cm Vkm ck En ck ( En Ek ) .

(10.14)

k n (10.14) , :
En(1) Vnn ,

k n :

(10.15)

122

ck(1)

Vkn
.
( En(0) Ek(0) )

(10.16)

,
,


.
(10.16) , cm(1) 1 .
(10.16) Vmn ( En(0) Em(0) ) , ..

.
.
,
Vnn 0
. ,
.
.
.
(10.8)
:
( 0)
(1)
( 2)
( 0)
(1)
( 2)
(0)
(1)
( 2)
( 0)
(cm cm cm )Vkm (ck ck ck )( En En En Ek ) .

(10.17)

,
:
( 0)
(1)
( 0)
( 0)
(0)
( 0) (1)
( 0) ( 2)
cm Vk , m cm Vkm ck ( En Ek ) ck En ck En
m

ck(1) ( En(0)

Ek(0) ) ck(1) En(1)

ck( 2) ( En(0)

(10.18)

Ek(0) )

n .
cn( 0) 1, m n cm( 0) 0 . (10.18) :

123
Vkn cm(1)Vkm ck(0) En(1) ck(0) En( 2)
m
(1)
ck ( En(0)

Ek(0) ) ck(1) En(1)

ck( 2) ( En(0)

(10.19)

Ek(0) )

k n , En(1) Vnn , (10.19) :


(1)
( 2)
cm Vnm En .

(10.20)

cm(1) , (10.16),
*
, Vnm Vmn
,

, :
En( 2)

Vmn

En(0) Em(0)

(10.21)

, m n .
k n (10.19) , :

ck( 2)

VnnVkn
VmnVkn
.

( En(0) Ek(0) ) 2 m k ( En(0) Ek(0) )( En(0) Em(0) )

(10.22)

2)

, n ,
(n, m,...) ,
( , ,...) . r

:
cm, m( 0,) .
m,

(10.22)

(10.22) (10.2)
, :
( 0)
cmVk , m ck ( E Ek ) ,

m,

(10.23)

124
Vk , m (k0)*Vm(0) d 3r - , Ek(0)
- k - .
, .
En ,
En( 0) n .
,
.

, cn(0) 1,
. (10.23)
ck ( E Ek(0) ) 0 ,
E Ek(0) ck 0 ,
, .. ck1, ck 2 ,...ckr .

( 0)
n , .. cn1n(10) cn 2 n(02) cn3n(30) .... nr nr
.

cm 0 m n cm 0 m n .
(10.23) :
( 0)
cn Vn , n cn ( En E ) 0 .

(10.24)

, (10.24)
, , (10.24) ,
..

( E )

En( 0) Vn1, n1 E

Vn1, n 2

...

Vn1, nr

Vn 2, n1

En( 0) Vn 2, n 2 E

...

Vn 2, nr

....

....

Vnr , n1

Vnr , n 2

....
...
... En( 0) Vnr , nr E

(10.25)

125
(10.25)
r . .
r - , :

E En1, En2 ,...Enr .

(10.26)

Vn , n
, ,
, En( 0)
. ,
.
(10.26) , .
En (10.23)
ck . ,

En , :
r

)
n cn(0
n(0) .

(10.26)

, En n ,

.

.

,
l , .. ,
n ,
l .
m , ..
.

126
10.2 .



. ,
X . , 0 x l ,
:
U ( x) qFx const ,

(10.27)

q - , F - .
(10.27) , x 0
U (0) 0 . ,
, , :

2 d 2

qFx E .
2m dx 2

(10.28)

, (10.28) :
( H 0 V ) E ,

(10.29)

H 0

V :
2 d 2

,
H0
2m dx 2

(10.30)

V qFx .

(10.31)

En( 0)

n( 0 ) ,

(4.17) (4.23) :

En

2 2 n 2

(10.32)

2 nx
sin
.
l
l

(10.33)

2ml 2

n ( x)

127
,
:
En(1) Vnn ,

(10.32)

(10.31)
(10.33) (10.32), ,
:
En(1) 0.5qFl .

(10.33)

, ( )
, 0.5qFl , ..
.
, (10.21)
:
En( 2)

Vmn

En(0) Em(0)

(10.34)

(10.34)
,

Vmn

4mn ((1) m n 1)
2
qlF .
( m n) 2 ( m n) 2

(10.35)

(10.35),

.

En( 2)

m 2 n 2 ((1) mn 1) 2
( ) (qlF )
.
4
4
( 0)
( 0)

m ( m n) ( m n) ( E n E m )
2

(10.36)



. (10.36)

128
,
.
,
.
:

2 2
.
qlF
ml 2

(10.37)

,
:
/
2 2 n 2
2 4
m 2 n 2 ((1) m n 1) 2
2
En
0.5qFl ( ) (qlF )
.
4
4
( 0)
( 0)

2ml 2
m ( m n ) ( m n ) ( E n Em )

(10.38)

10.3
, 4.6,
. ,
,
,
, ..
U ( x)

m 0 x 2
x 3 ...
2

(10.39)

, ,
,

. .
,
.
:

129
E n(0) 0 (n 1 / 2) ,

(10.40)

n(0) ( x)

2n n!a0

H n x / a0 exp ( x / a0 ) 2 ,
2

(10.41)

a0 / m0 , H n x / a0 - .
,
:

En

En(0)

( x ) nn
3

k n

( x 3 ) kn ( x 3 ) nk
En(0) Ek(0)

(10.42)

( x ) kn k( 0) ( x)x 3n( 0) ( x)dx .


3

(10.43)

,
( x 3 ) nn =0,
. ,
:
3 / 2 k (k 1)(k 2)
9k 3
( x ) kn (
) (
k 3, n
k 1, n
m 0
8
8
3

(10.44)

9(k 1)
(k 1)(k 2)(k 3)
k 1, n
k 3, n )
8
8
3

(10.44) (10.42) ,
:

2
3 15 2
11
En 0 (n 1 / 2)
(
)
(n n ) .
0 m 0 4
30

(10.45)

,

0 . :

130
3 / 2 n3 / 2
(10.46)
(
)
1 .
m 0
0
,

n (

)2 / 3

m0
.

(10.47)

,
.
10.4

.
.

(n 2) .

:
200 R20 (r )Y00 s -

(10.48)

210 R21 (r )Y10

211 R21 ( r )Y11 p - .

211 R21 ( r )Y11

(10.49)

Rnl (r ) ,

(7.16),

:
r

R20

r 2 a0
1
r 2a0
1
e

, R21
,
e
2a03 2a0
2 6a03 a0
1

(10.50)

, (6.39), :
Y00

3
1
cos( ) ,
, Y10
4
4

Y11

3
sin( )e i .
8

(10.51)

131
(10.48), (10.49)
( 0 ) , =1, 4, ,
:
1(0) 200 , 2(0) 210 , 3(0) 211 , 4(0) 211 .

(10.52)

, E2( 0) ,
, ,
.. :
4

2 c (0) .

(10.53)


n 2

(10.24), , ,
:
4

( 0)
cV c ( E2 E ) 0 .

(10.54)

V :

V r 2 dr sin d d(0) (eE r cos )(0) .

(10.55)

(10.53) (10.55)
, , , .
:

V12 V21 r dr sin d d1(0) (eE r cos )2(0) .


0

(10.56)

1( 0 ) 2( 0 )
, :

132
r

eF 3 1 1 2
r 2a0
2a0
2 r

V12
r
dr
sin

e
(
r
cos

)
e

3
(10.57)
8
2
a
a
12 a0 0
0
0
0
0

3eFa0
, (10.54)

c1 ( E2(0) E ) c2V12 0

c1V12 c2 ( E2(0) E ) 0
.

( 0)
c3 ( E2 E ) 0

( 0)
c4 ( E2 E ) 0

(10.58)

, (10.58)
, , , ..
E2(0) E
V12
2 (E)
0
0

V12
( 0)
E2
0

0
0
E2(0) E

0
0
0

E2(0) E

(10.59)

:
( E2(0) E ) 2 (( E2(0) E ) 2 V122 ) 0 ,

(10.60)

E1, E2 , E3 , E4 :
E1 E2(0) V12 , E2 E2(0) V12 , E3 E4 E2(0) .

(10.61)

,
. . 24
n 2 .

133

E2

E2(0)

E3=E4=E2(0)
E1

E1

E1(0)

(0)

. 26.
n=2 .

10.5


, .
, ,
,

. V (t )
, H 0 ,
.
.
:

H 0 V (t )
t

(10.62)

134
(
) , ..

(r , t ) :

(r , t ) cm (t )m(0) (r , t ) ,

(10.63)

m(0) (r , t )

i
Emt

e
m(0) (r ) .

(10.64)

(10.63)
cm (t ) .
(10.63) (10.62).
, :

cm (0)
m(0)
m i cm
cm H 0m(0) cmVm(0) .
t
m t
m
m
m

(10.65)

, m( 0 ) :
m( 0)
i
H m( 0)
t

(10.66)

(10.65) :
i
m

cm ( 0)
m cmVm( 0) .
t
m

(10.67)

(10.67) k( 0 )

. :
i k(0)*
m

cm (0) 3
m d r k(0)* cmVm(0) d 3r .
t
m

(10.68)

(10.68)
, :
i
m

cm
k( 0)*m(0) d 3r cm k(0)*Vm(0) d 3r .

t
m

(10.69)

135

:

(r , t )V (r , t )m(0) (r , t )d 3r ei k t k(0)* (r )V (r , t )m (0) (r )e i m t d 3r


,
i ( k m )t
i ( k m )t
i km t
3
( 0 )*
( 0)
e
Vkm (t ) e
Vkm (t )
d rk (r )V (r , t )m (r ) e

( 0 )*

(10.70)
k Ek / , km k m ,

Vkm(t ) k(0)* (r )V (r , t )m(0) (r )d 3r . ,


, :

m(0) d 3r km .

(0)*

(10.71)

, (10.69) :

ck
cmVkm (t )ei kmt .
t
m

(10.72)
(10.72)

. :

ck ck(0) ck(1) ....

(10.73)

t 0
n . :

1
ck(0)
0

mn
.
mn

(10.74)

(10.72)
, :

ck(1)
i
Vkn (t )ei knt .
t

(10.75)

(10.75),
:
ck(1)

iT
i t
Vkn (t )e kn dt ,
0

(10.76)

136
T - .
n k
, , :
2

Wkn ck .

(10.77)

(10.76),
:
2

1 T
Wkn 2 Vkn (t )ei kn t dt .
0

(10.78)

,

.
,
t 0 t T , .. t 0 t T V (r , t ) 0 .
, (10.76) :
ck(1)

i
i t
Vkn (t )e kn dt .

(10.79)

, , Vkn (t )ei kn t dt 2Vkn ( kn )

- kn . ,
:
i
ck(1) 2Vkn ( kn ) .

(10.80)

Wkn

4 2

Vkn ( kn ) .
2

(10.81)

,
, - ,

137
,
.


. .

F
:

i (t kr )
,
(10.82)
F (r, t ) F0e

- , k - , k 2 / , -
. , ,
a ,
, .. r . ,

:

F (r , t ) F (t ) F0eit l ,

l - .

(10.83)

,
, :

V (r , t ) e (r , t ) eF (r , t )r eF (t )l r .
(10.84)

(10.84) er
,

().
(
)
, ,
. (10.81) (10.84)
:

138

4 2
4 2e 2
2
2 2
Wkn 2 Vkn ( kn )
F
(

)
(l rkn ) .
kn

2
(10.85) F ( kn )

(10.85)

,
T

S.

wEMW :

EMW

0 F (t ) 2
2

0 H (t ) 2
2

0 F (t ) 2 ,

(10.86)

0 , 0 - . ,
S , T
:
T

E cS 0 F (t ) 2 dt cS 0 F (t ) 2 dt ,

(10.87)

, t 0 t T F (t ) 0 .

F (t )

F (t ) F ( )eit d , (10.87) :

E cS 0 dt F ( )eit d F ( )e i t d .

(10.88)
t

i ( )t
dt 2 ( ) , :
e

E 2 cS 0 F ( )d F ( ) ( )d 2 cS 0 F ( ) d .
2

(10.89)

, E ( ) ,
, :
E ( ) 2 cS 0 F ( ) ,
2

, :

(10.90)

139
F ( ) E ( ) / 2 cS 0 .
2

(10.91)

, E ( ) ,
T S ,
( ) :
E ( ) cTS ( ) .

(10.92)

(10.92) (10.91)
(10.85),

wkn Wkn / T
:
2 2 e 2

2 e 2
wkn 2
( kn )(l rkn ) 2 ( kn ) cos2 (rkn ) 2 ,
0
0

- F r .

(10.93)

(10.93)
, .
, ,
.
(7.17) ,
,
l ,
, , .. l l 1 , m m

m m 1.

. , (10.82)
,

, , ..
:

ikr


1 k r (k r ) 2 / 2 ...

(10.94)

140
,
, ..
. ,
.
, ,
,
.

,
, ,
,
. , ,
,
.
, ..

, .

1. .. , .. .
. .: , 1974. - 752 .
2. .. , .: , 1976. - 664 .
3. .. (), : , 1968. 168 .
4. ... , .: , 1979. 481 .
5. .. , .: , 1973.- 648 .
6. . , .: . 1959. 473 .
7. .. , .. , ..
, .: , 1981. -648 .