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Tamar maxarobliZe

baskuri da qarTveluri destinaciuri


sistemebis tipologia

Aarnold Ciqobavas enaTmecnierebis instituti


Tbilisi
2007

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It was a very pleasant surprise for me to find your text on The Typology of Destination Systems of Georgian
and Basque... Please accept, Dear Doctor Makharoblidze, my compliments for your Academic achievement and
believe I am truly yours I feel myself very proud for being able to establish the connection with you. There
are several motivations for this grateful sense
Best wishes for you and for your academic progress.
Rafael Oscar Uribe Villegas
Professor, Dean - Cd. de la investigation en Humanidades
INSTITUTO DE INVESTIGACIONES SOCIALES
National University of Mexico

naSromis saxiT gvaqvs tipologiuri xasiaTis mniSvnelovani gamokvleva, romelSic pirvelad aris
Sedarebuli qarTuli da baskuri zmnebis ZiriTadi kategoriebi da miRebulia uaRresad saintereso,
Semdgomi kvlevisaTvis gasaTvaliswinebeli daskvnebi. amgvari xasiaTis tipologiuri kvlevis
Sedegebs didi mniSvneloba aqvs zogadad enaTmecnierebis TeoriisaTvis (Tundac polipersonaluri
zmnis raobis gagebisaTvis) da gansakuTrebuli mniSvneloba aqvs CvenSi gavrcelebuli baskurkavkasiuri hipoTezis mecnieruli SemowmebisaTvis.
m. suxiSvili
filologiis mecnierebaTa doqtori, profesori

Tamar maxarobliZis naSromi enaTmecnierebis bevr problemur sakiTxs exeba da avtoric xSirad
originalur interpretaciebs gvTavazobs, romelTagan zogierTi SeiZleba sakamaTo aRmoCndes.
e. soselia
filologiis mecnierebaTa doqtori, profesori

naSromi gvaZlevs warmodgenas qarTul da baskur enobriv sistemebSi daniSnulebiTobiTi


kategoriis gamoxatvaSi arsebuli msgavseba-gansxvavebebis Sesaxeb. naSromi amdidrebs zogad
tipologias am kategoriis gamoxatvis saSualebebisa da saSualebaTa sistemebis Sesaxeb codniT.
kategoriaTa tipologiuri kvlevis TvalsazrisiT pozitiurad migvaCnia meTodologiuri midgoma,
rodesac kategoria ganisazRvreba semantikurad da Semdgom xdeba enaTa tipologizireba am
kategoriis realizaciis xerxebis da funqcionirebis mixedviT. naSromSi daniSnulebiTobis kategoria
gaanalizebulia ara marto polipersonalur zmnaSi funqcionirebis TvalsazrisiT, aramed
warmodgenilia misi gamoxatvis saxeluri (fleqsiuri da derivaciuli), aseve leqsikuri saSualebebi.
i.
meliqiSvili
filologiis mecnierebaTa doqtori, profesori

Tamar maxarobliZe
filologiis mecnierebaTa doqtori

baskuri da qarTveluri
destinaciuri sistemebis tipologia

redaqtori
a. arabuli filologiis mecnierebaTa doqtori

recenzentebi:
e. soselia

filologiis mecnierebaTa doqtori

m. suxiSvili

filologiis mecnierebaTa doqtori

k. kakitaZe

filologiis mecnierebaTa doqtori

Sesavali
3

Cveni naSromi baskuri da qarTveluri destinaciuri sistemebis


tipologia exeba am enaTa destinaciur sistemebs da maT
daxasiaTebas tipologiuri aspeqtiT. saerTod lingvistikaSi da,
gansakuTrebiT, Tanamedrove enaTmecnierebaSi kamaTs ar
iwvevs tipologiuri Ziebebis aqtualoba. (v. alpatovi, 1998; j.
grinbergi, 1970; m. guxmani, 1981; 1974; n. Comski, 1972; v.
Jirmunski 1977; v. ivanovi, 1958; s. kacnelsoni, 1972; 1986; g.
klimovi, 1977; 1975; 1983; v. panfilovi, 1974; sxvadasxva
wyobis enaTa tipologiuri analizis principebi, 1972; e. sepiri,
1993; b. serebrenikovi, 1972; v. skaliCka 1963; enaTa struqturuli
tipologia, 1962; i. susovi, 1999; Nuniversaliebi da tipologiuri
kvlevani, 1974; b. peetersi, 1995 ).
am Tu im sakiTxis tipologiuri kvleva, upirveles yovlisa,
gulisxmobs sakvlevi obieqtis mravalmxriv analizs da Semdgom
ki Sesabamisi daskvnebis ganzogadebas. warmodgenil
naSromSi pirvelad aris ganxiluli destinaciuri tipologiuri
sistemebi, mocemulia kategoriaTaSorisi mimarTebebi da ergatiul
sistemaTa destinaciuri modelebi. polipersonaluri enebis
konkretul kategoriaTa morfo-semantikuri modelebis gamovlena
da maTi gaazreba universaluri parametrebiT, ra Tqma unda,
erTob aqtualuria Tanamedrove enaTmecnierebisaTvis.
warmodgenili naSromis mizania baskuri da qarTuli
destinaciuri sistemebis sinqroniuli analizi da tipologiuri
daxasiaTeba, zogadi da universaluri kanonzomierebebis
gamovlena am kategoriis farglebSi tipologiuri kvlevis
meTodebiT.
lingvisturi tipologia aris zogadi enaTmecnierebis dargi anu
enaTmecnierul kvlevaTa mimarTuleba, romlis ZiriTadi mizania
daadginos msgavseba-sxvaobani iseT enaTa Soris, romelTac ar
gaaCniaT genetikuri mimarTebebi an raime tipis
urTierTzegavlena. Tumca aranakleb sainteresoa monaTesave
enaTa tipologiuri Sepirispirebani. saerTod, tipilogia yovelTvis
miiswrafvis im zogadi xasiaTis mniSvnelovani enobrivi
movlenebis ganxilvisaken, rac, Tavis mxriv, ama Tu im enis
wyobis ganmsazRvrelad gvevlineba. xSiradKlingvisturi tipologiis
kvlevebi eyrdnoba monacemTa farTo bazas da, amdenad,
aqedan gamomdinare daskvnebic zogadi xasiaTisaa, e. i.
msoflios enaTa umetesobaze vrceldeba. Aam mxriv, vfiqrobT,
warmodgenil naSromSi ganxiluli sakiTxebic ar aris interess
moklebuli zogadi tipologiuri TvalsazrisiT.
4

tipologiuri lingvistika gansakuTrebul interess Cens


egzotikuri, anu naklebad Seswavlili enebisadmi. es interesi
aixsneba universaluri enobrivi parametrebis gadamowmebis
mizniT. Aam TvalsazrisiT, baskuri, rogorc izolirebuli ena, udavod
interesis sagania.
tipologiuri lingvistika ara marto ganixilavs faqtebs da axdens
maT klasifikacias, aramed igi cdilobs am faqtebis axsnasac, es
ki mas sakmaod aaxloebs Teoriul enaTmecnerebasTan.
Tanamedrove enaTmecnieruli tipologia gansakuTrebulad mWidro
kavSirSia funqcionaluri mimdinareobis lingvistur TeoriebTan ( a.
kibriki, 1992; 1982; 1985; e. kineni, b. komri 1981; 1988 m.
baikeri, 1996; d. kristali, 1985; p. hoperi, 1994 ).
bolo aTwleulSi gansakuTrebuli aqtiurobiT ganviTarda
lingvisturi tipologiis aragramatikuli aspeqtebi: fonetikuri
sistemebis tipologia, semantikuri da leqsikuri tipologia, ramac
axlaxan sruliad axali stimuli miiRo kognituri lingvistikis
ganviTarebiT. agreTve gaCnda axali mimarTulebebi
neirolingvistika, fsiqolingvistikisa da sociolingvistikis axali
mimdinareobebi da sxv. Ymagram unda iTqvas, rom morfosemantikuri sistemebis tipologiur kvlevas arasodes daukargavs
Tavisi didi mniSvneloba enaTmecnierebis ganviTarebis romelime
etapze.
gvinda gansakuTrebiT gamovyoT lingvisturi funqcionalizmi,
romelic gulisxmobs Teoriul midgomas enisadmi da amtkicebs,
rom enis fundamenturi Tvisebebis aRwera SeuZlebelia funqciuri
cnebebis gareSe. Aam mimdinareobis Tanaxmad, Eenis
umniSvnelovanesi funqciebia:
1. komunikaciis funqcia, anu erTi adamianisgan meorisaTvis
informaciis gadacema;
2. epistemiuri, anu SemecnebiTi funqcia, e. i. ena, rogorc
informaciis gadamuSavebisa da Senaxvis saSualeba.
dRes mravali funqcionalisti cdilobs enis formaTa axsnas
funqciidan amosvliT. kvlevisadmiAamdagvari midgoma
CvenTvisac misaRebia. Tumca, ra Tqma unda, Cven ver
gaviziarebT ukiduresi funqcionalizmis principebs.
TanamedroveFfunqcionalizmis winamorbedebad iTvlebian:
potebnia, boduen de kurtene, peSkovski, kacnelsoni, sepiri,
esperseni, maTeziusi, biuleri, benvenisti, iakobsoni, trubeckoi,
karcevski. dRevandeli funqcionalizmi upirispirdeba formalizms
(Comski). igi ar ayalibebs apriorul debulebebs, formalizmisagan
gansxvavebiT, Tumca funqcionaluri lingvistikis zomieri
mimdinareoba garkveulwilad mainc iziarebs enobrivi abstraqciis
princips.
5

dRevandeli funqcionaluri lingvistikis ZiriTadi idea


mdgomareobs SemdegSi - enobrivi sistema aris Taviseburi tipis
ekologiuri konteqsti, sadac funqcionirebs ena. pirvel rigSi
sistema Sedgeba adamianis azrovnebis ( anu adamianis
kognituri sistemis ) zogadi Tvisebebisa da SezRudvebisagan;
aseve pirovnebaTaSorisi komunikaciis pirobebisagan.
Aamdenad, funqcionalistebi ( a. kibriki, j. heimani ) enobrivi
movlenebis axsnas Zalian xSirad cdiloben uamrav sxvadasxva
faqtorze dayrdnobiT. CvenTvis gansakuTrebiT misaRebia is, rom
funqcionalistebs saerTod axasiaTebT movlenaTa tipologiuri
ganzogadeba da farTo empiriuli masalis, anu enaTa didi korpusis
gamoyeneba. gavixsenoT, rom Comskis sintaqsuri abstraqcia
mxolod inglisuris monacemebs eyrdnoba. am sakiTxTan
dakavSirebiT mas pirvelad komri daupirispirda ( b. komri, 1981,
gv. 15-16 ).
funqcionalistebi arRveven xelovnur zRvars sxvadasxva
mecnierebebs Soris. es, saerTod, mecnierebis ukanaskneli
periodisTvis erT-erTi damaxasiaTebeli niSania. iqmneba
interdisciplinaruli mecnierebebi. tipologia ki, rogorc mecniereba,
imTaviTve interdisciplinaruli iyo: Tavidanve gamoiyofoda
lingvisturi da aralingvisturi tipologia. amdenad,
funqcionalistebs ar uWirT enobrivi-araenobrivis ganzogadeba
ama Tu im movlenis asaxsnelad. magaliTisTvis: iakobsonma
gaafarTova biuleris sqema da CaTvla, rom komunikaciis aqti
samis magier eqvsi komponentisagan Sedgeba: mosaubre,
adresati, kavSiris arxi, saubris sagani, kodi da Setyobineba.
biuleris mier gamoyofil enis sam funqciasac (eqspresiuli,
apelatiuri da reprezentatiuli), Sesabamisad, axali saxelebi
daerqva - emotiuri, konatiuri da referentuli ( a. kibriki, 1982, gv.
12; r. iakobsoni, 1985, gv. 135 ). sworedKkomunikaciis es
komponentebi da maTi formalur-funqciuri mimarTebebi
warmoadgens faqtobrivad Cveni naSromis kvlevis sagans.
yvelaze didi sirTule, romelsac funqcionalistebi awydebian,
aris is, rom maTi aRmoCenebi ar atarebs universalur xasiaTs.
Aamitomac maT SemoiRes konkurirebadi motivaciis cneba,
romelic gulisxmobs Semdgoms: enobrivi struqturis yovel
wertilSi Tanabari Zala moqmedebs da is, Tu romeli maTgani
gaimarjvebs, damokidebulia mraval sxvadasxva faqtorze. Aam
gamamarjvebeli faqtorebis konkurirebad motivaciaTa Seswavla
da dadgena aris funqcionaluri lingvistikis umniSvnelovanesi
amocana ( a. kibriki, 1982, gv. 10 ).
ena, rogorc umaRlesi materia, aris formisa da funqciis
mWidro da kanonzomieri urTierToba. amitomac ama Tu im
enobrivi movlenis Seswavla formisa da funqciis urTierTobis
6

safuZvelze unda moxdes. Ffaqtobrivad, Cven vaerTianebT am


ori ukiduresi mimdinareobis (formalizmisa da funqcionalizmis)
saukeTeso debulebebs da axali funqcio-formaluri

racionaluri meToduri midgomis Teoria


Semogvaqvs, romlis mixedviTac, esa Tu is
enobrivi movlena xan formidan, xan ki funqciidan
gamomdinare aixsneba. erTi SexedviT, aseTi midgoma
TiTqos ar aris erTgvarovani da, rogorc meTodi, miuRebelic Cans,
magram gavixsenoT Tundac enaTmecnierebisaTvis ukve cnobili
klasifikaciis kombinirebuli principis sqema. erTgvarovnebis
principis dacva aucilebelia erTi konkretuli midgomis dros,
magram movlenaTa tipologiuri ganzogadebisaTvis da misi
saboloo zogadenobrivi modelis gasaazreblad aucilebelia Tavad
enis mravalmxrivobis gaTvaliswineba, rac, upirveles yovlisa,
mdgomareobs enis formisa da funqciis urTierTmimarTebis
sakiTxSi. enaSi forma da funqcia erTobas qmnis. amdenad,
cxadia, es erToba kvlevisTvisac mniSvnelovani iqneba.
saTqmeli, azri, arsi anu funqcia aris pirveladi amosavali,
magram rig SemTxvevebSi, rodesac ukve Seqmnilia
enobrivi sistema, igi ukve damoukideblad, sistemis
kanonebis Sesabamisad, enobrivi inerciiT muSaobs. aseT
dros yalibdeba formaluri erTeulebi, romlebic sakmaod
dacilebulia funqciur sawyiss. aseT SemTxvevaSi formaluri
midgoma iqneba swori. ( saerTod, ar SeiZleba generatiuli
lingvistikis rigi zogadi modelebis apriorul debulebebze uaris
Tqma. ) aseTi tipis funqcias dacilebuli formebis istoriul
ganviTarebas diaqroniuli tipologia gaarkvevs.
bunebrivia, rom sinqroniulad forma da funqcia enaSi Tanabar
SesabamisobaSi ver iqneba. rig SemTxvevebSi funqcia axsnis
formas, zogan ki forma axsnis funqcias. Tu es orive Tanabrad ar
gaviTvaliswineT, maSin srulyofili ver iqneba ama Tu im enobrivi
movlenis kvleva. aseTi midgomiT Cven vaerTianebT or interess:
EerTi mxriv lingvisti Teoretikosebis interess formaluri
inventarisadmi da meore mxriv, interess enobrivi faqtebis
funqciuri axnisadmi.
formisa da funqciis urTierTobis motivirebulobis sakiTxs gasuli
saukunis oTxmocian wlebSi Seexnen a. kibriki da j. heimani ( a.
kibriki, 1992; 1994; j. heimani, s. tomsoni, 1988 ). heimanis
mixedviT, gamoyofilia formaluri manZili gamoTqmaTa Soris - igi
Seesabameba konceptualur manZils. kibrikis sityvebiT,
funqcionalistebi gramatikas gansazRvraven rogorc e. w.
rutinizaciis rezultats, anu Tavisufali diskursiuli gamoyenebis
kristalizaciis Sedegs. Ddiskursiul fragmentebs Soris ki iseTi
7

azrobrivi urTierTmimarTebebi igulisxmeba, rogoricaa mizani,


mizezi, piroba da a. S. ( a. kibriki, 1992, gv. 16 ). t. givonma
SemogvTavaza motivirebulobis xarisxis cneba, lingvisturi da
kognituri fsiqologiebis urTierTgavlena, gardamavlobis
funqcionalur-tipologiuri aspeqtebi, modalobis tipologiuri Teoria,
teqstisa da azris erTobis kavSiris Teoria, referencialuri kavSiris
kognituri modeli (aqtiuri yuradRebisa da mexsierebaSi Ziebis
operaciebiT ), raodenobriobis meTodologia da mravali sxva.
mniSvnelovani iyo folis da van valinis referencialur-rolebrivi
gramatika, aseve a. kibrikis, j. baibisa da j. nikolsis Sromebi.
Aaranakleb mniSvnelovania s. dikis funqcionaluri gramatika,
romelic ganixilavs enas, rogorc socialuri urTierTmoqmedebis
saSualebas. agreTve a. bondarkos funqcionaluri gramatikis
Teoria, sadac mniSvnelobaTa dawvrilebiTi inventarizaciaa
mocemuli, i. firbasis winadadebis funqcionaluri perspeqtiva, g.
zlotovis komunikaciuri gramatika, m. vsevolodovis
funqcionalur-komunikaciuri sintaqsi da sxv. ( a. bondarko, 1983;
1976; r. van valini, u. foli, 1982; v. skaliCka, 1963; e. xemfi
1964; b. balTazari, j. nikolsi, 2001; r. van valini, 1981 ).
Cveni termini funqcio-formaluri pirobiTia. SeiZleba am
meTodur Teorias funqciur-formaluric daerqvas, an sxva saxelic
ewodos. mniSvnelovania, rom es funqcio-formaluri meToduri
Teoria gaaerTianebs formalistebs samive tipis
funqcionalistebTan: mosazRvre funqcionalistebTan (s. kuno, j.
hokinsi), zomier funqcionalistebTan (r. van valini, m. draeri, s.
diki) da radikalur funqcionalistebTan (t. givoni, i. Ceifi, s.
tomsoni, p. hoferi). aqve gvinda gavixsenoT s. kunos mcdeloba,
xelovnurad Seetana formalizmSi funqcionaluri elementebi. igi
Tvlida, rom funqcionaluri sintaqsi mxolod modulia, romelic unda
daematos formalur gramatikas. am mizniT man generatiul
gramatikaSi Semoitana diskursi, topiki da logoforuli
nacvalsaxelebi, aseve empatiis cnebac. ( s. kuno, 1987 ).
Cven mier SemoTavazebuli funqcio-formaluri Teoria ki organulad
aerTianebs am or nawils (formasa da funqcias ) da romelime
maTganis prioritets gamoricxavs, Cven warmoudgenlad
migvaCnia enobrivi movlenebis nebismieri donis analizi erTerTis gareSe.
unda aRiniSnos, rom enis ganviTarebis evoluciuri Teoria ar
iziarebs principul dayofas: diaqroniul da sinqroniul aspeqtebad
(j. baibi, 1994). aq gramatikuli evoluciis koncefciis ZiriTadi
elementia gramatikalizaciis procesi, rac gulisxmobs
diaqroniulad enis SedarebiT Tavisufali elementebis ufro
dakavSirebad anu damokidebulebad elementebad gardaqmnas.
Cven xelsayrel terminebad migvaCnia diaqronia-sinqronia.
8

Ecxadia, evolucia uwyveti procesia da amdenad, diaqroniuli


Wrilis romelime suraTi ver iqneba rogorc erTi amoglejili
fragmenti enis ganviTarebidan. amdenad, opozicia sinqroniadiaqronia radikaluri ar aris. Mmagram, TavisTavad istoriuli
procesi qmnis diaqroniul Wrils, romelic sinqroniuli
horizontalebisagan Sedgeba. aseve unda iTqvas, rom sinqroniadiaqronia rogorc kvlevis garkveuli meTodi, Cveni azriT, erTob
misaRebi da produqtiulia.
aqve gvinda aRvniSnoT erT-erTi umniSvnelovanesi movlena
enaSi inerciis kanoni. Ees kanoni sxva kanonebTan erTad
qmnis enis ganviTarebis Sinagan kanons. enis sistemaSi
muSaobs klasikuri meqanikis kanonebi. es arc aris
gasakviri, ramdenadac ena aris cocxali organizmi da igi
ganuwyvetliv ganicdis evolucias. niutonis pirveli kanoni, romelic
safuZvlad daedo klasikur meqanikas ase JRers yoveli sxeuli
cdilobs SeinarCunos Tavisi uZraobis an Tanabari wrfivi
moZraobis mdgomareoba, vidre igi iZulebuli ar gaxdeba
modebuli Zalebis gavleniT Seicvalos es mdgomareoba (1687
w.) es aris inerciis kanoni.
inerciis kanoni muSaobs enaSic,
enis sistemis yvela ubanze da misi ierarqiis yvela doneze. Eenis
ganviTarebis procesi pirdapir eqvemdebareba am kanons.
gansakuTrebiT TvalsaCinoa inerciis kanonis moqmedeba ama Tu
im enaze sxva enis gavlenis faqtebSi, rodesac gavlenis qveS
myofi ena inerciiT cdilobs gadaabgeros Semosuli sityvebi an
misTvis nacnobi semantika moaxvios ucxo erTeulebs.
ena,
rogorc maRali materia, cxadia, emorCileba Sesabamis
kanonzomierebebs. enis ganviTarebis inerciis kanoni erTadrTia,
romelsac SeuZlia axsnas enaTa reintegraciis procesebSi
reintergirebul enaTa morfo-semantikasa da sintaqsSi
ganviTarebuli paraleluri cvlilebebi. magaliTisTvis inerciis kanoni
axsnida qarTvelur-baskuri naTesaobis SemTxvevaSi im
movlenas, rom baskurs, erTi mxriv, aqvs svanurisTvis
damaxasiaTebeli ergativis safeZvelze ganviTarebuli e. w. ormagi
bruneba da meore mxriv, ki misi ergativis referenti zanuris
morfo-fonologias iziarebs.
enis ganviTarebis kanoni martivad xsnis nebismieri analogiis
movlenas enaSi. xSirad inerciis kanoni aseve ganapirobebs rig
sistemur cvlilebebsac. faqtobrivad, enis ganviTarebis inerciis
kanoni qmnis simetriul konstruqciebs enaSi.
enis sistema ganviTarebas agrZelebs misi Sinagani struqturis
evoluciis ZiriTadi mimarTulebebis mixedviT. maSinac ki, rodesac
esa Tu is enobrivi movlena gamodis saliteraturo normaTa
farglebidan, ena mainc inarCunebs inerciul produqtiulobas
garkveuli TvalsazrisiT.
9

10

inerciis kanonis moqmedeba aseve sakmaod TvalsaCinoa


ucxo enis Seswavlisas da bavSvis metyvelebaSi. ucxo enis
Seswavlisas iqmneba axali inerciuli formebi mSobliuri enis
sistemis bazaze. cxadia, aseTi formebi Tavad am enisaTvis
miuRebelia, magram meTodikisaTvis friad sagulisxmoa,
ramdenadac es yovelTvis aris tipiuri sistema.
inerciis kanoni muSaobs piris niSanTa simetiruli sistemis
Seqmnisas, agreTve pirvel TurmeobiTSi -av da am TemisniSnian
zmnebSi ia daboloebis warmoebisas. inerciis kanonis
gamovlenaa nawilobrivi ergatiulobis gaformeba reintegrirebul
qarTvelur enebSi da a. S.
enis ganviTarebis Sinagani kanoni sxva araferia, Tu ara
garkveul kanonTa erToblioba. Aaq muSaobs rogorc inerciis
kanoni, aseve ekonomikis principi da rigi sxva dialeqtikuri
kanonebi. Cveni Rrma rwmeniT, es sakiTxi sakmaod sainteresoa
da udavod moiTxovs enis filosofiis specilistTa Semdgom
dakvirvebebs.
vfiqrobT, Cven mier SemoTavazebul enis ganviTarebis inerciis
kanons Tanamedrove enaTmecnierebisTvis (da kerZod,
sociolingvistikis, fsiqolingvistikisa da kognituri lingvistikisaTvis)
gansakuTrebuli mniSvneloba eqneba. socialuri jgufebis enobrivi
azrovnebis dinamikis analizis procesSi enobriv movlenaTa didi
umetesoba swored inerciis kanoniT aixsneba. Ees kanoni ki
enaSi yovelTvis moqmedebda da moqmedebs, iseve rogorc
meqanikur fizikaSi Sesabamisi kanoni moqmedebda niutonis
gaxmaurebul aRmoCenamde.
tipologiuri TvalsazrisiT, baskuri ena yovelTvis iyo mecnierTa
yuradRebis centrSi. Aam enas uamravi naSromi mieZRvna ( x.
alieresi, 1979; 1983; p. altuna, 1967; j. anderseni, 1973; p.
anibaro, 1970; x. arana, 1889; arana goiari, 1931; m.
ariandiaga, 1929; gorka aulestia, 1989; m. azkarate, 1993; r.
askue, 1949; 1932; 1905; 1906; 1969-1971; s. altube, 1929; k.
baroxa, 1946; 1969; v. duglasi, 1977; a. eCaide, 1968; 1944; a.
eguskica, 1986; l. elizalde, 1908; k. eCenagusia, 1981; S.
gereniu, 1984; m. haasi, 1992; j. hesi, 1976; 1981; r. herero,
1975; x. hualde 1991; 1994; 1993; a. holmeri, 2001; i. inCauspe
1858; x. inCausti 1960; 1990; p. irisari, 1947; 1968; 1980; a.
kingi, 1994; S. kintana, 1972; 1973; g. lakombi, 1937; 1952; p.
lafiti, 1962; r. lafoni, 1944; 1988; 1972; 1955; 1962; 1971; i.
laka, 1993; 1994; x. lakara, x. ortis de urbina, 1992; l. miCelena,
1977; 1985; m. onedera, 1991; x. oregi, 1953; b. oiarsabali,
1987; 1993; p. pujana, 1955; 1970; g. rebuCi, 1993; r. de rixki,
1969; 1972; v. rolo, 1925; k. rotaeCe, 1978; m. risi, 1905; m.
10

11

saltareli, 1988; v. skoti, 1920; h. Suxarti, 1893; 1919; 1895; f.


soloeta, 1913; Cilardegi 1979; a. tovari, 1980; 1959; 1977; l.
traski, 1999; 1979; k. ulenbeki, 1947; m. uribe-eCebaria, 1994;
a. urestarazu, 1955; h. vinkleri, 1909; a. sabala, 1933; 1934;
1935 ).
mas Semdeg, rac wamoyenebul iqna gaxmaurebuli baskurkavkasiuri hipoTeza, am mimarTulebiT qarTuli-baskuri urTierTobis
kvleva-Zieba aqvT Catarebuli Suxardts, trombetis, ulenbeks,
vinklers, diumezils, boudas, mars, lafons, brauns, zicars,
SiSmariovs, bixovskaias, Jirkovs, ZiZigurs da sxv. Uudavod didia
am mecnierTa wvlili baskuri enis Seswavlis saqmeSi da zogadi
enaTmecnierebis TvalsazrisiT (S. ZiZiguri, 1981; i. zicari, 1977;
1955; 1984; r. Wanturia, 1986; h. Suxarti, 1950; 1919; k. bouda,
1933; r. lafoni, 1971; 1986; a. tovari, 1959; k. ulenbeki, 1947; i.
brauni, 1998 ).
Cveni kvlevis mizani aris tipologiuri analizi. Aamdenad, Cven,
bunebrivia, ar SevexebiT genetikuri lingvistikis sakiTxebs da arc
istoriul-SedarebiTi enaTmecnierebisaTvis sxva mniSvnelovan
Temebs. Dbaskuri enis destinaciuri kategoriis sinqroniuli
tipologia gulisxmobs am kategoriis aRweras sinqroniul doneze;
tipologiuri paralelebisa da zogadi universaluri modelebis
gamovlenas.
baskurad saubroben pireneis ukidures dasavleTSi, biskais
sanapiros gaswvriv, safrangeTis baionidan 100 mili espaneTis
bilbaomde. es ena vrceldeba 30 milis manZilze siRrmeSi
TiTqmis pamplonamde. baskurad molaparake mosaxleoba
daaxloebiT 660 000 adamiania. aqedan 80 000 aris safrangeTis
baskeTidan, danarCeni ki espaneTis teritoriaze mcxovrebia ( i.
laka, 1993, gv. 21; l. traski, 1999, gv. 111 ).
S. ZiZiguri wers: DdRevandel msoflioSi baskuri enis
arseboba - esaa pulsacia uZvelesi lingvisturi organizmisa,
romelic ganekuTvneba aTaswleulebis winare epoqis eTnikur
samyaros da cxadad migvaniSnebs dasavleT evropis
Tavdapirveli mosaxleobis pirvelsaxes. norvegieli qarTvelologis
profesor hans fogtis sityvebi rom moviSvelioT, Tu baskuri ena
gadaSendeba, maSin momaval Taobas xelidan gamoecleba is
gasaRebi, romliTac igi kars SeaRebda Soreuli warsulis wyvdiadiT
mocul saidumloebaSi ( S. ZiZiguri, 1981, gv. 3 ).
martin haasi baskuri enis ganviTarebis sam etaps gamoyofs:
protobaskurs, klasikur baskurs da Tanamedrove baskurs (m.
haasi, 1992, gv. 70 ). Cveni kvlevis sagania Tanamedrove
baskuri, anu e. w. euskera batua.
11

12

saerTod, unda aRiniSnos, rom baskuri enis dialeqtebi did


sxvaobas gviCvenebs TiTqmis yvela kategoriis analizisas. Cveni
monacemebi eyrdnoba euskara batuas anu gaerTianebul
baskurs. es aris baskeTis akademiis mier unificirebuli
saliteraturo ena, romeliTac sargeblobs dRevandeli baskeTis
media, am enaze gamodis Jurnal-gazeTebi da warmoebs
ganaTlebis miReba. Eamdenad, es aris cocxali ena. igi ZiriTadad
Camoyalibda gipuskour dialeqtze dayrdnobiT. ASesabamisad,
Cven mier saanalizod aRebuli masalac am centralur dialqtur
orientirs eyrdnoba, Tumca zogjer biskaiuri da laburdiuli
dialeqturi masalac gvaqvs moxmobili naSromis teqstSi.
warmodgenil naSromze muSaobis periodSi Cven uSualo
profesiuli kontaqti gvqonda rogorc bask, aseve sxva ucxoel
specialistebTan, rogorebicaa i. laka, r. serano, xuan karlos
odriozola periera, i. zicari, n. xomski, a. maranci, b. komri, d.
holiski, a. harisi, a. holmeri, k. vamlingi da sxv.
specialistebSi eWvs ar iwvevs Sexeduleba, rom tipologiuri
TvalsazrisiT baskuri polipersonaluri zmnis sistema uaRresad
mniSvnelovan masalas iZleva, romlis jerovani analizi mraval
kiTxvaze gascems pasuxs enaTmecnierebaSi.

I Tavi
destinaciur sistemaTa zogadi tipologiuri
parametrebi
Ddestinaciur sistemaTa zogadi tipologiuri parametrebis
analizis dros Cven ganvixilavT destinaciur sistemaTa tipologiur
modelebsa da am sistemaTa mimarTebebs enis sxva
kategoriebTan.

12

13

1. destinaciuri sistemebis tipologiuri


daxasiaTeba
destinacia aris universaluri semantikuri kategoria, romelic
enis ierarqiis sxvadasxva doneze (erTplaniani, anu fonemuri
donis garda) gulisxmobs daniSnulebiTobis Sinaarsis gamoxatvas
Sesabamisi saSualebebiT. terminebi destinacia da destinati
(anu destinatori) laTinuri warmoSobis sityvebia, Tumca
inglisuridanaa samecniero terminologiaSi gavrcelebuli.
destinacia niSnavs daniSnulebas, gamiznulobas. Ddestinati, anu
destinatori aris is piri (an forma), visTvisac/risTvisac daniSnulia
an gamiznulia zmnis moqmedebiTa Tu saxeluri formiT
gamoxatuli esa Tu is enobrivi movlena. winamdebare naSromiT
Cven vcdilobT am xelsayreli terminis saboloo damkvidrebas.
SegviZlia gamovyoT gramatikuli da leqsikuri destinacia.
gramatikuli destinacia moiazrebs morfologiursa da sintaqsur
destinacias. morfologiaSi daniSnulebiTobis Sinaarsi SesaZloa
asaxos sityvaTa fleqsiam da derivaciam. sxvadasxva enebi
gansxvavebuli enobrivi saSualebebiT gadmoscemen
daniSnulebiTobis semantikas.
daniSnulebiToba ganasxvavebs ori tipis semas:
1. posesiuri destinacia;
2. orientirebuli destinacia.
es oriOsema erTmaneTTan sakmaod axloa da xSirad
urTierTgadamkveTi, saziaro semantikuri velebiT xasiaTdeba.
a) qcevis kategoriaSi warmodgenilia orive sema. vuSeneb
petres saxls niSnavs, rom saxli gankuTvnilia petesaTvis, e. i.
gvaqvs posesiurobis semantika da amave dros es niSnavs, rom
Cemi, anu subieqtis moqmedeba orientirebulia petres, anu iribi
obieqtis interesebisaken. petre (saxlis) mflobelicaa da
(moqmedebis) destinatoric.
b) daniSnulebiTobis mawarmoebeli afiqsebiT warmoqmnil
formebSi saqaTme niSnavs adgils, romelic gankuTvnilia
qaTmebisaTvis da amavdroulad aq aris posesiuri semantikac
imdenad, ramdenadac aragonierTa mflobelobis semantikas
SeuZlia amis asaxva;
g) orive tipis destinaciuri semantika gvaqvs brunebaSi - brunvis
formaTa semantikaSi, kerZod, micemiTis da naTesaobiTis saziaro
semantikuri velebSi (zogi mkvlevari erTi formidan
warmoSobiladac miiCnevda am brunvebs).
13

14

destinacia, rogorc morfo-semantikuri kategoria, enis erT-erTi


uZvelesi kategoriaa. semantikuri ierarqiis pirveli safexuria yofnaarseboba da Semdeg qona-yola. Ddestinacia anu
daniSnulebiToba, erTi mxriv, am orive safexuris erT-erT
maxasiaTeblad SegviZlia, miviCnioT, radganac Teoriulad
gamoiyofa daniSnulebiTi yofna-arsebobac da daniSnulebiTi qonayolac. Aaseve nebismieri zmna-moqmedeba (subieqtis aqtiurobis
xarisxisa da moqmedebis sferoTa miuxedavad ), SesaZloa,
Sesabamisi destinaciuri semantikiT iyos datvirTuli. Ddestinaciuri
maxasiaTebeli SeiZleba iyos nulovani an dadebiTi. kerZo enebSi
destinacia, msgavsad sxva semantikuri kategoriebisa, konkretul
modelebs qmnis Sesabamisi morfo-semantikuri kategoriebiTa da
sintaqsuri modelebiT.

gamovyofT absolutur lingvistur universalias


yvela enaSi arsebobs destinaciis semantikuri
kategoria. Tavis mxriv, es universalia mTlianad
SesabamisobaSia cnobil absolutur lingvistur universaliasTan
nebismier enas SeuZlia nebismieri azris gadmocema.
enaTmecnierebaSi cnobilia enaTa klasifikaciis ramdenime
ganmsazRvreli parametri. erT-erT saklasifikacio safuZvlad
SeiZleba, miviCnioT semantikuri destinacia ( iseve, rogorc
ergatiuloba ). naTelia enaTa destinaciuri klasifikaciis principebi.
aseTi klasifikacia daemyareboda semantikuri destinaciis morfosintaqsur distribucias enebSi da Sesabamisi modelebis
gansazRvrebebs.
destinaciis semantikuri kategoria Tavisebur asaxvas hpovebs
morfologiasa da sintaqsSi. enaTa sistemebis sxvadasxvaoba am
kategoriis gamoxatvisas arsebiTad gramatikis am ori nawilis
funqciuri datvirTvis gadanawilebaSi dasturdeba.
enaTa erTi rigi ( kerZod, indoevropuli enebi ) ZiriTadad
sintaqsur-leqsikur destinaciur struqturebs qmnis, morfologiuri
destinacia ki SedarebiT sustadaa gamoxatuli. enaTa meore rigi ki
destinacias ZiriTadad morfologiur kategoriebad ayalibebs da
Sesabamisad, sintaqsze SedarebiT naklebi datvirTva modis.
bunebrivia, did rols TamaSobs zmnuri destinaciis asaxva
polipersonalur struqturebSi.
pirveli piri, rogorc metyvelebis subieqti, SeiZleba iyos
destinaciis centri. aqedan aiTvleba yvela lingvisturi parametri
(mag. piris kategoriis opozicia, saaqeTo da saiqeTo orientacia
zmniswinebsa da nacvalsaxelebSi, bgeraTa semantikuri
Seferiloba siSore-siaxlovis mixedviT da Aa. S.).
Dlingvisturi veqtorialobis Teoriis TvalsazrisiT destinaciis
semantikuri kategoria universalur konfiguraciebs qmnis. am
14

15

Teoriis ZiriTadi arsi ki SemdgomSi mdgomareobs: ena sistemaa,


romlis erTeulebic kanonzomier urTierTmimarTebaSi
ganixileba, rac qmnis veqtorul sidideebs. SegviZlia
gamovyoT lingvisturi veqtori enis ierarqiis yvela doneze:
fonetikuri, morfologiuri, sintaqsuri, leqsikuri,
semantikuri; aseve SesaZlebelia doneTaSorisi veqtorebis
gamoyofac: morfo-semantikuri, morfo-fonologiuri, morfosintaqsuri, leqsiko-semantikuri. Aarsebobs ori tipis
veqtori: garegnuli da Sinagani. Ggaregnuli veqtori ufro
aSkaraa, magaliTisTvis: fonetikuri veqtori sakamaTo araa
regresuli da progresuli asimilaciis SemTxvevaSi, sruliad naTelia
zmniswinTa veqtoruli arsic. rac Seexeba Sinagan veqtors, amis
magaliTia, erTi mxriv, qcevis niSanTa da piris niSanTa
urTierTmimarTebis gamomxatveli morfemaTaSorisi veqtori; xolo
meore mxriv, moqmedebis Sinagani destinaciuri veqtori, rasac
m. maWavariani arqmevs intro- da eqstravertizacias (m.
maWavariani, 1987 ).
zogadad destinaciuri semantikis gadmocema enaSi,
SesaZloa, moxdes sxvadasxva tipis enobrivi saSualebebiT,
morfologiuri an sintaqsuri faqtoris dominirebiT. Eena anawilebs
ama Tu im kategoriis gamoxatvis saSualebebs gramatikis
sferoebis mixedviT. naTelia, rom polipersonaluri zmna xSirad
garkveulwilad aTavisuflebs sintaqss.
tradiciuli enaTmecnierebis sabaziso monacemebze
dayrdnobiT destinaciis zogadenobrivi modeli ase gamoiyureba:

Ddestinaciis enobrivi modelis


zogadi sqema
semantikuri destinacia
morfologiuri -- sintaqsuri

leqsikuri

formacvalebadi formaucvleli pirveladi


warmoqmnili
fleqsiuri

derivaciuli

saxeluri zmnuri

saxeluri zmnuri

15

16

qvemoT ( warmodgenili naSromis II TavSi ) dawvrilebiT


ganvixilavT baskuri da qarTuli enebis mimarTebas am
sqemasTan.

2. destinaciis mimarTeba sxva morfosemantikur kategoriebTan


enaSi ar arsebobs damoukidebeli kategoriebi. nebismieri
kategoria aris sxva romelime kategoriasTan an kategoriebTan
urTierTobaSi. romelime konkretuli kategoriis adgili da
mniSvneloba enaSi ganisazRvreba sxva kategoriebTan
SesabamisobiT.
Ddestinacia, rogorc morfo-semantikuri kategoria, erTi mxriv,
mWidro kavSirSia pirisa da brunvis kategoriebTan; meore mxriv
ki, klasis kategoriasTan da ergatiulobasTan. Uunda iTqvas, rom
es mimarTebebi Tanabarfardi ara aris. piri da brunva garkveuli
Tanamonawilea destinaciis gramatikuli kategoriisa; ergatiuloba
da ergatiuli modeli destinaciasTan paralelur reJimSi muSaobs,
xolo klasis kategoria safuZvlad edeba yvela am danarCen
kategorias.
Eergatiulobasa da destinacias Cven ganvixilavT rogorc
obieqtis kategoriebs. unda aRiniSnos, rom am SemTxvevaSi
Cven mxedvelobaSi gvaqvs gafarTovebuli sematikur-gramatikuli
kategoriis cnebebi da ar vgulisxmobT mxolod morfologiur an
sintaqsur kategoriebs. enTa midgoma gansxvavebulia
obieqtis mimarT. Anominatiur-akuzatiuri enebi
upirvelesad pirdapir obieqtsa da gardamavlobis
kategorias aniWeben gamoxatvis upiratesobas
gramatikul planSi, xolo ergatiuli enebi ki irib obieqtze
akeTeben aqcentirebas, ramdenadac aq ergatiuloba
TavisTavad ukve asaxavs pirdapiri obieqtis ZiriTad arss.
Sesabamisad, ergatiuli konstruqciis enebSi destinaciuri
gradacia aris zmnis ZiriTadi diaTeza. miT ufro, rom zmnis
tranzituloba-intranzituloba destinaciis zmnuri kategoriisaTvis
irelevanturia. aqedan gamomdinare, naTelia, rom adresatoba
gardamavlobaze ufro adreuli da misgan damoukidebeli
movlenaa da ergatiuli enebisaTvis zmnis principuli, ZiriTadi
opozicia gardamavlobis binaruli modeli ki ar aris, aramed
destinaciuri gradacia, romlis morfologiuri referencireba
16

17

sinqroniul doneze qarTulSi vokalTa triadiT aris mocemuli,


baskurSi ki konsonantiTa da vokaliT.
kategoriaTaSorisi mimarTebebi ase gamoiyureba:
obieqtis kategoriebi
destinacia

<------------------- >

piri < ---- > brunva

ergatiuloba

piri < ---- > brunva

piri, brunva da destinacia iribi mimarTebis gramatikul


formaTa TanaSemoqmedi kategoriebia. paralelurad - pirdapiri
mimarTebis semantikur-gramatikuli kategoriebisadmi
kombinirebul midgomas gulisxmobs piri, brunva da
ergatiuloba.
rac Seexeba klasis kategorias, igi marTlac gamsWvalavs
morfologias da sintaqssac. polipersonalur enebSi ZiriTad
kategoriaTa mimarTebis suraTi ase gamoiyureba:

klasi
klasi
klasi
klasi

ergatiuloba
destinacia refleqsivi
piri __> polipersonalizmi
brunva

NnaTelia, rom dRes klasis kategoriis gramatikuli rolis


dasustebis gamo sinqronul doneze es enobrivi movlena TiTqos
saerTod aRarc aRiqmeba. Mmagram siRrmiseuli analizisas, ra
Tqma unda, klasis kategorias gverds ver auvlis verc erTi
ZiriTadi kategoriis analizi.

a. destinacia da klasis kategoria


enis mTavari semantikuri parametrebis ganxilvis safuZvelze
SegviZlia davaskvnaT, rom enis ZiriTadi semantikuri
kategoriebi universaluria. Ees SegviZlia gamovyoT
rogorc absoluturi lingvisturi universalia. amdenad, klaskategoriaTa semantikac, garkveuli TvalsazrisiT, universaluria.
Aama Tu im enaSi es universaluri semantikuri kategoria
17

18

aisaxeba sxvadasxva mimarTebebiT. Eenebi morfologiuri


referencirebisas upiratesobas aniWeben dominant kategoriebs.
Sesabamisad, sxvadasxva enaSi gvaqvs klas-kategoriaTa ama
Tu im formis gamovlinebis magaliTebi. indoevropuli enebi
ganasxvaveben sqesis garmatikul kategorias, iberiul enebSi
gamoiyofoda sulieri-usulos kategoria, zog enaSi sagnebi niSanTvisebebisa da sxvadasxva religiur-socialur niSanTa
semantikuri gramatikiT identificirdeba enaSi da a.S. QQ
sainteresoa urTierTmimarTebani destinaciasa da klasis
kategoriaTa Soris. Zalze mniSvnelovania is garemoeba, rom
destinati anu adresati, upirveles yovlisa, gaiazreba rogorc sulieri
aqtanti ( C. filmori, 1981, gv. 373). iribi obieqti aris zmnis
moqmedebaSi CarTuli vin kategoriis semantikuri niSnis mqone
meore zmnuri aqtanti. Tumca aRsaniSnavia, rom abstraqciis
umaRles safexurze waSlilia destinatis aseTi klasis niSnebi da
Sesabamisad, gvaqvs usulo, ra-kategoriis iribi obieqtebic. es
zogadi faqtia da axasiaTebs rogorc baskurs, aseve qarTuls.
qarTvelologiur tradiciul enaTmecnierebaSi miRebulia azri,
rom qarTulsa da, saerTod, qarTvelur enebSi ar arsebobs
adamiani-nivTis morfologiuri kategoria. Cven viziarebT Aarnold
Ciqobavas mier gamoTqmul (sxvaTa Soris, Tavis droze mravali
mecnieris mier uaryofil) sapirispiro mosazrebas. qarTvelur
enebSi da, kerZod, qarTul enaSi araTu diaqroniul WrilSi, aramed
sinqroniul donezec gvaqvs sakmaod mkafiod gamoxatuli vin-ra
kategoriis morfo-semantika. Tumca Tanamedrove enaSi, erTi
SexedviT, es SedarebiT sustadaa asaxuli, radganac nakleb
produqtiulia da, ra Tqma unda, igrZnoba am kategoriis
gauCinarebis aSkara tendencia. dRes, Ffaqtobrivad, enaSi
TiTqos arc xdeba klasis kategoriis referencireba, Tu
mxedvelobaSi ar miviRebT oriode zmnas, romlebSic subieqtisa
da obieqtis vin-sulierobis mixedviT gvaqvs fuZemonacvle
formebi, saubaria qona-yola, waReba-wayvana, motanamoyvana formaTa opoziciaze. Zvel qarTulSi kidev ufro metia
aseTi magaliTebi. es garemoeba ki miuTiTebs enaSi vin-ra
kategoriis Sesustebaze. Tumca sinqroniul etapze es oriode
faqtic sakmarisia imisaTvis, rom es kategoria morfologiurad
gaformebul kategoriad miviCnioT. SeiZleba iTqvas, rom vin-ra
kategoria gacilebiT ukeTesadaa Tanamedrove qarTuli enis
morfologiaSi asaxuli, vidre drois an gardamavlobis kategoria,
romelTac ar gaaCniaT morfologiuri referentebi da morfologiurad
mxolod sxva kategoriebTan erTad Tanaarseboben. faqtobrivad,
isini mxolod semantikuri kategoriebia qarTulSi. klasis kategoria
ki asaxulia morfologiaSic da sintaqsSic: arsebiT saxelTa
18

19

jgufebSi, brunvaSi, ricxvSi, zedsarTavebSi, sxvadasxva jgufis


nacvalsaxelebSi, zmnebSi, zmniswinebSi da a.S.
Cven vfiqrobT, rom qarTulsa da svanurSi moTxrobiTis m/man
nacvalsaxeluri warmoSobis niSani unda momdinareobdes vinadamianis kategoriis amsaxveli centraluri semantikuri
formebidan (me, mare - svan.). aseTive warmoSobisaa m pirveli obieqturi piris niSani, v - pirveli subieqturi piris niSani
nacvalsaxeluri formidan v-in; mi-mo zmniswinebSi mimarTuleba
aiTvleba pirveli piridan, romlis niSania m Sesabamisi opoziciiT
w (movedi-wavedi) da a. S.
arsebiT saxelebSi arsebobs aRiarebuli leqsikuri jgufebi - vin
da ra, sadac mkveTrad aris es opozicia gamijnuli. ismis kiTxva:
raSi dasWirda tradiciul enaTmecnierebasDarsebiT saxelTa
morfologiaSi amdagvari leqsikur-semantikuri jgufis Setana?
saqme isaa, rom klasis kategoriis semantika garkveuli
gramatikuli niSnebiTac xasiaTdeba.
adamiani-nivTis kategoria asaxvas hpovebs enis morfosemantikur da morfo-sintaqsur doneze sxvadasxvagvari
gamovlinebebiT. am kategoriis wminda leqsikur-semantikuri
Rirebulebebi aisaxeba zemoxsenebul arsebiTi saxelis jgufebsa
da nacvalsaxelebSi. es imdenad naTelia, rom specialistTa Soris
nacvalsaxelebSi am kategoriis Zireuli mniSvneloba eWvsac ar
iwvevs. upirveles yovlisa, aRsaniSnavia is garemoeba, rom piris
kategoriis ZiriTadi diaTeza swored vin-ra morfo-semantikuri
kategoriis arsSiOmdgomareobs da es klasis kategoria ki
mkveTrad gamoxatuli semantikiT asaxulia nacvalsaxelTa
sxvadasxva jgufebSi.
pirveli da meore pirebi vin-kategoriis semantikiT xasiaTdeba.
mesame piris semantika gacilebiT farToa, igi moicavs
adamianisa da nivTis kategoriebs da brunvis formebSi
adamiani-nivTis kategoriis saopozicio formaTa gaCenac amitom
swored nacvalsaxelTa mesame pirSi iyo mosalodneli. isman/mas opoziciuri fuZemonacvleobac iZleva Sesabamis
semantikur safuZvels, rom savsebiT daveTanxmoT arn.
Ciqobavas klas-kategoriis niSnebis gamoyofis sakiTxSi ( arn.
Ciqobava, 1942; 1953; 1976 ).Mman/mas brunvebi, garkveuli
TvalsazrisiT, adamianis kategoriis aRmniSvnelia: man rogorc
moazrovne subieqtis brunva da mas rogorc dativi, iribi
obieqtis anu zmnis moqmedebaSi CarTuli meore sulieri, vinkategoriis aqtantis brunva. sagulisxmoa, rom nacvalsaxelTa
danarCen brunvaTa formebi analogiiTaa nawarmoebi da xSirad
arc gamoiyeneba an saerTod, formanaklia.
qarTulSi nacvalsaxelTa fleqsia kavkasiuri enebisaTvis nacnob
e. w. ergatiuli brunebis models imeorebs. (is - man, mas, misi,
19

20

man formebSi m adamianis niSania, s nivTis).Uufro zustad, irib


brunvebSi es m aris adamianis anu moazrovne subieqtis
kategoria, romelic ergativad aisaxeba am tipis brunebaSi.
pirisa da CvenebiTi nacvalsaxelebis bruneba cnobili
fuZemonacvleobiT gamoirCeva. saerTod, nacvalsaxelTa es ori
jgufi erTmaneTTan axlos dgas Tavisi semantikiT. amitomac
gasakviri sulac araa, rom formobrivadac bevri ram saerTo
hqondeT. A
piris kategoriis pirveladi ZiriTadi diaTeza iyo klasis kategoriis
gadmocema. ramdenadac nacvalsaxelebi, ZiriTadad, saxelTa
nacvlad gamoiyeneba; amdenad, maT bunebrivad eqnebodaT
imave klasis niSnebi, Tuki aseTi referentebis arseboba am
konkretul enaSi moiazreboda.
qarTul enaSi piris kategoriis ZiriTadi binaruli opoziciaa vin-ra
kategoriis gadmocema. Uaqve isic unda aRiniSnos, rom aseTi
opozicia, Tavis mxriv, agreTve universaluria. Ppirveli da meore
pirebis semantika naTelia, es aris metyvelebis aqtSi uSualod
monawile pirebi da bunebrivia, eWvs ar iwvevs is faqti, rom es
vin-kategoriis pirebia. Urogorc ukve aRvniSneT, pirveli da meore
piris nacvalsaxelebi erTaderTi da damoukidebeli formebia, anu
mesame pirisagan gansxvavebiT, es ar aris saxelTa nacvali
formebi, anu e. w. substitutebi (T. gamyreliZe, z. kiknaZe, i.
Saduri, n. Sengelaia, 2003, gv. 214 ). Emesame piris semantika
gacilebiT farToa da aq orivea warmodgenili vin da ra.
brunvis kategoria, Tavis mxriv, eyrdnoba klasis kategorias da
amiT aris Sepirobebuli. pirvel-meore pirebs, radganac isini
moicaven sulierobis semantikas da amiT ZiriTadi morfologiuri
arsi ukve aqvT gamoxatuli, aRarc sWirdebaT brunvaTa
gaformeba. Aamas garda, nacvalsaxelur formaSi me m
aris vin kategoriis niSani; xolo vin - sulier aqtantTa iseTi
brunvebi, rogoricaa ergativi moazrovne subieqtis brunva da
dativi moqmedebaSi monawile meore sulieri aqtantis brunva,
ukve aRar saWiroebs am kategoriis damatebiT referencirebas.
amave mizeziT Zvel qarTulSi (nawilobriv) ubrunveli iyo sakuTari
saxelebi.
saerTod, klasis kategoriis semantika amosavalia zmnuri Tu
saxeluri fleqsiisaTvis. es naTlad Cans im enebSi, sadac aseTi
gramatikuli kategoria cocxalia da produqtiuli. qarTulSi, marTalia,
klasis kategoria morfologiuri referencirebiT dRes ar dasturdeba,
magram naTelia misi kvali enaSi. Cven elementi m migvaCnia
vin kategoriis ZiriTad morfemad. warmoSobiT is aris ergatiuli
formanti, romelsac savaraudod etimologiuri saTave aqvs
formebSi me/ma mare.
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21

piris nacvalsaxelebis bruneba gviCvenebs m - s opozicias: isman. Semdeg es m nacvalsaxelebs gahyveba yvela danarCen
formaSi.
is
m-a-n aq n aris ukve ergativis meoreuli niSani. (albaT,
amitomac miiCnevda mas SedarebiT gviandel formantad
Suxardti.)
m-a-s
m-is(i)
(i)-m-iT
(i)-m-ad
imisda miuxedavad, Tu rad miviCnevT aq xmovan a-s mivakuTvnebT mas wina Tu momdevno Tanxmovans da,
Sesabamisad, miviRebT orfonemur morfemas, an am xmovans
CavTvliT Tanxmovangasayarad (rac, Cveni azriT, ufro misaRebi
iqneboda), erTi ram mainc sruliad naTelia: pirisa da CvenebiTi
nacvelsaxelebis brunebiT qarTuli gviCvenebs imave suraTs,
rasac kavkasiuri enebi; kerZod, daRestnis enebSi arsebobs e. w.
ergatiuli da genetiuri brunebis (
) formebi ( v. Tofuria, 1977, gv. 46). ra Tqma unda,
kavkasiur enebSi eWvs ar iwvevs klasis kategoriis referentebis
gamovlena brunebisa da uRlebis formebSi.
sagulisxmoa, rom ergatiuli warmoeba aqvs aqtantur
brunvebs. danarCeni brunvebi sistemuri analogiiTaa
nawarmoebi. faqtobrivad, piris nacvalsaxelTa brunebaSi gvaqvs
nominatiur-ergatiuli opozicia. ergatiuli dativi ki aris gardamavali
zmnis subieqtis brunva mesame seriaSi da agreTve paralelurad,
iribi mimarTebis sulieri aqtantis brunva. Cveni azriT,Eergatiuli
dativis morfo-semantika aris inverisiis mizezi gardamavali zmnis
mesame seriaSi.
Cven migvaCnia, rom qarTulSi pirisa da Sesabamisad,
CvenebiTi nacvalsaxelebis bruneba aris ergatividan nawarmoebi
da aq Semonaxulia klas-kategoriis niSnebi, romlebic
Tanamedrove gramatikaSi aqtivobiT ar gamoirCeva, Tumca
garkveul morfo-semantikur opoziciebs mainc qmnis. aseTi tipis
opoziciebi ganxiluli aqvs arn. Ciqobavas Tavis cnobil SromebSi
(arn. Ciqobava, 1942; 1961; 1965; 1979).
svanur ergativSi (m/md morfemebi), Ciqobavas azriT,
moTxrobiTi da gardaqceviTi erTmaneTs xvdeba. moTxrobiTi
araa mxolod erTi, subieqtisaTvis gankuTvnili brunva. amiT
svanuri mogvagonebs mTel rig kavkasiur enebs (CeCnuri Tu
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22

daRestnuri jgufebidan), romelTac moTxrobiTi sxva brunvis


moziared gamohyavT (arn. Ciqobava, 1939 gv. 172 ).
s.
janaSias miaCnda, rom svanuris es afiqsi adiReuri enidan
momdinareobda. rogorc es nacvalsaxelTa brunebis genezisidan
Cans, ergatiuli bruneba qarTulisaTvis (da aseve saerTo
qarTvelurisTvisac) damaxasiaTebelia. amdenad, SesaZloa
svanuri ergativis referentebi uSualod ki ar imeorebdes
Crdilokavkasiur models, aramed gamomdinareobdes saerTo
qarTveluridan, romelsac Tavis mxriv, cxadia, bevri ram saerTo
aqvs Crdilokavkasiur enebTan.
aRsaniSnia is garemoeba, rom nacvalsaxelebidan klasis
kategoria ganfenilia saxelTa brunebisa da zmnaTa
uRlebis sistemebSi. igi aseve asaxulia yvela
polipersonalur kategoriaSi.
ismis kiTxva Tuki enaSi arsebobs formaTa morfosemantikuri opozicia, kidev ra sWirdeba gramatikul kategorias
Tavisi (Tundac istoriuli) arsebobis dasadastureblad?
vin-ra morfo-semantikuri kategoria asaxulia brunvaSic
gvaqvs sasubieqto da saobieqto brunvebi. Bbrunebis sistemaSi
am kategoriis asaxva savsebiT bunebrivia, ramdenadac
aRaravin daobs brunvis formaTa nacvalsaxeluri warmoSobis
Taobaze. cxadia, vin-ra morfo-semantikuri kategoria
nacvalsaxelebidan gadavidoda saxelTa brunebis sistemaSic.
ergativi aris moazrovne subieqtis mier Sesrulebuli aqtis ZiriTadi
monawilis forma da vin-sulierobis morfo-semantika aris
amosavali. (am sakiTxebs Semdgom paragrafSi ufro dawvrilebiT
SevexebiT ).
rogorc zemoT aRvniSneT, qarTulsa da svanurSi moTxrobiTis
m/man nacvalsaxeluri warmoSobis niSani, Cveni Rrma rwmeniT,
unda momdinareobdes vin-adamianis kategoriis aRmniSvneli
nacvalsaxeluri formebidan. paralelur semantikur sistemas
qmnis zanurSi ergativis referenti q, romelic, Cveni azriT,
momdinareobs ganusazRvreli nacvalsaxelidan koCi (megr. -kaci).
sasubieqto brunvebis garda, vin-sulierobis kategoria
Sesabamisi nulovani referencirebiTaa mocemuli axal qarTulSi
vokativSi. mxedvelobaSi gvaqvs sazogado da sakuTari saxelebis
(kerZod, adamianTa saxelebis) referencialuri opozicia vokativSi.
mTlianad Zvel qarTulSi am kategoriis ufro mkveTri suraTia
sakuTar saxelTa brunebaSi. Ees garkveulwilad, axal qarTulSi
dResac aris gamoxatuli brunvasa da ricxvSi.
vin-ra morfo-semantikuri kategoria naTlad aisaxeba zmnis
pirebSic. amis dasturia m- pirveli obieqturi piris niSani, v pirveli subieqturi piris niSani formidan v-in. klasis kategoriaSi
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23

poulobs d. meliqiSvili im movlenis axsnas, rom pirveli da meore


subieqturi pirebi prefiqsulia zmnaSi, xolo mesame ki sufiqsuri.
klasovani uRlebis pirian uRlebaze gadasvlisas piris niSnebiT
(nacvalsaxelovani elementebis gacveTis Sedegad ) formdeba
personaluri I da II pirebi. III piri gauformebelia. Kklasis kategoriis
gamomxatveli sufiqsi mas Semdeg, rac klasovani uRleba
pirianma Secvala, gagebul iqna III subieqturi piris niSnad.
Mmizezi prefiqsuli principis darRvevisac es unda iyos (d.
meliqiSvili, 2000; gv. 16 ).
amdenad, savsebiT naTeli suraTia vin-ra morfo-semantikuri
kategoriis arsebobisa saxelebisa da zmnebis fleqsiaSi
Sesabamisi referentebiT. Eenis sinqroniul doneze
gafermkrTalebulia adamiani-nivTis kategoriis etimologiuri suraTi.
sinamdvileSi zemoT aRniSnuli morfemebi unda CaiTvalos
ormagi funqciis mqoned. Eenis ganviTarebis universaluri
kanonebidan gamomdinare, cxadia, moxda funqciaTa Serwyma
da win wamoiwia meoreulma funqciam, xolo vin-ra morfosemantikuri Sinaarsi darCa kategoriis istoriaSi. Tumca am
faqtoris gareSe srulyofili ver iqneba sxva kategoriebis kvleva.
vin-ra morfo-semantikuri kategoria sistemas qmnis saxelTa
derivaciaSic: aris nawarmoebi saxelebi, romlebic mxolod vinkategorias aRniSnavs. Egamoiyofa sami ZiriTadi parametri,
esenia:
1. suli, rwmena da masTan dakavSirebuli formebi. uzenaesis
semantikis yovelgvari forma iqneba vin-kategoriisa (ufali,
morwmune, sulganabuli, sulSewuxebuli da a. S.). unda
aRiniSnos, rom am kuTxiT qarTulSi gvaqvs ormagi standarti: vinkategoriisaa Ze kacisa da masTan dakavSirebuli enobrivi
movlenebi, xolo romelime warmarTuli RvTaeba iqneba ra, raRac
Zala, anu nivTis kategoriis mqone.
2. azrovneba da masTan dakavSirebuli formebi (goni/Wkua,
tvini, azri, fiqri, varaudi, CaTvla, mxedvelobaSi qona/miReba
utvino, azriani, ugunuri, nafiqri da a. S.).
3. ena da metyvelebasTan dakavSirebuli formebi A(Tqma,
saTqmeli, ueno, mWermetyveli, sityvamaxvili da a. S. ).
aseve ZiriTadad vin-kategorias aRniSnavs adamianis sxeulis
nawilebTan dakavSirebuli nawarmoebi formebi. Tumca aq,
SesaZloa, sulierobis semantika mTlianad aisaxos da am jgufSi
Seva cxovelic: Tavgatexili mgeli, fexmokle tura da a. S.
sxvadasxva enebs aqvT gansxvavebuli midgoma klasis
kategoriebTan; Aase magaliTad, afrikis romelime enaSi (CiCova)
calke klasia is, rac izrdeba. qarTulisaTvis ki, magaliTad,
mcenare usulo, ra-kategoriaa, romelic arafriT gansxvavdeba
danarCeni, nivTis kategoriis sxva klasisagan.
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24

vin-ra morfo-semantikuri kategoria naTeli antonimuri sistemiT


asaxulia zedsarTav saxelebsa da mimReobebSi. xelobisa da
profesiis aRmniSvneli mawarmoeblebis, aseveAel-ur cnobili
opoziciis garda, aris formebi, romelic mxolod vin-sulierobis
kategoriisTvisaa gankuTvnili, anu mxolod adamianis
maxasiaTebelia; mag. Uuzneo/zneobrivi, mosaubre, uTqmeli,
morwmune/urwmuno, alali, boroti, keTili, mtyuani, marTali da a.
S. aq SesaZloa qvejgufTa gamoyofac. vin-ra morfo-semantikuri
kategoriis mixedviT da Sesabamisi klasifikaciac misaRebi
iqneboda.
cnobil naSromSi iberiul-kavkasiuri enaTmecnierebis
Sesavali arn. Ciqobava mimoixilavs gramatikuli klasebis
sakiTxs qarTvelur enebSi da friad sagulisxmo daskvnebs
akeTebs rig faqtebze dayrdnobiT. igi saubrobs adamiani-nivTis
derivaciul afiqsebze, el-ur mawarmoebelTa semantikur
opoziciaze da mimReobebSi m-s (l/r/n/d variantebiT) afiqsTa
pirveladi funqciebis Sesaxeb (arn. Ciqobava, 1979 ).Uunda
aRiniSnos, rom arn. Ciqobavas mecnieruli dakvirvebani da mis
mier warmodgenili da gaanalizebuli masala friad aqtualuria vinra kategoriis sinqroniuli analizis mkvlevarTaTvis.
adamiani-nivTis morfo-semantikuri kategoria asaxulia zmnaTa
derivaciul kategoriebSi. igi safuZvlad udevs ergatiulobasa da
destinacias, pirisa da ricxvis kategorias, aseve, rogorc zemoT
aRvniSneT, is gamoixateba zmniswinebSi. mi-mo zmniswinebSi
mimarTuleba aiTvleba pirveli piridan, romlis niSania mSesabamisi opoziciiT w- sTan wa/wamo formebSi. Oorientacia
mTlianad vin-ra morfo-semantikuri kategoriis pirdapiri
amsaxvelia. xdeba moqmedeba pirveli pirisken an pirveli
pirisgan, anu orientirebuli mimarTeba ganisazRvreba vinkategoriis mqone metyvelebis subieqtTan sivrciT
SesabamisobaSi.
vin-ra morfo-semantikuri kategoria yvelaze naTlad mocemuli
gvaqvs fuZemonacvle zmnebSi: maqvs-myavs, waRebawayvana, motana-moyvana da a. S. Tuki Cven migvaCnia, rom
dResac meore subieqturi piris niSani aris x, romelic sul oriode
zmnaSia Semonaxuli, ratom ar SegviZlia, Tundac mxolod am
mcirericxovan zmnaTa fuZemonacvleobis safuZvelze gamovyoT
qarTulSi vin-ra morfo-semantikuri kategoria. Uunda iTqvas, rom
aseTi tipis magaliTebi Zvel qarTulSi ufro uxvadaa (miZs-mivis),
rac metyvelebs adamiani-nivTis kategoriis Sesustebis
tendenciaze enis ganviTarebis Semdgom procesSi.
vin-ra morfo-semantikuri kategoria aisaxeba sxva
metyvelebis nawilebSic; TandebulebSi SeiZleba gamovyoT
mier, igi aris vin morfo-semantikuri kategoriis mqone, rogorc
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25

ergativis Sesabamisi Tandebuliani forma (Sdr. Mmoqmedeba


kacis mier, an imoqmeda kacma). savaraudod, aqac SeiZleba
vin-kategoriis m morfemis gamoyofa.
SorisdebulTa didi nawili vin-kategoriis azriT aris avsebuli,
ramdenadac Tavad emocia mxolod adamianis maxasiaTebelia.
aRsaniSnavia, rom poetikaSi, SesaZloa, dairRves zRvari vin-ra
kategoriis Soris da nivTi gasulierdes, magram aseTi tipis
konkretul SemTxvevas ver eqneba ganmazogadebeli wminda
lingvisturi Rirebuleba.
Erogorc zemoT aRvniSneT, saerTod, enaTa midgoma vin-ra
morfo-semantikuri kategoriis mimarT sxvadasxvaa. es
damokidebulia eris an tomis fsiqo-socialur, religiur, eTnogeografiul da sxva tipis yofiT faqtorebze da, ra Tqma unda, am
konkretul enebze molaparake xalxis azrovnebis abstraqciis
doneze anu eris enobriv bunebaze. Mmravalenovani internetenciklopediis mixedviT, saxelTa klas-kategoriis zogadi
kriteriumebi moicavs Semdgom opoziciebs:

sulieri - usulo
racionaluri iracionaluri
adamiani - nivTi
mamrobiTi da sxva
kaci da sxvaA
mamrobiTi, mdedrobiTi da usqeso
Zlieri da susti
gazviadebuli da kninobiTi (vikipedia, 2005)

Cven amdagvar klasifikacias ver gaviziarebT, Tundac imis


gamo, rom aq bevri ram klasifikaciis miRma rCeba. Cveni mxriv
gTavazobT amgvar universalur saklasifikacio models:
AA1. adamiani:
1a mdedrobiTiMA
1 b mamrobiTiA
1. c saSualo
BB 2. nivTi
BB2. A sulieri: B
2 A a mdedrobiTi B
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26

2 A b mamrobiTi B
2 A c saSualo
B2 B usulo: BB BB
2 B a saganTa Tvisobriobis (zoma, feri, forma, Zala, sinaTle,
zrdis dinamika, ciuri sxeulebi, religiuri erTeulebi da a.S.)
mixedviT sqesi an klasis sxva niSani,
B2 B b danarCeni.
rac ufro martivad gamoiyureba es saklasifikacio sqema
konkretul enaSi, miT ufro maRalia am enaze mosaubre xalxTa
lingvisturi azrovnebisa da abstraqciis unari. Ues universaluri
tipologiuri movlenaa da Sesabamisad, am kategoriis
gamoxatvas verc erTi ena ver ascdeboda. aqve unda aRiniSnos,
rom zemoxsenebul mravalenovan enciklopediaSi qarTulTan
erTad ormocdaaTamde enaa gamoyofili, romelSic ar aRiniSneba
sqesi da klasi. Tumca es Zalze saeWvod gamoiyureba, radganac
am jgufSia Setanili finur-ungruli enebi, romlebic mesame pirSi
ganasxvaveben sulier da usulo sagnebs; aqvea baskuric,
romelsac sinamdvileSi axasiaTebs, erTi mxriv, alokuturi formebi
da meore mxriv, sulieri-usulos opozicia lokalur brunvebSi, am
jgufSia iaponuri, romelsac saerTod gansxvavebuli midgoma
aqvs am movlenisadmi, vidre sxva aglutinaciur enebs, miT ufro,
rom iaponurSi aris nacvalsaxelTa didi mravalferovneba
molaparake pirTan mimarTebis mixedviT. ARimils iwvevs am
jgufSi esperantos Setana (vikipedia, 2005 ).F faqtia, rom
Tanamedrove qarTuli enis morfologiaSi ar aris arc sqesi da arc
klasi. Tavdapirvelad ki iyo klasis kategoriis yvelaze daxvewili,
zogadi, adamiani-nivTis morfo-semantikuri opozicia. dRes igi
ZiriTadad asaxulia mxolod nacvalsaxelTa sistemaSi da aqedan
ganfenilia sxvadasxva morfologiur formebsa da kategoriebSi
rogorc diaqroniuli xasaiTis sabaziso morfo-semanikuri kategoria.
amerikeli aborigenebis algonkiur enaTa jgufi ganasxvavebs
sulier da usulo jgufebs, magram Zlevamosili usulo nivTi aq
sulieria. Aavstraliur enebSi (dirbali) gamoiyofa oTxi jgufi: 1.
sulieri kaci; 2. qali, wyali, cecxli, Zaladoba; 3. saWmeli xili da
bostneuli; 4. sxvadasxva (yvela danarCeni). Aaqve,
ngangikurungur enaSi calke jgufia iaraRisTvis, anindiliakvaSi
gamoiyofa saxelTa klasi, romelic Suqs gamoscems an ireklavs,
diiari enaSi mdedrobiTi upirispirdeba yvelafer danarCens.
Ppapua axali gvineis enebSi (alamblaksa da sepik hilSi) aris
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27

mamrobiTi, sadac gaerTianebulia maRali, mogrZo, Txeli da


wvrili nivTebic ( uxsenebeli, Tevzi, isari, maRali xe da sxv. ). Ees
upirispirdeba mdedrobiT jgufs, sadac Sedis mokle, msxvili,
dabali da farTe nivTebi (saxli, bayayi, msxvili xe). saintereso
viTarebaa niger-kongo enebSi, sadac germaneli mecnieri karl
mienhofi bantuSi gamoyofs 22 klass, Tumca realurad arc erT
enas amdeni klasi ara aqvs. suahilis aqvs -15, sesozos -18,
danarCenebs 10. fula enaSi calke klasia siTxisTvis. zande ki
gamoyofs oTx klass: 1. kaci, 2. qali, 3. sulieri 4. danarCeni. Aaq
80-mde usulo saxeli sulier kategorias miekuTvneba: ciuri
sxeulebi, saWmeli mcenareebi, zogi metali da arametali nivTebi.
religiuri mosazrebebis gamo gansakuTrebuli adgili ukavia sferos.
indoevropuli enebi gamoyofen gramatikuli sqesis sam jgufs.
Kkavkasiur enaTa Soris lezgiurs, udiursa da aRluurs ara aqvs
saxelTa klasi, zogi ena or klass ganasxvavebs, bacburi ki rva
klass gamoyofs. Yyvelaze ufro gavrcelebuli sistema aris oTxi
klasi: 1. kaci, 2. qali, 3. sulieri da garkveuli nivTebi 4. yvela
danarCeni. andiurSi calke klasia mwerebisaTvis. aRsaniSnavia,
rom kavkasiur enebSi klas-kategoriebi ara marto arsebiTebSia
gamoyofili, is aReniSneba zedsarTavebs, nacvalsaxelebsa da
zmnebsac.
qarTul enaSi, rogorc vnaxeT, mocemuli gvaqvs vin-ra
morfo-semantikuri kategoriis sistemuri suraTi rogorc
saxelTa da zmnaTa fleqsiaSi, aseve maT derivaciaSic.
Ees kategoria ganfenilia enis mTel sistemaSi.
Nnacvalsaxelebidan igi gadatanilia saxelTa fleqsiaSi da
zmnis pirSi. Sesabamisad, igi aisaxeba polipersonaluri
zmnis yvela kategoriaSi. vin-ra morfo-semantika
safuZvlad udevs enis mraval kategorias, Tumca
konkretuli referenti mas ar SeunarCunebia, TiTo-orola
gamonaklisis garda. radganac vin-ra morfo-semantikuri
kategoria Zevs mravali sxva kategoriis SinaarsSi, mas
konkretuli referenti aRar sWirdeba. warmovidginoT
romelime X morfema yvela am SemTxvevaSi. Ees
ewinaaRmdegeba enis zogad universalur kanonebs da ena am
morfemas mainc dakargavda an kombinirebul semantikas
mogvcemda sxva morfemebTan, rac naTlad ikiTxeba qarTuli
enis analizisas. enis sistemaSi klasis kategoriis morfologiurma
gafermkrTalebam gamoiwvia rigi procesebi: magaliTad,
metyvelebis subieqtTan mimarTebaSi meore piris semantikis
cvla (migce - mogce), fuZemonacvle zmnaTa saopozicio formaTa
raodenobis Semcireba, fleqsiur morfemaTa ormagi funqciis
gadasinjva, klasovanidan pirovan uRvlilebaze gadasvla da a.S.
27

28

amJamad vin-ra morfo-semantikuri kategoriis referencireba


enaSi mocemuli gvaqvs xelobisa da sadaurobis saxelebSi,
mimReobebSi, fuZemonacvle zmnebSi da piris kategoriis binarul
opiziciaSi. klasis kategorias aqvs sintaqsuri Zalac: magaliTisTvis
gavixsenoT qvemdebarisa da Semasmenlis ricxvSi SeTanxmebis
sakiTxi. Tumca aq ufro farTo moculobis sulieri-usulos
kategoriasTan gvaqvs saqme. aqac naTelia klasis kategoriis
gauCinarebis mkveTri tendencia. vin-ra kategoriis Sesabamisi
fono-semantikuri suraTi ase gamoiyureba: labialuri bgerebiT
aRiniSneba vin kategoria da amas saopoziciod aqvs nivTis
kategoriis aRmniSvneli nunismieri s/w, an sonori variantebi n, r,
l. diaqroniuli suraTi aRadgens d nivTis afiqssac. xmovnebSic
SeimCneva vin-ra kategoriis opoziciuri wyvilebi kerZo
morfologiur kategoriaTa SemTxvevebSi.E
sxvaTa Soris, interess moklebuli ar unda iyos bagismierTa
da nunismierTa opozicia vin-ra kategoriis mixedviT tipologiuri
TvalsazrisiT. Uunda iTqvas, rom magaliTad, rusuli da inglisuri
(aseve sxva enebic) aseTive opozicias qmnian. saerTod, labialuri
bgeraTa fonosemantika naTelia. Ees SedarebiT xelmisawvdomi
bgerebia, rac universalurad aisaxeba bavSvis metyvelebaSi.
Bbunebrivia, rom swored labialuri bgerebi qmnian vin-kategoriis
fono-semantikas. (Tumca dasafiqrebelia, rom b BnivTis
kategoriis niSania Crdilo kavkasiurSi).
saintereso iqneboda am mimarTulebiT kvlevis gagrZeleba da
kavkasiur enebTan vin-ra morfo-semantikuri kategoriis
sistemaTa SepirispirebiTi analizi.
Aarnold Ciqobava werda, klasis kategoria mTel morfologias
gamsWvalavso da asecaa. Cven migvaCnia, rom qarTulSi
zmnuri pirebis referencireba uSualod klasis kategoriasTanaa
kavSirSi. Ees aris zmnuri aqtantebis nawilobrivi referenciis
ZiriTadi mizezi. davakvirdeT, romeli pirebi ar gamoixateba an
nawilobriv gamoixateba zmnaSi.
naTelia, rom subieqti upirvelesad sulierobis kategoriiT
xasiaTdeba da Sesabamisad markirebulia. pirveli da mesame
subieqtebi yovelTvis referencirebulia. maTi poziciuri ganlageba
ki klasobrivi ierarqiis maCvenebelia enaSi. pirveli da meore
pirebi, rogorc molaparake da msmeneli, e. w. stratificirebuli
indikatorebia (T. gamyreliZe, z. kiknaZe, i. Saduri, n. Sengelaia,
2003, gv. 453 ). samganzomilebian opoziciaSi ori obligatorulad
markirebuli piris fonze absoluturad gasagebia, rom opoziciis
mesame wevris (am SemTxvevaSi meore subieqturi piris)
markireba ukve aRaraa aucilebeli, anu es saopozicio
referencireba ukve araobligatoruli xdeba. amitomac meore
subieqturi piris markireba sustia da igi nawilobrivi markirebiT
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29

gvaqvs enis sinqronul doneze. Aamas, Tavis mxriv, xels uwyobs


fonetikuri faqtorebic.
amrigad, subieqti, ganurCevlad zmnis tranzitulobisa da
winadadebis konstruqciisa, faqtobrivad markirebulia.
rac Seexeba pirdapir obieqts aq xdeba mxolod vin sulieri
aqtantebis anu pirveli da meore pirebis markireba. xolo
mesame piris pirdapiri obieqti, romelic ZiriTadad usulo, ra
kategoriis mqonea, aranairi formiT ar aris zmnaSi gamoxatuli.
iribi obieqtis, anu destinaciuri aqtantis markirebac amdagvar
midgomas gviCvenebs sakiTxisadmi. Ppirveli da meore pirebis
markireba aqac obligatorulia, xolo mesame piris referencireba
iseve sustadaa mocemuli, rogorc meore subieqtisa. aqac
referencirebis Sesustebis gamomwvevi igive mizezebia, rac
meore subieqturi piris SemTxvevaSi. mesame pirdapiri
obieqtisagan gansxvavebiT, mesame iribi obieqti sulieri
aqtantia, zmnis moqmedebaSi monawile meore sulieri aqtanti
da amdenad, misi markireba aucilebelia. Tumca rogorc sam
ganzomilebiani opoziciis wevri igi nulovani markirebis
SemTxvevaSic markirebulia. mesame iribi obieqti Ppoziciurad
prefiqsia, rac gviCvenebs klasis kategoriis pozicias. rogorc
personalizmis gamomxatveli prefiqsi is SeiZleba Sexvdes
Semdgom markirebul pirebs: pirvel subieqtsa da pirdapir
obieqts da meore subieqtsa da pirdapir obieqts. Aaq yvelgan
mesame iribi obieqti adgils dauTmobs klasobrivad prioritetul
formebs, pirvel da meore pirebs. Tumca masac eqneba
gamoxatvis mcdeloba da enaSi gvaqvs aseTi formebic: gswers,
vswer da sxv. aqve unda iTqvas, rom enis ganviTarebis
ekonomizmis principi aris formaTa gamartivebis bunebrivi
tendencia. amis gamo xSirad Tanamedrove QqarTuli kargavs
mesame iribi obieqtis niSnebs.
rac Seexeba baskur zmnaSi destinatis markirebas, aq
sinqroniul doneze yvelgan gvaqvs sruli markireba da arc zmnuri
aqtantebis poziciuri Sexvedra xdeba. Mmagram destinaciisa da
klasis kategoriaTa urTierTmimarTebis tipologiuri suraTi seriozul
sxvaobas iZleva baskursa da qarTulSi.
baskurSi gvaqvs Tvis destinaciuri Sinaarsis amsaxveli
Tandebuli, romelic gansxvavebulia sulier da usulo saxelebTan.
sulier formebTan aris rentzat, usuloebTan ki aris - rako. rentzat da
rentzako zogjer gamoiyeneba, adamianis garda, sxva sulieri
arsebaTaTvisac, magram rako mxolod usulo ra jgufis
saxelebisTvisaa gankuTvnili. es faqti ki imas niSnavs, rom klasis
kategoria jer kidev cocxalia baskurSi da igi morfo-semantikur
opoziciasac qmnis baskuri enis destinaciur sistemebSi.
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enaTmecnierebis umravlesoba miiCnevs, rom baskurSi ar aris


klasis kategoria. traski aRniSnavs formaTa sxvaobas klaskategoriaTa mixedviT lokalur brunvebSi, kerZod, aq
gansxvavdeba sulieri-usulos kategoria. traski wers, rom
baskurs ar gaaCnia klasis kategoria. magram TviTonve
winaaRmdegobaSi modis, rodesac aRwers brunvaTa
referencialur sxvaobas klasis kategoriis mixedviT. kerZod,
benefaqtivi vin kategoriisaTvis aris -entzat pirovnebisa-Tvis da
imave brunvas traski uwodebs destinativs referentiT -rako
nivTisa-Tvis, ra-klasisa-Tvis. mkvlevari aseve gamoyofs esivs
anu translativs referentiT -tzat aq igulisxmeba destinaciis
transferi da Sesabamisad, markeric imeorebs benefaqtivis
formas (r. traski, 1999 gv. 285-299 ).
Cven gvaqvs baskur enaSi klasis kategoriis gamovlinebis
sakmaod seriozuli mniSvnelobiT gamorCeuli da gramatikuli
opoziciis Zalis mqone sami SemTxveva:
1. alokuturi formebis arseboba (es gulisxmobs zmnis meore
piris aqtantebis diferencirebas sqesis mixedviT );
2. Tvis Tandebulis variantebi da maTi distribucia sulierobis
kategoriis mixedviT;
3. lokaluri brunvebis formaTaAsxvadasxvaoba sulierobis
kategoriis mixedviT.
amrigad, Cven SegviZlia davaskvnaT, rom baskurSi jer
kidev arsebobs klasis kategoria, Tanac mas ori forma gaaCnia
- sqesisa da sulierobis. im enebTan SedarebiT sadac klasis
kategoria met-naklebad produqtiulia, baskuri mkveTrad
adgas formaTa gamartivebis gzas. Aamitomac holmeri
baskurs miiCnevs uklaso enad a. holmeri, 2001 gv. 12 ).
indoevropuli enebis gavleniT da agreTve sakuTari Sida
enobrivi principebidan gamomdinare, baskurSi klasis
kategoria da misi kvali nel-nela qreba enidan. Tumca Tavad
indoevropul enebSi sakmaod myaria klasis kategoria, kerZod,
sqesis kategoria. amitomac es gavlena exeba klasis
kategoriis gamovlinebis sxva araindoevropuli xasiaTis
formebs. Tumca enaSi sapirispiro movlenac dasturdeba, zog
baskur dialeqtSi adgili hqonda espanuridan mdedrobiTimamrobiTi formebis xelovnurad Setanis warumatebel
mcdelobas.

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31

b. destinacia da ergatiuloba
destinaciis movlena mWidro kavSirSia ergatiulobasTan rogorc
semantikuri, ise gramatikuli parametrebis mixedviT. orive aris
obieqtis kategoria.
ergatiuloba mwyobr morfo-sintaqsur sistemebs qmnis im
enebSi, sadac igi gamovlindeba. aseTi enebi or ZiriTad tipad
iyofa: wminda ergatiuli da nawilobriv ergatiuli enebi. pirveli tipis
enebSi yoveli gardamavali zmnis subieqti aris mudam ergatiul
brunvaSi. aseTia baskuri ena. meore tipis enebi ki, romelTac
miekuTvneba qarTuli, garkveul Taviseburebebs gviCvenebs.
aseT enebSi sxvadasxva zmnuri faqtorebi gansazRvravs
gardamavali zmnis subieqtis brunvas. is xan ergativia, xan
nominativi, an iSviaTad - dativi.
saqme isaa, rom ergatiulobas umetesad indoevropeli
mecnierebi ikvlevdnen da isini cdilobdnen indoevropul
modelebTan Sesabamisobis daZebnas, rasac, bunebrivia, CixSi
Sehyavda yvela mkvlevari. AaseTi tipis problemebi mudam
warmoiqmneba polipersonaluri struqturebis monopersonaluri
modelebiT ganxilvisas. Tavis wignSi ergatiuli konstruqciis
problema iberiul-kavkasiur enebSi. ergatiuli konstruqciis raobis
Teoriebi. arn. Ciqobavam sakmaod naTlad axsna, rom
gardamavali zmna pirdapir obieqtze miuTiTebs (damuSaveba
miwisa, mokvla nadirisa, daxatva suraTisa) da gardauvali zmna
ki subieqtze miuTiTebs (wola avadmyofisa, adgoma stumrisa,
sirbili bavSvisa).... oRond es naTesaobiTi realur obieqtze
miuTiTebs, Tu masdari gardamavali zmnisaa da realur
subieqtze, Tu masdari gardauvali zmnisa gvaqvs ( arn.
Ciqobava, 1961, gv. 125 ). igi wers: iberiul-kavkasiuri enebis
zmnuri fuZe saxelis fuZisgan ar ganirCeoda. yvela fuZe, sagnis
aRmniSvnelica da moqmedebis aRmniSvnelic, saxelis bunebisa
iyo. jer kidev Zvel qarTulSi ara erTi formanti gvaqvs, romelic
saxelis fuZesac awarmoebda da zmnis fuZesac. amaSi vlindeba
Zveli gaudiferencirebeli mdgomareobis gadmonaSTi ( arn.
Ciqobava, 1961, gv. 125 ). Mmraval enaSi sakmaod bevria aseTi
saziaro zmnuri da saxeluri morfemebi: Eergativis -q megrulSi,
baskuris ergativisa da destinaciis (dativis) niSnebi saxelebsa da
zmnebSi, Zveli inglisuris mravlobiTobis formebi zmnebsa da
saxelebSi, -T, -eb afiqsebi zmnebsa da saxelebSi qarTulSi da
sxva mravali.
ergatiulobasTan dakavSirebiT sagulisxmoa is, rom rig enebSi
ergatiuloba iseve, rogorc destinacia ( da agreTve sxva mravali
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32

Zireuli morfo-semantikuri kategoriac ) saxelebsa da zmnebSi


erTnairi morfemebiT gvaqvs warmodgenili. es ki imas niSnavs,
rom ergatiulobisa da destinaciis movlenebi aris uZvelesi
enobrivi faqtebi, romlebic jer kidev zmnasa da saxels Soris
morfologiuri zRvris gaCenamde arsebobda. Aam tipis msjeloba
SeiZleba ufro Sorsac wavides vfiqrobT, SesaZlebelia, rom
ergatiuloba da destinacia win uswrebdes enaTa fleqsiur da
aglutinaciur tipebad Camoyalibebis procesebs. Ees mosazreba,
Tavis mxriv, naTels mohfens ergatiulobisa da destinaciis
kategoriebis gamovlenaTa nairsaxeobebs.
saerTod, sintaqsuri tipologiis Camoyalibeba XIX saukunis bolos
daiwyo swored am ZiriTadi niSniT ergatiul-nominatur
konstruqciaTa gansazRvrebiT. am CarCoebSi SemoTavazebulia
qvemdebaris arauniversalurobis idea, situaciis monawileTa
tipiuri rolebi da maTi statusi axali an nacnobi informaciis
mimarT, informacis mimarTeba metyvelebis aqtSi
monawileebisadmi - mosaubrisa da msmenelis mimarT da a. S.
( i. bexerti, 1982; a. volodini, 1974; g. klimovi, 1983;
nacvalsaxelTa Teoria da tipologia, 1980; k. ulenbeki, 1950; f.
finki, 1950; h. Suxarti, 1950; winadadebis ergatiuli konstruqcia,
1950; ergatiuli konstruqcia sxvadsxva tipis enebSi, 1967 ).
winadadebis konstruqciaTa sxvaobas saintereso Ffunqcionaluri
axsna mouZebna kibrikma, romelic wers, rom konstruqciis
arCevani sami faqtoriTaa ganpirobebuli: formaluri saSualebebis
ekonomiisa da azrTa ganmasxvaveblobis urTierTsawinaaRmdego
tendenciebiTa da aseve motivirebulobis faqtoriT (a. kibriki, 2005
). samecniero wreebSi aseve farTod cnobilia aqtiurobis Teoria,
romlis Tanaxmadac ergatiuloba da nominatiuroba
ganisazRvreba ara gardamavloba-gardauvlobis Sesabamisad,
aramed agensis/subieqtis aqtivobis mixedviT (k. ulenbeki,
1960; g. klimovi, 1973; s. kacnelsoni, 1947 ).Aaxleburia
gardamavlobis gadaazrebac: Pp. xoferisa da s. tomsonis
mixedviT, gamoiyofa semantikuri gardamavloba. amave
avtorebma gardamavlobas ( da aseve metyvelebis nawilebsac )
diskursiuli axsna mouZebnes. gasuli saukunis samocdaaTiani
wlebis bolos folim da van valinma Seqmnes referencialurrolebrivi gramatika, romelic 1993 wels xelaxla gamoica van
valinis redaqtirebiT. am Teoriis mixedviT, gamoiyofa e. w.
makrorolebi da rolebrivi ierarqia. Aa. kibrikma daamuSava
klauzis struqturis e. w. qolistiuri anu mTlianobis tipologia.
Kklauzis struqturaSi man gamoyo sintaqsuri urTierTobebis
kodirebis sami ZiriTadi semantikuri RerZi:
1. semantikuri rolebi,
2. komunikaciuri maxasiaTeblebebi,
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33

3. informaciis nakadi ( anu Tema/rema, mocemuli/axali da a.S.).


amaTgan gansakuTrebuli mniSvneloba pirvels eniWeba. Aaqve
Semodis hiper-rolebic, rac safuZvlad edeba winadadebaTa
sxvadasxva tipis konstruqciebs. Ees ki Tavis mxriv gansazRvravs
enis ergatiulsa Tu nominatiur wyobas. Aa.Kkibrikis sami
semantikuri RerZi sami logikuri meTodiT gamoixateba: nulovani,
separatuli - sxvadasxva mniSvnelobani gancalkevebuladaa
gadmocemuli da kumuliaturi - erTze meti Sinaarsi erT FformaSi
(a. kibriki, 2005 ). ergatiulobas da nominatiurobas j. nikolsi
gansazRvravs rogorc roluri kodirebis tipebs b. balTazari, j.
nikolsi; 2001 ).
udavoa, rom tipologiuri midgoma Aergatiulobis sakiTxisadmi
erTaderTi da swori meTodia.
sayovelTaod miRebulia mosazreba brunvis niSanTa
nacvalsaxeluri warmoSobis Sesaxeb. Aarn. Ciqobavas miaCnia,
rom zanurSi moTxrobiTis niSani momdinareobs igi/ege formaTa
konsonanturi nawilidan. istoriulad moTxrobiTi pirveli
saxelobiTiao - wers mecnieri (arn. Ciqobava, 1939, 175 ). Cven
vfiqrobT, rom piris nacvalsaxelis nominativis forma miuRebelia
saxelTa ergativis sawarmoeblad, radganac Tavad am brunvaTa
semantika Tavisi SinaarsiT opoziciuria da es garemoeba ki
aucileblad gansxvavebul referentebs moiTxovs aseTi
SemTxvevebisaTvis. Tu, vTqvaT, micemiTsa da NnaTesaobiTs
SeiZleba, rom nawilobriv saerTo referenti hqondeT, amas Tavisi
axsna gaaCnia: micemiTisa da naTesaobiTis funqciaTa garkveuli
siaxlove, rasac ver vityviT saxelobiTisa da moTxrobiTis Sesaxeb;
piriqiT saxelobiTi da moTxrobiTi erTi kategoriis (subieqtis) ori
saopozicio formaa. amas garda, ar arsebobs igi
nacvalsaxelidan warmomavlobis damadasturebeli diaqroniuli
masala da arc imaSi varT darwmunebuli, igi-man opozicia iyo Tu
ara gaformebuli enaSi saxelTa brunebis Camoyalibebis periodSi.
savaraudoa, rom iyo. maSin ratom airCevda ena saxelobiTis
formas zanuri ergativis gasaformeblad?
rogorc zemoT aRvniSneT, Cveni azriT, ergativis q megrulsa
da lazurSi momdinareobs ganusazRvreli nacvalsaxelidan koCi
(kaci). k q procesi sityvis boloSi sruliad bunebrivia qarTveluri
enebisaTvis. Uergatiuli brunva aris gardamavali zmnis subieqtis
brunva, xolo aq moqmedebis Camdeni subieqti aris adamiani
kaci. es aris aqtiuri zmnis subieqti, sadac gramatikuli da realuri
subieqti xSir SemTxvevaSi aris vin-sulierobis kategoriiT
datvirTuli saxeli. aseTia adamiani, anu kaci zogadad an
gansakuTrebul SemTxvevaSi cxoveli an gasulierebuli nivTi.
Aadamiani aris erTaderTi, romelsac SeuZlia, iyos metyvelebis
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34

subieqti da aseve iyos gramatikuli da realuri subieqti.


Mmetyvelebis aqtTan mimarTebaSi amdagvarma upiratesobam
ganapiroba ergativSi morfemuli referencirebis arCevani.
kaci, rogorc vin kategoriis ganusazRvreli nacvalsaxeli, am
formiT aisaxeba ergatiul brunvaSi. Aam TvalsazrisiT
sagulisxmoa arTronis diaTezac ganusazRvreli da gansazRvruli.
ganusazRvreli nacvalsaxelidan nawarmoebi afiqsi savaraudoa,
rom garkveulwilad ganusazRvrelobis Sinaarssac atarebdes.
tipologiuri paralelisTvis aqve unda aRvniSnoT, rom baskurSic
gvaqvs k ergativis niSnad saxelebsa da zmnebSi. baskurSi
ergativic da adresatic Sesabamis brunvaTa morfemebs
imeorebs zmnur formebSi. Cveni Rrma rwmeniT, baskurSic es
morfema momdinareobs sityvidan gison (kaci). k aris g-s yru
varianti. Aaqac imave tipis fonetikur movlenas aqvs adgili.
Bxdeba bgeris dayrueba sityvis boloSi.
sainteresoa q. lomTaTiZiseuli analizi q sufiqsisaTvis megrul
zmnebSi, sadac pirvel da meore pirebSi q axsnilia, rogorc qo
dadasturebiTi nawilakis forma, romelsac araferi aqvs saerTo
svanur x-sTan (q. lomTaTiZe, 1946, gv. 133). Tu es -q
warmoSobiT dadasturebiTi Sinaarsis niSania, maSin mas araferi
eqneba saerTo ergativis niSanTan, radganac zmnaSi es niSani
gvaqvs rogorc gardamaval, ise gardauval zmnebTan: voreq
(megr. var) da vWarunq (megr. vwer). Uunda iTqvas, rom
dadasturebiTi nawilakebi, saerTod, ufro TavSi moudis zanur
zmnebs: qomiRu (megr. momitane), goboWkondi doren (laz.
davviwyebivar), duwu (laz. uTxra) formidan do-uwu, doTqu (laz.
Tqva), quwu (megr. uTxari), qoTqu (megr. Tqva) da a. S.
Cveni varaudiT, megrul zmnebSi afiqsi -q SesaZloa
momdinareobdes nacvalsaxelidan koCi. es TavisTavad
subieqtis vin-sulierobis kategorias gausvamda xazs. sagulisxoa
isic, rom aseTi niSani mxolod pirvelsa da meore pirebSi Cndeba.
pirveli da meore pirebi ki (mcireodeni semantikuri
gamonaklisebis garda ) udavod vin kategoriis pirebia.
Tu es zmnuri sufiqsi megrulSi sulierobis niSnad, anu
nacvalsaxeluri warmoSobis formantad miviCnieT, maSin
SesaZloa misi dakavSireba ergativis niSanTan. Tumca aqac
gvaqvs winaaRmdegobebi:
1. megrulSi es zmnuri sufiqsi gardauvalsa da gardamaval
zmnebSi erTnairad Cndeba.
2. es zmnuri sufiqsi gvxvdeba im mwkrivebSi (awmyo,
TurmeobiTebi), sadac ergativi mosalodneli araa.
3. koCi aris ganusazRvreli nacvalsaxeli (kaci), pirveli da meore
pirebi ki mudam gansazRvruli pirebia, mesamisgan
gansxvavebiT.
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35

Yyvela am winaaRmdegobas erTi saerTo pasuxi aqvs


zmnebSi -q afiqss mxolod subieqtis sulierobis kategoriis
gamoxatva ekisreba. am afiqss igive funqcia aqvs saxelebSic
(moTxrobiTSi). sulac ar iyo savaldebulo, rom am niSanTa zmnuri
da saxeluri semantika enas erTmaneTTan paraleluri sistemebiT
daekavSirebina. Tumca arc isaa gamoricxuli, rom ganviTarebis
romeliRac etapze asec moxdes da vTqvaT, zmnaTa garkveulma
nawilma es niSani dakargos. Aamis magaliTebi dResac gvaqvs:
vWaru(nq) gardamaval formebSi n-q ikargeba dadebiTSi,
magram aRdgenilia kiTxvT formebSi.
megrul zmnebSi rom -q ergativis niSania, amis dasturia isic,
rom WanurSi awmyoSi dResac gvaqvs ergativi. rogorc arn.
Ciqobava wers: WanurSi amJamad gardamavali zmna ergativs
moiTxovs yvela nakvTTan, iqneba es awmyos wyebisa, namyo
ZiriTadisa Tu TurmeobiTisa (oRond mesame pirSi: pirveli da
meore piris nacvalsaxelebs moTxrobiTi ara aqvs ( arn.
Ciqobava, 1961, gv. 5 ). ara aqvs imitom, rom pirveli da meore
piri isedac vin kategoriisaa da moTxrobiTiT amis gamoxatva
enam aicila, rogorc damatebiTi referencireba. Aamitomaa, rom
megrulSi zmnaTa mxolod pirvelsa da meore pirebSia q ergativis
niSani. aseve es aris mizezi imisa, rom pirveli da meore piris
nacvalsaxelebi da Zvel qarTulSi agreTve sakuTari saxelebi fuZis
saxiTaa warmodgenili sasubieqto brunvebSi.
Cveni azriT, savaraudoa, rom zogadad ergatiulobisa da
nominatiurobis sistemaTa zmnur diaTezas fonosemantikur an morfo-semantikur etomologiur safuZvlad
edos subieqtis klasis niSani. am TvalsazrisiT interess
moklebuli ar iqneboda kavkasiur enaTa sistemebis tipologiuri
analizi, ramdenadac am enebSi gvaqvs klas-kategoriaTa
morfologiuri referencireba. sayovelTaod cnobilia arn. Ciqobavas
mosazreba pirovan-klasovani uRlebis Sesaxeb. igi wers, rom
ergatiul konstruqcias dasabami eZleva klasovan uRvlilebaSi
( arn. Ciqobava, 1961, gv. 128 ). Cven am azrs sruliad viziarebT
da vfiqrobT, rom klasovanidan pirovan uRvlilebaze gadasvlam
ganapiroba qarTvelur enebSi ergatiul konstruqciaTa garkveuli
sxvadasxvaobac. saerTod, am enaTa sinqronuli analizisas
SesamCnevad gafermkrTalebulia semantikuri zRvari klasisa da
piris kategoriaTa Soris.
trombeti da ulenbeki baskuri ergativis niSans upirispirebdnen
megrul-lazur markers (k. uklenbeki, 1950, gv. 7; 1947, gv. 110;
r. lafoni, 1984, gv. 229 ). rogorc deetersi sinanuliT aRniSnavda,
es ukanaskneli megrelur-lazuri niSani absoluturi idumalebiT iyo
moculi G( r. lafoni, 1984, gv. 229-230 ).
35

36

Cven vfiqrobT, rom Cven mier SemoTavazebuli zanuri


ergativis markeris genezisi mraval sakiTxs mohfens naTels.
zmnis gardamavloba, anu is semantika, rom moqmedeba
sruldeba samoqmedo sagniT, SesaZloa akuzativiT an
instrumentalisiTac iyos gadmocemuli. is SeiZleba iyos
morfologiurad zmnis gareTac, anu mxolod semantikuri,
arareferencirebuli zmnuri piri iyos, rogoricaa, vTqvaT,
indoevropuli tranzituli zmnebis SemTxvevaSi. magram
aucilebelia moqmedis referencireba, Tumca sxvadasxva formis
markirebiT sxvadasxva enaSi. piris ZiriTadi arsi mdgomareobs
adamiani-nivTis semantikuri opoziciis gamoxatvaSi. Aaq es aris
yvelaze mniSvnelovani. Eergatiuli subieqti aris realurad
aqtiuri aqtanti adamiani anu vin-sulierobis kategoriis
mqone moazrovne subieqti. es misaRebi terminia Tundac
imis gamo, rom Tavis TavSi moicavs sxvaobas agenssa da
pacienss Soris. enaTa midgoma vin-ra kategoriaTa mimarT,
Cveni azriT, didwilad ganapirobebs ergatiulobisa da
nominatiurobis diaTezis Sinaarsis axsnas. Cveni varaudiT,
subieqtis ra-usulo kategoria nominatiuri bunebisaa da vin-sulieri
kategoria ki ergatiuli, aqtiuri SinaarsiT xasiaTdeba.
ulenbekis azriT, pasiuri da aqtiuri brunvebi ganirCeoda
mamrobiT da mdedrobiT saxelebSi, neitralur sqesSi ki ara.
imitom rom is usuloa (k, ulenbeki, 1950, gv.101-102 ).
sagulisxmoa, rom zogi ena ganasxvavebs suliersa da usulos
ergatiulobis mixedviT.
rogorc AzemoT aRvniSneT (klasis kategoriaze saubrisas )
qarTvelur enebSi ergativis referentebi vin kategoriis niSniTaa
mocemuli. Ees aris moazrovne subieqtis - adamianis anu vin
kategoriis morfologiuri niSani. UmasTan opozicias qmnis usulonivTis kategoriis subieqti da araaqtiuri intranzituli subieqti. isini
erT semantikur areSi xvdeba, romelic gamoixateba nominativiT.
A funqciaTa amdagvari SeTavsebis gamo mas absolutur brunvas
uwodeben. AaRsaniSnavia, rom analizis es done siRrmiseuli
semantikis etimologias gulisxmobs da aq kontr-argumentad ver
moiazreba axal qarTulSi moTxrobiT brunvaSi dasmuli usulo
saxelebi. Tumca isic unda aRvniSnoT, rom aseT dros Tavad am
usulo nivTebis semantikuri veli sagrZnoblad gafarToebulia da
datvirTulia mciredi sulierobiT an damatebiTi aqtivobiT, rac
TavisTavad mxolod adamianis kategoriis maxasiaTebelia. xSir
SemTxvevaSi ZiriTadad cnobiereba da gacnobierebuli
moqmedeba aris aqtiuri moqmedebis ganmsazRvreli niSani.
ergativi ki kategoriis semantikuri etomologiis mixedviT,
moazrovne subieqtis gamomxatvelia. is aris vin kategoriis
subieqtis brunva. SesaZloa, aseTi subieqti mxolod ergativSi
36

37

moiazreboda Tavdapirvelad, SemdgomSi ki moxda vin da ra


kategoriis subieqtTaa distribuciuli damokidebulebis Secvla,
ramac mogvca dRevandeli suraTi.
sagulisxmoa, rom qarTulSi moazrovne subieqtis
gaucnobierebeli TurmeobiTis xasiaTis moqmedeba mesame
seriis mwkrivebSi araa ergativiT gamoxatuli. Aarc potencialisi,
aseve zogadi da momavali drois moqmedebebi ar ganixileba
qarTul enaSi rogorc moazrovne subieqtis realuri ergatiuli
xasiaTis aqti. gaviziarebT mravali mkvlevaris azrs da
aRvniSnavT, rom, saerTod, rezultatis semantika anu perfeqti
aris ergativisaTvis amosavali. qarTuli ergativis safuZvelic aris
moazrovne subieqtis mier Cadenili konstatirebuli aqtiuri
moqmedeba, romlis gavrcobac Semdgom etapze moxda am
seriis dro-kiloTa sxva formebSi. megruli ki ise Sors wavida
ergativis gavrcelebis saqmeSi, rom meore seriaSi gardauval
zmnebTanac ki ergatiuli subieqti mogvca. Ees movlena
adasturebs im azrs, rom ergativis ZiriTadi arsi mdgomareobs
moazrovne subieqtis mier Cadenil moqmedebaSi anu aoristis
ZiriTad SinaarsSi. Tumca zanuri gardamavali zmnebi uRlebis
sxva mwkrivebSic ergativs gamoiyeneben subieqtis brunvad.
Aaqedan gamomdinare, SeiZleba sapirispiros mtkicebac, rom
qarTveluri enebi iyo wminda ergatiuli. sinqroniul doneze
qarTvelur enaTa ergativisaTvis pirveli aucilebeli pirobaa
(megrulis gamonaklisebiT) gardamavloba da Semdeg
perfeqtuloba. perfeqtuloba rogorc ergativis erT-erTi aucilebeli
piroba, Tavis mxriv, iZleva zanuris TurmeobiTebSi ergativis
gamovlinebaTa axsnas.
sainteresoa, rom mkvlevari nensi Tulini, traskis kvaldakval,
xazs usvams qarTuli enis gansakuTrebulobas ergatiulobis
TvalsazrisiT: traskis mier Seswavlili 19 enidan, mxolod qarTuls,
baskurs, hindisa da maias ramdenime enas aqvs damoukidebeli
pasivi, iseve, rogorc ergatiuloba. qarTuls ki sakuTriv aqvs orive,
rac mas esoden gansakuTrebuls xdis mkvlevarTaTvis ( l. traski,
1979; n. Tulini, 1991 ). Tumca Cven ver daveTanxmebiT Tulins
mis ZiriTad daskvnaSi. qarTuli enis Sesaxeb igi wers: rogorc
Cans, ergatiuloba SedarebiT axali movlenaa, Tumca is kvdeba,
xdeba misi Canacvleba nominatiur-akuzatiuri brunviT ( n. Tulini,
1991 ). aseTi mosazreba TavisTavSive Seicavs
winaaRmdegobas. sxva rom araferi vTqvaT, igi
SeusabamobaSia enis ganviTarebis universalur kanonebTan.
Kkvdomas ver ganicdis axali enobrivi movlena. piriqiT, igi aqtiur
evolucias eqvemdebareba (amave naSromSi avtors sxva tipis
uzustobanic aqvs qarTuli enis aRwerisas).
37

38

Cven verc qristofer maningis azrs gaviziarebT


ergatiulobasTan dakavSirebiT. igi wers: bevri fundamenturi
kiTxva pasuxgaucemeli rCeba, Tu ar ganvixileT sintaqsuri da
morfologiuri ergatiuloba. enebi or klasad unda davyoT:
morfologiuri da sintaqsuri ergatiulobis enebad da vnaxoT,
Zireulia Tu ara ergatiuloba (q. maningi, 1997, gv. 17 ). Ees
debuleba sruliad miuRebelia, radganac sintaqsi ar arsebobs
morfologiis gareSe. saerTod, rodesac vsaubrobT sintaqsur
ergatiulobaze, aq igulisxmeba ergatiuli konstruqciebi, e. i.
konkretul morfologiur formaTa sintaqsuri SeTanxmebebi anu
kombinaciebi. rodesac saubaria predikatis argumentebze,
prototipur tranzitul argumentad CaiTvleba agensi da paciensi.
aq igulisxmeba sintaqsuri urTierTobebiT gadmocemuli
semantikuri rolebi, anu funqciis morfo-semantikuri korelacia.
bunebrivia, rom ergatiuli da nominatiuri konstruqciebi morfosintaqsis Seswavlis sagania. faqtobrivad am azrTan SedarebiT
axlos mivida bert peetersi, romelic wers: sintaqsuri
ergatiuloba logikurad gansxvavebulia morfologiuri
ergatiulobisagan, Tumca es orive xSirad erTad gvxvdeba (b.
peetersi, 1995 ). Semdeg ki es mkvlevari wers: me ar vici arc
erTi magaliTi, sadac morfologiurad nominatiur-akuzatiuri enebi
gamoxataven sintaqsur ergatiulobas (b. peetersi, 1995 ). aseTi
enebi arc Cven viciT da arc arseboben, radganac ar arsebobs
damoukidebeli sintaqsi, aramed arsebobs mxolod morfosintaqsi. Tuki ergatiulobis kategoria ar arsebobs ama Tu im enis
morfologiaSi, maSin am enaSi am kategoriis sintaqsuri analizic
yovelgvar realur mecnierul safuZvels moklebulia.
saerTod, nebismieri semantikuri kategoria ama Tu im formiT
aisaxeba morfologiaSi da am formaTa konkretuli kombinaciebi
qmnis konkretuli semantikuri kategoriis sintaqsur variantebs.
morfologiaSi ara-referencirebuli semantikuri kategoria SesaZloa,
iyos teqstis an konteqstis da ara sintaqsis movlena. Ffaqtia
morfemulad sruliad gamouxatavi erTeulebisagan Semdgari
sintagma ver itvirTebs aseT rols semantikuri kategoriis winaSe.
Aaq sakiTxi scildeba gramatikis sferos da igi unda veZioT teqstis
leqsikur-semantikur doneze.
unda aRiniSnos, rom CvenTvis sruliad miuRebelia indoevropul enebSi xelovnuri logikiT miRebuli zmnaTa klasifikacia,
romelic mocemuli gvaqvs vikipedia mravalenovan
enciklopediaSi.Aaq dasaxelebulia inglisuri formebi:
1. mxolod ergatiuli zmnebi:
I think -Mme vfiqrob,
I see
- me vxedav,
I understand - me vigeb,
38

39

I experience - me gamocdilebas viReb


2.Eergatiuli an tranzituli:
To open - gaReba
The door opens. - Kkarebi gaiRo.
John opens the door. jonma karebi gaaRo.
To eat - Wama
I eat - me vWam
I eate a hamburger me vWam hamburgersO(vikipedia, 2005 ).
aseTi klasifikacia Rimilis momgvrelia. Aamave enciklopediaSi
gamoiyofa nawilobrivi anu arasruli ergatiulobis sami saxeoba:
1. avstraliuri enebi (dirbali), sadac morfo-sintaqsurad
aRiniSneba ergatiuloba, magram igi pirvel da meore piris
nacvalsaxelebTan nominatiur-akuzatiuri brunvis formiT aris
warmodgenili. aqve gvinda, paraleli gavavloT megrul
zmnebSi arsebul -q sufiqsTan, romlis Sesaxebac zemoT
gvqonda saubari. kavkasiur enaTagan aseTia, magaliTad,
bacburi. Tumca bacburSi, piriqiT, pirvelsa da meore pirSi
ergativia gardauval zmnebTanac ki. saerTod, ergatiulobis
mixedviT sxvadasxva enebSi gvaqvs pirTa klasobrivi opozicia:
pirveli da meore upirispirdeba mesames, rac kidev erTxel
adasturebs moazrovne subieqtis umTavres rols. qarTulSi
pirvel da meore pirTa nacvelsaxelebis ubrunveloba garkveuli
TvalsazrisiT am jgufTan aaxlovebs qarTuls.
2. enebi, sadac perfeqtulobis mixedviT gvaqvs mocemuli
ergatiuloba (indoiranuli). Aam models iziarebs qarTulic.
3. enebi, sadac aRiniSneba intranzituli subieqtis agensoba
(Ddakota). Aaq aqtiur gardauval zmnaTa subieqti (mag.
Mmirbis) aris gardamavali zmnis brunvaSi, xolo semantikurad
pasiuri zmnebis subieqti (mag. wevs, zis) aris tranzituli zmnis
obieqtis brunvaSi. A
am mxriv, tipologiurad saintereso iqneboda megrulSi meore
seriaSi gardauval zmnebSi ergativis gaformebis diaqroniuli
suraTi. savaraudoa da logikuricaa, rom ergativi aq upirvelesad
aseTi tipis aqtiuri moqmedebis zmnebTan gvqondes miRebuli.
dasanania, rom ar mogvepoveba saTanado werilobiTi sakvlevi
masala. (Tumca sistemaTa rekonstruqcia formaluri
modelebidanac martivad xerxdeba.) amave jgufSi Seva qarTulic
Tavisi medioaqtiviT.
uaRresad saintereso da mniSvnelovania is faqti, rom
qarTveluri enebi am klasifikaciis yvela variants iZleva.
Aamdenad, es klasifikacia, Tundac mxolod qarTuli enis
magaliTze, ver CaiTvleba srulyofilad. qarTuli ena Seva meore da
mesame jgufebSi. Akombinirebul jgufTa amgvari tipebi ki am
klasifikacias ar gaaCnia.
39

40

qarTulSi medioaqtiur zmanaTa did nawils aqvs vin kategoriis


subieqti, rac TavisTavad badebs ergativis gamoyenebis
safuZvels. sagulisxmoa isic, rom pirnakl zmnaTa did nawils,
romelTac subieqti ergatiul brunvaSi aqvT dadasturebuli an
nagulisxmebi (mag. iwvima, iTova, wvimam gadaiRo, cam
gaielva, cam iquxa da a. S. ), aReniSnebaT moazrovne
subieqtis kategoria. es SeiZleba, iyos vin kategoriaze
semantikurad maRali rangis kategoria, anu uzenaesi arsi misi
sxvadasxvagvari morfo-semanturi gamovlinebiT. Aadamianisa
da uzenaesis semantikuri kategoriebi erT jgufad moiazreba.
sxvaTa Soris, jer kidev mravali saukuniT adre aseTive azrs
gamoTqvamda avicenac Tavis filosofiur SromaSi traqtati
siyvarulze (s. serebriakovi, 1976, gv. 8 ). igi klas-kategoriebad
dayofisas ganasxvavebda nivTTa, mcenareTa da cxovelTa
klasebs. xolo adamiansa da RvTaebriv ZalTa substanciebs ki erT
jgufSi aerTianebda.
e. w. predikatis argumentebis, anu zmnur moqmedebaSi
CarTuli aqtantebis morfo-semantikidan gamomdinare, Cven
vfiqrobT, rom ZiriTadia ergatiulobisa da destinaciis diaTeza,
rogorc pirdapiri da iribi obieqtebis funqcionalur-formaluri
opozicia. iribi obieqti mTeli Tavisi mravalferovnebiT CaiTvleba
destinatad, ergatiulobis movlena ki daukavSirdeba pirdapir
obieqts. aseTi morfo-semanturi midgoma savsebiT gasagebia,
miT ufro, rom gardamavloba arc arsebobs, rogorc morfologiuri
kategoria. mas ar gaaCnia kategoriis morfologiuri referentebi.
igi, rogorc semantikuri kategoria, mibmulia pirdapir obieqtze da
mis morfo-semantikaSia asaxuli (Sdr. Pzmnur destinacias aqvs
calke Tavisi markerebi da irib obieqtsac damoukideblad aqvs
misi kuTvnili referentebi ).
sayuradReboa, rom mravali mkvlevaris azriT, baskuri zmnis
ZiriTadi diaTeza ergatiuli da nominatiuri konstruqciis arsSi
mdgomareobs, anu gvaqvs zmnaTa ori klasi:
1. zmnebi, romelTac subieqti SeesabamebaT saxelobiTSi an
partitivSi;
2. zmnebi, romelTac subieqti SeesabamebaT ergativSi. D
Tu gaviTvaliswinebT im garemoebas, rom agensi da datiuri
konstruqciis aqtanti anu iribi obieqti baskur zmnaSi identuri
markirebiTaa aRniSnuli, naTeli gaxdeba opozicia: erTi mxriv,
saxelobiTi da genetivi (partitivi rogorc genetivis nairsaxeoba) da
meore mxriv, ergativi da dativi. baskurSiDdativis aseTi siaxlove
ergativTan mogvagonebs qarTuli gardamavali zmnis datiur
konstruqcias mesame seriaSi. G
partitivis gamoyeneba subieqtis brunvad uaryofiT formebTan
arc sxva enebisaTvisaa ucxo, MmagaliTad, rusulSi gvaqvs
40

41

subieqtis nominatiur-genetiuri opozicia warTqmiT da ukuTqmiT


formebSi: - .
damoukidebeli pasivi baskurs ar gaaCnia. baskuri enis
monacemebi kidev erTxel naTelyofs, rom polipersonalur enaTa
ZiriTadi gramatikuli movlenebia destinacia da ergatiuloba.
suraTi aseTa: destinacia moiTxovs irib obieqts da ergatiuloba
moiTxovs pirdapir obieqts. amitomac am kategoriaTa morfologia
imTaviTve gulisxmobs polipersonaluri zmnis sistemebis
arsebobas. Aaq mniSvnelovania vin-ra kategoriis distribucia.
Tumca sruliad usamarTlod mkvlevarTa did nawils es movlena
meorexarisxovnad miaCnia am sakiTxebis kvlevisas. rigi
gramatikuli movlenebi:Edestinacia, ergatiuloba, moqmedebis
aqtivobis xarisxi, posesiuroba, adresatoba, tranzituloba da misT.
pirdapir uSualo kavSirSia klasis kategoriasTan.
A aris ori SesaZlebeli varianti:
1. jer gvqonda wminda ergatiuli wyoba da mere miviReT
nawilobrivi ergatiulobis dRevandeli suraTi qarTvelur enebSi.
2. pirveladi iyo nawilobrivi ergatiuloba da zmnur struqturaTa da
sintaqsur konstruqciaTa paralelur ganviTarebas hqonda adgili.
samwuxarod, am sakiTxze ver moxerxdeba qarTvelur enaTa
empiriul masalaze dayrdnobiT diaqroniuli daskvnebis gakeTeba,
radganac svanuri da zanuri faqtobrivad umwerlobo enebia.
SesaZloa, qarTveluri enebisaTvis amosavali iyo wminda
ergatiuloba. amitomaa igi SenarCunebuli qarTulis oriode zmnaSi
(icis, uwyis) da zanuris awmyosa da TurmeobiTebSi da amave
mizeziTaa awmyosa da TurmeobiTebSi ergatiuli sufiqsi pirvelsa
da meore pirebSi megrulis zmnebSi.
nacnobi kiTxva: romelia pirveladi monadirem mokla iremi Tu
iremi moikla monadiris mier? vfiqrobT, rom es Tanabarfardi
odenobebia, mniSvnelovani iyo faqti zmna. midgoma
SeiZleboda yofiliyo sxvadasxvagvari. Tu interess warmoadgens
moqmedi, maSin monadirea mTavari. roca ar gvainteresebs, Tu
vin Caidina esa Tu is konkretuli moqmedeba da gvainteresebs
mxolod ra gvaqvs mokluli, maSin iremia mTavari. Aase rom,
nominatiurma da ergatiulma konstruqciebma savaraudoa, rom
diaqroniulad paraleluri ganviTarebis tipologia gviCvenos. ar aris
gamoricxuli, rom swored adamiani-nivTis kategoriis diaTeza
daedo safuZvlad am konstruqciebs.
Tuki miviCnieT, rom amosavali aris zmna-aqti, aqedan
gamomdinare, SesaZloa, ukve visaubroT zmnis pirveladobaze.
Tumca, Cven vfiqrobT, rom realuri morfologiuri zRvari zmnasa
da saxels Soris SedarebiT gviandeli movlenaa da es umTavresad
41

42

ganapirobebs saboloo pasuxis sirTules am maradiul kiTxvaze


romelia pirveladi zmna Tu saxeli?
sabolood raSi mdgomareobs ergatiuli problemis arsi?
mxolod imaSi, rom aseTi sistema SesabamisobaSi araa
indoevropul nominatiur sistemasTan. EmarTlac, ergatiulobis
sayovelTao problemis arsi mdgomareobs imaSi, rom
gardamavali zmnis subieqti ar aris indoevropul sistemaTaTvis
misaReb, anu nacnob nominatiur brunvaSi da ergativi aRiqmeba
irib brunvad. didi enaTmecnieri arnold Ciqobava uzustes
pasuxs poulobs am kiTxvaze gasul saukuneSi. aranairi
pasiuroba an aqtiuroba realurad araa kavSirSi ergatiulobasTan.
es aris gardamavali zmnis subieqtis morfologiuri kategoria,
romelic sxvadasxva enebSi mosalodnel mravalferovnebas
avlens iseve, rogorc sxva morfo-sintaqsuri da morfo-semanturi
kategoriebi. rac Seexeba pirdapiri obieqtis nominatiur brunvas,
rac ergativTan erTad qmnis am e. w. ergatiulobis problemas,
unda iTqvas, rom aq pasuxi martivia. polopersonalur
struqturebSiPpirdapiri obieqti aris sakonversio subieqti da
amdenad, igi bunebrivia, aris nominativSi.
is faqti, rom aq gvarTa urTierTobis sakiTxi dgeba, erTi
SexedviT, pasiurobis Teorias wamowevs. Cven gvinda,
xazgasmiT aRvniSnoT, rom aq ZiriTadi sakiTxi exeba subieqtis
vin-ra kategoriis distribucias. vin-moazrovne subieqti aris
ergativSi da ra-sakonversio subieqti aris nominativSi. SegviZlia,
ufro martivi gamosavalic movnaxoT gadavwioT termini
absoluturi brunva da iq gavaerTianoT vin-kategoriis brunvebi
an visaubroT amosaval gaudiferencirebel formebze, rac
tipologiurad universaluri iqneboda da saerTod moxsnida
problemas. uaRresad mniSvnelovania is, rom ergatiuli
konstruqciis enebSi ergativi irib brunvad ver CaiTvleba da
amdenad, mTlianad icvleba sakiTxisadmi midgomac. Tuki
pirdapiri brunva subieqtis brunvaa, maSin cxadia, moTxrobiTi
pirdapiri brunva iqneba. e. i. pirdapiri brunvebia: nominativi da
ergativi.Ppartitivisagan gansxvavebiT, (romelic mxolod uaryofiT
formebSia subieqtis brunva) ergativi mxolod subiqtis brunvaa.
Tu amovalT aqtiur-inaqtiur da tranzitul-intranzitul
dapirispirebaTa diaqroniuli jaWvidan, rogorc es enaTa aqtiurobis
TeoriaSia... unda vifiqroT, rom qarTul zmnaSi pirdapiri obieqtis
aRniSvna win uswrebs iribi obieqtis markirebas; xsenebuli
TeoriiT pirdapiri obieqtis Semoyvana zmnis formaSi xdeba
tranzitulobis Camoyalibebis periodSi. am safexurze iribi
obieqtisaTvis zmnaSi roli ara Cans, arsebiTia subieqti da
paciensi, romelTa gansxvavebulma markirebam Camoayaliba
nominatiuri da ergatiuli konstruqciebi.
42

43

iribi obieqtis benefaqtiuri aqtantis gaCena dakavSirebulia


pirdapiri obieqtisa da SedarebiT gvian subieqtis
gankuTvnebasTan diaTezasTan, romlisganac qarTul enaSi
Camoyalibda qcevis kategoria. - wers T. uTurgaiZe (T.
uTurgaiZe, 2002, gv. 43 ). Cveni azriT, ufro dasaSvebia
ergatiulobsa da destinaciis Tanadrouli (an mciredi droiTi
sxvaobiT ) gaformeba, Tumca rTulia da TiTqmis SeuZlebelic
saTanado masaliT ama Tu im mosazrebis dadastureba an
uaryofa. zmnaSi pirdapiri obieqtis, rogorc kategoriis Sesvla win
uswrebs iribi obieqtis Sesvlas. Eenobrivi logikiTac benefaqtiuri
aqtanti ver gaCndeba paciensis arsebobis gareSe (T.
uTurgaiZe, 2002, gv. 43 ). ratom ver gaCndeba? xom gvaqvs
orpiriani gardauvali formebi?
gakeTeba ramisa ( vinmesTvis ), gakeTeba vinmesTvis
(ramisa) da gakeTeba vinmesTvis ramisa - Tanabarfardi
odenobebia. Aaqac muSaobs dominanti kategoriis igive logika
ra iyo ufro mniSvnelovani, amis mixedviT lagdeba kategoriaTa
rangebi zmnur mikrosintaqsSic da winadadebaSic. Tu
nominatiur-ergatiul opoziciaSi erTi meores gamoricxavda, aq
sxvagvari damokidebuleba gvaqvs da SesaZloa, orive
erTdroulad gvqondes pirdapiric da iribic, xolo maT Soris
upiratesoba konkretuli moTxovniT aixsneba konkretul formaSi.
rac Seexeba piris niSnebs, erTmaneTs emTxveva pirdapiri da
iribi aq suraTi naTelia: pirveli da meore pirebi zmnis pirTa
cnobil kombinaciaSi, romelic e. w. umciresi aqtantis
upiratesobiT ganisazRvreba, garkveuli akrZalviT sargebloben,
amitom aseT formebSi damTxveva ar xdeba. rac Seexeba
mesame pirs, SesaZloa, pirdapir obieqtsac hqonda niSani,
Tumca paradigmaSi aramarkirebuli erTeuli markirebulTan
SesabamisobaSi savsebiT srulfasovani wevria gramatikuli
opoziciisa. Tu pirdapir obieqts hqonda niSani ( rac garkveul
kvlavas moiTxovs TavisTavad ), misi pirveladoba mainc
saeWvoa. MnaTelia, rom mesame obieqturi piris niSnebi
emTxveva meore subieqturi piris niSnebs, es faqti ki udavo
upiratesobas irib obieqts aniWebs klasis kategoriis niSniT. ras
unda gamoewvia pirdapiri obieqtis pirveladi, kanonieri niSnebis
gaqroba? Ees, ra Tqma unda, ver aixsneba mxolod fonetikuri
procesebiT, radganac igive situaciaa iribi obieqturi piris
SemTxvevaSi. qarTulSi ar momxdara gardamavlobis, rogorc
kategoriis gadafaseba an daknineba, e. i. pirdapiri obieqtis III
piris niSanTa gaqrobis semantikuri an morfologiuri safuZveli
qarTuli saliteraturo enis ganviTarebisas ar aRiniSneba. saerTod,
morfemaTa gaqroba an garkveuli cvlilebani SeiZleba, iyos
gamowveuli fonetikuri, morfologiuri an ufro zogadi gramatikuli
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44

anu morfo-sintaqsuri an morfo-semantikuri cvlilebebiT erTi


kategoriis doneze an kategoriaTaSoris sibrtyeze, an ufro did
moculobaSi: enis ierarqiis doneTaSorisi kategoriebis cvlilebebiT.
pirdapiri obieqtis III piris niSanTa gaqrobis SemTxvevam ( Tu
aseTi ram moxda ) unda moZebnos axsna am tipis
formulirebaSi, rac TiTqos saeWvoa. Tumca unda iTqvas, rom
qarTuli zmnis formaluri sistema moiazrebs pirdapiri obieqtis
mesame piris niSnis arsebobas. miT ufro, rom Zvel qarTulSi
pirdapiri obieqtis mravlobiToba mkveTrad gamoxatuli
movlenaa.
Cveni varaudiT, qarTulSi iyo pirovan-klasovani uRleba. piris
mixedviT uRleba da klasis mixedviT uRleba TavisTavad ar
gamoricxaven erTmaneTs (g. deetersi, 2002, gv. 151 ). qarTuli
zmnis pirveli da meore pirebi pirovani uRlebiT iyo gaformebuli,
radganac aq klasi garkveuli iyo. savaraudod, mesame piri
klasovani uRlebiT iyo gaformebuli da Sesabamisad, klasis es
referenti mesame pirdapiri pirisTvis iqneboda usulo, ra-klasis
formanti, romelic garkveuli mdgradobiT ar gamoirCeoda da
aseve imuSava enobrivi ekonomiis principmac samganzomilebian modelSi ori markirebuli wevris gverdiT erTi
aramarkirebuli wevris arseboba savsebiT misaRebia.
savaraudoa, rom obieqturi piris niSnebis saboloo
Camoyalibebas ergatiulobisa da destinaciis urTierTmimarTebac
edos safuZvlad.
qarTuli enis sistemaSiQversiis kategoriis pirveladobas xazs
usvams m. maWavariani. igi wers, rom ergativizacia ufro
axlosaa Tavisi bunebiT inversiasTan, vidre konversiasTan:
safiqrebelia, pirovani uRvlilebis Camiyalibebisas, ergatiuli
konstruqciis mqone zmnas ( an saxelzmnas ) darTvoda piris
nacvalsaxelovani proklitikebi, Tavdapirvelad mosaubre pirebis
mimarT moqmedebis siSore-siaxlovis gamosaxatavad,
SemdgomSi ki Sinaarsoblivi ganviTarebiT: moqmedebis introeqstrovertizacia sintaqsuri brunviTi funqciebis diferenciacia.
agenturi-inagenturi pirebis opoziciis markirebam, erTiani
uRvlilebis sistemis Camoyalibebam drois RerZis
gaTvaliswinebiT, piris kategoriis ganzogadebam, ramac
gaaTavisufla piri wmnida aspeqturi opoziciiT
ganpirobebulobisagan, gaaerTmniSvnelovana I da II seriis
konstruqciebi da biZgi misca ergatiuli konstruqciis
nominatiurisaken gadaxras (m. maWavariani, 1987, gv. 123 ).
MCven savsebiT veTanxmebiT am mosazrebas. im mciredi
SesworebiT, rom sasurvelia, proklitikis nacvlad minimaluri
morfologiuri segmenti iqnes gansazRvruli, miT ufro, rom Tavad
es mkvlevaric gamoyofs da cal-calke axasiaTebs TanxmovniTi
44

45

nawilisa da xmovniTi nawilis funqciebs. am procesebis Sedegad


moxda zmnuri aqtantebis brunvaTa funqciebis Sesabamisi
gadanawileba nominatiursa da ergatiul konstruqciebSi.
saerTod, ergativizacia ufro axlosaa Tavisi bunebiT inversiasTan,
vidre konversiasTan, radganac aq xdeba irib brunvaSi dasmuli
aqtantebis aqtualizacia da misi erT-erTi mniSvnelobis win
wamoweva (m. maWavariani, 1987, gv. 86 ). ergativs manis
rigTan daaxloebulad miiCnevs m. maWavariani. igi wers, rom
klasovani uRvlilebis enebSi swored manis rigis Sesabamisi iribi
brunvebia ergativis saziaro, is gamoxatavs moqmeds da ara
samoqmedos. amitom is ver iqneba neitraluri, an moqmedebis
wyaro, e. i. is ver gautoldeba saxelobiT-wrfelobiTs (m.
maWavariani, 1987, gv. 82 ). Tumca mkvlevari aqve aRniSnavs
qarTuli enis Taviseburebas am mxriv. Cven nawilobriv
veTanxmebiT am mosazrebas, magram sadavod migvaCnia
ergativis saziaro irib brunvebze saubari. Mis garemoeba, rom rig
kavkasiur enebSi ergativi, iseve, rogorc genetivi, safuZvlad
daedo saxelTa fleqsias, ar niSnavs maT funqciur erTobas. rogorc
zemoT ukve aRvniSneT, es faqti kidev erTxel adasturebs
ergatiulobisa da destinaciis garkveuli saxis urTierTmimarTebas.
Mmagram ar xdeba genetivisa da ergativis
gaerTmniSvnelianeba am TvalsazrisiT. ergativi, rogorc subieqtis
brunva, saziaroa nominativTan da dativTan, magram ara irib
brunvebTan. unda aRiniSnos, romAam SemTxvevaSi Tavad
dativi sakmaod dacilebulia iribi mimarTebis ZiriTad Sinaarss
sinqroniulad igi subieqtis brunvaa.
GTandebuliani genetivi ergativsa da destinaciur dativs
paralelurad erTnairi warmatebiT Caanacvlebs sintaqsSi (ra
Tqma unda, Sesabamisi TandebulebiT): daxata kacma daixata
kacis mier, dauxata kacs daxata kacisTvis.
A artur holmerma naSromSi iberiul-kavkasiuri kavSirebi
tipologiuri aspeqtiT ganixila qarTuli da baskuri ergatiuli
sistemebi da isini Seadara sxva ergatiul enaTa monacemebs.
Cveni azriT, holmeris mier Catarebuli analizi cota zedapirulad
gamoiyureba. avtori saubrobs tipologiaze da faqtobrivad ki
istoriul-SedarebiTi enaTmecnierebisa da genetiuri lingvistikis
meTodebs iyenebs. igi wers, rom sintaqsuri tipologia ar cnobs
mkacr diqotomias ergatiulsa da nominatiur enaTa Soris, mxolod
konstruqciebzea aq saubari... amdenad, maSin, roca akuzatiuri
enebi erTian, homogenur sintaqsur wyobas gviCveneben,
ergatiuli enebi heterogenur jgufebs qmnian (a. holmeri, 2001,
gv. 13 ). sxvadasxvaoba ergatiul enaTa Soris udavoa, magram
sadavod gveCveneba terminTa - homogenuri da
heterogenuri gamoyeneba, rodesac arsebobs izomorfizmi da
45

46

tipologiuri modelebis cneba. Zalian sainteresod migvaCnia


holmeris dakvirveba, rom rom nominatiur-akuzatiur enebSi
erTaderTi obligatoruli argumenti aris qvemdebare, xolo ergatiul
enebSi Cndeba sxva argumentic obieqti da subieqti aRar aris
erTaderTi da privilegirebuli aqtanti (a. holmeri, 2001, gv. 1314 ). Hmecnieri ergatiulobas ukavSirebs polopersonalizms. A
Cven veTanxmebiT holmeris daskvnas, rom polipersonalizmi
erTgvar biZgs aZlevs ergatiulobas. rogorc am naSromSi wers,
avtori uaxloes momavalSi apirebs enaTa didi raodenobis
gadamowmebas saboloo daskvnisTvis. Cven siamovnebiT
gavecnobiT mis dapirebul werilebs am Temaze.
Svedi qarTvelologi karina vamlingi naSromSi predikatuli
komplimentebi qarTulSi saubrobs agentur da araagentur
zmnebze da am klasifikaciiT ganixilavs rig morfo-sintaqsur
sakiTxebs. Emsgavsi midgoma kidev erTxel usvams xazs
ergatiulobis did mniSvnelobas qarTuli enis morfo-sintaqsisaTvis
(k. vamlingi, 1989 ).
zog mkvlevars miaCnia, rom qarTuli gardamavali zmnis
meore seriaSi ergatiuli konstruqcia meoreulia, radganac zmnaSi
ergatiuloba araa gamoxatuli da mxolod sintaqsuri formiT gvaqvs
mocemuli, zmnis piris niSnebi ki erTaniradaa ganawilebuli
pirvelsa da meore seriebSi (g. nebieriZe, 1987; m. saxokia,
1985 ). am mosazrebas zurgs umagrebs isic, rom problemaa
saerTo qarTvelurSi ergativis brunvis aRdgena. (saerTod, m.
saxokias ergativi pasiur-posesiuri modelidan warmoqmnilad
miaCnia. )
Cven vfiqrobT, rom megrul zmnebSi q sufiqsis ergatiuli arsis
gamovlena adasturebs qarTvelur zmnaSi gamoxatul
ergatiulobas. aRsaniSnavia is garemoeba, rom ergatiulobis
aseTi tipis zmnuri gamoxatva xdeba awmyosa da
TurmeobiTebSi.
Cveni varaudiT, pirvelsa da mesame seriebSi mogvianebiT
gaCenili Temis niSnebi garkveuli TvalsazrisiT zmnuri ergatiulobis
gamoxatulebad SeiZleba CaiTvalos. sxvaTa Soris, Temis niSanTa
gramatikuli polifunqcionalizmi (gvarisa da aspeqtis funqciebi)
mxolod adasturebs am mosazrebas. is garemoeba, rom
gardauval zmnebsac gaaCniaT Temis niSnebi, xazs usvams
aqtiuri, moazrovne subieqtis rolis prioritetul mniSvnelobas
tranzitulobasTan SedarebiT zmnuri ergatiulobis gamoxatvisas.
xolo zanurs aqvs ergatiuli sufiqsi q zmnebSi (pirvelsa da
mesame seriaSi) da aRar sWirdeba TemisNniSanTa mkveTri
sistemis Camoyalibeba. aqve sagulisxmoa isic, rom es q niSani
Cndeba pirvelsa da meore pirebSi gardamaval da gardauval
zmnebSi. Tumca gardamaval zmnebs nq orfonemuri formanti
46

47

aqvT. Sesabamisad qarTuli zmnebic garkveulad ganasxvaveben


gardamavalsa da gardauval formebs Temis niSanTa mixedviT.
Temis niSani gamokveTilad monawileobs dinamizaciis
procesSi. es ukanaskneli ki, Tavis mxriv, ZiriTadad aqtiuri anu
moazrovne subieqtis klasisTvis ars damaxasiaTebeli.
Cveni varaudiT, Temis niSniani (zmnaSi gamoxatuli ergativiT)
formebi aris saopozicio calebi meore seriis
uTemisniSnoN(saxelSi gamoxatuli ergativiT) formebisaTvis. Ae. i.
gardamaval, ufro zustad, moazrovne subieqtis mqone zmnaTa
uRlebis formebSi gvaqvs ergatiuli opozicia saxeluri da zmnuri
formantebiT. sxvagvarad rom vTqvaT, opozicia aseTia: erTi
mxriv, sruli drois formebSi gvaqvs ergatiuli brunviT an ergatiuli
dativiT gaformebuli konstruqciebi, meore mxriv, Temis niSnebiT
(zmnuri ergativiT) gaformebuli dinamikuri, usruli drois formebi.
Uufro Rrmad Tu davakvirdebiT, aq sami tipis gamoyofa
SeiZleba. savaraudod,Mmesame seriaSi TemisNniSanTa
araobligatoruloba ganpirobebulia, erTi mxriv, sruli drois
formebiT da meore mxriv, subieqtis datiuri brunviT. mesame
seriaSi gvaqvs ergatiulobis ormagi gamoxatva: saxeluri ergatiuli dativiTa da zmnuri - Temis niSniT.
A amrigad, pirvel seriaSi gvaqvs zmnuri ergtivi, meoreSi
klasikuri forma gvaqvs ergatiuli brunviT da sruli droiT, xolo
mesame seriaSi ki gvaqvs am pirveli oris variantis odnav
saxecvlili (dativi ergativis nacvlad) kombinacia.
unda aRiniSnos, rom es sakmaod didi Temaa da sakiTxi
Semdgom kvlevas moiTxovs. am etapze mxolod sakiTxis
dasmiTa da varaudis gamoTqmiT SemovifarglebiT.
rac Seexeba ergativis brunvis aRdgenas saerTo qarTvelurSi,
marTalia, ver xerxdeba saerTo referentis gamoyofa, magram
samagierod naTelia saerTo semantikur-morfologiuri niSani, razec
zemoT visaubreT.
vfiqrobT, interss moklebuli ar unda iyos qarTul enaSi ergativis
semantikis mqone Tandebulebis mokle mimoxilva zemoaRniSnul
sakiTxTan dakavSirebiT. qarTuli enis sistemaSi uTandebulo
brunvebia wodebiTi da moTxrobiTi. wodebiTi brunvis Sesaxeb
arsebobs azrTa sxvadasxvaoba. faqtia, rom am brunvas
gansakuTrebuli adgili ukavia sistemaSi mravali da ukve
sakmaod kargad axsnili garemoebis gamo. amdenad,
bunebrivia, rom wodebiTi ar iziarebs sxva brunvaTaTvis
damaxasiaTebel bevr niSans. rac Seexeba moTxrobiT brunvas,
anu ergativs, ra Tqma unda, naTelia am brunvis aqtiuri roli
sistemaSi. amave dros faqtobrivad es aris erTaderTi uTandebulo
brunva (wodebiTis garda). saerTod, brunvebi Tandebulebis
mixedviT metnaklebi RiaobiT xasiaTdebian. Ees damokidebulia
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48

konkretuli brunvis semantikur diapazonze. ergativi, rogorc


tranzituli zmnis subieqtis brunva konkretuli konstruqciisaTvis
ualternativo formaa da Tavisi SinaarsiT gamoricxavs
Tandebulebis miRebas.
qarTulSi ramdenime Tandebuls aqvs ergativis semantika.
EaseTi YTandebulebia mier, gan, gamo. Sinaarsobrivad
udavoa, rom mier mkveTrad gamoxatuli moqmedebis
Camdeni saxelis Tandebulia da Sesabamisad, am Tandebulis
semantikac savsebiT naTelia. es aSkarad aris agensis tipis
morfologiuri erTeuli.
Sdr. kacis mier gakeTebuli nivTi
kacma gaakeTa nivTi / kaci akeTebs nivTs.
es aris gardamavali zmnis realuri, magram
aramorfologizirebuli subieqtis Tandebuli. aRsaniSnavia, rom
gardauval zmnebTan da zogadad intranzitul semantikasTan
mier Tandebuli TiTqmis ar gamoiyeneba. Sdr.: kaci wevs /
kaci awvens / kacis mier dawvenili
kaci (u)Tbeba / kacis mier gamTbari (ubralo damatebis-Tvis) da
a. S.
aq xdeba tranzitivacia da mxolod aseT SemTxvevaSi
gveqneba mier Tandebuli.
gamo da gan mizezobriobis gamomxatveli Tandebulebi
xSirad arian warmodgenili ergativis semantikiTa da Sesabamisi
gramatikuli funqciiT. ra Tqma unda, am Tandebulebs
(gansakuTrebiT gan Tandebuls) sxva funqciebic gaaCniaT,
magram am SemTxvevaSi Cven mxolod maTi ergatiuli
semantikis Sesaxeb gavamaxvilebT yuradRebas.
qarTulSi
arsebobs Semdgegi tipis Tanabarfardi wyvilebi: SiSma
amakankala
SiSisgan makankalebs (SiSis gamo makankalebs)
aseTi tipis impersonalur tranzitivebTan (rogoricaa SiSisagan
makankalebs) naTlad warmosdgeba gan Tandebulis ergatiuli
semantika. aq ergativis Sinaarss gascilda aqtantis (an Tu
gnebavT, argumentis) rolebrivi semantika, igi gafarTovda
mizezobriobiT da amdenad misi Cateva ukve veRar xerxdeba
ergatiuli brunvis formaSi. Zalze mniSvnelovania is garemoebac,
rom am tipis impersonalur tranzitivebSi (makankalebs, maciebs,
maxvelebs, mcxela, mciva, mamyofa da a. S. ) realuri subieqti
arc adamianis klasia da arc nivTis. qarTulisaTvis ki es ZiriTadi
binaruli opoziciaa. vin da ra klasis gareT aRmoCenili subieti
zmnis morfologiam gareT gaitana da aq Sesabamisad
amuSavda TandebulTa ergatiuli semantika.
Q cnobilma
qarTvelologma qevin tuitma Tavis moxsenebaSi
(aRmosavleTmcodneobis instituti, Tbilisi 03. 03. 2006 )
48

49

samarTlianad gamoyo impersonaluri tranzitivebis ori ZiriTadi


jgufi: adamianis sxeulis mdgomareobasTan dakavSirebuli
semantikis mqone zmnebi da netav nawilakiani mamyofa
tipis formebi. am ukanaskneli tipis formebSi natvriTi nawilakis
elifsisi savsabiT dasaSvebia.
impersonalur tranzitivebs
xelovnuradac ki ver davumatebT ergatiul subieqts, ena ver
dauSvebs aseTi tipis hiperergativizacias organizmma
SiSisagan amakankala - miuRebeli formaa, radganac aq SiSi
aris moqmedebis gamomwvevi mizezic da amave dros is aris
moqmedebis wyaroc, anu moqmedebis realuri Camdeni.
xazgasmiT unda aRiniSnos, rom rodesac vsaubrobT mizezis
Sesaxeb, upirveles yovlisa, igulisxmeba moqmedebis
gamomwvevi mizezi (an mizezobrioba), rac rig konkretul
SemTxvevebSi pirdapir gulisxmobs moqmedebis wyaros da mis
mizezobiT motivacias. vfiqrobT, aseTi midgoma naTels mohfens
mizezobriobisa da ergativis semantikaTa kavSirs.
hiperergativizaciis erTaderTi forma, romelic metnaklebad
misaRebia aris Semdegi: raRacam SiSisagan amakankala. es
dasaSvebia imdenad, ramdenadac es aris enis mier garkveuli
formiT axsna vin-ra kategoriis farglebs gareT gasuli aqtantis
semantikisa (raRacam).
unda aRiniSnos, rom qarTulSi TandebuliT gadmocemuli
ergatiuloba wminda ergatiulobis nimuSebs qmnis Tavisi morfosintaqsiT, ramdenadac uRlebis yvela paradigmaSi erTnairad aris
warmodgenili ergatiuli semantikis TandebulebiT. es garemoeba
ki arc Tu uintereso parallels iZleva qarTulisaTvis damaxasiaTebel
nawilobriv ergatiulobasTan mimarTebaSi.
SiSisagan makankalebs SiSi makankalebs
SiSisagan amakankala - SiSma amakankala
SiSisagan avukankalebivar/avkankalebulvar/mikankalia - SiSs
avukankalebivar
saerTod, unda iTqvas, rom impersonalur tranzitivebs uWirT
mesame seriis warmoeba.
ramdenadac zemoT moyvanili tipis formebs (warmodgenils
ergatuli semantikis TandebulebiT) ZaluZT wminda ergatiuli
modelis warmodgena qarTulSi, Cven maT super-ergativebi
vuwodeT.
sagulisxmoa, rom ergativis semantikis mqone yvela zemoT
warmodgenili Tandebuli aris naTesaobiTi brunvis Tandebuli. Ees
kidev erTxel usvams xazs am ori brunvis sistemur mimarTebebs
iberiul-kavkasiur enebSi. posesiuroba-destinaciurobisa da
ergatiulobis enobrivi modelebis urTierTmimarTebaTa TvalsazrisiT
sayuradReboa kavkasiuri enebis ergatiuli da genetiuri brunebis
modelebi, anu e. w. da . am
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50

movlenasTan kavSirSi udavodOmniSvnelovania, rom rig


kavkasiur enebSi ormagi bruneba gvaqvs mxolod ergativsa da
genetivSi.
qarTul enaSi ufro farTod aris destinaciis sistema gaSlili.
samagierod, ergatiulobaa nawilobrivi. baskuri ki wminda
ergatiuli enaa, sadac destinacia ergatiulobasTan SedarebiT
sustadaa asaxuli. es ki niSnavs imas, rom qarTuli ena
upiratesobas aniWebs iribi mimarTebebis semantikas, xolo
baskuri enisTvis ufro mniSvnelovania zmnis tranzituloba da
pirdapiri obieqtis kategoriebi.

g. destinacia da zmnis polipersonalizmi


cnobilia, rom iq sadac mdidaria zmnuri morfologia, naklebi
saWiroebaa rigi sxva tipis kategoriebis arsebobisa.
Ppolipersonaluri zmna da brunvaTa sistema aTavisuflebs sityvaTa
rigs winadadebaSi. gansaxilveli kategoriis SemTxvevaSic, zmnaSi
gamoxatuli destinacia aRar moiTxovs sxva tipis morfo-sintaqsur
formebs.
U unda aRiniSnos, rom baskuri zmna polipersonaluria.
qarTulisagan gansxvavebiT, baskur zmnaSi yovelTvis
referencirdeba nebismieri zmnuri aqtanti. qarTulSi gvaqvs
morfologiurad ara-referencirebuli pirebi an, ufro zustad,
nawilobrivi referencirebis mqone pirebi. baskur zmnas aseTi ram
ar gaaCnia. saerTod, sagulisxmoa, rom baskuri ena garkveuli
principuli TanmimdevrulobiT gamoirCeva rigi morfologiuri
kategoriebis gamoxatvisas, rogorcaa pirianoba, ergatiuloba,
mravlobiToba da sxv. rig SemTxvevebSi mas axasiaTebs ama Tu
im kategoriis ormagi gamoxatvac. rogorc ukve aRvniSneT,
qarTulisagan gansxvavebiT, baskurSi yvela zmnuri piri
referencirdeba da aranairi sxvaoba am mxriv ar aRiniSneba
uRlebis sxvadasxva formaSi.
qarTul zmnaSi xdeba piris referentTa Sexvedra prefiqsul
poziciaSi, rac saTaves udebs uamrav gansxvavebul mosazrebas
am Temaze.
Tanamedrove qarTul enTamecnierebaSi arsebobs mosazreba,
rom zmnis pirianoba aris morfologiuri kategoria da igulisxmeba
mxolod zmnaSi referencirebuli pirebi. uxatavs erTpiriani
formaa, mixatavs orpiriani. Aamave Teoriis mixedviT, orive
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51

zmna aris samvalentiani da valentoba ki sintaqsuri movlenaa (T.


gamyreliZe, 1979 ).
nebismieri lingvisturi siaxle misaRebia, roca is Seesatyviseba
enis morfologiur paradigmatikasa da sintagmatikas. es Tema
ganxiluli aqvT T. uTurgaiZesa da l. enuqiZes (l. enuqiZe, 1974; T.
uTurgaiZe, 2002 ).
Cven vfiqrobT, rom pirianobisa da valentobis sakiTxi seriozul
dazustebas moiTxovs. Cveni azriT, pirianoba, rogorc morfologiuri
kategoria zedmiwevniT koreqtuli analiziT aris mocemuli tradiciul
gramatikaSi. Aar SeiZleba qarTul zmnaSi nulovani markirebis
mqone an saerTod aramarkirebuli pirebi ( Od. III ) ar CaiTvalos
pirianobis Semadgenel elementebad, radgan uRlebis
paradigmebi pirianobis swored aseT gagebas emyareba da am
principebzea agebuli.
pirianobis SemoTavazebul axlebur gaazrebas mravali
winaaRmdegoba axlavs Tan:
1. am Teoriis mixedviT, uSenebs erTpiriani zmnaa, miSenebs
orpiriani. Aaq mxolod iribi obieqturi piri Seicvala. erTi
mwkrivis SigniT piris cvlilebam ( am SemTxvevaSi, obieqturi
piris mixedviT uRlebam ) ar unda gamoiwvios pirianobis cvla.
Ee. i. paradigmatika am Teorias ar adasturebs.
2. am Teoriis mixedviT, upiroa zmnebi: wer, xatav, gaige, daxate
da a. S. es ki, cxadia, miuRebelia.
3. am Teoriis mixedviT, irRveva zmnis warmoqmnis kategoriaTa
sistema (gvari, qceva, gardamavloba). mixatavs gardauvali
zmnaa, radganac pirdapiri piri ( O d. III ) ar aris markirebuli.
Aam logikiT gardamavloba pirebis mixedviT iqneba
gamoxatuli. xatavs gardauvalia da mxatavs gardamavali.
Ees ki, ra Tqma unda, aralogikuria.
4. Tu valentoba sintaqsuri kategoriaa, maSin valentobis cvlam ar
unda gamoiwvios morfologiuri cvlilebani. Fforma vaSeneb
erTpiriani da orvalentiania. vuSeneb erTpiriani da
samvalentiani. Ffaqtobrivad, gavzardeT valentoba da miviReT
qcevis sxva morfologiuri forma. sintaqsuri kategoriebis
amgvari zemoqmedeba morfologiur kategoriebze
gamoricxulia.
5. dasazustebelia terminologiac. Tu valentobas miviCnevT
sintaqsur kategoriad, maSin unda visaubroT predikatis
valentobaze da ara zmnis valentobaze, Ee. i. gveqneba zmnis
pirianoba da Sesabamisad, sintaqsSi - predikatis valentoba.
6. miuRebelia calke aRebuli zmnis formis sintaqsuri analizi
valentobis TvalsazrisiT. iseve rogorc kaci ar aris arc
qvemdebare, arc damateba da arc Sedgenili Semasmenlis
saxeladi nawili da, saerTod, is calke aRebuli anu winadadebis
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52

gareSe ver iqneba veranairi sintaqsuri erTeuli da verc veranairi


sintaqsuri kategoriis matarebeli. amdenad, calke piriani zmna
nulovani valentobisaa ( da ara nulvalentiani wvims rogorc
es gaazrebulia. Ees sxvadasxva terminebia. ) saerTod, naTeli
WeSmaritebaa is, rom winadadebis gareSe sintaqsi ar
arsebobs.
7. Tu pirianobas mxolod referencirebuli pirebiT ganvsazRvravT,
davicvaT igive principi sintaqsSic. maSin valentoba
ganisazRvreba konkretul winadadebaSi gamosaxuli, anu
realizebuli aqtantebis raodenobiT. Zalian xSirad gasagebi
mizezebis gamo pirveli da meore piris nacvalsaxelebi
winadadebaSi gamotovebulia da igulisxmeba. vuSeneb saxls
mezobels aseT SemTxvevaSi vuSeneb unda gaviazroT
orvalentian predikatad da ara samvalentian zmnad, radganac
valentobis gamomxatveli mesame aqtanti winadadebaSi ar
aris, anu ar xdeba misi referencireba. morfologiur pirianobas
ver moakldeba aramarkirebuli aqtantebi da maTi semantika,
xolo sintaqsur valentobas ufro SeiZleba moakldes.
8. am TeoriiT auxsneli rCeba inversiuli zmnebis sakiTxi. Oorpiriani
da orvalentiania zmnebi meZineba, mZinavs. Ees ki mTel
rig gaugebrobebs warmoqmnis.
rogor gaviazroT pirianobasa da valentobis sakiTxi? pliusiT
aRvniSnoT kategoriis referencireba da minusiT arareferencireba.
Teoriulad arsebobs oTxi monacemi:
A +, - pirianoba (referencirebuli da arareferencirebuli.)
B +, - valentoba (referencirebuli da arareferencirebuli.)
a + pirianoba ( referencirebuli )
b + valentoba (referencirebuli )
A B a b morfosintaqsuri Sesabamisoba iZleva oTx Teoriul variants:
A B
A b
a -B
a-b
aqedan CvenTvis misaRebia A B an A b
da ara a - B. A B dasaSvebia. Aam SemTxvevaSi pirianobis
tradiciul gagebas sintaqsurad gadmogvcems valentoba. es
absoluturad logikuria da erTmaneTs daemTxveva zmnis
morfologiuri pirianoba da predikatis sintaqsuri valentoba. A b
dasaSvebia, radganac SeiZleba, rom sityva konkretul
winadadebaSi gamotovebuli iyos. aseT SemTxvevaSi zmnis
pirianoba ar daemTxveva predikatis sintaqsur valentobas. A = b
Aan A > b CvenTvis ufro misaRebia, vidre A B varianti. (e. i.
52

53

arareferencirebuli aqtantebis CaTvliT enis ierarqiis orive doneze).


aseT SemTxvevaSi xSirad A A < B
indoevropuli enaTmecnierebis mibaZviT xSirad infinitiuri forma
ganixileba, rogorc amosavali. marTalia, arsebobs logikursemantikurad gardamavali zmnebi, magaliTad wera, keTeba
da a S. Tumca vwer da iwereba sulac araa erTi da igive
semantikurad. amdenad, amosavali ver iqneba wera infinitivi.
Aadresatis ugulvebelyofa konkretuli formis semantikisaTvis
sruliad miuRebelia. vuxatav da vxatav sxvadasxva morfosemantikuri Rirebulebis formebia. Ddamoukidebeli semantika ar
arsebobs formisaTvis. iseve, rogorc ar arsebobs damoukidebeli
sintaqsi morfo-sintaqsis gareSe.
indoevropuli enebis doneze da, saerTod, tipologiuri
kvlevisaTvis ( agreTve polipersonaluri enebis Seswavlis
TvalsazrisiTac ) sakmaod Rirebulia valentobisa da adgilianobis
cnebebi.

logikur-semantikuri Ppersonalizmi
N
morfologia

sintaqsi

semantika
M

K1 LI - M1
N K2 - L2 - M2
K3 - L3 - M3

da a. S.

Tuki miviRebT zemoxsenebul debulebas A B, maSin


polipersonalur enebSi K=L=M iqneba. Konkretuli formisTvis
monopersonalur enebSi K = L an K < L, L = M, L < M.
morfologiuri pirianobis axleburi gaazrebiT aris ori varianti K =
L da K < L , es ukanaskneli ki miuRebelia qarTuli enis morfosintaqsuri struqturisaTvis.
tranzituli zmnebi K fiqsirebulia Ka polipersonalur enebSi da
arafiqsirebulia monopersonalur enebSi Kb. L ufro farTo speqtria
da metad Rirebulia tipologiisaTvis. polipersonaluri enebis K M
gansxvavebulia monopersonaluri struqturisagan.
T. GgamyreliZis naSromSi zmnis pirianoba da valentoba
valentoba sintaqsur kategoriad moixsenieba, magram
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54

praqtikulad gaiazreba morfologiur kategoriad. rogorc Tavad avtori


aRniSnavs, aq terminia gadaweuli da faqtobrivad es aris
pirianobis tradiciuli gageba. igi saubrobs zmnis (da ara
predikatis) valentobaze. Aaq siaxle arsebiTad morfologiaSia
SemoTavazebuli, rac sadavod migvaCnia, miuxedavad Cveni
Rrma pativiscemisa am mecnieris mimarT. sqematurad rom
warmovidginoT, T. gamyreliZis mixedviT, situacia ase
gamoiyureba:

Ppersonalizmi

pirianoba
+

valentoba
+, -

Cven migvaCnia, rom enis sxvadasxva iarusze situacia


gamoiyureba Semdegnairad:

Ppersonalizmi

pirianoba
morfologia
+, -

valentoba
sintaqsi

adgilianoba

semantika

+, -

termini adgilianoba pirvelad xolodoviCma gamoiyena (a.


xolodoviCi, 1979 ). qarTul enaTmecnierebaSi am terminis
gamoyeneba r. asaTianma SemogvTavaza (r. asaTiani, 1994 ).
Cven vfiqrobT, rom es termini xelsayrelia da sabolood
SesaZlebeli xdeba am movlenis saxeldeba enis ierarqiis
sxvadasxva doneze.
r. asaTianis qarTvelur enaTa sakiTxebi namdvilad saintereso
wignia, Tumca analizisas aqac araa enis doneebi jerovnad
54

55

gamijnuli. logikur-semantikuri ar niSnavs semantikurs.


veTanxmebiT T. gamyreliZes, romelic Tvlis, rom es aris
universaluri. Tu infinitiuri formebiT ganvixilavT semantikur dones,
maSin gamova, rom ixateba da vxatav erTi semantikuri velis
sityvebia ( xatva ), rac cxadia, araa swori. sityvas erTdroulad
gaaCnia ramdenime done: fonologiuri, morfologiuri da leqsikursemantikuri, magram ara sintaqsuri. radganac sintaqsi ar
arsebobs winadadebis gareSe. rac Seexeba logikur-semantikurs,
es aris enis ierarqiis semantikuri done. N formas gaaCnia
konkretuli morfo-semantika. aq sxva aqtantTa Soris aucilebelad
gasaTvaliswinebelia adresatic O ind, an ufro farTo cnebiT,
destinati.
amdenad, qarTul enaSi valentobis cnebis gaazreba
indoevropuli modelis mixedviT Secdoma iqneboda. tipologiuri
kvlevisaTvis Rirebuli iqneba, rom valentoba miCneuli iyos ara
sintaqsur, aramed semantikur kategoriad. maSin valentobis
morfo-semantika, Sesabamisad, gansxvavebulad aisaxeba
monopersonaler da polipersonalur enebSi.
Tu valentobas gaviazrebT semantikur kategoriad (rogorc
adgilianobaa miCneuli), Sesabamisad, SegveZleba universaluri
erTeulebis gamoyofac. kerZod, absoluturi lingvisturi

universalia iqneba Semdegi _ yvela enaSi arsebobs


gansxvavebuli valentobis zmnebi da am sxvaobaTa
realizeba ki kerZo gramatikaTa problemebia.
saWiroa specialstTa saboloo SeTanxmeba imaze, Tu ra terminiT
ganisazRvreba polipersonalizmi enis ierarqiiis sxvadasxva
doneze.

II Tavi

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56

zmnuri destinacia
polipersonaluri zmnis mqone enebSi zmna TavisTavze iRebs
did datvirTvas. Sesabamisad, ZiriTadi semantikuri da
morfologiuri kategoriebi aucileblad aisaxeba aseT mdidar zmnur
morfologiaSi.

zmnuri destinacis zogadi modelebi:


O
1. S

2. S

3. S

4. S

(aq S aris subieqti, O aris obieqti da aris nuli.)

Tanamedrove qarTulSi aRiniSneba pirveli modelis arseboba.


Cven migvaCnia, rom istoriulad qarTuli enis zmnuri destinaciis
modeli iyo meoTxe, romelic dRes gvaqvs afxazursa da baskur
enebSi. i morfema erTi kategoriis SigniT, cxadia, saopozicio
calebis ganmasxvavebel formantad ver gamodgeboda.
erTmaneTs upirispirdeboda qceviani da uqceo formebi, rogorc g.
nebieriZe da v. boederi erTmaneTisagan damoukideblad
aRniSnaven, saTaviso qceva (refleqsivi ) kerZo SemTxvevaa (g.
nebieriZe, 1976; v. boederi, 1968 ).
zmnuri destinaciis klasifikacia xdeba saopozicio wevrebis
mixedviT:
1.Edestinatori piris rogorobis mixedviT,
3. destinatori piris romelobis mixedviT.
56

57

orive SemTxvevaSi sagulisxmoa sulierobis semantikis


gaTvaliswineba.

1. qarTuli zmnis versiis kategoriis


tipologiuri analizi
qcevis kategoria qarTuli enis destinaciuri sistemis ZiriTadi
morfologiuri kategoriaa, romelsac mravalma qarTvelma da
ucxoelma mecnierma uZRvna Tavisi gamokvleva. am kategorias
swavlobdenen n. CubinaSvili, s. xundaZe, m. janaSvili, a.
QquTaTelaZe, k. dodaSvili, T. Jordania, n. mari, a. SaniZe, a.
Ciqobava, v. Tofuria, i. qavTaraZe, q. lomTaTiZe, g. rogava, h.
Suxardti, g. deetersi, h. fogti, k. Cxenkeli, b. rudenko, v. boederi,
m. maWavariani, g. nebieriZe, Bb. jorbenaZe, n. salaZe, T.
uTurgaiZe, d. meliqiSvili, i. meliqiSvili, n. metreveli da sxvebi
(a. SaniZe 1973; 1926; arn. Ciqobava, 1950; f. erTeliSvili, 1965;
v. boederi, 1968; h. Suxarti, 1950; g. rogava, 1942; T. uTurgaiZe
2000; 2002; m. maWavariani, 1987; b. jorbenaZe, 1975; 1983;
a. arabuli, 1984; i. qavTaraZe, 1956; r.asaTiani, 1987; S.
afridoniZe, 2001; m. damenia, 2003; i. imnaiSvili; g.
maWavariani, 1953; i. maWavariani, 1980; d. meliqiSvili, 2001;
i. meliqiSvili, 2003; g. nebieriZe, 1976; a. oniani, 1978; d.
fxakaZe, 1978; i. zicari, 1984; g. klimovi, 1978; n. mari, 1925;
m. saxokia, 1985; 247 i. testeleci, 1984; a. timberleiki, 1982;
g. fogti, 1972; a. harisi, 1981; r. lafoni, 1971; a. maranci, 1989;
n. Tulini, 1991; k. vamlingi, 1989 ).
tradiciul enaTmecnierebaSi miRebulia qcevis kategoriis a.
SaniZiseuli ganmarteba: subieqturi pirisa da obieqturi piris
( an obieqturi pirebis ) garda, qarTul zmnas moepoveba
agreTve saSualeba gamoxatos, rom
a) obieqti, romelsac obieqturi piri efardeba formaSi, aravisi
kuTvnileba ar aris da arc visTvismea daniSnuli; an
b) obieqti moqmed pirs, anu subieqtur pirs ekuTvnis an misTvis
aris gankuTvnili; an kidev
g) erTi obieqti meores ekuTvnis an misTvis aris gankuTvnili.
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58

moZRvrebas qarTuli zmnis am saSualebaTa Sesaxeb


ewodeba saqcevi, xolo TiToeul formas kuTvnileba-daniSnulebis
mixedviT gansxvavebuls qceva anu versia. Amis mixedviT,
gvaqvs sami qceva: saarviso, saTaviso da sasxviso, anu es
igivea, rac sami versia: neitraluri, sasubieqto da saobieqto.
saarvisoa (neitraluria) forma, romelic gviCvenebs, rom pirdapiri
obieqti aravisi kuTvnileba ar aris da arc visTvismea gankuTvnili
( daniSnuli ) : saxls vaSeneb.
saTavisoa (sasubieqtoa ) forma, romelic gviCvenebs, rom
pirdapiri obieqti ekuTvnis moqmed pirs, subieqts, an misTvisaa
gankuTvnili : saxls viSeneb.
sasxvisoa ( saobieqtoa ) forma, romelic gviCvenebs, rom
pirdapiri obieqti iribs ekuTvnis an iribisaaTvisaa gankuTvnili:
saxls vuSeneb.
MmaSasadame, qceva anu versia aris forma, romelic
aRniSnavs, Tu ra urTierTobaa kuTvnileba-daniSnulebis
TvalsazrisiT subieqtsa da obieqts ASoris an obieqtebs Soris. es
aRniSvna orgvaria; warTqmiTi da ukuTqmiTi, e. i. kuTvnilebadaniSnulebiTi urTierToba SeiZleba aRiniSnos an ar aRiniSnos,
saamisod moipoveba saopozicio formebi, romlebic erTmaneTs
kuTvnileba-daniSnulebis mixedviT upirispirdebian (a. SaniZe,
1973, gv. 323 ). SeiZleba iTqvas, rom es aris qcevis kategoriis
absoluturad amomwuravi gansazRvreba. magramAa. SaniZe
destinacias naklebad mijnavs kuTvnilebiTobisagan. saerTod, es
erTmaneTTan axlos mdgomi semantikuri kategoriebia da xSiria
maTi velebis gadakveTac. mecnieri garkveul uzustobas mainc
grZnobs da amitomac cdilobs am terminis dazustebas. igi wers:
qceva aRniSnavs ara marto formas, kuTvnilebis mixedviT
gansxvavebuls, aramed gankuTvnebis anu daniSnulebis
mixedviT gansxvavebulsac, magram simoklisaTvis marto
kuTvnilebas vaxsenebT-xolme (a. SaniZe, gv. 324 ).F faqtia, am
oridan naklebad misaRebi termini SeirCa kuTvnileba.
amave zemoT moyvanil gansazRvrebaSi Cans, rom aq
gardamaval zmnebzea ZiriTadi aqcenti. Ees ki, Tavis mxriv, ukve
gansazRvravs sakiTxisadmi midgomas. upiratesoba naTelia:
mxolod gardamaval zmnebs aqvT samive qcevis gamoxatvis
saSualeba. isic bunebrivia, rom iq sadac samive zmnuri aqtantia
mocemuli, ufro naTlad aisaxeba qcevis kategoria, radganac es
faqtobrivad aris zmnis pirTa destinaciuri urTierTobis
gamomxatveli kategoria.
Am. maWavarianis ganmartebiT, qceva aris zmnis derivaciuli
kategoria, romelsac Seesabameba derivatebSi axali
mniSvnelobis gaCena da zmnis valentobis Sesatyvisi klebamateba. qcevis kategoriis zogadi funqcia aris zmnis obieqtebis
58

59

warmoqmna an mospoba ( m. maWavariani, gv. 5-6 ). amis


sapirispiro misazreba aqvs T. uTurgaiZes, romelsac miaCnia,
rom qceva kauzaciasTan da gvarTan erTad aris uRlebis
kategoria. mas Semoaqvs seris cneba, es aris mikroparadigma,
sadac erTiandeba e. w. koneqtur kategoriaTa urTierTobebi.
saerTod, ra Tqma unda, unda vaRiaroT, rom mkrTalia
sademarkacio zRvari uRlebisa da warmoqmnis kategoriaTa
Soris. Yyoveli konkretuli forma matarebelia rogorc fleqsiuri,
aseve derivaciuli elementebisa. amitomac aseTi gansxvavebuli
midgoma bunebriv interess iwvevs. miT ufro, rom T. uTurgaiZis
am naSromSi warmodgenilia kategoriaTaSorisi sistemis Seqmnis
cda. Cven qcevis kategorias ganvixilavT, rogorc zmnis
derivaciul kategorias, romelic garkveul rols TamaSobs qarTuli
zmnis uRlebis sistemis SeqmnaSi. kerZod, qcevis niSnebi aris
erT-erTi umniSvnelovanesi fleqsiuri afiqsebi axali mwkrivebis
warmoqmnis dros, magaliTad, medioaqtivebsa da mesame
seriaSi. Tumca unda aRvniSnoT, rom im formebSi, sadac
fleqsiuri datvirTva aqvT qcevis niSnebs, destinacias ekargeba
ZiriTadi semantikuri mniSvneloba. Aamitomac xSirad maT
ufunqcio qcevis niSnebs uwodeben. sinamdvileSi maT fleqsiuri
funqcia aqvT SeZenili da derivaciuli ki gafermkrTalebuli an sulac
dakarguli. ATundac mxolod am faqtis gamo Cven gviWirs qcevis
im tipis fleqsiur kategoriad miCneva, rogorc amas T. uTurgaiZe
gvTavazobs. Tuki miviCnevT, rom yvela zmnuri kategoria fleqsiis
esa Tu is formaa ( cxadia, es simarTlea), maSin saerTod fleqsiis
sasargeblod moixsneba problemuri sakiTxi fleqsiasa da
derivacias Soris. magram aq ismis kiTxva rogori situaciaa
saxelebSi, anu sxva danarCen formacvalebad sityvebSi? irRveva
Tu ara enobrivi sistemis simetria? Kyvela konkretuli SemTxveva
unda ganvixiloT ara marto am movlenis SigniT an sxva
movlenebTan SesabamisobaSi, aramed kidev ufro farTod, zogad
enobriv sistemasTan SesabamisobaSi da agreTve universalur
tipologiur WrilSi. warmodgenil naSromSi Cven gamovyofT
fleqsiur destinacias rogorc gramatikul movlenas da destinaciis
morfo-semantikis garkveul formas. aRsaniSnavia, rom
gamoiyofa saxeluri da zmnuri fleqsiuri destinacia. am Temaze
Cven dawvrilebiT vsaubrobT disertaciis mesame TavSi.
Q qcevis samganzomilebian models xSirad uyurebdnen eWvis
TvaliT. Ff. erTeliSvils miaCnda, rom neitraluri versia, rogorc
nulovani forma, ar aris opoziciis srulfasovani wevri, radganac aq
kuTvnilebiTi urTierToba gamoxatuli ar aris. Tanac a prefiqss aqvs
gansxvavebuli funqciebic (f. erTeliSvilo, 1965 ). saerTod, zmnuri
xmovani prefiqsebis sxvadasxvagvari funqciebis Sesaxeb
mravali azri gamoTqmula. eWvs ar iwvevs funqciaTa
59

60

mravalferovneba, magram es Tanabrad exeba qcevis yvela


niSans da ara marto saarvisos referentebs. Nneitraluri forma
qcevis opoziciaSi srulfasovani da relevanturia, rac bunebrivad
gaxda imis mizezi, romFf. erTeliSvilis es azri tradiciulma skolam
ar gaiziara.
Qfaqtobrivad qcevis organzomilebian models xedavdnen v.
boederi da g. nebieriZe (v. boederi, 1968; g. nebieriZe. 1976 ).
isini Tvlidnen, rom saTaviso qceva kerZo SemTxevaa da
Tanabari midgoma ara gvaqvs saopozicio calebs Soris. Cven
savsebiT veTanxmebiT im mosazrebas, rom siRrmiseul doneze
iribi obieqti gvaqvs ara marto sasxviso qcevis paradigmaSi,
aramed saTaviso qcevis paradigmaSic. igi aris subieqtis identuri.
Cvenc ase vTvliT, rom iribi obieqti imaleba subieqtSi (an
siRrmiseul doneze erwymis subieqts). Gg. nebieriZe agreTve
saubrobs genetikur kavSirze sasxvisos i-sa da saTavisos i-s
Soris. xolo sasxvisos u- formants ki mkvlevari ablautis Sedegad
warmoqmnilad MmiiCnevs.Eigi Tvlis, rom u-s gaCena gamoiwvia
saTaviso da sasxviso formebs Soris morfologiuri omonimiis
Tavidan acilebis saWiroebam. mkvlevars miaCnia, rom
moqmedebiTi gvarsa da medioaqtivs Soris qcevis TvalsazrisiT
sruli analogia gvaqvs da i prefiqsi refleqsuri zmnebis
paradigmaSi saTaviso qcevis niSania, rogorc moqmedebiT
gvarSiA(g. nebieriZe, 1976 ). a. SaniZeEki mediopasivebs
qcevis funqciisagan daclilad miiCnevs. Gg. nebieriZe aseve
gamoyofs i-e afiqsTa opozicias qcevis kategoriis SigniT. igi Tvlis,
rom saTaviso qceva moepovebaT vnebiTi da saSualo gvaris
formebsac. mxolod erTpirian zmnebs ar gaaCniaT saTaviso
qceva.
a. SaniZe kategoriis daxasiaTebisas mkacr zRvars avlebs
saTaviso qceva mxolod orpiriani gardamavali anu moqmedebiTi
gvaris zmnebisTvisaa damaxasiaTebeli. Cven vfiqrobT,
analizisas formidan amosvlis SemTxvevaSi amas unda
daveTanxmoT, xolo funqciidan amosvlisas g. nebieriZis azric
misaRebia. aqve gvinda aRvniSnoT, rom Cveni azriT, qarTulSi
arsebobda damoukidebeli refleqsivis kategoria, romelic
xelasyrel pirobebSi Seerwya qcevis kategorias. Tumca mas aqvs
rigi sxva maxasiaTeblebic. TavisTavad, afiqsi i, rogorc
aRvniSneT, erTi kategoriis SigniT saopozicio calebis
ganmasxvaveblad ar gamodgeboda. saTaviso qceva opoziciis
srulfasovan wevrad aqcia vinis rigisa da manis rigis piris
niSanTa prefiqsulma poziciam. amitom miviReT zmnuri
destinaciis samganzomilebiani pirveli modeli qarTulSi.
aRsaniSnavia, rom qarTulSi a-, e-, i- maqcevrebi erTnairad
funqcionireben, ar arCeven molaparake da aramolaparake
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61

pirebs... u maqcevari ki warmoqmnis mxolod III irib obieqtur


pirs ( m. maWavariani, gv. 120 ).
sayuradReboa m. maWavarianis msjeloba: vin-is rigTan
maqcevrebi utoldeba piris niSnebs da zmnas ori iseTi piris
gamoxatvis unars aniWeben, romelTac sxvadasxva aRsaniSni
aqvT: vin-is rigs subieqtis rangSi, xolo maqcevars obieqtis
rangSi, rac qmnis zmnis valentobis zrdis pirobas... funqciurad
piris niSani da maqcevari man-is rigSi erT mTlians qmnis
obieqtis sintaqsur rangSi ( m. maWavariani, gv. 120 ).
d. meliqiSvili gamoyofs sasubieqto da saobieqto
mimarTebebs da wers: a-, i-, u-, e- xmovan prefiqsebis ZiriTadi
funqcia zogadad obieqturi piris arsebobaze miTiTebaa, kerZod ki,
subieqtis obieqtur pirebTan garkveuli (kuTvnileba-daniSnulebis,
lokatiuri da sxv.) mimarTebis gamoxatvaa, xolo Tu romelia
konkretulad obieqturi piri, romelsac miemarTeba subieqtis
moqmedeba, amaze saTanado piris niSani ( markeri ) miuTiTebs
(d. meliqiSvili, 2000, gv. 36 ). aq avtori mTlianad eTanxmeba m.
maWavarians, romelic Tvlis, rom TanxmovniTi elementi
gansazRvravs pirs, xmovani ki zogadad destinaciaze miuTiTebs.
samvalentiani forma miiReba a) saobieqto mimarTebiT:
kuTvnileba-daniSnulebiTi (destinaciur-posesiuri) semantikiT, rac
0/1 da 0/2-Si i- prefiqsiT aris aRniSnuli, xolo 0/3-Si u- prefiqsiT:
xatavs is mas; b) Elokatiuri semantikiT iribi obieqtis samimarTebo
a- prefiqsis darTviT: mimaWylita man me mas momabara man
me is; an ubralod Sesabamisi piris obieqturi niSniT: mimgvara
man me mas momgvara man me is, mimca man me mas
momca man me is; g) kauzaciuri mimarTebis a-in-eb, a-ev-in-eb,
konfiqsebiT: grexs is mas agrexinebs is mas mas, apobs is mas
apobinebs is mas mas, xatavs is mas axatvinebs is mas mas,
Slis is mas aSlevinebs is mas mas, akeTebs is mas
akeTebinebs is mas mas (d. meliqiSvili, 2002, gv. 35 ).
a. maranci samarTlianad uwodebs qarTuli zmnis xmovan
prefiqsebs relaciurs (a. maranci, 1989, gv. 24 ). es marTlac maTi
ZiriTadi funqciaa, sxvadasxvagvari niuansebiT.
m. paiWaZe wers: qcevis formaTa funqcionirebis meqanizmi
xSirad tangirebs sxva zmnur kategoriebTan; ase mag., gvarisa da
aspeqtis kategoriebTan, rac Tavs iCens qcevis niSnebis anu
sxvagvarad rom vTqvaT, qcevis maxasiaTebeli xmovnebis
polifunqciurobaSi (m. paiWaZe, 1993, gv. 177 ).E
Mmravali mkvlevari miiCnevs e prefiqss qcevis niSnad da i - e
prefiqsuli vnebiTi gvaris opozicias - qcevis opoziciad ( m.
maWavariani, g. nebieriZe d. meliqiSvili da sxv. ). e- , rogorc
relaciuri formanti, cxadia, itvirTeba sasxviso qcevis semantikiT.
Tumca Tu mxedvelobaSi miviRebT im faqts, rom ama Tu im
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62

zmnuri kategoriis gaformebisas bunebrivi movlenaa sxva ufro


Zveli kategoriis monawileoba am procesSi an am Zveli kategoriiT
axali kategoriisaTvis sabaziso sistemis Seqmna, maSin isic unda
gavacnobieroT, rom es am axali kategoriisaTvis lingvisturi
warsulia da, SesaZloa, is sinqroniul doneze sxva tipologiuri
maxasiaTeblebiT warsdges.
Qqceva, upirveles yovlisa, aris iribi mimarTebis kategoria. Aam
mxriv, sayuradreboa S. afridoniZis dakvirveba iribi mimarTebis
sakiTxze. igi wers: iribi obieqtis iseve rogorc inversiuli zmnis
agensis datiurma formam zmnaSi SeiZleba gaaCinos sxvadasxva
zmnuri kategoriis prefiqsebi, saxeldobr:
obieqturi piris niSnebi 1.p.-m-, II p. g-, III p. h/s/0- (Tavisi
fonetikuri pirobebiT);
obieqturi qcevis i- ( I-II p. ) an u- niSani ( III p. );
relatiuri vnebiTi gvaris e- niSani;
kauzativis a- niSani;
e. w. sazedao situaciis a- niSani.
Ggarkveul SemTxvevaSi iribi mimarTebis SeqmnaSi SeiZleba
monawileoba miiRon agreTve orientaciis maCveneblma martivma
preverbebma... (S. afridoniZe, 2001, gv. 45-61 ). sainteresoa
am mkvlevaris mosazrebani iribi mimarTebis adgilisaTvis qarTuli
zmnis morfosintaqsSi (S. afridoniZe, 2001, gv. 55-56 ). S.
afridoniZe savsebiT marTebulad askvnis: iribi obieqti zmnis
gamoxatvis TvalsazrisiT gvevlineba absoluturoba-relatiurobis
opoziciis RerZad. swored am opoziciidan amosvliT SeiZleba
vimsjeloT qarTuli zmnis iseTi kategoriebis warmoqmnaze,
rogoricaa qceva, gvari, kauzativi, situacia da rig SemTxvevebSi
orientaciac.
ramdenadac am kategoriebs SigniT yvela opozicia sabolood
Tavs iyris absolutursa da relatiuris opoziciaSi, rogorc
gamaerTianebel opoziciaSi, iribi mimarTeba, yovel SemTxvevaSi
qarTuli enisaTvis, unda daxasiaTdes rogorc interkategorialuri
mimarTeba, romelic awesrigebs yvela sxva kerZo opozicias
TiToeuli kategoriis SigniT. swored am mimarTebaze iyo da aris
amJamadac agebuli qarTuli zmnis polipersonalizmis sistema,
romelic saSualebas iZleva, urTierToba zmnis aqtantebs Soris
gavigoT nacvalsaxelTa gamouyeneblad, maSin, rodesac maT
gareSeE am urTierTobebis garkvevas ver axerxebs bevri
indoevropuli ( da ara marto am ojaxs mikuTvnebuli ) ena (S.
afridoniZe, 2001, gv. 60 ).
sainteresoa i. meliqiSvilis dakvirveba qcevis kategoriaze. is
yuradRebas amaxvilebs qcevis kategoriis aradestinaciur
funqciaze, kerZod, aspeqtis warmoebis unarze. saerTod
cnobilia, rom sruli aspeqtis formaTa warmoeba kuTvnilebis
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63

semantikas ukavSirdeba da bevr enaSi perfeqtul droTa


gamoxatva kuTvnilebis saSualebebiT xdeba. es SeiZleba iyos
qona zmnis saxiT. zogi zmnuri semantikuri klasi an saerTod
ver ukavSirdeba moqmedebis dasrulebis semantikas an
Taviseburad awarmoebs mas. qarTuli enac rig saintereso
Taviseburebas amJRavnebs am TvalsazrisiT. ramdenime zmnuri
klasi unificirebuli principis (zmniswinis meSveobiT) ar
awarmoebs aspeqtur formebs. AaseT SemTxvevaSi, rogorc
wesi, qcevis kategorias vxedavT aspeqtur dapirispirebaTa
warmomqmneli principis rolSi (i. meliqiSvili, 2003, gv. 121 ).
me-10 saukunidan, rodesac iwyeba aspeqtis axali sistemis
Camoyalibeba, Cndeba qceviT monacvle medioaqtiuri
zmnebi:yivis-iyivla, kivis-ikivla, filosofosobs-ifilosofosa da a.
S. (a. SaniZe, 1973, gv. 494) i. meliqiSvili wers: axal qarTulSi
medioaqtiur zmnaTa aspeqturi dapirispireba qcevis meSveobiT
ganxorcielda rig zmnebSi. Zveli qarTulidan axali qarTulisken
aspeqtis gamoxatvis principis cvlilebasTan erTad yalibdeba
medioaqtiur zmnaTa wyvetili da uwyveteli aspeqtebis
dapirispirebis gamoxatvis saxe, romelic neitralur da saTaviso
qcevis formebs emyareba. (i. meliqiSvili, 2003, gv. 128-129 ).
es sitema morfologiur safuZvelze yalibdeba da aseT zmnaTa
awmyoSiDi qcevis niSnis gaqrobas, cxadia, aqvs ara fonetikuri,
aramed morfologiuri mizezi. ( l. nozaZe, 1974, gv. 19 ).
i. meliqiSvili daaskvnis: vfiqrobT, rom qarTuli qcevis
kategoriisaTvisac predikacia ZiriTad semantikur funqcias
warmoadgens. igi zmniT gamoxatuli procesis mimarTebas
amyarebs aqtantebTan: subieqtTan (is ibans, ikeTebs), irib
obieqtTan (is mas ukeTebs, uSenebs), pirdapir obieqtTan (is mas
akeTebs, aSenebs), iZulebis pirTan, anu moqmedebis
SemsrulebelTan (is mas axatvinebs, awerinebs). igi analizur
zmnaSi meSvel zmnaTa funqcionirebis sinTezuri eqvivalentia (i.
meliqiSvili, 2003, gv. 130 ). Mmecnieri Semdgom agrZelebs:
qcevis prefiqsebi mimarTebiTi predikatuli elementebia: isini
mdgomareobis semantikas ufro bunebrivad ukavSirdebian,
vidre dinamikis semantikas. wyvetili aspeqti semantikurad
mdgomareobasTan ufro axloa, vidre uwyveteli (i. meliqiSvili,
2003. gv. 131 ).
Cveni azriT, mdgomareobisa da dinamikis semantika nakleb
kavSirSia uSualod qcevasTan. perfeqti moicavs posesiur
semantikas. qcevisa da perfeqtis zmnur kategoriaTa velebi am
mxriv saziaro monakveTebs Seicaven da zustad am saziaro
semantikuri velis doneze xdeba qcevis niSniani formebiT
Sesabamis mwkrivTa warmoeba rig zmnebSi.
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64

qcevis kategoriis Seswavlis istoriidan gansakuTrebiT unda


gamovyoT m. maWavarianis qcevis gramatikuli kategoriis
semantika. Aes gaxlavT am kategoriis fundamenturi
gamokvleva. avtori wers: qcevis kategoriis warmosadgenad
saWiroa ori kategoriis - pirisa da brunvis urTierTqmedebis
gaTvaliswineba. brunvis kategoriis ganzomilebebidan am
TvalsazrisiT yvelaze mniSvnelovania mimarTulebis ( farTo
abstraqtuli gagebiT ) gamoxatva... piris niSnebic nacvalsaxelTa
garkveuli formaa... magram saxelebisagan gansxvavebiT mas
damatebiTi arsebiTi funqciac aqvs, gamoxatos sametyvelo
situaciis centri da amiT Seqmnas brunvaTa mimarTulebisa da
urTierTmizidulobis (moculobis) mniSvnelobebis veqtorebisaTvis
orientaciis RerZi ( m. maWavariani, 1987. gv. 124 ).
sametyvelo situaciis RerZad miCneulia molaparake piri,
gansazRvrulia, rom orientaciis aqvs ori varianti: introvertuli da
eqstravertuli. sasurveli iqneboda, mecniers moeca am terminTa
Sesabamisoba a. SaniZis qcevis terminebTan mimarTebaSi. qceva
qarTvelur enebSiQm. maWavarianis mier samarTlianad miCneulia
dominant kategoriad, romelic win uswrebs gvaris kategoriis
gaformebas diaqroniaSi. Mmkvlevari wers: piris niSnebs
maqcevarianad (e. i. maTi brunviTi mniSvnelobianad ) aqvT
zmnis aqtantebis warmoqmnisa da mospobis funqcia, da
amdenad, zmnis valentobis kleba-matebis unari ( m.
maWavariani, 1987. gv. 125 ). pirisa da qcevis niSanTa aseT
kombinacias mkvlevari proklitikas uwodebs. Cven vfiqrobT, rom
morfologiuri segmentaciisas minimalizaciis principis dacva
savaldebuloa. saerTod, qarTuls axasiaTebs zmnur morfemaTa
polifunqciuroba. isic aRsaniSnavia, rom zmnuri morfemebi
erTmaneTTan kavSirSi qmnian konkretuli formis semantikas.
morfologiuri analizis dros aucilebelia erTi kategoriis doneze
morfemaTa segmentireba funqciuri da formaluri parametrebiT.
unda aRvniSnoT, rom m. maWavarianma sakmaod
warmatebiT ganixila qcevis kategoriis semantika da axali
(CvenTvis misaRebi) implikaciuri universaliac SemogvTavaza:
zmnis morfologiis doneze qcevis kategoria xorcieldeba mxolod
im enebSi, sadac dasturdeba amave saxis piris kategoriac. Tu
zmnas morfologiurad gamoxatuli piris kategoria ara aqvs, arc
qcevis kategoria eqneba( m. maWavariani, 1987. gv. 23 ). aqve
igi akeTebs umnSvnelovanes tipologiur daskvnas: TviTon piris
kategoria Sinaarsoblivad aZlevs biZgs qcevis kategoriis
Camoyalibebas... Cveni azriT, pirisa da qcevis semantika yvelaze
adekvaturad aRiwereba brunvis kategoriis SinaarsiT ( m.
maWavariani, 1987. gv. 23 ). Cven savsebiT viziarebT m.
maWavarianis zemoxsenebul daskvnebs da davumatebT, rom,
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65

saerTod, am Tu im enaSi zmnuri destinaciis gamosaxatavad


marto erTi zmnuri piris arseboba sakmarisi ar aris, saWiro da
aucilebelia, iyos zmnaSi gamoxatuli iribi mimarTebac. aqedan ki
is gamomdinareobs, rom zmnuri destinacia mxolod

polipersonaluri zmnebis fufunebaa (an Tavsatexi).


es statistikuri lingvisturi universaliaa.
m. MmaWavarianma pirvelma gaiazra qceva, rogorc veqtoruli
kategoria. Mmisi Teoria versiis Sesaxeb faqtobrivad amyarebs
Cven mer ramdenime wlis win wamoyenebul lingvisturi
veqtorialobis Teorias, romlis Sesaxebac naSromis pirvel TavSi
gvqonda saubari. sruliad naTelia, qcevis kategoriis veqtoruli saxe,
rogorc Sida semantikur, aseve referencialur donezec.
zemoT Cven mxolod qcevis kategoriis Sesaxeb gamoqveynebul
ZiriTad Sromebze SevaCereT yuradReba, radganac Cveni
sadisertacio naSromis mizani ar aris am kategoriis Seswavlis
istoriis ganxilva. mniSvnelovani is gaxlavT, rom qcevis kategoria
sakmaod safuZvlianad aris Seswavlili.
Tanamedrove qarTulSi qcevis kategoria qmnis mwyobr morfosemantikur sistemas:
saarviso anu neitraluri O0, a
sasxviso anu saobieqto, eqstravertuli i, u ( e)
saTaviso anu sasubieqto, introvertuli i
Cven gamovyofT qcevis kategoriis Taviseburebebs.
Bbunebrivia, rom rodesac arsebobs wesi, iqvea gamonaklisic,
anu anomalia. Qqcevis gramatikuli kategoria Tanamedrove
qarTulSi Semdegi TaviseburebebiT xasiaTdeba:
1. sxvaoba gardauval da gardamaval zmnaTa sistemebs Soris
qcevis kategoriis mixedviT;
2. qcevis kategoriis mixedviT formanakli zmnebi:L
a. formanakluloba erTi mwkrivis SigniT
saopozicio calebSi,
b. formanakluloba uRlebis paradigmebis mixedviT;
3. ori iribis arseboba zmnaSi:
a. ori iribi gardauval zmnebSi,
b. ori iribi gardamaval zmnebSi;
4. polisemiuri formebi qcevis kategoriis TvalsazrisiT;
5. uqceo zmnebi:
a. uniSno formebi,
b. niSniani formebi,
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66

6. qcevis kategoriis formisa da Sinaarsis diaqroniuli cvlilebani.


ganvixiloT TiToeuli zemoT CamoTvlili SemTxveva:
1. sxvaoba gardauval da gardamaval zmnaTa sistemebs Soris
qcevis kategoriis mixedviT savsebiT naTelia da es movlena
sistemuria. qarTulSi mxolod gardamavali anu moqmedebiTi
gvaris zmnebi gviCvenebs samgamzomilebian models.
gardauvali zmnebi ki mxolod organzomilebian modelSi Tavsdeba,
ramdenadac aq gamoricxulia saTaviso anu sasubieqto qceva. Ees
sistemuri da principuli xasiaTis sxvaobaa, rac kidev erTxel
usvams xazs qarTulSi ( da saerTod, qarTvelurSi )
samganzomilebiani modelis meoradobas.
2. qarTul enaSi gvaqvs qcevis kategoriis mixedviT formanakli
zmnebi. aseTi zmnebi SegviZlia or jgufad davyoT:
a. zmnebi, romelTac axasiaTebT formanakluloba erTi mwkrivis
SigniT saopozicio calebSi, magaliTad: Ggvaqvs vacnob - vicnob
da ara gvaqvs sasxviso forma - vucnob. ( aqve unda aRiniSnos,
rom am formebs sxvadasxva mniSvneloba aqvT. magram es
qcevis referentebis formalur mxares ar exeba. )
b. zmnebi, romelTac axasiaTebT formanakluloba uRlebis
paradigmebis mixedviT, magaliTad: gvaqvs statikur zmnaTa
opozicia - weria/uweria, romelTac meore seriaSi ewera
Seesabameba orive SemTxvevisaTvis. aseve kargaven qcevis
gagebas sampiriani zmnebi mesame seriaSi da yvelgan, sadac
qceva gamodis wminda fleqsiuri datvirTviT, ikargeba destinaturi
Sinaarsi.
3. qarTulSi zogjer zmnaSi ori iribi obieqturi piria mocemuli. ra
Tqma unda, es ar niSnavs imas, rom orive gamoixateba zmnaSi.
a. ori iribi gardauval zmnebSi vnebiTSi: micvia (me mas is),
mimepyar (Sen me mas), saSualSi: mimidevs (me mas is),
mitkiva (me mas is). Aam oridan erTi aucileblad posesori anu
mflobeli obieqtia da mas alternatiuli aRweriTi sintaqsuri
konstruqciac moepoveba Sesamabisi orpiriani zmnis formiTa da
posesori obieqtis dativiT an genetiur-posesiuri brunviT zmnis
gareT, magaliTad: micvia me cols kaba da Cems cols kaba acvia.
b. ori iribi gardamaval zmnebSi iZleva oTxpirian zmnebs:
mimiwera (man me mas is), mimixata ( man me mas is ), ufro
xSirad kauzatiuri formebia aseT dros gamoyenebuli:
gamikeTebine (Sen me mas is), damixatvine (Sen me mas is).
aseTi formebi, gamonaklisis gareSe, sasxviso qcevis formebia.
iribis Semoyvanas zmnaSi ori gza da mizani aqvs:
1. an kauzacias sWirdeba Semsrulebeli obieqtis Semoyvana,
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67

2. an posesiur-benefaqtiur semantikas unda gaesvas xazi.


Ooriribiani formebi ZiriTadad sasxvisos semantikiT itvirTeba.
4. arsebobs polisemiuri formebi qcevis kategoriis TvalsazrisiT.
enaSi aris iSviaTi zmnis formebi, sadac pirdapiri obieqti aris
cvalebadi da saTaviso qcevis formebi, SesaZloa, obieqturi wyobis
zmnebSic gvqondes. aseTi formebi zogjer
polisemiuria.Ddamiyena man me - es aris saTaviso qceva
pircvalebadi pirdapiri obieqtiT paradigmidan:
damiyena
man me
dagiyena
man Sen
daiyena
man is
damiyena - man me mas aris sasxviso pirucvleli mesame piris
iribi obieqtiT:
damiyena
man me mas
dagiyena
man Sen mas
daiyena
man is mas
rogorc vxedavT, polisemiuria damiyena/dagiyena formebi.
5. uqceo zmnebi
es is zmnebia, romelTac ar gaaCniT qcevis gageba. aseT
zmnebs, faqtobrivad, saopozicio calebi ar moepovebaT da qcevis
Sinaarsisagan daclilni arian: uyvars, aqvs, icis, axsovs, hgonia,
uWiravs, sZuls da sxv. Aam zmnebSic ori jgufi gamoiyofa:
a. uniSno formebi: hgonia, swams, sZuls, HHhqvia da sxv. Aam
formebs arc qcevis niSani gaaCniaT da arc am kategoriis
Sinaarsi.
b. niSniani formebi: icis, uyvars, aqvs da a. S. aseT zmnebs
qcevis niSani moepovebaT, magram ara aqvT saopozicio calebi
da amdenad, arc qcevis gageba ar gaaCniaT. vfiqrobT, rom
ufunqcio niSani zmnaSi ar gaCndeboda da adgili aqvs kategoriis
formobrivsa da azrobriv cvlilebebs. Aam azrs adasturebs zogi
aseTi zmnis formebSi sxva qarTvelur enebTan SepirispirebiT
aRdgenili qcevis funqcia: vici mixa/xoxa (svan.)
6. qcevis kategoriis formisa da Sinaarsis diaqroniuli cvlilebani.
Ees Zalian didi sakiTxia da moiTxovs seriozul midgomas. Cven
mravali mkvlevaris kvaldakval mxolod aRvniSnavT, rom qcevis
gramatikulma kategoriam ganviTarebis didi gza ganvlo. igi
ukavSirdeba piris, klasis, brunvis, gvaris, kauzaciis, uRlebis da
sxva mraval zmnur kategorias. saerTod, Zalian Wirs da arc
mizanSewonilia romelime erTi kategoriis damoukidebeli analizi
( Tu saqme ar exeba kerZo deskrifciul lingvistikas ).
zmnuri morfo-semantikuri kategoriebi urTierTmoqmedeben da
saerTo zmnuri sistemis mTlianobas qmnian. es suraTi naTlad
Cans e. w. deiqturi xmovnebis analizze. Qunda aRiniSnos, rom
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68

deiqtiuri mimarTebebi klasobrivi ierarqiiT ganisazRvreba enaSi.


am TvalsazrisiT es sistema erTgvarovania zmnebsa da saxelebSi.
qcevis kategoriaze saubrisas gverds ver avuvliT zmnis
xmovanprefiqsul formaTa warmoebas. Aa. SaniZe Tvlida, rom
prefiqsuli vnebiTi qceviani formebidan momdinareobda (a.
SaniZe 1973, gv. 355-356 ). saerTod, prefiqsul vnebiTebSi, cxadia,
xdeba erT referentSi funqciaTa Serwyma. Ggvarisa da qcevis
markerTa erTnairi rangobrivi pozicia arTulebs saboloo konkretuli
pasuxis moZebnas i-e opoziciis Sesaxeb. Tanamedrove qarTulSi
saxezea polifunqciuri zmnuri xmovani prefiqsebi.
cnobilia, rom a SeiZleba iyos kauzaciis, sazedaos, saarviso
qcevis niSani an zmniswini. Ees ukanaskneli problemas ar qmnis,
radganac SedarebiT advilad ganisazRvreba konkretul formaSi.
rac Seexeba kauzaciis, sazedaos da saarvisos formaTa erTi
formantiT markirebas, Cven vfiqrobT, rom yvela am SemTxvevas
aqvs saerTo niSani iribi mimarTeba. Tumca unda aRiniSnos, rom
a prefiqsi pirdapir obieqtsac warmoqmnis garkveul sintagmatur
pirobebSi, kerZod, rodesac gardauvali zmnis an saxelis fuZes amaqcevari daerTvis pirveladi kauzaciis pirobebSi (m.
maWavariani, 1987, gv. 120).
saerTod, iribi mimarTeba SeiZleba iyos lokatiuri an iyos
egzekutori anda adresati, anu destinati. am bolo SinaarsTan axlo
kavSirSia posesoris semantikac. es aris iribi obieqtis anu iribi
mimarTebis zmnuri niSani piris niSnis konkretuli miTiTebis gareSe.
sxvaTa Soris, am TvalsazrisiT tipologiurad Zalze sainteresoa
baskuris monacemebi - iqac ki faqtobrivad aris iribi mimarTebis
(adresatis) niSani da zmnaSi calkea aRniSnuli iribi obieqtis piris
niSnebi. aseTive semantika aqvs qarTulSi u xmovans, magram aq
ufro konkretuli funqciaa gamoyofili da Sesabamisad, sadavoc
aRaraferia. rac Seexeba e prefiqss, a. SaniZe n. maris
mosazrebas iziarebs a + i = e. Cvenc sakmaod damajereblad
gveCveneba aseTi genezisi. zogi mkvlevari e prefiqss qcevis
niSnad miiCnevs (g. nebieriZe, 1976; m. maWavariani, 1987, gv.
120).
i- prefiqsi ufro mravalferovania Tavisi diaqroniuli da funqciuri
TvalsazrisiT. mas aqvs ori sapirispiro funqcia: sasxviso qcevis
dros ( manis rigTan ) mas zmnaSi Semohyavs iribi obieqti Ewers-miwers, xolo saTaviso qcevis dros (vinis rigTan) - piriqiT,
mas es iribi obieqti zmnidan gahyavs: Eswers-iwers. amdagvari
mravalferovneba bunebrivad badebs uamrav kiTxvas da sakiTxis
mimarT sxvadasxvanair midgomasac gamoiwvevs. Zalian
saitereso da mniSvnelovani dakvirveba hqonda am sakiTxze g.
rogavas. igi miiCnevda, rom i iyo kuTvnilebiTi (daniSnulebiTi)
afiqsi zmnebsa da saxelebSi (g. rogava, 1942) Cvenc
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69

vvaraudobT, rom am afiqss marTlac saerTo destinaciur-posesiuri


Rirebuleba SeiZleboda hqonoda zmnebsa da saxelebSi. Bqcevis
kategoriis brunvis formebTan sistemur mimarTebebze saubrobs
m. maWavarianic (m. maWavariani, 1987, gv. 23-27).
upirveles yovlisa, aSkaraa nacvalsaxelTa Mmonawileoba
brunvaTa gaformebaSic da zmnis pirTa gaformebaSic. ATundac
mxolod aqedan gamomdinare, uamravi saerTo formanti SeiZleba
aRmoCndes saxelebsa da zmnebSi. mraval enaSi gvaqvs imis
magaliTi, Tu rogor aisaxeba esa Tu is kategoria zmnebsa da
saxelebSi paraleluri simetriiT. B

qarTuli zmnis xmovani prefiqsebi, Cveni azriT,


polipersonaluri afiqsebia, romlebic sinTezuri
semantikiT xasiaTdeba da konkretul zmnur
formaSi romelime erT an or funqcias wamowevs
win. es faqti (sxva am tipis movlenebTan erTad) ganacalkevebs
qarTul enas wmnida aglutinaciuri tipis enebisagan. saerTod,
SeiZleba Sereuli fleqsiur-aglutinaciuri tipis enaTa jgufis
ganmsazRvrel parametrebzec vifiqroT. amisTvis
unda Camoyalibdes kategoriaTa referirebis distribuciuli sistemebi
da am Sereul jgufSi gaerTianebisaTvis safuZveli ar unda iyos
mxolod erTi tipidan gadaxris ramdenime usistemo SemTxveva
enaSi.
baskur enaSi eWvgareSea adresatobis niSnis warmoSoba
saTanado micemiTi brunvidan. orive SemTxvevaSi ZiriTadad es
aris i afiqsi. sxvaTa Soris, tipologiuri kvlevis farglebSi aseTi tipis
damTxvevebma, SesaZloa, kidev erTxel gaamaxvilos mecnierTa
yuradReba fono-semantikaze.
Q ras warmoadgens sampiriani zmnis uRlebisas mesame seriis
formebSi gaCenili e. w. ufunqcio qcevis niSnebi? Qrogorc zemoT
aRvniSneT, qceva ZiriTadad aris iribi obieqtis kategoria da
mesame seriaSi, rodesac es iribi obieqti gadis zmnidan, is cdilobs
destinaciuri Sinaarsis SenarCunebas da irCevs TvisTandebulian formebs, romelTac aqvT daniSnulebiTobis Sinaarsi.
mainc rCeba garkveuli ukmarisobis SegrZneba destinaciis
gamoxatvis TavalsazrisiT da amis Sesavsebad paralelurad
Cndeba qcevis niSnebi. Ffaqtobrivad SenarCunebulia semantika
da Secvlilia morfologia. Mmesame seriaSi destinaciis semantika
sxva morfologiur formebs mimarTavs, magram igi mTlianad ar
gadis zmnidan da iq tovebs Tavis referentebs, romlebic
Sesabamisi iribi obieqtis gareSe ukve ufunqciod moiazreba.
Aaqve unda aRvniSnoT, rom saerTod, enam ar icis

ufunqcio niSani yvela niSans sinqroniulad an


diaqroniulad mainc romelime konkretuli
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semantikuri datvirTva aqvs. ramdenadac morfema aris


orplaniani erTeuli anu morfo-semantikuri referenti. iq, sadac
Sinaarsi ikargeba an viwrovdeba, vsaubrobT ufunqcio
morfemebze. cnobilia, rom sityvis semantikuri veli moZravia. is
SeiZleba sxvadasxvagvarad Seicvalos. Aes exeba ara marto
Zireul morfemebs. aseTivea sxva danarCen morfemaTa
semantikuri velic. Tumca, bunebrivia, rom am morfemaTa
cvlilebebis siCqaris koeficienti gacilebiT dabalia.
zemoT moyvanili msjeloba misaRebia sinqroniuli tipologiisa da
deskrifciuli lingvistikisaTvis, Tumca diaqroniulad viciT, rom
mesame seria statikuri zmnis formebidan Camoyalibda da
Sesabamisad, istoriuli analizis suraTic sakmaod gansxvavebulia.
dRes mesame seriis sampiriani zmnis formebi paradigmatikaSic
da sintagmatikaSic ukve sxva sibrtyezea gadatanili. Eesenia
pirvel-meore seriis formaTa saopozicio formebi da Tavisi
diaqroniuli semantikis miuxedavad, dRes isini daSorebulia
statikurobis Sinaarss da maT axleburi semantika aqvT SeZenili.
am semantikaSi ki isini kargaven irib obieqts (ganurCevlad imisa,
Tu ra da rogor iyo diaqroniaSi ).
Ddiaqroniuli suraTi ki aseTia: statikuri formidan uweria mas
(kacs O ind. ) is ( sityva - SO) wignze miviReT III seriis forma
(mi)uweria mas (kacs S ) sityva ( O ind. ) [dedisTvis ]. Ee. i. aq
istoriuli iribi obieqti gaxda subieqti da subieqti ki obieqtad
mogvevlina amitom gasagebia, ratomac gvaqvs inversia. am
formaTa axleburi gaazrebisas Semodis axali iribi obieqti, sul sxva,
axali aqtanti (dedisTvis), romelic kanonieri da erTaderTi iribi
obieqtia pirvel-meore seriaSi. mesame seriaSi ki zmnaSi aris
mxolod istoriuli iribi obieqti ( kacs ), romelic brunvasac ki
inarCunebs, obieqtis niSnebiTaa asaxuli zmnaSic da saxelSic
(Tumca subieqtadaa qceuli). meore iribi obieqti am mesame
seriaSi zmnam ukve aRar miiRo da gareT gaitana. miviReT e. w.
ubralo damateba, romelic rig enebSi predikatis argumentia.
saerTod, qarTul zmnas iSviaT SemTxvevebSi SeuZlia ori iribi
obieqtis qona (miWmie, mismie formebSi - me da mas ori iribia);
magram unda iTqvas, rom aq sxva - kauzatiuri tipis urTierTobaa
asaxuli.
unda aRiniSnos, rom am axali iribi obieqtis gareSec (romelic
zmnaSi veRar formdeba) mesame seriis formebSi ukve gvaqvs
qcevis niSani, romelsac Tavisi funqcia hqonda pirvelad statikur
formaSi. amitom SesaZloa am qcevis niSanTa ganxilva
damatebiTi destinatoris anu am axali iribi obieqtis gareSe.
Mmagram es ar iqneba marTebuli, radganac ena polisemiazec ki
midis axal formaTa Sesaqmnelad da, cxadia, ramdenad
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71

Seusabamo iqneboda calmxrivi diaqroniuli analizi. axali forma


axali semantikiT unda gaviazroT.
Tavis mxriv, statikuri zmnebi ganasxvaveben qcevas Ggvaqvs: weria uweria aweria. radganac iribi obieqtis
semantika iyo xazgasasmeli, amitomac mesame seriis formaTa
warmoebam Sesabamisi referencirebuli, dadebiTi anu sasxviso
qcevisniSniani formebi amoirCia statikur zmnaTa arsebuli
variantebidan. sinqroniul doneze ki es niSnebi ufunqcio
referentebad gaiazreba, radganac, rogorc aRvniSneT, iribi obieqti
zmnaSi aRar aris da sasxviso qceva ki iribi obieqtis gareSe ver
iqneba.
am sakiTxis mimarT saintereso midgoma aqvs T. uTurgaiZes.
igi wers: daemata zmniswini (romlis arseboba statikur formebSi
gamoricxulia ). . . zmniswinma Semoitana gezi, rasac mohyva
aqtivTaTvis aucilebeli dinamizacia. es iyo dinamizaciis umoklesi
gza. Ddinamizaciis Semdeg iwyeba funqciuri gadanacvlebebi
aqtantTa Soris (T. uTurgaiZe, 2002, gv. 18 ). am mosazrebas
Cvenc viziarebT, Tumca ver daveTanxmebiT mkvlevars mis
daskvnaSi: aqtivis paradigmis III seriis perfeqtul formebSi xdeba
I da II seriaTa agensisa da paciensis rolebis Secvla, rasac,
bunebrivia, mosdevs piris niSanTa saTanado ganawileba.
MmaSasadame, ar xdeba piris niSanTa inversia: iniciators
subieqtis niSani gamoxatavs, obieqtis niSniT ki moqmedebis
Semsrulebeli aqtantia markirebuli (T. uTurgaiZe, 2002, gv. 19 ).
is pirTa niSnebi, rac mocemuli gvaqvs III seriaSi diaqroniuli
TvalsazrisiT sruliad cxadia, rom aris ara pirdapiri obieqtis,
aramed iribi obieqtis kuTvnileba, ramdenadac statikur zmnaTa
formebSi, ris safuZvelzec gaformda III seria, pirdapiri obieqti
arasodes yofila. es iyo iribi obieqti da zustad amitom III sampirian
zmnaSi irib obieqts zmnis gareT tovebs uRlebis paradigma. rom
gaviziaroT es mosazreba, rom TiTqos ar xdeba inversia, unda
CavTvaloT, rom - dauxatavs ( kacs suraTi dedisaTvis ) aq suraTi
aris subieqti (gnebavT iniciatori ). Tu pirvel da meore seriaSi
subieqti aris kaci, paradigma winaaRmdegobrivi iqneba, Tu mas
mesame seriaSi sxva gramatikuli subieqti gauCndeba. Ees
ewinaaRmdegeba fleqsiis ZiriTad kanonebs. NnaTelia, rom III
seriaSi ara gvaqvs ordinaruli situacia, magram markerTa
formobrivi cvla ufro misaRebia, vidre Sinaarsobrivi xasiaTis
cvlilebani paradigmaSi.
aqve gvinda xazi gavusvaT T. uTurgaiZis, rogorc mkvlevaris,
mecnierul damsaxurebas. Mman axleburad gaiazra qarTuli zmnis
kategoriebi da Semoitana mTeli rigi axali cnebebi qarTul tradiciul
lingvistikaSi situantebi, iniciatori, aqtanturi da koneqturi
kategoriebi, seri, pirmimarTi da pirmiumarTavi aqtantebi da a. S.
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samwuxarod, gasagebi mizezebis gamo Cven aq detalurad ver


ganvixilavT mis mier SemoTavazebul siaxleebs zmnur
kategoriebTan dakavSirebiT.
rac Seexeba a. onianis mosazrebas amave sakiTxze, is Tvlis,
rom III seriis formebi aris aramoqmedebiTi pirdapiri obieqtis
uqonlobis gamo da aravnebiTi Sesabamisi konversiuli aqtivis
uqonlobis gamo. mesame seriis formebi datiuri konstruqcis
zmnebia ( a. oniani, 1978).Ddatiuri konstruqcia, cxadia, saxezea
da amis uaryofa arc SeiZleba, magram gvaris sakiTxi calke
Temaa da, Cveni azriT, saeWvoa am formaTa ugvaro formebad
miCneva, rac TavisTavad gamomdinareobs maTi
aramoqmedebiTobidan da aravnebiTobidan.
Uudavod mniSvnelovania m. maWavarianis Sexeduleba manis
rigis aqtualizaciisa da vinis rigis neitralizaciis Sesaxeb III seriaSi.
amiT aixsneba subieqtisa da iribi obieqtis rangebis cvla. igi wers:
perfeqtis subieqti ar aris aqtualuri agenturad moqmedi piri. . .
amitom perfeqtis subieqti formiTac unda gansxvavdes naxuli
aqtis, aqtualurad moqmedi agentisagan, rac ganapirobebs manis
rigis naTesaobiTSi dasmuli proklitikis arCevans (m. maWavariani,
1987, gv. 123).
qceva aris relatiuri kategoria, refleqsivi ki - binaruli relacia.
rogorc ukve aRvniSneT, Cven vfiqrobT, rom qarTulSi (iseve rogorc
danarCen qarTvelur enebSi ), Tavdapirvelad mxolod qceviani da
uqceo formebi ganirCeoda da vinisa da manis rigis prefiqsulma
warmoebam SesaZlebeli gaxada saTaviso qcevis saopozicio calad
Camoyalibeba. refleqsivis kategoria qcevas Seerwya. Tumca
unda iTqvas, rom es aris calke mdgomi gramatikuli kategoria,
romelsac Sesabamisi sintaqsuri da morfo-semanturi modelebi
gaaCnia. refleqsivi, rogorc semantikuri kategoria, kargavs
gramatikuli markirebis potencias da qarTveluri zmnis
morfologiaSi formdeba, rogorc qcevis kerZo SemTxveva amiT
iqmneba qcevis samganzomilebiani modeli.
Mmartivi WeSmaritebaa is, rom polipersonalur sistemebSi
zmnaze modis morfologiuri datvirTvis lomis wili. sadac mdidaria
zmnuri morfologia, mravali sxva sintaqsuri modeli da kategoria
gamartivebulia. es movlena naTlad aisaxeba rogorc qcevis, aseve
refleqsivis SemTxevevaSic. zmnaSi asaxulma refleqsivma aRar
daiWirva gamorCeuli referencireba morfologiis sxva sibrtyeze da
Tvis-Tandebuliani, anu zmnis gareT moqceuli qcevis paralelurad
igi gvaZlevs Tavis aRweriT sintaqsur variants Tvis-Tandebuliani
formebiT. gavixsenoT, rom Tvis Tandebulis pirveladi funqcia
refleqsurobaSia, ramdenadac igi momdinareobs formidan Tavi.
unda iTqvas, rom mravali sxvadasxva jgufis enebisaTvis Tavi
aris refleqsivis warmoebis saerTo gza. AaseTi sqema muSaobs
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baskurSic saxeli an nacvalsaxeli dativSi + Tavi dativSi,


magaliTad, Gure buruari CvenTvis, BBere buruari - TavisTvis.
sintaqsur refleqsivSi xSiria forma TavisTvis, rac refleqsiuri
formantebis erTgvari gaormagebaa. aseTi gaormageba ki am
kategorias dasWirda qcevis sintaqsuri variantisagan gasamijnad.
klasis kategoriis TvalsazrisiT refleqsivi sulierobis klasisTvis
(ZiriTadad vin jgufisaTvis ) aris damaxasiaTebeli. sagulisxmia l.
hermodsonis dakvirveba, rom sxeuli da suli ixmareba
refleqsuri Tavis funqciiT Zvel indurSi (m. paiWaZe, 1993 ).
saintereso sistemas ayalibebs qcevisa da refleqsivis formaTa
morfo-sintaqsuri distribucia. sadac gvaqvs zmnuri sasxviso
qcevis formebi, iq dauSvebelia Tvis-Tandebuliani formebi,
magaliTad, mikeTebs CemTvis akrZalvaa. maSin rodesac
analogiur SemTxvevaSi dasaSvebia saTaviso qcevis dros
refleqsiuri Tvis Tandebulis gamoyenebac vikeTeb CemTvis. Ee. i.
refleqsivi, rogorc kategoria qcevasTan SedarebiT ufro kargad
itans ormag gamoxatvas. es movlena garkveuli tipis sxvaobas
qmnis refleqsivsa da qcevas Soris.
polisemiuriDforma damiyena man me rodesac saTaviso
qcevas aRniSnavs pircvalebadi pirdapiri obieqtiT, kargavs
refleqsurobis Sinaarss. Yyvelaze mkafiod refleqsuroba iseT
saTaviso qcevis formebSia gamoxatuli da semantikurad
SenarCunebuli, sadac iribi obieqti subieqtSive moiazreba da
SesaZloa, damatebiT gadmoices formiT Tavi, magaliTad:
ixatavs Tavs, ilamazebs Tavs da a. S.
aqve gvinda xazi gavusvaT deponensebis Taviseburebas
refleqsivis TvalsazrisiT aq erT jgufSi Seva iseTi formebi,
romlebic TavisTavze Catarebul moqmedebas gamoxataven:
iqeqeba, itileba, iwirpleba, ifxaneba, ifurTxeba, icoxneba da sxv.
Aaq sakmaod mkveTrad Cans refleqsiuri Sinaarsi. Tumca sxva
deponensebic ar aris refleqsurobis gagebas moklebuli: iRriWeba,
iwyevleba, ilanZReba da sxva. tipiuri refleqsivebia sakuTari
sxeulis nawilebze moqmedebis gamomxatveli formebi: ivarcxnis,
ibans, ifxans da a. S. aseTi formebisaTvis refleqsiuroba
aucilebelia da bunebrivi moTxovnilebacaa, Tumca maT, ra Tqma
unda, gaaCniaT qcevis kategoriis srulfasovani saopozicio calebi:
ibans hbans ubans. saerTod, universaluria adamianis sxeulis
nawilebze mflobelis moqmedebis refleqsiuri Sinaarsi ( s.
anderseni, 1977 ).
aRsaniSnavia ukuqceviTi nacvalsaxelebis zogadi tipologiuri
mniSvneloba refleqsivis kategoriis TvalsazrisiT sxvadasxva
enebSi. Tumca m. maWavariani ganasxvavebs ukuqceviTobasa da
refleqsivs. igi wers, rom refleqsivis dros pirovnebis e. w.
gasxviseba xdeba, obieqtad qceva da Tavi gamodis pirdapiri
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obieqtis rolSi, raTa gasxvisdes subieqti. xolo ukuqceviTobis


SemTxvevaSi obieqti moeqceva mTqmelisken. amdenad,
savaraudebelia, rom gardauvali zmnis misaRebadac ar aris
aucilebeli zmnam gaiaros jer Tavi-gasxviseba da mxolod amis
Semdeg moxdes pirdapiri obieqtis mospoba, rogorc amas rigi
mkvlevari varaudobs (a. SaniZe. m. suxiSvili) (m. maWavariani,
1987, gv. 42). formebSi imefa, ibatona, iTevzava, idga, iwva
igulisxmeba Sinaarsi TviTon (anu ara sxva). rogorc g. nebieriZe
aRniSnavs, es aris erTi piris aqtiuri sxvaze miumarTavi
moqmedeba (g. nebieriZe, 1976 ). rogorc ar unda iyos, zemoT
aRniSnuli niuansebrivi sxvaobebis miuxedavad, ukuqceviTobis
Sinaarsi yovelTvis gulisxmobs refleqsivis semantikas da igi enis
refleqsiuri sistemis aucilebeli wevria.
gansakuTrebul midgomas iTxovs refleqsivi kauzaciis pirobebSi,
rodesac pirdapiri obieqti pirveli an meore piria Sdr. daaviwya
man mas is, magram daaviwya man mas Cemi Tavi, daaviwya
man mas Seni Tavi, dagaviwya man Sen Cemi Tavi, damaviwya
man me Seni Tavi. pirveli da meore piris pirdapiri obieqti
refleqsuri formiT Semodis zmnaSi mesame piris variantiT.
dRevandel saliteraturo qarTulSi amas sxva alternativa ara aqvs.
Ees aris is iSviaTi movlena, rodesac pirveli da meore pirebi
mesamisagan gansxvavebulad referencirdebian. (es klasis
kategoriis gamovlinebis SemTxvevaa) mesame pirs aqvs
arCevani mogvces zmnuri Sesabamisi referencireba daaviwya
man mas is, an mibaZos pirvelsa da meores da Seqmnas
xelovnuri, magram simetriuli paradigma daaviwya man mas
misi Tavi.
sainteresoa timberleikis midgoma, igi wers, rom refleqsurobas
qvemdebare akontrolebs egzistencialur winadadebaSi, xolo
invertizalur winadadebaSi ki iribobieqturi kontroliorebi gvaqvs.
gramatikul kategoriebs Seesabameba sxvadasxva tipis
iribobieqturi kontroliorebi. Ddativi ki akontrolebs
refleqsivizacias. is akontrolebs egzistencialur da invertirebul
predikats (a. timberleiki, 1982; gv. 190 ). Aunda aRiniSnos,
rom aq saubari exeba rusuli enis masalas, Tumca es daskvnebi,
Cveni azriT, scildeba kerZo gramatikis sferos da tipologiurad
sakmaod faseulia.
iribi refleqsivis Temas exeba bexerti, romelic sulierobis
kategoriiT gansazRvravs brunvaTa Zireul semantikas (i. bexerti,
1982, gv. 411-429 ).
qarTuli zmnis refleqsiuri formebis analizisas e. babunaSvilma
SeniSna, rom i infiqsi Cndeba umetesad saTaviso qcevis
gardamaval zmnebSi da maT uWirT yvela mwkrivis warmoeba:
viqonieb, viyolieb, movixmarieb davixvalieb da a. S. es procesi
74

75

dResac mimdinareobs. (e. babunaSvili, 2003, gv. 118 ). Cven es


movlena mogvagonebs baskurSi adresatobis cirkumfiqsaluri
tipis warmoebis etaps. SesaZloa, zmnis prefiqsalurma
polifunqciurma xmovanma niSnebma erT-erTi morfologiuri
funqcia (refleqsivi an meoreuli refleqsivi) sufiqsalurad aqcios.
unda iTqvas, rom es sakiTxi ufro Rrma analizs moiTxovs
Sesabamisi empiriuli masalis monacemebze dayrdnobiT da am
etapze Cven mxolod sakiTxis dasmiT SemovifarglebiT.
refleqsivi, rogorc semantikuri kategoria, qcevis garda axlos
dgas posesiurobasTan. nacvalsaxelTan, brunvaTa da TandebulTa
sistemebTan, uRlebis kategoriebTan, polipersonalizmTan,
gardamavlobasTan, gvarTan da kauzaciasTan mimarTebaSi
refleqsivis kategoria Sesabamis gramatikul struqturebs qmnis.
es sakiTxi moiTxovs ufro guldasmiT Seswavlas. Ggasarkvevia
qarTuli refleqsivis tipologiuri saxec, romelic imTaviTve
gansxvavebulia sxva mravali variantisagan Tundac imiT, rom
man ZiriTadad qcevis kategoriaSi ipova morfologiuri TavSesafari.

2. baskuri zmnis adresatobis kategoria


baskur enaSi destinaciuri semantikis gamoxatva upirvelesad
zmnas akisria. jer kidev sakandidato naSromSi Cven gamovyaviT
adresatobis kategoria baskur zmnaSi. Aadresatoba aris

morfologiuri zmnuri kategoria, romelic


gamoxatavs moqmedebis daniSnulebas. aseTi
daniSnuleba baskur zmnaSi SeiZleba iyos mxolod iribi
obieqtisaTvis. destinaciis universaluri modelebidan baskurs
axasiaTebs meoTxeBmodeli.
ris safuZvelze moxda am kategoriis gamoyofa? cnobili
lingvisturi WeSmaritebaa, rom am Tu im gramatikuli kategoriis
arseboba enaSi dasturdeba Sesabamisi morfo-semantikuri
saopozicio formebiT. Kkategorias unda hqondes forma da
Sinaarsi. qarTuli zmnis qcevis kategoriis arsidan gamomdinare,
savsebiT naTelia adresatobis kategoriis tipologiuri suraTic.
adresatobis kategoriis Sinaarsi mdgomareobs SemdgomSi: es
aris zmnis forma, romelic gviCvenebs, Tu visTvisaa moqmedeba
daniSnuli anu adresirebuli. moqmedebis destinaciuri veqtori,
SesaZloa, miemarTebodes pirveli, meore an mesame pirisaken,
Sesabamisad, maTi mxolobiTi an mravlobiTi variantebisaken.
75

76

MbaskurSi destinaciuri moqmedeba mxolod iribi


obieqtisaken miemarTeba, ese igi, saopoziciod gvaqvs
nulovani, anu neitraluri formebi da sasxviso, anu
saobieqto formebi. amaSi mdgomareobs baskuri zmnis
adresatobis Sinaarsi. rac Seexeba formas, unda iTqvas, rom
yvelgan, ganurCevlad destinatori pirisa da ricxvisa, adresatobis
markeri aris ki/i . Tumca mravlobiTSi zogjer Cndeba zki/i. am
kategoriis ZiriTadi niSani aris i . Cveni azriT, es aris warmoSobiT
iribi obieqtis brunvis niSani anu micemiTis i . es advilad
SeamCnies indoevropelma mkvlevarebmac da aseT destinaciur
zmnur formebs micemiTiani formebi uwodes ( r. lafoni, 1984;
1988; h. Suxarti, 1895; p. anibaro, 1970; r. askue, 1971; a.
eCaide, 1944; p. de irisari, 1980; S. kintana, 1973; i. laka, 1993;
l. miCelena, 1977; o. de urbina, 1991; b. oiarsabali, 1993; r. de
rixki, 1969; f. soloeta, 1913; a. tovari, 1977; r. traski, 1979).
Tumca maT ar SeumCneviaT adresatoba, rogorc zmnuri
kategoria.
Bbaskuri zmnis destinaciuri kategoriis analizisas mniSvnelovan
movlenad migvaCnia imis xazgasma, rom am kategoriis niSani
zmnaSi yovelTvis aris gamoxatuli da is win uZRvis iribi obieqtis
niSans, romelic, Tavis mxriv, yvela SemTxvevaSi sufiqsaluria da
aseve aucileblad gamoxatulia zmnaSi Sesabamisi morfemiT. Ees
orive morfema (adresatobisa da iribi obieqtis) obligatorulia.
Y yvelgan, sadac gvaqvs iribi obieqti, gvaqvs adresatobis
kategoriac. Aamdenad, mas SesaZloa, iribi obieqtis kategoriac
vuwodoT, radganac faqtobrivad es aris iribi obieqtis Tanmdevi
kategoria. Mmisi arseboba yvelanairad iribi obieqtis arsiT aris
gansazRvruli. rac Seexeba am kategoriis aRmniSvnel termins,
Cven moverideT misTvis qcevis kategoriis darqmevas,
radganac vTvliT, rom Tanamedrove qarTulSi qcevis
samganzomilebiani modeli ufro farTo SinaarsiT xasiaTdeba,
Tumca aSkaraa, rom istoriulad es iyo meoTxe modeli (msgavsad
baskurisa) da mxolod subieqtisa da obieqtis pirTa prefiqsurma
warmoebam gaxada SesaZlebeli refleqsivis saopozicio formebad
gadaazreba.
Tanamedrove qarTul enaTmecnierebaSi kamaTia qceva
terminis Sesaxeb.Q Cven vTvliT, rom termini destinacia
sasurvelia darCes ufro zogad tipologiur terminad.

76

77

a. adresatobis kategoriis raoba da misi


morfo-semantikuri analizi
adresatoba aris gramatikuli, kerZod
morfologiuri kategoria, romelic uCvenebs, Tu visi
interesebisaken miemarTeba subieqtis mier
Cadenili moqmedeba. sxvagvarad rom vTqvaT, es
kategoria gamoxatavs Semdegs - Tu visi, anu romeli iribi
obieqturi piris intresebisaken aris orientirebuli anu adresirebuli
zmniT gadmocemuli moqmedeba. amrigad, adresati aris
iribi obieqti, romelic zmnis moqmedebaSi iribad aris
CarTuli, es gaxlavT dainteresebuli aqtanti. Eterminebi
adresatoba da adresati am konkretuli morfo-semantikuri
SinaarsiT Cven ramdenime wlis win SevecadeT am terminTa
damkvidrebas i. zicarTan erTad.
baskur enaSi iribi obieqturi piris mudam sulieri aqtantia da
pasuxobs kiTxvaze nori? - vis/visTvis/visken? saxelebSi adresati,
SesaZloa, sxvadasxvagvarad iyos gaformebuli. ZiriTadad igi
dativiTaa gadmocemuli, iSviaTad ki daniSnulebiTobis Sinaarsis
mqone TandebulebiT.
sintaqsurad adresati aris iribi damateba. ganvixiloT
winadadeba: Yon, berriz, amari agur egiten ari zaio ioni ki dedas
emSvidobeba, sityvasityviT: ioni ki dedas salmebs aZlevs. Aaq
amari adresatia, gamoxatuli sazogado saxeliT micemiT brunvaSi.
sintaqsurad ki is aris iribi damateba. sauRlebeli zmna izan yofna mocemulia formiT zaio. z III p. mx.r. subieqtis niSania, O
iribi obieqtis III. p. mx.r. markeri ( amari ), a- Zireuli xmovania
anu fuZis naSTi am formaSi. adresatobis markeri ki aris i ,
romelic TiTqos signalurad gviCvenebs da gansazRvravs, rom
moqmedeba miemarTeba sityvisken amari , romelsac, rogorc
ukve aRvniSneT, Tavis mxriv, zmnaSi Seesabameba iribi
obieqtis mesame piris mxolobiTi ricxvis markeri O.
adresati aris igive iribi aqtanti. Bbaskur zmnaSi CarTuli yvela
iribi obieqti adresatia, qarTuli zmnis iribi obieqti ki, SesaZloa,
iyos benefaqtivi, posesori, lokativi da a. S. amdagvari
gansxvavebuli semantikis aqtantebi ki umeteswilad, baskurSi
Sesabamisi Tandebuliani formebiTaa mocemuli.
adresatoba aris zmnaSi gamoxatuli destinacia, romlisTvisac
amosavali wertilia subieqti, ganurCevlad misi aqtiurobis
xarisxisa.
77

78

sqematurad baskuri zmnis adresatuli mimarTebebi ase


aiTvleba:
A2 s.pl.
S1

s.pl.

A3 s.pl.
A1 s.pl.

S2

s.pl.

A3 s.pl.
A1 s.pl.

S3

s.pl.

A2 s.pl.
A3 s.pl.

PpirTa cnobili kombinaciaTa akrZalvebis gamo gamoricxulia


Semdegi mimarTebebi:
S 1 s.pl. --- A1 s.pl.

da

S2

s.pl. ---- A2 s.pl.

refleqsivi baskur enaSi ar aris morfologiuri kategoria, igi


leqsikuri saSualebebiT gadmoicema. rodesac subieqtis mier
Cadenili moqmedeba isev subieqtis interesebisaken
miemarTeba, anu xdeba moqmedebis introvertizacia, anu
daniSnulebiTobis mimarTulebis refleqsivizacia es enobrivi
movlena baskur zmnaSi ar aisaxeba. zogjer baskur enaSi adgili
aqvs e. w. formaluri refleqsivis gamovlinebas; magaliTad,
gvaqvs ergatiuli pasivi, sadac subieqti ara Cans; Sdr. ikusi naiz
me danaxuli var, da ikusi dut - me davinaxe. Ees faqtobrivad
aris ergatiuli subieqtis mocilebis, anu garkveuli transformaciis
Sedegi.
baskur enaSi ara gvaqvs adresatuli refleqsivi iseTi tipis
winadadebebSi, rogoricaa: Bere buruari ezan diot - man Tavis Tavs
uTxra, Cven gvaqvs formaluri iribi obieqti da formaluri
refleqsiuroba. rogorc zemoT aRvniSneT, qarTul
enaTmecnierebaSi aseTi tipis movlenas gasxvisebas uwodeben.
Bere buruari - Tavis Tavs - es aris adresati dativSi. Cveni
gansazRvrebiT,Ees aris formaluri adresati, gamoxatuli
ukuqceviTi nacvalsaxeliT Tavi ( buru ) da Sesabamisad, gvaqvs
formaluri adresatoba. Aamrigad, zmnuri ukuqceviTobis asaxva
xdeba formaluri adresatobiT.
baskuri zmnis adresatoba mxolod sasxviso qcevis Sinaarss
gadmoscems, rac gulisxmobs zmnuri daniSnulebiTobis
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79

mimarTebebs subieqtis interesebis miRma. Aaq destinaciuri


kategoriis orientaciis veqtori miemarTeba subieqtidan
obieqtisaken. Tu moqmedebis centrad subieqts gaviazrebT,
maSin adresatoba unda ganvixiloT rogorc centridanuli veqtoruli
kategoria.
r. lafonma gamoTvala SesaZlebeli datiuri formebis
raodenoba da miiRo TiTieul paradigmaSi 36 an 40 forma e. w.
alokuturi formebis CaTvliT. magaliTisTvis aviRoT izan - yofna
zmnis orpiriani adresatuli uRlebis paradigma:
1. S1 s.

na-tza-i-k/n

O ind. 2 s.

me var Sen-Tvis

2. S1 s.

na-tza-i-o

O ind. 3 s.

me var mis-Tvis

3. S1 s.

na-tza-i-zu

O ind. 2 pol. me var Tqven-Tvis

4. S1 s.

na-tza-i-zue

O ind. 2 pl.

me var Tqven-Tvis

5. S1 s.

na-tza-i-e

O ind. 3 pl.

me var maT-Tvis

6. S1 pl. ga-tza-i- zki-k/n O ind. 2 s.

Cven varT Sen-Tvis

7. S1 pl.

ga-tza-i-zki-o

O ind. 3 s.

Cven varT mis-Tvis

8. S1 pl.

ga-tza-i-zki-zu

O ind. 2 pol. Cven varT Tqven-Tvis

9. S1 pl.

ga-tza-i-zki-zue

10. S1 pl.

ga-tza-i-zki-e

11. S2 s.

ha-tza-i-t

12. S2 s.

ha-tza-i-o

13. S2 s. ha-tza-i-gu
14. S2 s. ha-tza-i-e

O ind. 3 pl.
O ind. 3 pl.

O ind. 1 s.

Cven varT Tqven-Tvis


Cven varT maT-Tvis

Sen xar Cem-Tvis

O ind. 3 s.

Sen xar mis-Tvis

O ind. 3 pl.

Sen xar Cven-Tvis

O ind. 3 pl.

Sen xar maT-Tvis

15. S2 pol. za-tza-i-zki-t O ind. 1s.

Tqven xarT Cem-Tvis

16. S2 pol. za-tza-i-zki-o O ind. 3s.

Tqven xarT mis-Tvis

17. S2 pol. za-tza-i-zki-gu O ind. 1pl.

Tqven xarT Cven-Tvis

18. S2 pol. za-tza-i-zki-e O ind. 3pl..

Tqven xarT maT-Tvis

19. S2 pl. za-tza-i-zki-da-te Oind. 1 s. Tqven xarT Cem-Tvis


20. S2 pl. za-tza-i-zki-o-te

Oind. 3 s. Tqven xarT mis-Tvis

21. S2 pl. za-tza-i-zki-gu-te Oind. 1 pl. Tqven xarT Cven-Tvis


22. S2 pl. za-tza-i-zki-e-te Oind. 3pl. Tqven xarT maT-Tvis
23. S3 s. za-i-t

Oind. 1 s.

is aris Cem-Tvis
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80

24. S3 s. za-i-k/n

Oind. 2 s.

is aris Sen-Tvis

25. S3 s. za-i-o

Oind. 3 s.

is aris mis-Tvis

26. S3 s. za-i-gu

Oind. 1 pl.

is aris Cven-Tvis

27. S3 s. za-i-zu

Oind. 2 pol.

is aris Tqven-Tvis

28. S3 s. za-i-zue

Oind. 2 pl.

29. S3 s. za-i-e
30. S3 pl. za-i-zki-t
31. S3 pl. za-i-zki-k.n

Oind. 3 pl.
Oind. 1 s.
Oind. 2 s.

32. S3 pl. za-i-zki-o

Oind. 3 s.

33. S3 pl. za-i-zki-gu

Oind. 1 pl.

34. S3 pl. za-i-zki-zu

Oind. 2 pol.

35. S3 pl. za-i-zki-zu-e

Oind. 2 pol.

36. S3 pl. za-i-zki-e

Oind. 3 pl.

is aris Tqven-Tvis
is aris maT-Tvis
isini arian Cem-Tvis
isini arian Sen-Tvis
isini arian mis-Tvis
isini arian Cven-Tvis
isini arian Tqven-Tvis
isini arian Tqven-Tvis
isini arian maT-Tvis

rogorc amas mravali mkvlevari aRniSnavs, baskuri ena ar


uCvenebs dialeqtur sxvadasxvaobas iribi obieqtis kategoriisa da
e. w. predatiuri referentebis, anu adresatobis markerebis
gamoxatvisas.
gamovyofT ori tipis adresats:
1. uaxloesi adresati, romelic zmnaSi CarTuli micemiT-brunviani
aqtantia da
2. destinaciuri Sinaarsis mqone Tandebuliani anu sintaqsuri
adresati.
winadadebaSi, SesaZloa, orive erTad Segvxvdes: me
megobars SenTvis vwer werils. uxloesi adresatis cneba ar
ganisazRvreba winadadebaSi rigis mixedviT, miT ufro, rom
baskurSic da qarTulSic sityvaTa rigi Tavisufalia. igi
ganisazRvreba Sinagani siRrmiseuli semantikis mixedviT da ar
aris damokidebuli metyvelebis subieqtis anu pirveli piris
semantikaze. Aase rom iyos, zemoT moyvanil magaliTSi
SenTvis iqneboda uaxloesi adresati, magaram am
winadadebaSi uaxloesi adresati aris megobars. meore,
zmnisgareTa adresati, xSirad aris an lokaluri, an benefaqtiuri
semantikis mqone aqtanti, moqmedebis daniSnulebis saboloo
punqti. Bbaskur enaze zemoT moyvanili winadadeba
adresatobis TvalsazrisiT gramatikulad identuri modeliT iqneba
warmodgenili: Nik zurentzat adizkideari letera diot. Adiskideari
(megobars) aris uaxloesi adresati dativSi, zurentzat (SenTvis)
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81

aris zmnisgareTa adresati, formaSi diot d aris pirdapiri obieqtis


III piris mxolobiTi ricxvis niSani, i aris adresatobis kategoriis
markeri, o iribi obieqtis III piris mxolobiTi ricxvis niSani
(adiskideari), t - subieqtis I piris mxolobiTi ricxvis niSani.
baskur zmnas, iseve, rogorc qarTuls, ar SeuZlia ori adresatis
gamoxatva erTdroulad. Aamitom igi mxolod erT, uaxloes
adresats gamoxatavs zmnaSi.
baskur zmnas SeuZlia, hqondes damatebiTi informacia zmnis
pirebze, kerZod, mas SeuZlia gansazRvrebiTi funqciac hqondes
da kuTvnileba/posesiurobasac gamoxatavdes garkveulwilad.
Etxera etorri zitzaigun - Mmovida CvenTan saxlSi (es aris analitikuri
warmoebis tipiuri magaliTi). etxe-ra (saxli) mimarTulebiT
brunvaSia da moqmedebis lokalizacias aRniSnavs, magram ar
aris gansazRvruli kuTvnilebiTi nacvalsaxeliT gure Cveni, am
informacias gadmoscems yofna damxmare zmnis warsuli drois
forma zi-tza-i-gu-n, sadac zi aris III piris mxolobiTi ricxvis
subieqti, tza Ziri, i - adresatobis niSani, gu pirveli iribi
obieqtiuri piris mxolobiTi ricxvis niSani, bolokiduri konsonanti n
warsuli drois referentia zmnaSi. Aamrigad, zemoT moyvanil
winadadebaSi adresatobis markeriTa da iribi obieqtis
daxmarebiT Cven vigebT, rom saxli Cvenia. rom yofiliyo gure
etxera (Cveni saxlisken/Cvens saxlSi), maSin winadadeba,
SesaZloa sxvagvarad yofiliyo agebuli, anu adresatuli formebis
garaSe Gure etxera etorri ziren. Aaqedan gamomdinare, naTelia,
rom rodesac gvaqvs adresatobis kategoria da zmnaSi
gamoxatuli iribi mimarTeba, SesaZlebeli xdeba kuTvnilebiTi
nacvalsaxelebisa da saerTod, saxelTa kuTvnilebiTi formebis
gamotoveba winadadebaSi, radganac zmna Seicavs am
informacias. adresatobis kategoria yovelTvis Seicavs aseTi tipis
informacias, ramdenadac igi uCvenebs, Tu visken, visi
interesebisaken miemarTeba zmniT gamoxatuli moqmedeba.
Tanamedrove baskur enaSi zmnaTa didi umetesoba pirian
formaTa analitikur warmoebas mimarTavs. Mmxolod aTiode
zmnam Tu SeinarCuna sinTeturi warmoebis Zveli formebi.
analitikuri warmoebis zmnebs tradiciul baskur gramatikaSi
perifrazuli ewodeba.
sinTeturi zmnebia: egon - darCena, joan -wasvla , etorri mosvla, ibili - siaruli , izan - yofna, jakin - codna, eduki qona/yola, ekarri - motana, eraman - tareba, ihardun - CarTva.
zogierTi sxva zmnac zogjer sinTetur warmoebas mimarTavs,
aseTebia: jarin - dineba, erabili - gamoyeneba, irudi msgavseba, esan - Tqma. Aasevea zmnebi atxeki darTva,
jarraiki - miyoleba , eman - micema da entzun - mosmena.
81

82

indoevropuli enebis gavleniT imdenad didia am enis


midrekileba analitikuri warmoebis mimarT, rom iqac ki, sadac
gvaqvs sinTeturi warmoeba, aris pareleluri analitikuri formebic,
romelTac garkveuli upiratesoba eniWebaT enis sinqroniul
doneze. adresatobis kategoria, rogorc polipersonaluri zmnis
kategoria, aisaxeba sinTeturi warmoebis zmnebsa da damxmare
zmnebSi.
xSirad baskur zmnebs aqvT paraleluri formebi, anu sinTeturic
da analitikuric. analitikuri warmoebiT izan - yofna zmna
awarmoebs gardauval araergatiul formebs da ukan - qona
awarmoebs gardamaval, ergatiul formebs. baskurSi gamoiyofa
zmnebi, romelTac egon - keTeba damxmare zmna awarmoebs.
Ees zmnebi SinaarsiT gardauvali zmnebia, magram ergatiuli
forma gaaCniaT, msgavsad qarTuli medioaqtivebisa; AaseTebia:
amets egin ocneba, dantza egin cekva, dehadar egin kivili, eztul egin
daWera, lan egin muSaoba, lo egin daZineba, negar egin tirili, so
egin Sexedva, zintz egin dacenimeba, bazkaldu sauzmoba, afaldu
sadiloba, iraun darCena, irakin moxarSva da ramdenime
obsenituri Sinaarsis zmna: izerdi egin gadafurTxeba, txiza egin
mofisva, kaka egin mokukva. am gardauval zmnebs ergatiuli
subieqti aqvT da ukan daxmare zmniT awarmoeben formebs.
gamodis, rom am tipis intranzitul ergatiul zmnebs ori damxmare
zmna aqvT: keTeba da qona. konkretul formas, bunebrivia,
erT-erTi maTgani awarmoebs.
MmagaliTebi:
Dantzariek berehala dantzatuko dute. - mocekvaveebi maSinve
icekveben.
Senide guztiak elkarrekin bazkaldu dira. Myvela naTesavma erTad
isauzma.
Gure etxeak zutik irauten du. Cveni saxli isev dgas, (anu rCeba
damdgari).
Urak irakin du. wyali moixarSa (aduRda).
Langileak lanean dihardu. muSa SromaSia.
Aanalogiuri tipis formawarmoeba aqvT amindis gamomxatvel
zmnebs, magram maTi subieqti nominativSia, ufro zustad,
absolutivSi.
magaliTebi:
Gaur euria egin du dRes wvimda.
Gorbeian elurra egiten du neguan. - zamTarSi Tovs gorbeaSi.
Haize handia egingo du bihar. - xval aq didi qari iqneba.
baskurSi gvaqvs zmnaTa jgufebi:
1. Nor? erTpiriani gardauvali - araergatiuli araadresatuli,
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83

2. Nor-Nori? orpiriani gardauvali - araergatiuli adresatuli,


3. Nor-Nork? orpiriani gardamavali - ergatiuli araadresatuli,
4. Zer-nori-nork? sampiriani gardamavali - ergatiuli adresatuli.
aqedan naTelia, rom, Sesabamisad, gvaqvs Semdegi jgufebi:
1. uobieqto anu araadresatuli da araergatiuli erTpiriani zmnebi,
absoluturi zmnebi,
2. orobieqtiani anu adresatuli da ergatiuli sampriani zmnebi,
3. erTobieqtiani anu alternatiuli: an adresatuli an ergatiuli
orpiriani zmnebi.
arCevani ergatiulobasa da adresatobas Soris orpirian zmnebSi
iCens Tavs, sadac obieqti aris an iribi an pirdapiri. absoluturi
erTpiriani zmnebi arc ergatiulia da arc adresatuli. Ees
bunebrivicaa, adresatoba xom, qcevis kategoriis msgavsad,
polipersonaluri zmnis kategoriaa da sul mcire - subieqtisa da
sxvisTvis ( iribi obieqtisaTvis ) Cadenili moqmedebis arsia
gadmosacemi. iq sadac es sxva ( iribi obieqti ) ar aris, arc
adresatobis kategoria gveqneba. aseTia erTpiriani da orpiriani
tranzituli zmnebi.
dativi aris adresatis brunva. Jatetxeko neskatzak izozki bat dakarkio
aurtxoari ( p. altuna, 1967, gv. 412 ). restornis oficiants erTi
nayini moaqvs bavSvisTvis. Jatetxeko A(restorn-is) aris
qvemdebaris kuTvnilebiTi gansazRvreba, neskatzak (gogona,
oficianti - erg.) - arsebiTi saxelia ergatiul brunvaSi, romelic
zmnaSi nulovani sufiqsiTaa mocemuli, rogorc III piris mxolobiTi
ricxvis agensi, izozki bat ( nayini erTi nom. ) pirdapiri damatebaa
ganusazRvreli artikliT, romelsac zmnaSi Seesabameba prefiqsi
da (O ind. IIIp. mx. r. ) aurtxoari (bavSvi dat. ) aris adresati,
sazogado arsebiTi saxeli micemiT brunvaSi. Bbrunvis
daboloebaa r-i. da-kar-ki-o - zmna moqvs kar Ziria da ki
adresatobis niSani, romelic uCvenebs, rom nulmarkeriani
agensis mier Sesrulebuli moqmedeba miemarTeba sityva
aurtxoari is interesebisaken, TviTon am sityvas ki zmnaSi sufiqsi
- o gamoxatavs.
adresatis brunva mxolod dativia, rodesac am brunvis miRma
aris asaxuli igive semantikis mqone iribi mimarTeba Tvis tipis
Tandebuliani formebiT, adgili aqvs aRweriT adresatobas, romelic
sintaqsuri xerxebiT gadmoicema da ara zmnis formiT. aseT dros
zmna rCeba neitralur formaSi da aris uadresato; magaliTad:
Gizonaren alde dago egin da ( r. herero, 1975, gv. 325 ).
adamianisTvis (adamianis sasargeblod ) gakeTda. Aaq cxadia,
rom moqmedeba uSualod adamianisaTvis, misi interesebisaTvis
Sesrulda, magram adresatoba ara gvaqvs zmnaSi. Amonaren
gatik erosi genuen ( r. herero, 1975, gv. 89). bebiisaTvis viyideT.
83

84

Aam winadadebaSic forma bebiisaTvis, marTalia,


daniSnulebiTobas gviCvenebs, magram zmnaSi ar gamoixateba
es semantika. aseTive tipis magaliTebia:
Nerentzat ekarri dira (k. baroxa, 1946, gv. 179 ), CemTvis (Cemi
gulisTvis) moaqvT,
Artzainengantz joan dira ( r. herero, 1975, gv. 108 ), wavidnen
mwymsebisaken,
Aitonarengana etorri dira ( r. askue, 1949, gv. 102 ), wavidnen
babuisaken da a. S.
adresatobis zmnuri kategoria dativis niSniTaa mocemuli
zmnaSic. Aamitomac mas xan datiur niSnebs uwodebdnen, xan
- predatiurs, radganac igi iribi obieqtis markers uZRvis win.
rogorc lafoni wers: baskur enaSi arsebobs piriani zmnebi,
romelTac gaaCniaT piris sufiqsebi, romlebic gviCveneben Tu
visken an risken aris moqmedeba adresirebuli, an risTvis an
visTvisaa procesi daniSnuli. Ees sufiqsebi gamoxataven meore
obieqtis (kuTvnilebiTi obieqtis ) gramatikul pirs. Tu es damateba
ar aris asaxuli zmnaSi da mocemulia arsebiTis an nacvalsaxelis
formiT, maSin is aris micemiT brunvaSi. Aamdenad, Sesabamisi
sufiqsebi zmnaSi dativis mniSvnelobis mqonea (r. lafoni 1984,
gv. 93 ). lafoni aRniSnavs, rom XVI saukunidan uamravi
sinTeturi zmnis forma gamovida xmarebidan da amaTgan
umravlesoba swored dativis maCvenebliani formebi iyo. mxolod
damxmare zmnebma Tu SeinarCunes dativis niSniani formebi
uRlebis sxvadsxva paradigmebSi. Aamis miuxedavad, sasaubro
enasa Tu avtoriseul teqstSi xSiria zmnaSi gamotovebuli adgilebi
(dativis niSnis gareSe ), romelic SegviZlia Sesabamisi CvenebiTi
nacvalsaxelis an arsebiTi saxelis dativiT SevavsoT (r. lafoni
1984, gv. 117-116 ). es aris indoevropuli enebis gavlenis
Sedegi.
lafonis msgavsad, a. tovaric gamoyofs datiuri elementebis
Semcvel zmnebs (a. tovari, 1959, gv. 69-70) .
saerTod, dativi aris sagnis an arsebis brunva, romelsac
exeba zmnis moqmedeba an mdgomareoba (C. filmori, 1981,
gv. 405 ). dativi, filmoris ganmartebiT, aris sulierobis wyaro,
anu igi aris aris agensisa da paciensis miRma darCenili brunva,
romelsac SeuZlia winadadebis danarCen nawilTan SeTanxmebuli
nebismieri mniSvnelobis gadmocema. sxva sityvebiT rom
vTqvaT, sam-saxelian winadadebaSi dativis funqcia
gamomdinareobs konteqstidan, is ar arsebobs rogorc winaswar
mocemuli dativis mniSvnelobaTa SesaZlebeli variantebis
simravlidan (C. filmori, 1981, gv. 384 ).
filmori savsebiT samarTlianad akritikebs deiveris
Sexedulebas, rom orsaxelian winadadebaSi arCevani dativsa da
84

85

akuzativs Soris semantikurad ararelevanturia da SemTxveviT


kanonebs eqvemdebareba., zogjer ki Tavisufal arCevansac
uSvebs. (C. filmori, 1981, gv. 385 ). yvelafers rom Tavi
davaneboT, enaSi ar arsebobs SemTxveviTi kanonebi.
sagulisxmoa filmoris mier Catarebuli brunvaTa gamokvleva.
Mmecnieri ZiriTadi brunvebis daxasiaTebisas gamoyofs sulierisa
da usulos kategoriebs. Aagentivi gansazRvrulia, rogorc
zmnasTan identificirebuli moqmedebis sulieri iniciatori, dativi ki
sulieri arsebis brunva, romelsac exeba zmniT gamoxatuli
moqmedeba an mdgomareoba (C. filmori, 1981, gv. 405-406 ).F
filmori wers, rom dativi aris Sesabamisi zmniT dasaxelebuli
moqmedebis sulieri aqtantis brunva (C. filmori, 1981, gv.
408 ).F
winadadebaSi brunvaTa garemocvas mkvlevari
brunviT CarCos uwodebs da gamoyofs saxelisa da zmnis
arCevans (C. filmori, 1981, gv. 415 ).F garkveuli tipis ierarqia ki
gnsazRvravs, saxelis mier wamoweuli funqciebidan romeli unda
ganisazRvros, rogorc gramatikuli (C. filmori, 1981, gv. 530 ).F
a. tibmerleiks azriT, dativi agreTve aris refleqsivis kontroliori
(a. tibmerleiki, 1982, gv. 190 ).
baskuri dativis funqciuri mxare, ra Tqma unda, iziarebs
zemoxsenebul tipologiur daskvnebs. Fformis TvalsazrisiT ki
aseTi suraTia: baskur enaSi datiuri brunvis daboloebaa sufiqsuri
i, romelsac postvokalur poziciaSi r xmovangasayari uZRvis win.
mendi-r-i, (mTas), ama-r-i (dedas). rodesac arsebiT saxels erTvis
gansazRvrebiTi artikli a, xmovangasayari r artiklis Semdeg
ikavebs pozicias: mendi-a-r-i, (mTas), seme-a-r-i (vaJiSvils) da misT.
sxva brunvis niSanTa msgavsad, mravlobiT ricxvSi micemiTi
brunvis markeri ar icvleba, mas win uZRvis mravlobiTobis
aRmniSvneli morfema e , seme-e-i (vaJiSvilebs), mendi-e-i (mTebs)
da a. S. saxelebSi dativis niSania i, Tumca igi, SesaZloa,
sxvadasxvagvarad gamoiyurebodes ama Tu im fonetikuri
garemocvisa da morfologiuri pirobebis gamo (ri, ari, ei, i ).
Cveni azriT, dativis ZiriTadi morfemis genezisi CvenebiT
nacvalsaxelebs unda ukavSirdebodes. Mmagram es diaqroniuli
sakiTxi calke kvlevas moiTxovs da amJamad mas ver SevexebiT.
inCausti gamoyofs adresatul uRlebas da mas iribs uwodebs,
xolo araadresatuls ki - pirdapirs. zmnaTa formebi masTan
ganekuTvneba intranzitul iribs ( S + Oind.) an tranzitul pirdapirs
( S, SOd.) ( x. inCausti, 1960, gv. 84-89 ). igi gamoyofs mesame
jgufasac, romelsac uwodebs tranzitul iribi uRlebis zmnebs ( S,
Od. + Oind. ) ( x. inCausti, 1960, gv. 88-91) .
adresatobis mixedviT SesaZlebelia aseTi klasifikacia:

85

86

1. zmnebi, romlebic arasdros ar dairTaven irib obieqts da


mudam uadresato formebi aqvT. Ees zmnebi am kategoriis
mixedviT uaryofiTi zmnebi iqneba.
2. zmnebi, romlebic yovelTvis iribi obieqtiT arian warmodgenili
da mudam adresatuli formebi aqvT. Ees zmnebi am kategoriis
mixedviT dadebiTi zmnebi iqneba. E
3. zmnebi, romlebic xan dairTaven irib obieqts da xan ara; e. i.
zog SemTxvevaSi uadresato formebi aqvT, zogjer ki
adresatuli. Ees zmnebi am kategoriis mixedviT Sualeduri anu
gardamavali zmnebia. Cven moveridebiT gardamavlobis
gamoyenebas am TvalsazrisiT, raTa ar moxdes terminTa
aRreva.
Ppirvel jgufSi Seva Semdegi tipebi:
1. Nor
2. Nor-Nork
Pmeore jgufi:
1. Nor-Nori
2. Nor/Zer- Nori-Nork
P

mesame jgufi:
1. Nor (+ Oidn. Nori )
2. Nor-Nork (+ Oidn. Nori )
Cveni klasifikaciiT, pirianobis mixedviT gvaqvs adresatobis
Semdegi jgufebi:
uaryofiTi
1. erTpiriani
Sualeduri
uaryofiTi
2. orpiriani gardamavali
Sualeduri
1. orpiriani gardauvali dadebiTi
86

87

2. sampiriani

dadebiTi

anu gvaqvs eqvsi tipi: ori uaryofiTi, ori Sualeduri da oric


dadebiTi.
uaryofiTi AA
Sualeduri adresatuli C

DdadebiTi B
Sualeduri uadresato D

OPE gvaqvs Semdegi saxis Bbinaruli opoziciebi: A-B da C-D.


aRsaniSnavia, rom raime mniSvnelovani sxvaoba adresatobis
kategoriis gamoxatvis TvalsazrisiT am jgufebs Soris ar
aRiniSneba zki pluralizatoris gamoyenebisas, zemoT aRwerili
Taviseburebebis garda.
rogorc ukve iTqva, adresatoba ar aris damokidebuli
gardamavlobaze. MTumca SegviZlia gamovyoT gardamavali da
gardauvali adresatoba. Sesabamisad, baskurSi gvaqvs ergatiuli
da araergatiuli adresatoba. TavisTavad obieqtis Tanadroulad ori
mimarTulebiT gaazreba qmnis am tipis sistemebs. sxvaTaSoris,
es asaxulicaa UuSualod adresatobis markerze. Cveni azriT,

ki Sedgeba datiuri (i) da ergatiuli (k)


referentebisagan. safiqrebelia, rom baskurSi
swored ergatiuli destinaciaa pirveladi.

Eergatiuli destinacia Semdeg sqemas qmnis baskur zmnaSi:

baskuri zmna
uaryofiTi

Sualeduri

dadebiTi

ergatiuli adresatoba
araergatiuli adresatoba
uadresato

adresatuli

ergatiuli adresatoba

87

88

araergatiuli adresatoba

b. adresatobis kategoriis referentebi


adresatobis kategoriis ZiriTadi istoriuli markeri aris i ;
sinqroniul doneze ki - ki/i. adresatobis markireba, SesaZloa, iyos
erTmorfemuli an ormorfemuli. Bbaskur zmnaSi orive varianti
arsebobs. Oormorfemuli markireba gulisxmobs destinaciis
semantikis klasikuri formiT gadmocemas: adresatobis markeriTa
da iribi obieqtis niSniT. Aaglutinaciis principis mixedviT, aq
funqciebi ganawilebulia destinaciis zogadi, arsebiTi semantika
gadmocemulia adresatobis markeriT da konkretuli adresati ki
dazustebulia meore morfemiT iribi obieqturi pirisa da ricxvis
gamomxatveli morfemiT. EerTmorfemuli adresatoba ki aris
mocemuli mxolod iribi obieqturi pirisa da ricxvis gamomxatveli
morfemiT, adresatobis markeris gareSe. Bbunebrivia, rom
gasagebi mizezebis gamo miuRebelia Sebrunebuli varianti adresatobis markeri iribi obieqturi pirisa da ricxvis
gamomxatveli morfemis gareSe. cxadia, rom adresatobis
markerebi i/ki ver miuTiTeben konkretulad im pirs, romliskenac
miemarTeba moqmedebis destinaciuri veqtori. Aadresatoba
daniSnulebiTi mizanmimarTulebis gamoxatvaa zmnaSi. Aam
konkretul mimarTulebas ki zmnaSi ukve iribi obieqti azustebs
Tavisi markerebiT. inCausti maT pirian dativebs uwodebs ( x.
inCausti, 1960, gv. 15 ).
saerTod, istoriulad baskuri zmnisaTvis damaxasiaTebelia
destinaciis kategoriis ormorfemuli markireba, rogorc lafoni
miuTiTebda.
erTmaneTs SevadaroT erTmorfemuli da ormorfemuli
markirebis nimuSebi:
Ekarri - waReba
erTmorfemuli markireba (mxolod iribi obieqturi piris niSniT):
Od. III s.
Oind. I s.
S2 s.
S2 zrd.
S2 pl.
Od. III s.

dakar-da-k/n
dakar-da-zu
dakarzue
Oind. I pl.
88

89

S2 s.
S2 zrd.
S2 pl.

dakar-gu-k/n
dakar-gu-zu
da a. S.

dakar-gu- zue

igive zmnaSi adresatobis kategoriis ormorfemuli markireba


(iribi obieqtis niSniTa da adresatobis markeriT):
Od. III s.
S2 s.
S2 zrd.
S2 pl.

Oind. I s.
dakar-da-ki-k/n
dakar-da-ki-zu
dakar-ki-zue

Od. III s.
S2 s.
S2 zrd.
S2 pl.

Oind. I pl.
dakar-gu-ki-k/n
dakar-gu-ki-zu
da a. S.

dakar-gu-ki- zue

indoevropul enebTan siaxlove baskurSi iwvevs ara marto


analitikuri formebis siWarbes, aramed polipersonaluri zmnis rigi
kategoriebis gadaazrebas. amis dasturiaAadresatobis kategoriis
zemoT moyvanili ori variantis paraleluri formebis arseboba
enaSi.
adresatobis markerebi i/ki ar icvleba pirisa da ricxvis
mixedviT. Aes markerebi ucvlelia uRlebis yvela sxvadasxva
formaSi. amitomac Cven mxolod awmyo drois (Indikatibozko
orainaldia) formebs ganvixilavT magaliTebad. Tavad adresatobis
referentTa Soris varireba ( i Tu ki) ar aris fonetikurad
Sepirobebuli.
i postvokalur poziciaSi

V-i-C

natza-i-k/n
natza-i-zu
i intervokalur poziciaSi

V-i-V

natza-i-e
hatza-i-o
natza-i-o

89

90

i Ppostkonsonantur poziciaSi

C-i-V

d-i-o
d-i-e
d-i-e-gu
i interkonsonantur poziciaSi

C-i-C

d-i-t
d-i-gu
d-i-da-zu
ki postvokalur poziciaSi

V-ki-C

na-ki-zun
na-ki-zuen
ha-ki-gun
da-ki-dan
ki intervokalur poziciaSi

V-ki-V

na-ki-an
na-ki-on
ha-ki-en
ha-ki-en
ki Ppostkonsonantur poziciaSi

C-ki-V

nen-ki-oken
nen-ki-eken
hen-ki-eken
hen-kiokeen
ki interkonsonantur poziciaSi

C-ki-C

nen-ki-zuken
nen-ki-zueken
hen-ki-guken
hen-ki-dakeen

da a. S. ( Cilardegi, 1979 gv. 14, 15]

rogorc ukve aRvniSneT, baskuri zmnis adresatobis referentebi


sufiqsuria, Tumca gvxvdeba adresatobis i ara sufiqsur
90

91

poziciaSic, pirdapiri obieqtis referentis Semdeg, Ziris win. aq Ziri


nulovania:
d-i-da-k/n
d-i-t
d-i-gu
d-i-gu-zue
d-i-gu-te

da a. S. ( Cilardegi, 1979 gv. 14- 15 ).

am tipis formebSi adresatobis markeri ufro prefiqsur


markerad SeiZleba CaiTvalos, vidre sufiqsurad. Aigi, SesaZloa,
miviCnioT pirveli poziciis afiqsad sufiqsTa rigSi. Mmagram Zalze
saiteresoa im zmnaTa formebi, sadac i aris pirveli morfema, e. i.
aris aSkara prefiqsi da aqvs adresatuli Sinaarsi: i-eza-da-k/n, i-ezada-zu, i-eza-da-zue da a. S. ( Cilardegi, 1979 gv. 14- 15 ).
prefiqsuri i zogjer Tavs iCens infinitiur formebSic, magaliTad:
i-rudi moCveneba. (Tumca am zmnas garkveuli refleqsiuri
Sinaarsic gaaCnia. ) sxvadasxva baski avtori amas sxvadasxva
axsnas aZlevs ( Cilardegi, 1979; i. inCauspe, 1858; r. lafoni,
1970; 1962; r. traski, 1999; t. vilburi, 1970 ).
Cven vfiqrobT, rom adresatobis markerebi diaqroniulad iyo
prefiqsuri ( i- ), ramac ganviTarebis meore etapze, mogvca
adrestobis cirkumfiqsuri warmoeba ( i-i/ki ), radganac prefiqsur
poziciaSi semantikuri Sinaarsi gafermkrTalda. tendencia
gagrZelda da mesame etapze miviReT adresatobis kategoriis
sufiqsuri referencia
( -i/ki ).
d-i-eza-i-ke-t
d-i-eza-i-o-ke-k/n
d-i-eza-i-e-ke
d-i-eza-i-o-ke-gu
d-i-eza-i-e-ke-zu
d-i-eza-i-e-ke-zu-e
d-i-eza-i-o-ke-te
d-i-eza-i-eke-k/n

da a. S. ( Cilardegi, 1979 gv. 39 ).

am formebSi pirveli i pirdapir zmnis Zirs daerTvis prefiqsad,


meore ki tradiciul poziciaSia: win uZRvis iribi obieqtis
markerebs. igi pirveli sufiqsia da uSualod zmnis Zirs daerTvis.
Aaq kargad Cans adresatobis kategoriis markerTa rangi.

91

92

imperativebSi, sadac, rogorc wesi, SenarCunebulia uZvelesi


enobrivi suraTi, zogan i aris pirveli prefiqsi:
i-eza-da-k/n
i-eza-da-zu
i-eza-da-zu-e
i-eza-i-e-k/n
i-eza-i-e-zu
i-eza-i-e-zu-e
i-eza-i-e-te

da a. S. ( Cilardegi, 1979 gv. 44 ).

mesame etapze, rogorc aRvniSneT, gvaqvs sufiqsuri


warmoeba: natza-i-o, na-tor-ki-o da a. S. adresatobis kategoriis
zemoxsenebuli etapebis gamovlena uamrav amoucnob sakiTxs
mohfens naTels baskuri zmnis sistemaSi da saerTod, baskur
gramatikaSi.
trasks miaCnia, rom adresatobis markeri ki aris ori
damoukidebeli, magram erTnairi funqciis mqone elementis
naerTi (r. traski, 1999 ).Aaskue Tvlis, rom es sxvadasxva
funqciis mqone elementebia ( r. askue, 1932, gv. 310).
aRsaniSnavia is faqti, rom es mkvlevari ar aris Tanmimdevruli:
igi ganixilavs ki-s xan rogorc mimReobis mawarmoebels, xan
refleqsurobis, xan ki intranzitulobis markers. zog mkvlevars ki
miaCnia, rom erTiania referentebi: kio, kie, kigu da a.S. (a. kingi,
1973; i. laka, 1993; a. tovari, 1977; r. traski, 1999). am tipis
morfemebs isini gaiazreben rogorc - subieqti obieqtisaTvis.
aseTi midgoma ki bunebriv tipologiur paralels avlebs qarTuli
zmnis proklitikasTan.
L lafonis azriT, k da i sxvadasxva morfemebia. Mmagram
lafoni ar akonkretebs maT mniSvnelobas. i micemiTi brunvis
formaa. Ees sadavo araa baskologebTan. ra aris k formanti am
morfemaSi da ra roli SeiZleboda hqonoda mas diaqroniulad?
Cveni azriT, es aris ergativis niSani zmnaSi. amiT Cven saxeze
gvaqvs ergatiuli dativi, romelsac ekargeba ergativis Sinaarsi
alternatiul formebSi (orpirian erTobieqtian adresatul formebSi)
da igi mTlianad formdeba rogorc erTiani morfema. Cveni azriT,
jer moxda funqciaTa Serwyma romeliRac doneze da Semdgom
ki saopozicio formebSi referentma gaaerTiana garkveuli
cnebebi. savaraudoa, rom jer gvqonda prefiqsuri i, Semdeg
miviReT cirkumfiqsi da aq ukve Semodis k, rogorc destinaciis
aqtis Tanamonawile ergatiuli wevri. safiqrebelia, rom
Tavdapirvelad igi gaCnda orobieqtian adresatul formebSi da
92

93

Semdgom gavrcelda alternatiul - erTobieqtian adresatul


formebSic. savaraudoa, rom droSi es xdeboda destinaciis
markeris sufiqsaciis procesis paralelurad.
Eadresatobis markerTa zemoT ganxiluli evoluciuri suraTi aris
naTeli magaliTi imisa, Tu rogor muSaobs formaluri struqtura da
rogor scildeba igi Tavdapirvel funqciur models. Bmxolod sinTezuri,
funqcio-formaluri meTodis Teorias SeuZlia srulyofilad axsnas aseTi
tipis movlenebi. saerTod, unda iTqvas, rom (SesaZloa,
gansxvavebuli tipis enaTa garemocvis mizeziT) baskuri enisaTvis
damaxasiaTebelia formisa da funqciis amdagvari dacileba, rac
SemdgomSi iwvevs baskur enaSi rigi kategoriebis ormag
gamoxatvas; magaliTad, baskur morfologiaSi asea gaformebuli
mravlobiToba, intensivoba, adresatoba da sxv. A
Ddativis markeris zmnaSi gamoCena absoluturad eWvgareSea.
rogorc n. mari werda: zmna xom ZiriTadad saxelisgan aris
nawarmoebi, raTa moqmedebis an mdgomareobis elementi
SesZinos winadadebas ( n. mari, 1926, gv. 246 ). adresats ki
TiTqos damatebiT Seaqvs zmnaSi Tavisi morfema, raTa kidev
erTxel uCvenos zmniT gamoxatuli moqmedebis destinaciuri
mizanmimarTuleba.
cnobilia, rom imperativebi, romelTac SenarCunebuli aqvT
Zveli formebi, sxvadasxvaobas uCveneben adresatobis
kategoriis gamoxatvis TvalsazrisiT: kerZod, iribi obieqtis pirvelsa
da meore pirebs ar moepovebaT adresatobis kategoriis markeri.
is mxolod mesame pirSi Cndeba; Ee. i. pirvel-meore pirebTan
adresatobis kategoriis erTmorfemuli markireba gvaqvs da
mesame pirTan ki - ormorfemuli:
OOd. IIIs. Oind. I s.
OOd.IIIs. O ind. I pl.
S2 s.

ekar-da-k/n

S2 pol. ekar-da-zu
S2pl.

ekar-da-zue

OOd.III s. O ind. III s.


S2s.

ekarr-i-o-k/n

S2 pol. ekarr-i-o-zu
S2pl.

ekarr-i-o-zu-e

ekar-gu-n/k
ekar-gu-zu
ekar-gu-zu
OOd.III s. O ind. III pl.
ekarr-i-e-k/n
ekarr-i-e-zu
ekarr-i-e-zu-e

gamoCnda III piris iribi obieqti da Sesabamisad, zmnaSi


gaCnda adresatobis markeri i. rogorc amas lafonic aRniSnavs,
pirvelsa da meore pirebs imperativebSi ar hqondaT adresatobis
niSani. igi wers: iSviaTia, rom pirveli da meore pirebis
93

94

sasargeblod Cadenili moqmedeba zmnaSi dativis markeriT


gadmoices (r. lafoni,, 1984, gv. 94 ).
rodesac subieqti aris mesame piri, zustad aq Cndeba ki
markeri. Aamitomac miviCnieT igi warmoSobiT ergatiuli dativis
anu ergatiuli destinaciis formantad.
Od. IIIs. Oind. I s.

O d.IIIs. Oind. I pl

S3.s. b-ekar-ki-t

b-ekar-ki-gu

S3.pl. . b-ekar-ki-da-te

b-ekar-ki-gu-te

Od. IIIs. Oind. II s.

O d.IIIs. Oind. II pol.

S3.s. b-ekar-ki-k/n

b-ekar-ki-zu

S3.pl. . b-ekar-ki-a-te

b-ekar-ki-zu-te

Od. IIIs. Oind. II pl.


S3.s.

b-ekar-ki-zu-e

S3.pl. . b-ekar-ki-zu-e-te
Od. IIIs. Oind. III s.

O d.IIIs. Oind. III pl

S3.s. b-ekar-ki-o

b-ekar-ki-e

S3.pl. . b-ekar-ki-o-te

b-ekar-ki-e-te

aseTive suraTia sxva zmnebSic: irakatsi -Seswavla, utsi datoveba egorri - gagzavna , eman - micema , erosi - yidva ,
ihardetsi pasuxis micema (euskaldia, 1990, gv. 158-169 ) .
M rogorc vnaxeT, mesame obieqturma pirma zmnaSi
Semoitana i markeri, xolo mesame subieqturma pirma ki iribi
mimarTebis gamosaxatavad ki morfema Semoitana,
ganurCevlad iribi obieqtis pirisa da ricxvisa. SemdgomSic
zustad es morfema ganzogadda am kategoriis gamoxatvis
TvalsazrisiT, radganac igi ar ganarCevda iribi obieqtis pirebs.
safiqrebelia, rom ki Tavdapirvelad gaCnda orobieqtian adresatul
formebSi da Semdgom gavrcelda erTobieqtian adresatul
formebSic. Cveni azriT, ki morfema adasturebs ergatiuli
destinaciis arsebobas referencialur doneze.
Fdiaqroniulad ki ergatiuli adresatobis markeria. destinacia da
adresatoba, rogorc polipersonaluri zmnis mqone enaTa
94

95

wamyvani kategoriebi, SesaZloa, zogjer formobriv erTianobasac


qmnidnen. amdenad, mosalodnelia, gvqondes am ori kategoriis
daaxloebuli variantic - ergatiuli adresatoba.
BsemantikuradEergatiuli destinacia gulisxmobs iseT formas,
rodesac tranzituli zmnis moazrovne subieqts hyavs adresati
partniori zmnaSi, anu vin kategoriis destinati. Cveni Rrma
rwmeniT, aseTi morfo-semantikiT xasiaTdeba baskuri morfema
ki.
zemoT ganxilili sakiTxi Suqs hfens im garemoebas, rom
baskur zmnaSi aisaxeboda klasis kategoria. pirveli da meore
metyvelebis aqtSi monawile pirebi konkretuli pirebia da ar
sWirdebaT damatebiTi miTiTeba. mesame ara-piri (nonperson) (e.
benvenisti, 1974, gv. 262 ) ki aris korelaciis aramarkirebuli
wevri ( e. benvenisti, 1974, gv. 289 ) da igi saWiroebs
dazustebasa da miTiTebas. Ais SiZleba iyos proqsimaluri an
obviaturi ( T. gamyreliZe, z. kiknaZe, i. Saduri, n. Sengelaia,
2003, gv. 215 ).
sagulisxmoa, rom baskursa da qarTulSi mesame piris
nacvalsaxelebs sivrcobrivi mimarTebis TvalsazrisiT identuri tipis
samganzomilebiani modeli aqvT. Ees ki gulisxmobs farTo
semantikur diapazons mesame piris cnebaSi, rac metad
moiTxovs adresati piris identifikacias. aqedan gamomdinare,
naTeli xdeba, rom adresatobis markeri swored mesame pirSi
Camoyalibda da Semdeg analogiisa Tu simetriis principiT
gadavida pirvelsa da meore pirebSi. A
unda aRiniSnos isic, rom savaraudod adresatobis markerebi
CvenebiTi nacvalsaxelebidan unda momdinareobdes, miT ufro,
rom sayovelTaod aRiarebulia piris niSanTa nacvalsaxeluri
warmoSoba baskur zmnaSi (da ara marto baskurSi).
sagulisxmoa, rom pedro de irisari saubrobs iribi obieqtis
meore piris alokutur formebze. Mmkvlevari ganixilavs am
movlenis dialeqtur sxvadasxvaobebs da am TvalsazrisiT uRlebis
paradigmebs adgens srulyofili variantebiT. igi sxva mecnierTa
mir Sedgenil paradigmebsac ganixilavs da agreTve saubrobs
fsevdo-alokuturobaze ( p. de irisari, 1986, gv. 360 ).
Ddialeqtur sxvaobebs baskuri destinaciis kategoria ar
gviCvenebs. Mmxolod mciredi ( fonetikuri mizezebiT
gamowveuli ) sxvaoba Tu SeiniSneba. rogorc baskologebi
SeniSnaven gipuskour dialeqtSi e. w. predatiur niSnebs
ematebaT iribi obieqtis niSani da aseTi suraTi gvaqvs:
ki+t=t, ki+k/n=k/n, ki+o=ko, ki+gu=ku, ki+zu=tzu, ki+zue=tzue, ki+e=ke (r.
traski, 1999)
baskologTa didi nawili zki afiqss ganixilavs, rogorc erTian
morfemas. inCausti wers, rom zki subieqtis mravlobiTobis
95

96

aRmniSvnelia intranzitul formebTan da pirdapiri obieqtis


mravlobiTobis gamomxatvelia tranzitul zmnebSi (x. inCausti,
1990, gv. 13).
Cveni azriT, zki iyofa mravlobiTobis z da adresatobis ki
morfemebad. damoukideblad sufiqsuri z xSirad aris zmnis piris
mravlobiTobis gamomxatveli (x. inCausti, 1990, gv. 25).
joan (nor) wasvla
etorri(nor) mosvla
S1.s.
noa
nator
S2.s.
hoa
hator
S3s.
doa
dator
S1pl.
goa-z
gato-z
S2 pol. zoa-z
zato-z
S2pl.
zoa-z-te
zato-z-te
S3pl.
doa-z
dato-z
meore pirSi z prefiqsic, ra Tqma unda, mravlobiTobis
aRmniSvnelia zrdilobian formebsa da mravlobiTSic. igive
pluralizatori z gvxvdeba meore piris nacvalsaxelebSic: zu, zue.
rodesac sufiqsuri z Cndeba rogorc intranzituli subieqtis
pluralizatori, is uSualod win daerTvis ki-s . magaliTisTvis
ganvixiloT formebi zmnisa:
egon - yofna/mdebareoba/mdgomareoba
S1s.
S1s.
S1s.
S1s.
S1s.

na-go-ki-k/n
na-go-ki-o
na-go-ki-zu
na-go-ki-zu-e
na-go-ki-e

S1pl.
S1pl.
S1pl.
S1pl.
S1pl.

ga-go-z-ki-k/n
ga-go-z-ki-o
ga-go-z-ki-zu
ga-go-z-ki-zu-e
ga-go-z-ki-e

S2s.
S2s.
S2s.
S2s.
S2s.

ha-go-ki-t
ha-go-ki-o
ha-go-ki-gu
ha-go-ki-e
ha-go-ki-e

S2pl.
S2pl.
S2pl.
S2pl.
S2pl.

za-go-z-ki-t
za-go-z-ki-o
za-go-z-ki-gu
za-go-z-ki-e
za-go-z-ki-e

S2pl.
S2pl.
S2pl.
S2pl.
S3s.
S3s.
S3s.
S3s.
S3s.

za-go-z-t
za-go-z-ki-o
za-go-z-ki-gu
za-go-z-ki-e
da-go-ki-t
S1pl.
da-go-ki-k/n
S1pl.
da-go-ki-o
S1pl.
da-go-ki-zu
S1pl.
da-go-ki-zu-e S1pl.

Oind. 2s.
Oind. 3s.
Oind. 2 pol.
Oind. 2pl.
Oind. 3s.
Oind. 1s.
Oind. 3s.
Oind. 1pl.
Oind. 3pl.
Oind. 3pl.

Oind. 1s.
Oind. 3s.
Oind. 1pl.
Oind. 3pl.
da-go-z-ki-t
da-go-z-ki-k/n
da-go-z-ki-o
da-go-z-ki-zu
da-go-z-ki-zu-e

Oind. 1s.
Oind. 2s.
Oind. 3s.
Oind. 2 pol.
Oind. 2pl.
96

97

S3s. da-go-ki-e
1979, gv. 52 )

S1pl.

da-go-z-ki-e

Oind. 3s.

(Cilardegi,

aseTive situaciaa zmnebSi jaon wasvla, etorri mosvla, ibili


- siaruli da sxv. (Cilardegi, 1979, gv. 65-92 ).
rogorc vnaxeT, orpirian gardauval zmnebSi (nor-nori) anu
erTobieqtian adresatul formebSi martivad daiSleba morfema zki.
sinqroniul doneze sampirian zmnebSi (nor-nori-nork), anu
orobieqtian adresatul formebSi zki morfema funqcionirebs,
rogorc pirdapiri obieqtis pluralizatori. magaliTisTvis vnaxoT izan
- yofna damxmare zmnis sampiriani varianti. Aaqve unda
aRvniSnoT, rom damxmare zmnebs Tavisuflad SeuZliaT
pirianobis amdagvari zrda. Ees savsebiT bunebrivia
baskurisaTvis.
Od 3s.

Od.3s.

S1s. d-i-a-t/ dinat


S1s. d-i-o-t
S1s. d-i-zu-t
S1s. d-i-zu-e-t
S1s. d-i-e-t
Od 3. pl.

S1pl. d-i-a-gu /dinagu


S1pl. d-i-o-gu
S1pl. d-i-zu-gu
S1pl. d-i-zu-e-gu
S1pl. d-i-e-gu

Oind.2s.
Oind.2s.
Oind.2 pol.
Oind.2pl.
Oind.3pl.

Od. 3. pl.

S1s. d-i-z-ki-a-t/ dizkinat S1pl. d-i- z-ki-a-gu /dizkinagu Oind.2s.


S1s. d-i- z-ki-o-t
S1pl. d-i- z-ki-o-gu
Oind.2s.
S1s. d-i- z-ki-zu-t
S1pl. d-i- z-ki-zu-gu
Oind.2 pol.
S1s. d-i- z-ki-zu-e-t
S1pl. d-i- z-ki-zu-e-gu
Oind.2pl.
S1s. d-i- z-ki-e-t
S1pl. d-i- z-ki-e-gu
Oind.3pl.
Od. 3 s.
S2s. d-i-da-k/n
S2s. d-i-o-k/n
S2s. d-i-gu-k/n
S2s. d-i-e-k/n
Od. 3 pl.
S2s. d-i- z-ki-da-k/n
S2s. d-i- z-ki-o-k/n
S2s. d-i- z-ki-gu-k/n
S2s. d-i- z-ki-e-k/n

Od. 3 s.
S2 pol. d-i-da-zu
Oind.1s.
S2 pol. d-i-o-zu
Oind.3s.
S2 pol. d-i-gu-zu
Oind.1pl.
S2 pol. d-i-e-zu
Oind.3pl.
Od. 3 pl.
S2 pol. d-i- z-ki-da-zu
S2 pol. d-i- z-ki-o-zu
S2 pol. d-i- z-ki-gu-zu
S2 pol. d-i- z-ki-e-zu

Oind.1s.
Oind.3s.
Oind.1pl.
Oind.3pl.
97

98

Od. 3 s.
S2pl. d-i-da-zu-e
S2pl. d-i-o-zu-e
S2pl. d-i-gu-zu-e
S2pl. d-i-e-zu-e

S3.s.
S3.s.
S3.s.
S3.s.
S3.s.
S3.s.
S3.s.

d. 3 pl.
di-z-ki-da-zu-e
di-z-ki-o-zu-e
di-z-ki-gu-zu-e
di-z-ki-e-zu-e

Od.3 s.

Od. 3 pl.

d-i-t
d-i-k/n
d-i-o
d-i-gu
d-i-zu
d-i-zu-e
d-i-e

d-i-z-ki-t
d-i-z-ki-k/n
d-i-z-ki-o
d-i-z-ki-gu
d-i-z-ki-zu-e
d-i-z-ki-zu
d-i-z-ki-e

Od.3 s.

Od. 3 pl.

Oind.1s.
Oind.1s.
Oind.1s.
Oind.1s.

Oind.1s.
Oind.2s.
Oind.3s.
Oind.1pl.
Oind.2 pol.
Oind.2pl.
Oind.3pl.

S3.pl. d-i-da-te
d-i-z-ki-da-te
Oind.1s.
S3.pl. d-i-a-te /dinate d-i-z-ki-a-te/dizkinate
Oind.2s.
S3.pl. d-i-o-te
d-i-z-ki-o-te
Oind.3s.
S3.pl. d-i-gu-te
d-i-z-ki-gu-te
Oind.1pl.
S3.pl. d-i-zu-te
d-i-z-ki-zu-e-te
Oind.2 pol.
S3.pl. d-i-zu-e-te
d-i-z-ki-zu-te
Oind.2pl.
S3.pl. d-i-e-te
d-i-z-ki-e-te
Oind.3pl.
( Cilardegi, 1979, gv. 131-132 ).
am tipis zmnur formebSi zki gaiazreba rogorc pirdapiri obieqtis
mravlobiTobis gamomxatveli erTi morfema, adresatobis
pirveladi markeri ki prefiqsur poziciaSia. Aaq garkveuli
TvalsazrisiT adgili aqvs zmnis ori kategoriis, kerZod, aqtantis
ricxvisa da adresatobis erTmaneTSi Serwymas. magram
bunebrivia, rom ena cdilobs aglutinaciis principebis dacvas da
axleburad gadaiazrebs z-ki morfemas. Tumca amis paralelurad
baskurSi aris iseTi formebic, sadac z ubralod win uZRvis ki-s,
rogorc pirdapiri obieqtis ricxvis markeri: zmna eraman - tareba
nor-nori-nork ( Tumca radganac III piris pirdapiri obieqti xSirad
usulo sagania, ufro zustia zer-nori-nork):
da-rama-ki-o-t
da-rama-z-ki-o-t
da-rama-ki-o-te da-rama-z-ki-o-te (Cilardegi, 1979, gv.
123).
98

99

aseTive suraTi gvaqvs sampirian zmnebSi: erabili xmareba


(berabilkiote-berabilzkiote, zerabilkidaten-zerabilzkidaten) , ekarri waReba
( dakarkidak/n-dakarzkidak/n, dakarkigu-dakarzkigu), entzun mosmena
(bentzukio- bentzuzkio) da a. S. ( Cilardegi, 1979, gv. 117-118 ).
aseT formebSi aSkarad Cans z-ki morfemis Semadgeneli
nawilebis funqciebi. savsebiT naTelia, rom ganviTarebis
Semdgom etapebze zki ukve gaiazreba rogorc erTiani morfema,
kerZod, zmnis pirTa pluralizatori tranzituloba-intranzitulobis
mixedviT. Ees SedarebiT gviandeli movlenaa, radganac baskurSi
adresatobis kategoria gardamavlobis kategoriaze damokidebuli
araa. savaraudod, adresatoba tranzitulobasTan SedarebiT ufro
adrindeli enobrivi movlenaa.
sainteresoa is faqti, rom zemoT ganxiluli z-ki formantis
funqcionireba erT rangSi moiazrebs pirdapir obieqtsa da
gardauvali zmnis subieqts. es movlena wamoWris ergatiulobis
Temas da saintereso tipologiur paralelsac qmnis qarTvelur
enebTan.
lafons miaCnia, rom iribi obieqtis damatebiTi
markirebisagan Tavs ikaveben baskebi, romelTac ase uyvarT
mravlobiTobis maCveneblebis simravle (r. lafoni, 1984, gv.
106). Cven ki vfiqrobT, rom baskurSi aRiniSneba adresatobis
kategoriis mravalgvari da Tanac araerTrjeradi markireba:
1. rogorc zemoT visaubreT, zki pluralizatori iwvevs adresatobis
kategoriis damatebiT markirebas,
2. kategoriis cirkumfiqsuri warmoeba faqtobrivad ormagi
referencirebaa
3. Tavad adresatoba klasikuri variantiT aris ormorfemuli.
Y
ormorfemuli markirebisas pirveli markeri ki/i adresatobis
referenti konstantaa, meore ki ( piri da ricxvi O idn. ) cvalebadi
gramatikuli sididea. Zki rogorc pluralizatori agreTve cvalebadia,
radganac ar aris konkretuli piris pluralizatori romelobis an
rogorobis mixedviT. Aam mdgomareobiT igi adresatobis
referentis sistemuri parametrebidan Zalian ar aris dacilebuli.
nebismieri gramatikuli kategoriisaTvis aucilebeli
moTxovnaa saopozicio calebis qona. rogorc rene lafoni
aRniSnavs, adresatobis kategoria, erTi mxriv, did
mravalferovnebas gviCvenebs diaqroniul WrilSi da dialeqtebSi,
meore mxriv, ki is aris sakmaod mwyobri da Tanmimdevruli
sistema uRlebis paradigmaTa mixedviT. adresatuli formebi
aranair sxvaobas ar gvaZlevs uRlebis sxvadasxva rigebSi. Ee. i.
Tu zmna adresatulia, is adresatuli iqneba yvela rigSi, droisa da
kilos cvlilebaTa miuxedavad. xolo Tu zmna araadresatulia, is
yvelgan araadresatuli, anu uadresato darCeba ( r. lafoni, 1984,
gv. 117 ). Ees principi adresatobis kategoriis mwyobr sistemas
99

100

warmoqmnis baskur zmanSi. Aadresatobis mixedviT zmnebi


SegviZlia davyoT or ZiriTad jgufad: adresatul da araadresatul
zmnebad. rogorc ukve aRvniSneT,Aadresatul zmnebad unda
CaiTvalos:
1. orpiriani gardauvali - erTobieqtiani alternatiuli adresatuli
araergatiuli zmnebi (nor-nori),
2. sampiriani - orobieqtiani adresatuli ergatiuli zmnebi (zer-norinork).
araadresatulad CaiTvleba:
1. erTpiriani uobieqto uadresato, araergatiuli zmnebi (nor),
2. orpiriani gardamavali zmnebi - erTobieqtiani alternatiuli
uadresato ergatiuli (nor-nork) zmnebi.
martivad rom vTqvaT, yvela is zmna romelsac iribi obieqti
aqvs, adresatulia, xolo Tu ar gaaCnia iribi obieqti,
araadresatulia. adresatulobasa da irib obieqts Soris

iseTive Sesabamisobaa, rogoric tranzitulobasa da


pirdapir obieqts Soris. faqtobrivad es movlenebi
erTmaneTs MmTlianad faravs: yvela
pirdapirobieqtiani zmna tranzitulia da piriqiT;
aseve yvela iribobieqtiani zmna adresatulia da
piriqiT.
A
sailustraciod vauRloT damxmare zmna Izan (yofna):
Nor
S 1 s.
S 2 s.
S 3 s.
S 1 pl.
S 2 pol.
S 2 pl.
S 3 pl.

naiz
haiz
da
gara
zara
zarete
dira

Nor-Nori
S 1 s.
na-tza-i-k/n
na-tza-i-o
na-tza-i-zu
na-tza-i-zu-e
na-tza-i-e
S 3 s.

S 1 pl.
ga-tza-i-zki-k/n
ga-tza-i- zki-o
ga-tza-i- zki-zu
ga-tza-i- zki-zu-e
ga-tza-i- zki-e
S 2 pol.

Oind 2 s.
Oind 3 s.
Oind 2 pol.
Oind 2 pl.
Oind 3 pl.

S 2 pl.
100

101

ha-tza-i-t
ha-tza-i-o
ha-tza-i-gu
ha-tza-i-e

za-tza-i-zki-t
za-tza-i- zki-o
za-tza-i- zki-gu
za-tza-i- zki-e

za-tza-i-zki-da-te
za-tza-i-zki-o-te
za-tza-i-zki-gu-te
za-tza-i-zki-e-te

Oind 1 s.
Oind 3 s.
Oind 1pl.
Oind 3 pl.

S 3 s.
S 3 pl.
za-i-t
za-i-zki-t
Oind 1 s.
za-i-k/n
za-i-zki-k/n
Oind 2 s.
za-i-o
za-i-zki-o
Oind 3 s.
za-i-gu
za-i-zki-gu
Oind 1 pl.
za-i-zu
za-i-zki-zu
Oind 2 pol.
za-i-zu-e
za-i-zki-zu-e
Oind 2 pl.
za-i-e
za-i-zki-e
Oind 3 pl. (euskera, 1973,
gv.7)
orpirian gardamaval zmnebsac Nor-Nork aseve SeuZliaT iribi
obieqtis damateba da Sesabamisad, uRlebis adresatuli rigebi
eqnebaT.
Ukan qona Nor-Nork
Od. 1 s.
S2s. na-u-k/n
S3s.
na-u
S2 pol. na-u-zu
S2pl. na-u-zu-e
S3pl na-u-te
Od. 2 s.
S1s. ha-u-t
S3s. ha-u
S1pl. ha-u-gu
S3pl ha-u-te

Od. 1 pl.
ga-it-u-k/n
ga-it-u
ga-it-u-zu
ga-it-u-zu-e
ga-it-u-e

Od. 2 pol.
za-it-u-t
za-it-u
za-it-u-gu
za-it-u-zte

O d.3 s.
S 1 s.
d-u-t
S 2 s.
d-u-k/n
S 3 s.
d-u
S1 pl.
d-u-gu
S 3 pol. d-u-zu
S 2 pl.
d-u-zu-e
S 3 pl.
d-u-te

Od. 2 pl.
za-it-u-zte-t
za-it-u-zte
za-it-u-zu-zte-gu
za-it-u-zte-te

Od. 3 pl.
d-it-u-t
d-it-u-k/n
d-it-u
d-it-u-gu
d-it-u-zu
d-it-u-zu-e
d-it-u-zte (euskera, 1973, gv. 20)

sainteresoa, rom aq pirdapiri obieqtis mravlobiTobis


aRmniSvneli aris it, romelic zmnis Ziris win Cndeba, xolo zte
iSleba z, t, e zmnis piris maCvenebel formantebad. Aes naTel
101

102

suraTs qmnis imisa, Tu rogor uyvarT baskebs mravlobiTobis


aRniSvna zmnaSi.
imave zmnis Zer/Nor-Nori-Nork:
O ind. 1 s. Od. 3.s.
S2s.
d-i-da-k/n
S3s.
d-i-t
S2 pol. d-i-da-zu
S2pl.
d-i-da-zu-e
S3pl.
d-i-da-te
O ind. 2 s. Od. 3.s.
S1s.
S3s.
S1pl.
S3pl.
S1s.
S2s.
S3s.
S1pl.
S2 pol.
S2pl.
S3pl.

d-i-gu-k/n
d-i-gu
d-i-gu-zu
d-i-gu-zu-e
d-i-gu-te
Oind. 2 pol. Od. 3.s. O ind. 2 pl. Od. 3.s.

d-i-a-t/dinat
d-i-k/n
d-i-a-gu/dinagu
d-i-a-te/dinate
Oind. 3 s.
d-i-o-t
d-i-o-k/n
d-i-o
d-i-o-gu
d-i-o-zu
d-i-o-zu-e
d-i-o-te

Oind. 1 pl. Od. 3.s.

d-i-zu-t
d-i-zu
d-i-zu-gu
d-i-zu-te

d-i-zu-e-t
d-i-zu-e
d-i-zu-e-gu
d-i-zu-e-te

O ind. 3 pl.
d-i-e-t
d-i-e-k/n
d-i-e
d-i-e-gu
d-i-e-zu
d-i-e-zu-e
d-i-e-te (euskera, 1973, gv. 34)

pirdapiri obieqtis mravlobiTobisas gveqneba aseTi formebi:


dizkiot, dizkiegu, dizkit da a. S.
absoluturad naTelia, rom iribi obieqtis damateba iwvevs
Sesabamis cvlilebebs da gvaqvs adresatuli rigebi. igive principi
muSaobs qarTulSic. testelecis sityvebiT, qceva SeiZleba ase
aRvweroT, zmnis valentobas emateba iribi mimarTebis piri
dativSi da es zmnaSi versiis markeriT aisaxeba (i. testeleci,
1984, gv. 131).
baskurSi sakmaod martivi principi moqmedebs: marTlac,
zmnis valentobis tradiciuli terminiT pirianobis zrda an kleba
iwvevs adresatobis kategoriis formaTa Sesabamis derivaciul
cvlilebebs. cvlilebaTa modelebi ase gamoiyureba:
A=Nor + Oind.
B=Nor-Nori + Oind.
102

103

aq uadresato formebidan viRebT adresatul formebs da


Sesabamisad, zmnaSi Cndeba adresatobis referentic. aseTi
formuliT muSaobs erTpiriani zmnebi: joan wasvla, etorri
mosvla, ibili siaruli da sxv.AqvemoT moyvanil magaliTebSi ki
piriqiT, adresatuli formebidan viRebT uadresato rigebs.
C=Nor-Nori - Oind.
D=Nor/Zer-Nori-Nork - Oind.
Nor - egon
S 1 s.
S 2 s.
S 3 s.
S 1pl.
S 2 pol.
S 2 pl.
S 3 pl.

nago
hago
dago
gaude
zaude
zaudete
daude ( euskera, 1973, gv. 48 )

Nor-Nori egon

2
pol..zuri
s.ni
--nagokik/n nagokio
--nagokizu
s. hi
Hagokit
--hagokio
hagokigu
---s.hura Dagokit
dagokik/n dagokio
dagokigu
dagokizu
pl.gu
--gagokik/n gagozkio ---gagozkizu
pol..zu Zagozkit
--zagozkio zagozkigu ---pl.zuek zagozkidate --zagozkiote zagozkigute ---pl.haiek Dagozkit
Dagozkik/n dagozkio dagozkigu dagozkizu

Oind.

1 s.niri

2s.hiri

3s.hari

1pl.guri

2pl.zuei

3p

nagokizue
---dagokizue
gagozkizue
------dagozkizue

N
ha
da
G
Za
za
da

103

104

( S. gereniu, 1984, gv. 52 )

104

Nor - joan
S 1 s.

noa

S 2 s.

hoa

S 3 s.

doa

S 1pl.

goaz

S 2 pol. zoaz
S 2 pl.

zoazte

S 3 pl.

doaz

( euskera, 1973, gv. 61 ).

106

Nor-Nori joan

2
pol..zuri
1s.ni
--noakik/n Noakio
--noakizu
2s. hi
Hoakit
--Hoakio
Hoakigu
---3s.hura Doakit
doakik/n Doakio
Doakigu
doakizu
1pl.gu
--goazkik/n goazkio ---goazkizu
2pol.zu Zoazkit
--zoazkio Zoazkigu ---2pl.zuek Zazkidate --zoazkiote zoazkigute ---3pl.haiek Doazkit
doazkik/n doazkio doazkigu doazkizu

s/Oind.

1 s.niri

2s.hiri

3s.hari

1pl.guri

2pl.zuei

3pl.haiei

noakizue
---doakizue
goazkizue
------doazkizue

noakie
hoakie
doakie
Goazkie
Zoazkie
zoazkiete
doazkie

( S. gereniu, 1984, gv. 65 )

106

107

Nor - etorrr
S 1 s.

nator

S 2 s.

hator

S 3 s.

dator

S 1pl.

gatoz

S 2 pol.

zatoz

S 2 pl.

zatozte

S 3 pl.

datoz

( S. gereniu, 1984, gv. 75 )

107

108

Nor-Nori etorri

2
pol..zuri
1s.ni
--natorkik/n natorkio --natorkizu
2s. hi
Hatorkit
--hatorkio hatorkigu ---3s.hura Datorkit
datorkik/n datorkio datorkigu datorkizu
1pl.gu
--gatozkik/n gatozkio ---gatozkizu
2 pol..zu Zatozkit
--zatozkio zatozkigu ---2pl.zuek zatozkidate --zatozkiote zatozkigute ---3pl.haiek Datozkit
datozkik/n datozkio datozkigu datozkizu

s/Oind.

1 s.niri

2s.hiri

3s.hari

1pl.guri

2pl.zuei

3pl

natorkizue
---datorkizue
gatozkizue
------datozkizue

nat
hat
dat
Gat
Zat
zato
dat

( S. gereniu, 1984, gv. 79 )

108

109

Nor - ibili
S 1 s.

nabil

S 2 s.

habil

S 3 s.

dabil

S 1pl.

gabiltza

S 2 pol. zabiltza
S 2 pl.

zabiltzaete

S 3 pl.

dabiltza

( S. gereniu, 1984, gv. 88 )

109

110

Nor-Nori ibili

2
pol..zuri
1s.ni
--nabilkik/n Nabilkio
--nabilkizu
2s. hi
Habilkit
--Habilkio
habilkigu
---3s.hura Dabilkit
dabilkik/n Dabilkio
dabilkigu
dabilkizu
1pl.gu
--gabilkik/n Gabilzkio ---gabilzkizu
2 pol.zu Zabilzkit
--Zabilzkio zabilzkigu ---2pl.zuek zabilzkidate --Zabilzkiote zabilzkigute ---3pl.haiek Dabilzkit
dabilzkik/n Dabilzkio Dabilzkigu dabilzkizu

s/Oind.

1 s.niri

2s.hiri

3s.hari

1pl.guri

2pl.zuei
nabilkizue
---dabilkizue
gabilzkizue
------dabilzkizue

( S. gereniu, 1984, gv. 80 )

110

111

zemoT moyvanili magaliTebidan Cans, rom Tavdapirvelad


subieqtis mravlobiTobis niSani iyo z, Semdeg ki adresatul
rigebSi mas daemata ki. Abaskuri zmnis uRlebaTa sailustracio
paradigmebidan agreTve naTlad Cans, Tu rogor awarmoebs
adresatobas ki markeri Sesabamis formebSi.
S + Oind.
Nago (Nor) ---- nago ki - o (Nor-Nori)
Doa (Nor) ---- doa - ki - o (Nor-Nori)
Dator (Nor) ---- dator - ki - o (Nor-Nori)
Habil (Nor) ---- habil - ki - o (Nor-Nori)
igive principia S, Od. + Oind.
]Nakarzu (Zer/Nor-Nork) --- nakar-ki-zu (Zer/Nor-Nori-Nork)
Daramat (Zer/Nor-Nork) --- darama-ki-t (Zer/Nor-Nori-Nork)
Darabil (Zer/Nor-Nork) --- darabil-ki-O (Zer/Nor-Nori-Nork)

111

112

Zer/Nor-Nork ekarri

s/Od.
1s.nik
2s. hik
3s.hark
1pl.guk
2
pol..zuk
2pl.zuek
3pl.haiek

1 s.ni
--nakark/n
Nakar
--Nakarzu

2s.hi
hakart
--hakar
hakargu
---

3s.hura
Dakart
dakark/n
Dakar
Dakargu
Dakarzu

1pl.gu
--gakartzak/n
Gakartza
---gakartzazu

2 pol.. zu
zakartzat
---zakartza
zakartzagu
----

2pl.zuek
zakartzet
---zakartze
zakartzegu
----

3pl.h
daka
daka
daka
daka
daka

Nakarzue --dakartzue gakartzazue ------daka


Nakarte hakarte Dakarte
gakartzate zakartzate zakartzete daka

( S. gereniu, 1984, gv. 117 )

112

113

Zer/Nor-Nori- Nork ekarri

s/Oind.
1s.nik
2s. hik
3s.hark
1pl.guk
2 pol.zuk
2pl.zuek
3pl.haiek

1 s.niri
--dakarkidak/n
Dakarkit
--Dakarkidazu
dakarkidazue
Dakarkidate

2s.hiri
dakarki(n)at
--dakarkik/n
dakarki(n)agu
----dakarki(n)ate

3s.hari
Dakarkiot
dakarkiok/n
dakarkio
Dakarkiogu
Dakarkiozu
dakartkiozue
Dakarkiote

1pl.guri
--dakarkiguk
dakarkigu
---dakarkiguzu
dakarkiguzue
dakarkigute

2 pol. zuri
dakarkizut
---dakarkizu
dakarkizugu
------dakarkigute

( S. gereniu, 1984, gv. 118 )

pirdapiri obieqtis mravlobiTobisas iqneba dakarzkiot,


dakarzkit da a. S.

113

2
d
-d
d
--d

114

Zer/Nor-Nork eraman

s/Od.
1s.nik
2s. hik
3s.hark
1pl.guk
2 pol.zuk
2pl.zuek
3pl.haiek

1 s.ni
--Naramak/n
Narama
--Naramazu
Naramazue
Naramate

2s.hi
haramat
--Harama
haramagu
----haramate

3s.hura
Daramat
Daramak/n
Darama
Daramagu
Daramazu
Daramazue
Daramate

1pl.gu
--garamak/n
Garamatza
---garamatzazu
garamatzazue
garamatzate

2 pol. zu
zaramatzat
---zaramatza
zaramatzagu
------zaramatzate

2pl.zuek
Zaramaz
---Zaramaz
zaramaz
------zaramaz

( S. gereniu, 1984, gv. 121 )

114

115

Zer/Nor-Nori- Nork eraman

s/Oind.

1s.nik

2s. hik

3s.hark

1pl.guk

2 pol.zuk

2pl.zuek

3pl.haiek

1 s.niri
--daramakidak/n
daramakit
--daramakidazu
daramakidazue
daramakidate

2s.hiri
daramaki(n)at
--daramakik/n
daramaki(n)agu
----daramaki(n)ate

3s.hari
daramakiot
daramakiok/n
daramakio
daramakiogu
daramakiozu
daramakiozue
daramakiote

1pl.guri
--daramakiguk
daramakigu
---daramakiguzu
daramakiguzue
daramakigute

2 pol. zuri
daramakizu
---daramakizu
daramakizu
------daramakigu

( S. gereniu, 1984, gv. 16352 )

pirdapiri obieqtis mravlobiTobisas iqneba


daramazkiot, daramazkiote da a. S.

115

116

Zer/Nor-Nork erabili

s/Od.
1s.nik
2s. hik
3s.hark
1pl.guk
2 pol.zuk
2pl.zuek
3pl.haiek

1 s.ni
--Narabilk/n
Narabil
--Narabilzu
Narabilzue
Narabilte

2s.hi
Harabilt
--Harabil
harabilgu
----harabilte

3s.hura
Darabilt
darabilk/n
Darabil
Darabilgu
Darabilzu
Darabilzue
Darabilte

1pl.gu
--garabiltzak/n
Garabiltzatza
---garabiltzazu
garabiltzazue
garabiltzate

2 pol. zu
zarabiltzat
---zarabiltza
zarabiltzagu
------zarabiltzate

2pl.zuek
Zarabilztet
---Zarabilzte
zarabilzteg
------zarabliztete

( S. gereniu, 1984, gv. 126 )

116

117

Zer/Nor-Nori- Nork erabili

2
pol. zuri
1s.nik
--darabilki(n)at darabilkiot
--darabilkizu
2s. hik
darabilkidak/n --darabilkiok/n darabilkiguk
---3s.hark Darabilkit
darabilkik/n
darabilkio
darabilkigu
darabilkizu
1pl.guk --darabilki(n)agu darabilkiogu ---darabilkizu
2 pol.zuk Darabilkidazu --darabilkiozu darabilkiguzu ---2pl.zuek darabilkidazue --darabilkiozue darabilkiguzue ---3pl.haiek Darabilkidate darabilki(n)ate darabilkiote darabilkigute darabilkigu

s/Oind.

1 s.niri

2s.hiri

3s.hari

1pl.guri

( S. gereniu, 1984, gv. 128 )

117

118

pirdapiri obieqtis mravlobiTobisas iqneba darabilzkio,


darabilzkiote da a. S.
aseve awarmoeben adresatuli uRlebis formebs zmnebi: egin
keTeba, entzun mosmena, erakutsi - Cveneba, utzi datoveba,
igorri gagzavna, erosi - yidva, eman keTeba esan/eran Tqma,
irakatzi swavleba da sxv.
zemoT Cven vuCveneT Sualeduri zmnebi, romelTac SeuZliaT
hqondeT adresatuli da uadresato formebi. dadebiTi, anu
mudam adresatuli zmnebia: jarraiki midevneba, ekin
damorCileba, jario/jarin/jaratu warmomavloba, momdinareoba,
atxeki/etxeki miRweva da misT. es zmnebi garkveulwilad
infinitiur fuZeSive Seicaven adresatobis referentebs: jarrai-ki, eki-n, jar-io da sxv. am tipis zmnebSi
zki s darTviT xdeba adresatobis kategoriis meCveneblebis
gaormageba, ris Sesaxebac zemoT ukve visaubreT ( mag.: gaki-zki-e, za-ki-zki-e, da-r-i-zki-t da a. S. ).

3.

qarTuli zmnis versiisa da baskuri zmnis


adresatobis kategoriis tipologiuri
Sepirispireba
118

119

baskuri da qarTuli/qarTveluri zmnuri destinaciis kategoriaTa


tipologiuri Sepirispireba saintereso suraTs iZleva. Uupirveles
yovlisa, unda aRvniSnoT, rom aq saubari gvaqvs, ra Tqma unda,
sinqroniul analizze. baskuri zmna destinaciis gamoxatvisas
principulad Tanmimdevrulia, iseve, rogorc zmnuri pirebis
gamoxatvis SemTxvevaSi. qarTulSi ki SedarebiT naklebia aseTi
Tanmimdevroba da arc pirTa referencirebaa mudam obligatoruli.
pirveli da meore obieqturi pirebi (pirdapiric da iribic) mudam
gamoxatulia zmnaSi, samagierod, mesame piris pirdapiri obieqti
saerTod uniSnoa da iribi ki Zalze sustadaa referencirebuli da
xSir SemTxvevaSi nulia. Ees faqtori, Tavis mxriv, bevr rames
ganapirobebs. igi gaxda ZiriTadi mizezi pirianobis morfologiuri
suraTis axleburi gadaazrebisaTvis.
qarTul zmnaSi gvaqvs ori varianti:
1. SesaZloa gvqondes iribi obieqti da ar gvqondes gamoxatuli
qceva (miswera, scema).
aq gvaqvs ori SemTxveva:
a. saerTod ara gvaqvs gamoxatuli qceva (miswera, scema da
sxv. );
b. gvaqvs neitraluri versia (aaTala, gamoacala da sxv. ).
Sesabamisad, es aris orpiriani gardauvali an sampiriani
zmnebi.
2. SesaZloa, gvqondes iribi obieqti da gvqondes gamoxatuli
qceva (uzis, uSenebs).
E
esec aris orpiriani gardauvali an sampiriani zmnebi.
arsebobs mesame variantic - orpirian gardamaval zmnebSi
introvertizaciis movlena, romelic tradiciul enaTmecnierebaSi
gaazrebulia rogorc qcevis saopozicio forma. Ees gaxlavT e. w.
saTaviso qceva. Uunda iTqvas, rom diaqroniulad es namdvilad
sxva kategoriaa, Tumca is sinqroniul WrilSi saopozicio formebs
iribi obieqtis sasxviso qvevis formebTan didi warmatebiT
ayalibebs da amdenad, udavoa saTaviso qcevis arseboba enaSi.
Ee. i. qarTulSi arsebobs mesame gansakuTrebuli variantic ar
aris iribi obieqti da aris (saTaviso) qceva (ikeTebs, iSenes).
Bbaskur enaSi am yvela variants tipologiurad Seesabameba
ori varianti:
1. gvaqvs iribi obieqti da gvaqvs gamoxatuli adresatoba.
2. ar gvaqvs iribi obieqti da ar gvaqvs gamoxatuli adresatoba.
zmnaTa destinaciuri formebis warmoebis aseTi
sxvaoba Sesabamis safuZvels iZleva imisTvis, rom am enaTa
sistemebSi araTanabrad gaiSalos destinaciuri semantika.
119

120

radganac baskuri zmna meti TanmimdevrobiT asaxavs


daniSnulebiTobas, mas SedarebiT naklebi saSualebebi aqvs
am Sinaarsis sxva morfologiuri formebiT gadmosacemad. rac
Seexeba qarTuls, igi baskurTan SedarebiT gacilebiT mdidaria
destinaciis gramatikul referencirebaSi.
M enaTa morfologiuri kategoriebis Sepirispirebani
mniSvnelovania ara mxolod tipologiisaTvis, aramed istoriulSedarebiTi enaTmecnierebisaTvisac. cnobilia, rom istoriulSedarebiT enaTmecnierebaSi sayovelTaod miRebulia enaTa
naTesaobis dasadgenad regularuli bgeraTSesatyvisobis
gamovlena. DdRemde ZiriTadad mxolod am principiT
ganisazRvreboda enaTa genetikuri naTesaoba. Ees, ra Tqma
unda, enaTa naTesaobis utyuari sabuTia da eWvs arc dRes
iwvevs. Tumca unda aRiniSnos is garemoeba, rom leqsikaSi
gamovlenili regularuli bgeraTSesatyvisobebi diaqroniuli
vertikalis SedarebiT zeda Sreebzea realurad SesamCnevi.
Aaqve unda aRiniSnos isic, rom rodesac enis istoriasa da
warsulzea saubari, igulisxmeba drois gacilebiT didi monakveTi
vidre Sesabamisi enis literaturaSi SeiZleba dadasturdes.
Uudavoa, rom enis ganviTareba ufro xangrZlivi da neli
procesia. ase magaliTad, meoce saukunis ociani wlebis qarTuli
literatura ar aris Tanamedrve qarTuli literatura, magram am
periodis ena axali qarTuli enaa. es ar gaxlavT paraleluri
siCqareebi. TiToeul enaSi sxvadasxva siswrafiT xdeba
cvlilebebis damkvidreba. es aris enis ganviTarebis siCqare, rac
damokidebulia sayovelTaod cnobil socialur-istoriul,
sazogadoebriv da sxva tipis faqtorebze. Eenis sistemuri tipis
cvlilebebis koeficienti, Cveni varaudiT, daaxloebiT 10-12-jer
dabalia Sesabamisi saliteraturo enis cvlilebebTan SedarebiT.
Tumca es konkretuli monacemi masalobriv dadasturebas, an
SesaZloa, Sesworebasac saWiroebs. roca vsaubrobT enis
diaqroniasa da istoriul formebze, aucileblad
gasaTvaliswinebelia es koeficienti. miT ufro, rom yoveli
lingvisturi Zieba mxolod enaSi arsebul konkretul literaturas, e.
w. masalas eyrdnoba.
iq, sadac aseTi tipis regularuli bgeraTSesatyvisoba ar
dasturdeba da naTesaobis sakiTxi ki sxva tipis monacemebze
dayrdnobiT TiTqos eWvs ar iwvevs, Cven vfiqrobT, rom
amocana, SesaZloa, ufro martiv amoxsnas
eqvemdebarebodes. TiTqmis aqsiomaturad JRers Semdegi
lingvisturi debuleba: enaTa naTesaobis dasadgenad

saWiro da sakmarisia morfemebSi

120

121

bgeraTSesatyvisobebisa da morfologiur
kategoraTa funqciur-struqturuli simetriis an
asimetriis gamovlena referencialur doneze. Cveni
Teoria eyrdnoba im sayovelTaod miRebul azrs, rom morfologia
gacilebiT myaria, vidre leqsika da misi cvlilebebis tempi
ramdenjerme naklebia leqsikasTan SedarebiT.
TavisTavad morfema aris konkretuli semantikis forma anu
semantikuri kategoriis gramatikuli sxeuli. Aar arsebobs
morfologia semantikis gareSe. yvelaferSi devs an igulisxmeba
funqciuri datvirTva, Sinaarsi. morfo-semantika aris nebismieri
enis azri da guli. tradiciulad regularul
bgeraTSesatyvisobaTa gamovlena leqsikis doneze
xdeba. Cven ki gTavazobT moqmedebis centris
gadatanas morfologiaSi. faqtobrivad bgeraTSesatyvisobaTa
gamovlena unda moxdes morfemaTa doneze da ara mxolod
Zireul morfemebSi. aseTi midgomiT miviRebT diaqroniuli
vertikalis gacilebiT qveda, Soreuli fenebis realur
komparatiul suraTs. unda xazgasmiT aRiniSnos, rom
saWiroa sruli an procentulad gadamwyveti sistemuri
Sesatyvisobebis dadgena morfo-semantikaSi. erTi da
ori kategoriis doneze sakiTxi amowurulad ver
CaiTvleba.
morfemebi xSir SemTxvevaSi istoriulad damoukidebeli
sityvebia. gavixsenoT brunvisa da piris niSanTa nacvalsaxeluri
warmoSoba. morfema aris enis uZvelesi formanti. Tuki aseTi
formantebi fonologiuri Sesatyvisobebis paralelurad
gviCveneben struqturul msgavsebas enaTa Soris, maSin udavo
iqneba am enaTa naTesaobac. faqtobrivad, morfemaTa
sistemaSi devs enis uZvelesi mikro-semantikis suraTi.
morfemaTa Sesabamisobani enis struqturaSi ganisazRvreba
oTxi ZiriTadi parametriT:
konkretuli gramatikuli anu morfo-semantikuri kategoriis arsiT,
1. saopozicio formaTa sistemiT,
2. afiqsuri formiTa da poziciiT,
3. enaSi sxva kategoriebTan mimarTebiT. K
konkretuli magaliTisTvis ganvixiloT qarTuli qcevisa da baskuri
adresatobis kategoriebi. aq orive SemTxvevaSi es aris
destinaciis zmnuri kategoria da misi ZiriTadi niSani aris i. rac
Seexeba saopozicio sistemas, esec identuria. Ggvaqvs
organzomilebiani modeli qceviani da uqceo formebi (rogorc
zemoT aRvniSneT, qarTulSi istoriulad organzomilebiani modeli
dasturdeba). destinaciis kategoriis afiqsuri forma orive
SemTxvevaSi prefiqsuria. baskurma ormagi gamoxatvis formas
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122

mimarTa da sufiqsiTac gaimyara am kategoriis morfo-semantika.


amasac, ra Tqma unda, Sesabamisi mizezebi hqonda, rogorc
mogaxseneT. destinaciis kategoriis sxva gramatikul
kategoriebTan mimarTebebi orive enaSi paralelur simetrias
gvaZlevs. Ees aris Sesabamisi mimarTeba pirisa da pirianobis
kategoriebTan, gvarTan, brunvisa da uRlebis sistemebTan,
TandebulebTan, refleqsivTan, kauzativTan, ergatiulobasTan da
klasis kategoriasTan. EarsebiTad, es Tanafardi kategoriaTaSorisi
mimarTebebia baskursa da qarTulSi.
aRsaniSnavia, rom iribi mimarTebis ormagi gamoxatva
(qcevis/adresatobis kategoriis niSniT da iribi obieqtis piris niSniT
) damaxasiaTebelia baskurisaTvisac da qarTulisaTvisac.
qarTulSic gvaqvs baskuris identuri zmnaTa klasifikacia iribi
obieqtis asaxvis TvalsazrisiT. unda isic aRiniSnos, rom qarTulSi
SedarebiT mcirea iseT zmnaTa ricxvi, romelTac iribi mimarTebis
erTmorfemuli gamoxatva axasiaTebT; aseTebia: misca, miswera,
hkiTxa da a. S. ZiriTadad ki qarTulic baskuris msgavsad irCevs
ormagi referencirebis gzas, anu iribi mimarTeba gadmoicema ori
morfemis kombinaciiT piris niSniTa da qcevis niSniT. Aaq
sainteresoa erTi garemoeba, kerZod - saerTod, arsebobs
ekonomizmis universaluri principi enis ganviTarebaSi, rac
gulisxmobs formaTa gamartivebas. EzemoaRniSnuli movlena ki
TiTqos amas ar eTanxmeba. Cven vfiqrobT, rom orive ena
arsebiTad or kategoriad gaiazrebs irib mimarTebas: cxadia, es
axlomdgomi kategoriebia (piri da qceva/adresatoba) da
aglutinaciis principis dacviT maT cal-calke morfemebi
mieniWebaT. Tumca, unda iTqvas, rom Tanabari mimarTeba ar
aris am or kategorias Soris. piris kategoria SedarebiT
damoukidebelia da SesaZloa, arareferencirebulma qcevam
(adresatobamac daiqroniulad) zmnaSi mogvces mxolod
referencirebuli piris kategoria, magram arareferencirebuli piri
qcevas/adresatobas ver gamoxatavs (naTelia, rom aq
relevanturi ver iqneba morfologiurad nulovani markirebis an
fonetikuri faqtorebis gamo gauCinarebuli piris niSnebi).
rogorc aRvniSneT, qarTuli da baskuri enebi msgavsebas
avlenen iribi mimarTebis gamoxatvisas rogorc morfologiurad, ise
semantikur planSic. Mmagram am konkretuli monacemebis
dadebiTi pasuxis miuxedavad, Cven ver visaubrebT baskurqarTul naTesaobaze, radganac es ar aris sakmarisi. xazgasmiT
unda aRiniSnos, rom morfemaTa aseTi tipis
bgeraTSesatyvisobebisa da Sesabamisi funqciur-struqturuli
simetriis an kanonzomieri asimetriis gamosavlenad Sesadarebel
enaTa mTliani struqturebi unda damuSavdes.
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123

gamovyofT relevantur kategoriebsa da relevantobis


koeficients; magaliTisTvis, erTnairi mniSvneloba ver mieniWeba
polipersonaluri zmnis ZiriTad morfo-semantikur kategoriebsa da
Sorisdebulebis sistemas. Mmxolod enis ZiriTadi gramatikuli
morfologiuri kategoriebi iqneba relevanturi.
zemoT SemoTavazebuli meTodiT enaTa naTesaobis dadebiTi
pasuxis dasadgenad agreTve saWiroa Sesadarebel enebSi
morfo-semantikur veqtorTa procentulad gadamwyveti
raodenobis Sesabamisobebis gamovlena.
Kkonkretul enaTa naTesaobis dasadgenad tipologiuri
TvalsazrisiT unda damuSavdes enaSi arsebuli morfosemantikuri doneebi, ganisazRvros relevanturi da irelevanturi
movlenebi. aseTi kvlevisaTvis aucilebelia ori ZiriTadi pirobis
gaTvaliswineba:
1. bgeris diapazonis gansazRvra da dasaSvebi fonologiuri
variaciebi, anu ra donis cvlileba SeiZleba gviCvenos ama Tu
im bgeram.
2. morfologiur kategoriaTa semantikuri struqturis diapazonis
gansazRvra anu dasaSvebi morfo-semantikuri variaciebi.
aqve davsZenT, rom TavisTavad morfologiuri Sepirispirebani,
ra Tqma unda, axali araa da am mxriv uamravi saqmea
gakeTebuli istoriul-SedarebiT enaTmecnierebaSi. magram Cven
saubari gvaqvs mTliani, sistemuri tipis SepirspirebiT analizze.
mniSvnelovania imis aRniSvnac, rom SesaZloa, arNgvqondes
enaSi morfemaTa fonologiuri Tanxvedra, magram iyos prekonceptualuri ganpirobebuloba. vTqvaT, romelime N kategoriis
morfo-semantikisaTvis amosavalia raRac Sinaarsi, romelsac A,
B, C fonologiurad gansxvavebuli morfologiuri variantebi aqvT.
aseT SemTxvevebSi Sesabamisobad CaiTvleba am ( A, B, C )
diapazonSi arsebuli an dasaSvebi variacia; magaliTad: megrulSi
ergativis niSania q, romelic aris k bgeris fSvinvieri varianti.
rogorc ukve zemoT aRvniSneT, Cveni azriT, es morfema
warmoqmnilia ganusazRvreli nacvalsaxelidan koCi (kaci) da
amdenad, Seesabameba qarTul-savnur m-s, romelsac Tavis
mxriv, amosavali aqvs imave tipis nacvalsaxeluri vin-kategoriis
semantikidan me/mare. Aaq Sesabamisobac naTelia, Tumca
fonetikurad k da m morfemebs saerTo araferi aqvT.
amrigad, SesaZloa, amosavali formisaTvis davuSvaT saerTo
semantika, romelic Sesadarebel enaTa reintegraciis sxvadasxva
etapsa da doneze morfonologiurad diferencirebuli erTeulebiT
SeiZleba daxasiaTdes. es aris tipologiuri midgoma (an meTodi),
romelic Zalze faqiz midgomas moiTxovs generatiul lingvistikaSi.
unda aucileblad gaviTvaliswinoT semantikur kategoriaTa zogadi
xasiaTi da zustad gavmijnoT zogadi da kerZo semantikuri
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124

movlenebi enaSi. aqve unda ganisazRvros konkretul morfosemantikur sistemaTa ZiriTadi parametrebi kerZo
SemTxvevebisaTvis, rac amosavali iqneba monaTesave enaTa
sisitemebis kvlevis dros.
unda isic aRiniSnos, rom zogjer monaTesave enebSic
mwyobri logikiT ar muSaobs esa Tu is morfologiuri kategoriis
sistema, magaliTad: zanuri ergativis referencialuri da
semantikuri mxareebi qarTulTan SesabamisobaSi.
unda ganisazRvros struqturaSi ra aris ZiriTadi es iqneba
mTliani morfo-semantika. calkeul referentTan SedarebiT mas
mieniWeba upiratesoba. Tumca, rogorc aRvniSneT, semantikas
mivyavarT universaliebTan ( es ki umoklesi gzaa babilonis
godolis lingvisturi Teoriisaken. Tumca es gaxlavT lingvisturi
poeziis sakiTxebi). Aes Tema amitom sakmaod seriozul
midgomas saWiroebs. Bbolo periodSi gaxSirda aralingvisturi
faqtorebis warmatebulad Semotana enaTmecnierul kvlevebSi.
Ues movlena, upirveles yovlisa, semantikis sferos exeba da am
etapze sakmaod warmatebulic aris interdisciplinarul
mecnierebaTa ganviTarebis fonze. U
gasaTvaliswinebelia is garemoebac, rom enaTa naTesaobis
SemoTavazebuli meTodiT dadgenisas saWiroa struqturaTa
garkveuli procentuli Tanxvedra, vTqvaT, 75-80%.
migvaCnia, rom uaRresad saintereso iqneboda iberiulkavkasiur enaTa damuSaveba morfemaTa
bgeraTSesatyvisobebisa da funqciur-struqturuli simetriis an
asimetriis gamosavlenad. vfiqrobT, rom amiT uamrav kiTxvas
gaecema pasuxi istoriul-SedarebiT enaTmecnierebaSi.
saerTod, enaSi nebismieri kategoriis Sida struqturuli analizis
srulyofis mizniT aucilebelia tipologiuri daxasiaTeba. Cven
vfiqrobT, rom diaqronia saerTod warmoudgenelia tipologiuri
analizis gareSe, Tumca sinqroniuli aRwerisaTvisac sakmaod
Rirebulia tipologiuri Sepirispirebis meTodi. enaTa SedarebiTi
tipologia gamoavlens zogad universalursa da kerZo enobriv
movlenebs. AamasTan, igi sargeblobs enaTa Sedarebis
yovelgvari saxeobiT. enaTa tipologiuri klasifikacia eyrdnoba
enebSi universaliaTa gamoxatvis sxvadsxvaobis principebs (e.
kuriloviCi, 1960, gv. 151 ).
tipologiuri kvlevis TvalsazrisiT baskuri, rogorc izolirebuli ena,
fasdaudebeli ganZia. uaRresad mniSvnelovania misi
Sepirispireba sxva enebTan da maT Soris kavkasiurTan ( h.
Suxarti, 1950, gv. 144 ).
enis leqsikur-gramatikuli kategoriebi bunebriv korelaciaSi
arian semantikur-sintaqsur kategoriebTan (s. kacnelsoni, 1986
124

125

gv. 214 ). amitomac baskuri da qarTuli zmnuri destinaturi


sistemebis tipologiuri analizi sam doneze unda Catardes:
1. funqcionalur-semantikur,
2. morfo-sintaqsur da
3. referencialur doneebze.
funqcionalur-semantikur doneze adresatoba da versia
faqtobrivad identuri kategoriebia; orive uCvenebs zmniT
gamoxatuli moqmedebis mimarTebas dainteresebuli
aqtantisaken. Ees aris zmnis ASinagani dinamikis veqtoruli
kategoriebi. Tumca baskurisagan gansxvavebiT,
qarTulSiEsaTaviso qceva versiis saopozicio calia sinqroniul
doneze. es gaxlavT ZiriTadi da erTaderTi sxvaoba adresatobasa
da versias Soris funqcionalur-semantikur doneze.
baskuri da qarTuli zmnuri destinaciuri sistemebis tipologiuri
Sepirispireba morfo-sintaqsur doneze ufro met sxvaobas
gviCvenebs. qarTuli zmnis versia ganasxvavebs Sida
kategorialur saopozicio formebs (neitraluri, saobieqto da
sasubieqto), baskuri zmnis adresatoba ki aseT sxvaobas ar
icnobs. baskurSi adresatuli da uadresato formebi qmnis
opozicias. rogorc zemoT aRvniSneT, am movlenis mizezi aris is,
rom baskurSi refleqsivi leqsikuri formiT gadmoicema zmnis
gareT. Tu gaviTvaliswinebT qarTuli zmnis prefiqsuri
monopersonalizmis diaqroniul suraTs versiis organzomilebiani
modeliT, SesaZlebelia baskur da qarTul zmnur destinaciur
sistemaTa izomorfizmze saubari funqcionalur-semantikur da
morfo-sintaqsur doneebze. Tavdapirveli amosavali

adresatobisaTvisac da versiisaTvisac iyo binaruli


opozicia. destinaciis aseTi binaruli sqema
universaluria tipologiuri TvalsazrisiT.

ramdenadac zmnuri destinacia ZiriTadad iribi mimarTebis


binaruli kategoriaa, upriania adresatobis kategoria mxolod
obieqtur versiasTan iqnes Sedarebuli. Fadresatuli da sasxvisoqcevian formaTa semantikuri warmoebis ZiriTadi modelebi
identuria:
S+Oind=>S, Oind.
S,Od. +Oind=>S, Od.,Oind.
aq gvinda xazi gavusvaT garkveuli tipis Sinaarsobriv
sxvadasxvaobas adresatuli da sasxviso-qcevian formaTa
warmoebisas. mniSvnelovania is faqti, rom qarTuli zmnis iribi
obieqti ufro farTo Sinaarsis SeiZleba iyos: adresati, posesori,
benefaqtivi, lokativi da a.S. amitom qarTulSi, SesaZloa,
gvqondes orpiriani gardauvali zmnebi sasxviso qcevis Sinaarsis
gareSe da am Sinaarsis SesaZenad zmnas dasWirdeba ara
125

126

zmnis pirianobis (anu predikatis valentobis) gazrda, aramed iribi


obieqtis Tvisobriobis cvla, mag.: Sdr. azis-uzis, awevs-uwevs da
a. S.
adresatoba da obieqturi versia erTnair sintaqsur models
mimarTavs: datiur brunvaSi dasmuli dainteresebuli aqtanti iribi
damatebaa, romelsac konkretuli adgili ar gaaCnia
winadadebaSi, radganac orive enaSi sityvaTa Tavisufali rigi
gvaqvs.
baskuri da qarTuli zmnuri destinaciuri sistemebis
funqcionalur-semantikuri da morfo-sintaqsuri tipologiuri suraTi
aseTia:
zmnis pirianoba
S

Versia
Nneitraluri

Aadresatoba
Uuadresato

saobieqto
S, Od.

qcevis gareSe
Nneitraluri,

Uuadresato

sasubieqto,
saobieqto
S, Oind.

qcevis gareSe
Nneitraluri,

Aadresatuli

saobieqto
S, Od. Oind.

qceva
Nneitraluri,

Aadresatuli

saobieqto
qceva

Cans, rom qarTulSi nebismieri pirianobis zmnas aqvs neitraluri


formebi. Aamitomac igi saopoziciod Rirebuli araa.Baqve gvinda,
davamatoT, rom iseTi binaruli opoziciis SemTxvevaSi, rogoricaa
moitana/moutana, gaigo/gaugo, moigona/mougona neitraluri
Sinaarsis datvirTva subieqturi versiis formebze modis. es aris
fiqtiuri opozicia referencialuri TvalsazrisiT.
versia-adresatobis saboloo Sesadarebeli suraTi ase
gamoiyureba:

126

127

zmnis

Versia

Aadresatoba

pirianoba
S

saobieqto

Uuadresato

qcevis
S, Od.

gareSe
Nsaobieqto

Uuadresato

qcevis
S, Oind.

gareSe
Nsaobieqto

Aadresatuli

S, Od. Oind.

qceva
Nsaobieqto

Aadresatuli

qceva
qarTulSi gvaqvs versiis TvalsazrisiT uaryofiTi zmnebi: aris,
icis, sufevs, aqvs, axsovs, uwyis, uyvars da a. S. am zmnebs
arasdros ewarmoebaT saobieqto formebi, Tumca formiT isini
qceviani zmnebia. EaseTi zmnebi formiT mudam dadebiTia da
SinaarsiT uaryofiTi da uqceo zmnebia.
qarTulisagan gansxvavebiT, baskur zmnas SeuZlia
daubrkileblad daurTos iribi obieqti da adresatobis destinaciis
markeri da amiT destinaciis Sinaarsi Seitanos nebismier
zmnaSi. zogjer semantikurad es sakmaod rTuli gasaazrebelicaa
da xelovnurobis STabeWdilebasac qmnis ena Tavisi mwyobri
sistemiT. es TiTqos erTgvari bodiSia zmnaTa sinTetur
warmoebaze masiuri gadasvlis gamo.
rogorc ukve iTqva zemoT, sinqroniul doneze qarTuls aqvs
versiis samganzomilebiani modeli, baskurs ki adresatobis
organzomilebiani modeli.
neitraluri
versia

sasubieqto
saobieqto
adresatuli

adresatoba
uadresato
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128

qceva da adresatoba aris zmnis derivaciuli kategoriebi,


romelTaTvisac umTavresia zmnis polipersonalizmi da
mniSvneloba ara aqvs gardamavlobas.
rac Seexeba referencialur dones, aq yvelaze metia sxvaoba
am kategoriaTa Soris. aRmoCenili msgavsebebi ki, SesaZloa,
SemTxveviT damTxvevad miviCnioT. Uupirvelesad unda iTqvas,
rom versiis kategoriis markerebi prefiqsuria, xolo adresatobis
markerebi sufiqsuri. Tumca Cven visaubreT adresatobis
prefiqsuri warmoebis diaqroniul aspeqtzec. Aam kategoriaTa
markerebis poziciebi sarkisebr asimetrias gviCvenebs
kategoriis markeri miemarTeba iribi obieqtis referentisaken.
qarTulSi iribi obieqtis markerebi prefiqsuria, xolo baskurSi
sufiqsuri. Sesabamisad, zmnuri destinaciis referentebic erTgan
gvaqvs prefiqsuri, meoregan ki sufiqsuri.
adresatobisa da versiis markerTa fonologia gansxvavebulia:
ki/i - i/a/u. Tumca, i aris orive SemTxvevaSi zmnuri destinaciis
ZiriTadi markeri. Ees albaT SemTxveviTia, Tu ar visaubrebT
fonosemantikaze da bgeraTa Sesabamis universalur fonologiur
Seferilobaze an polipersonalur zmnebSi xmovan prefiqsTa
diaqroniul semantikaze. sinqroniulad qarTulSi vokalTa triada
gvaqvs (V), baskurSi ki an erTi vokali, an kosonanti da vokali
(V/CV). Azmnuri destinaciis fonologiuri Semadgenlobis am tipis
sxvadasxvaoba xelSesaxebia.
qarTulSi versias aqvs erTmorfemuli an ormorfemuli
markireba. Aasevea baskurSic, oRond sxvaoba qarTulSi aris Sida
struqturuli opoziciis mxriv. magaliTad, pirvel da meore pirebSi
aucileblad ormorfemuli markireba gvaqvs, raTa
samganzomilebiani modeli zustad ganisazRvros: v-i-keTeb/m-ikeTeb. Aaq faqtobrivad piris niSani ganasxvavebs qcevas. Aam
movlenas sxva qarTvelma specialistebmac miaqcies yuradReba
(m. maWavariani, 1987, gv. 21 ). aq i ara Tu pirze, aramed
konkretulad qcevis formazec ki ver miuTiTebs.
qcevis erTmorfemuli markireba gvaqvs neitralur formebSi,
sadac mxolod iribi obieqtis niSania (s-wers, s-Tlis) an mxolod
neitraluri qcevis niSania (a-keTebs, a-Senebs) warmodgenili da
sasxviso qcevis mesame piris formebSi (u-xatav, u-wer, uSeneb). sasxviso qcevis erTmorfemuli markireba mxolod
mesame piris formebSia SesaZlebeli, isic imitom, rom Tavad es
morfema (u) aris gansxvavebuli. baskurSi ki piris romelobis
mixedviT referentTa cvlilebas adgili ara aqvs.

128

129

orive kategorias ( versiasa da adresatobas), SesaZloa,


hqondes erTmorfemuli an ormorfemuli markireba. magram maT
Tvisobrivad gansxvavebuli midgoma gaaCniaT sakiTxisadmi.
qarTuli versiis referentebi prefiqsuria, baskuri adresatobis
markerebi ki sufiqsuri. Mmagram isini sarkisebr asimetrias
qmnian, radganac orive SemTxvevaSi morfosemantikuri
veqtori iribi obieqtis markerisaken miemarTeba; xolo iribi
obieqtis markireba qarTulSi prefiqsuria, baskurSi ki sufiqsuri.
versiisa da adresatobis kategoriis morfo-semanturi veqtoruli
asimetiria aseTia:
iribi obieqtis markeri -- versiis markeri -= zmnis
fuZe,E anu O ind. i/u/a Verb
zmnis fuZe--E adresatobis markeri----_> iribi obieqtis
markeri, anu Verb ki/I O ind.
adresatobis diaqroniuli morfo-sintaqsuri veqtori baskurSi
mTlianad imeorebs qarTulis models: i/e -O ind. Verb.

Bbaskuri zmnis adresatuli da uadresato uRlebis


rigebi
TvalsaCinoebisaTvis mogvyavs Bbaskuri zmnis adresatuli da uadresato uRlebis
nimuSebi.
qvemoT moyvanili uRlebis rigebi Sejerebulia baskeTis universitetis lingvistebTan.
saerTod, warmodgenil naSromze muSaobis periodSi Cven uSualo profesiuli kontaqti
gvqonda rogorc bask, aseve sxva ucxoel specialistebTan, rogorebicaa i. laka, r. serano,
xuan karlos odriozola periera, i. zicari, n. xomski, a. maranci, d. holiski, a. harisi, a.
holmeri, k. vamlingi da sxv.
INDICATIVE PRESENT
NOR

ni

hi

hura gu

zu

Zuek haiek

naiz
da gara
dira
nauk haiz duk gaituk zara zarete dituk
naun
dun gaitun
ditun
129

130

NOR-NORI

ni
niri
hiri

Hi

hura gu

zu

Zuek

hatzait

zait
zaidak
zaidan

zatzaizkit

zaizkit
zatzaizkidate zaizkidak
zaizkidan

natzaik
natzain

zaik
zain

gatzaizkik
gatzaizkin

haiek

zaizkik
zaizkin

natzaio
zaio gatzaizkio
zaizkio
hari natzaiok hatzaio zaiok gatzaizkiok zatzaizkio zatzaizkiote zaizkiok
natzaion
zaion gatzaizkion
zaizkion
zaigu
hatzaigu zaiguk
zaigun

guri

zaizkigu
zatzaizkigu zatzaizkigute zaizkiguk
zaizkigun

zuri natzaizu

zaizu gatzaizkizu

zaizkizu

zuei natzaizue

zaizue gatzaizkizue

zaizkizue

natzaie
zaie gatzaizkie
zaizkie
haiei natzaiek hatzaie zaiek gatzaizkiek zatzaizkie zatzaizkiete zaizkiek
natzaien
zaien gatzaizkien
zaizkien

NOR-NORK

ni
nik
hik

Hi

hura

haut

dut
diat
dinat

nauk
naun

gaituk
gaitun

du
dik
din

gaitu
gaitik
gaitin

Hau

guk

dugu
haugu diagu
dinagu
nauzu

zuek nauzue

duzu

zu
zaitut

duk
dun

nau
hark naik
nain

zuk

gu

zuek

haiek

zaituztet

ditut
ditiat
ditinat
dituk
ditun

zaitu

zaituzte

ditu
ditik
ditin

ditugu
zaitugu zaituztegu ditiagu
ditinagu
gaituzu

duzue gaituzue

dituzu
dituzue
130

131
naute
dute
haiek naitek haute ditek
naiten
diten

gaituzte
dituzte
gaitiztek zaituzte zaituztete ditiztek
gaitizten
ditizten

NOR(sg)-NORI-NORK

niri
nik
hik

hiri

hari

diat
dinat

diot
zioat
zionat

didak
didan

guri

diok
dion

diguk
digun

dio
ziok
zion

digu
ziguk
zigun

dit
hark zidak
zidan

Dik
din

guk

diogu
diagu
zioagu
dinagu
zionagu

zuk

didazu

diozu

zuek didazue

zuri

zuei

Haiei

dizut

dizuet

diet
zieat
zienat
diek
dien

dizu

dizue

diegu
dizugu dizuegu zieagu
zienagu
diguzu

diezu

diozue diguzue

didate
diote
diate
haiek zidatek
ziotek
dinate
zidaten
zioten

die
ziek
zien

diezue

digute
diete
zigutek dizute dizuete zietek
ziguten
zieten

NOR(pl)-NORI-NORK

niri
nik
hik

hiri

hari

dizkiat
dizkinat

dizkiot
zizkioat
zizkionat

dizkidak
dizkidan

dizkiguk
dizkigun

dizkio
zizkiok
zizkion

dizkigu
zizkiguk
zizkigun

dizkik
dizkin

guk

dizkiogu
dizkiagu
zizkioagu
dizkinagu
zizkionagu
dizkidazu

dizkiozu

Zuri
dizkizut

dizkiok
dizkion

dizkit
hark zizkidak
zizkidan

zuk

guri

zuei

haiei

dizkizuet

dizkiet
zizkieat
zizkienat
dizkiek
dizkien

dizkizu

dizkizue

dizkie
zizkiek
zizkien

dizkiegu
dizkizugu dizkizuegu zizkieagu
zizkienagu
dizkiguzu

dizkiezu
131

132
zuek dizkidazue

dizkiozue dizkiguzue

dizkidate
dizkiote
dizkiate
haiek zizkidatek
zizkiotek
dizkinate
zizkidaten
zizkioten

dizkiezue

dizkigute
dizkiete
zizkigutek dizkizute dizkizuete zizkietek
zizkiguten
zizkieten

INDICATIVE PAST

NOR

ni

hi

hura gu

zu

zuek

haiek

nintzen
zen ginen
ziren
ninduan hintzen zuan gintuan zinen zineten zituan
nindunan
zunan gintunan
zitunan

NOR-NORI

ni

hura

gu

zitzaidan
hintzaidan zitzaidaan
zitzaidanan

niri
hiri

hi

nintzaian
nintzainan

zitzaian
zitzainan

zu

zuek

haiek

zitzaizkidan
zintzaizkidan zintzaizkidaten zitzaizkidaan
zitzaizkidanan
gintzaizkian
gintzaizkinan

zitzaizkian
zitzaizkinan

nintzaion
zitzaion
gintzaizkion
zitzaizkion
hari nintzaioan hintzaion zitzaioan gintzaizkioan zintzaizkion zintzaizkioten zitzaizkioan
nintzaionan
zitzaionan gintzaizkionan
zitzaizkionan
guri

zitzaigun
hintzaigun zitzaiguan
zitzaigunan

zitzaizkigun
zintzaizkigun zintzaizkiguten zitzaizkiguan
zitzaizkigunan

zuri nintzaizun

zitzaizun

zuei nintzaizuen

zitzaizuen gintzaizkizuen

haiei nintzaien

hintzaien zitzaien

gintzaizkizun
gintzaizkien

zitzaizkizun
zitzaizkizuen
zintzaizkien zintzaizkieten zitzaizkien
132

133
nintzaiean
nintzaienan

zitzaiean gintzaizkiean
zitzaienan gintzaizkienan

zitzaizkiean
zitzaizkienan

NOR-NORK

ni

hi

hura

gu

zu

nuen
hindudan nian
ninan

nik

zuek

haiek

nituen
zintudan zintuztedan nitian
nitinan

ninduan
nindunan

huen

gintuan
gintunan

hituen

ninduen
hark nindian
nindinan

zuen
hinduen zian
zinan

gintuen
gintian
gintinan

zituen
zitian
zitinan

guk

genuen
hindugun genian
geninan

hik

zuk

ninduzun

zuek ninduzuen

zintuen

zintuzten

genituen
zintugun zintuztegun genitian
genitinan

zenuen gintuzun

zenituen

zenuten gintuzuen

zenituzten

ninduten
zuten gintuzten
zituzten
haiek ninditean hinduten zitean gintiztean zintuzten zintuzteten zitiztean
ninditenan
zitenan gintiztenan
zitiztenan

NOR(sg)-NORI-NORK

niri
nik
hik

hiri

hari

nian
ninan

nion
nioan
nionan

hidan

hion

higun

zion
zioan
zionan

zigun
ziguan
zigunan

zidan
hark zidaan
zidanan

zian
zinan

guk

genion
genian
genioan
geninan
genionan

zuk

zenidan

zuek zenidaten

guri

zenion

zuei

haiei

nizun

nizuen

nien
niean
nienan
hien

zizun

zizuen

zien
ziean
zienan

genien
genizun genizuen geniean
genienan
zenigun

zenioten zeniguten

haiek zidaten ziaten zioten


zidatean zinaten ziotean

zuri

zenien
zenieten

ziguten zizuten zizueten zieten


zigutean
zietean
133

134
zidatenan

ziotenan zigutenan

zietenan

NOR(pl)-NORI-NORK

Niri
nik
hik

hiri

hari

nizkian
nizkinan

nizkion
nizkioan
nizkionan

Hizkidan

guri

nizkizun

nizkizuen

nizkien
nizkiean
nizkienan
hizkien

zizkion
zizkioan
zizkionan

zizkigun
zizkiguan
zizkigunan

zizkien
zizkiean
zizkienan

guk

genizkion
genizkian
genizkioan
genizkinan
genizkionan
zenizkion

zuek zenizkidaten

haiei

hizkigun

zizkian
zizkinan

Zenizkidan

zuei

hizkion

zizkidan
hark zizkidaan
zizkidanan

zuk

zuri

zizkizun

zizkizuen

genizkien
genizkizun genizkizuen genizkiean
genizkienan
zenizkigun

zenizkien

zenizkioten zenizkiguten

zenizkieten

zizkidaten
zizkioten
zizkiguten
zizkieten
zizkiaten
haiek zizkidatean
zizkiotean zizkigutean zizkizuten zizkizueten zizkietean
zizkinaten
zizkidatenan
zizkiotenan zizkigutenan
zizkietenan

CONDITIONAL SUPPOSITIVE
NOR

ni

hi

hura gu

zu

zuek

haiek

banintz bahintz balitz bagina bazina bazinete balira


NOR-NORI

Ni
niri

hi

hura

bahintzait

balitzait

Gu

zu

zuek

haiek

bazintzaizkit

bazintzaizkidate balitzaizkit

Banintzaik
banintzain

balitzaik
balitzain

bagintzaizkik
bagintzaizkin

balitzaizkik
balitzaizkin

hari Banintzaio

bahintzaio balitzaio

Bagintzaizkio

bazintzaizkio bazintzaizkiote balitzaizkio

hiri

134

135
guri

bahintzaigu balitzaigu

bazintzaizkigu bazintzaizkigute balitzaizkigu

zuri Banintzaizu

balitzaizu Bagintzaizkizu

balitzaizkizu

zuei Banintzaizue

balitzaizue bagintzaizkizue

balitzaizkizue

haiei Banintzaie

bahintzaie balitzaie

Bagintzaizkie

bazintzaizkie bazintzaizkiete balitzaizkie

NOR-NORK

ni
nik
hik

hi

hura

bahindut

banu

baninduk
banindun

gu

bahu

bagintuk
bagintun

balu

bagintu

hark banindu

bahindu

guk

bahindugu bagenu

zuk

baninduzu

bazenu

zuek baninduzue
haiek banindute

Zu

zuek

haiek

bazintut

bazintuztet

banitu
bahitu

Bazintu

bazintuzte

bazintugu bazintuztegu bagenitu


bagintuzu

bazenitu

bazenute bagintuzue
bahindute balute

balitu

bazenituzte

bagintuzte bazintuzte bazintuztete balituzte

NOR(sg)-NORI-NORK

niri
nik
hik

hiri

hari

banik
banin

banio

bahit

bahio

bahigu

balio

baligu

hark balit

balik
balin

guk

bagenik
bagenio
bagenin

zuk

bazenit

zuek bazenidate
haiek balidate

guri

bazenio

zuei

haiei

banizu

banizue

banie
bahie

balizu

balizue

balie

bagenizu bagenizue bagenie


bazenigu

bazeniote bazenigute
baliate
baliote
balinate

zuri

baligute

bazenie
bazeniete
balizute balizuete baliete
135

136
NOR(pl)-NORI-NORK

Niri
nik
hik

hiri

hari

banizkik
banizkin

banizkio

Bahizkit

Guri

bahizkio

Bahizkigu

balizkio

Balizkigu

hark Balizkit

balizkik
balizkin

guk

bagenizkik
bagenizkio
bagenizkin

zuk

Bazenizkit

bazenizkio

zuek bazenizkidate
haiek Balizkidate

zuri

zuei

haiei

banizkizu

banizkizue

banizkie
bahizkie

balizkizu

balizkie

bagenizkizu bagenizkizue bagenizkie


Bazenizkigu

bazenizkie

bazenizkiote bazenizkigute
balizkiate
balizkiote
balizkinate

balizkizue

Balizkigute

bazenizkiete
balizkizute balizkizuete balizkiete

CONDITIONAL CONCLUSIVE PRESENT


NOR

ni

Hi

hura

gu

zu

Zuek

haiek

nintzateke
litzateke ginateke
lirateke
nindukek hintzateke lukek
gintuzkek zinateke zinatekete lituzkek
ninduken
luken
gintuzken
lituzken

NOR-NORI

136

137
Ni

hura

Gu

zu

litzaidake
hintzaidake litzaidakek
litzaidaken

niri
hiri

hi

Nintzaiake
nintzainake

zuek

haiek

litzaizkidake
zintzaizkidake zintzaizkidakete litzaizkidakek
litzaizkidaken

litzaiake gintzaizkiake
litzainake gintzaizkinake

litzaizkiake
litzaizkinake

nintzaioke
litzaioke gintzaizkioke
litzaizkioke
hari nintzaiokek hintzaioke litzaiokek gintzaizkiokek zintzaizkioke zintzaizkiokete litzaizkiokek
nintzaioken
litzaioken gintzaizkioken
litzaizkioken
litzaiguke
hintzaiguke litzaigukek
litzaiguken

guri

litzaizkiguke
zintzaizkiguke zintzaizkigukete litzaizkigukek
litzaizkiguken

zuri Nintzaizuke

litzaizuke Gintzaizkizuke

litzaizkizuke

zuei Nintzaizueke

litzaizueke gintzaizkizueke

litzaizkizueke

nintzaieke
haiei nintzaiekek
nintzaieken

litzaieke gintzaizkieke
litzaizkieke
hintzaieke litzaiekek gintzaizkiekek zintzaizkieke zintzaizkiekete litzaizkiekek
litzaieken gintzaizkieken
litzaizkieken

NOR-NORK

ni
nik

hi

hura

hinduket

nuke
nikek
niken

gu

Zu

zuek

haiek

zintuzket

zintuzketet

nituzke
nitizkek
nitizken

nindukek
ninduken

huke

gintuzkek
gintuzken

hituzke

ninduke
hark nindikek
nindiken

hinduke

luke
likek
liken

gintuzke
gintzikek
gintizken

lituzke
litizkek
litizken

guk

genuke
hindukegu genikek
geniken

hik

zintuzke

zintuzkete

genituzke
zintuzkegu zintuzketegu genitizkek
genitizken
137

138
zuk

nindukezu

zenuke

zuek nindukezue

gintuzkezu

zenituzke

zenukete gintuzkezue

nindukete
lukete
haiek nindiketek hindukete liketek
nindiketen
liketen

zenituzkete

gintuzkete
lituzkete
gintizketek zintuzkete zintuzketete litizketek
gintizketen
litizketen

NOR(sg)-NORI-NORK

niri
nik
hik

hiri

hari

niake
ninake

nioke
niokek
nioken

hidake

guri

nizueke

nieke
niekek
nieken
hieke

lioke
liokek
lioken

liguke
ligukek
liguken

lieke
liekek
lieken

guk

genioke
geniake
geniokek
geninake
genioken
zenioke

zuek zenidakete

haiei

higuke

liake
linake

zenidake

Nizuke

zuei

hioke

lidake
hark lidakek
lidaken

zuk

Zuri

Lizuke

lizueke

genieke
Genizuke genizueke geniekek
genieken
zeniguke

zenieke

zeniokete zenigukete

zeniekete

lidakete
liokete ligukete
liekete
liakete
haiek lidaketek
lioketek liguketek Lizukete lizuekete lieketek
linakete
lidaketen
lioketen liguketen
lieketen

NOR(pl)-NORI-NORK
Niri
nik
hik

hiri

hari

nizkiake
nizkinake

nizkioke
nizkiokek
nizkioken

Hizkidake

hizkioke

Hizkiguke

lizkioke
lizkiokek
lizkioken

lizkiguke
lizkigukek
lizkiguken

lizkidake
hark lizkidakek
lizkidaken

lizkiake
lizkinake

guk

genizkioke
genizkiake
genizkiokek
genizkinake
genizkioken

zuk

Zenizkidake

Guri

zenizkioke

zuri

zuei

haiei

nizkizuke

nizkizueke

nizkieke
nizkiekek
nizkieken
hizkieke

lizkizuke

lizueke

lizkieke
lizkiekek
lizkieken

genizkieke
genizkizuke genizkizueke genizkiekek
genizkieken
zenizkiguke

zenizkieke
138

139
zuek zenizkidakete
Lizkidakete
haiek lizkidaketek
lizkidaketen

zenizkiokete zenizkigukete
lizkiokete
lizkiakete
lizkioketek
lizkinakete
lizkioketen

zenizkiekete

lizkigukete
lizkiekete
lizkiguketek lizkizukete lizkizuekete lizkieketek
lizkiguketen
lizkieketen

CONDITIONAL CONCLUSIVE PAST

NOR

ni

Hi

hura

gu

Zu

zuek

haiek

nintzatekeen
zatekeen ginatekeen
ziratekeen
nindukean hintzatekeen zukean gintuzkean zinatekeen zinateketen zituzkean
nindukenan
zukenan gintuzkenan
zituzkenan

NOR-NORI

Ni

hura

Gu

zitzaidakeen
hintzaidakeen zitzaidakean
zitzaidakenan

niri
hiri

hi

Nintzaiakeen
nintzainakeen

zitzaiakeen gintzaizkiakeen
zitzainakeen gintzaizkinakeen

zu

zuek

haiek

zitzaizkidakee
zintzaizkidakeen zintzaizkidaketen zitzaizkidakea
zitzaizkidaken

zitzaizkiakeen
zitzaizkinakee

Nintzaiokeen
zitzaiokeen gintzaizkiokeen
zitzaizkiokeen
hari nintzaiokean hintzaiokeen zitzaiokean gintzaizkiokean zintzaizkiokeen zintzaizkioketen zitzaizkiokean
nintzaiokenan
zitzaiokenan gintzaizkiokenan
zitzaizkiokena
guri

zitzaigukeen
hintzaigukeen zitzaigukean
zitzaigukenan

zitzaizkigukee
zintzaizkigukeen zintzaizkiguketen zitzaizkigukea
zitzaizkiguken
139

140
zuri nintzaizukeen

zitzaizukeen gintzaizkizukeen

zitzaizkizukee

zuei nintzaizuekeen

zitzaizuekeen gintzaizkizuekeen

zitzaizkizueke

Nintzaiekeen
zitzaiekeen gintzaizkiekeen
zitzaizkiekeen
haiei nintzaiekean hintzaiekeen zitzaiekean gintzaizkiekean zintzaizkiekeen zintzaizkieketeen zitzaizkiekean
nintzaiekenan
zitzaiekenan gintzaizkiekenan
zitzaizkiekena
NOR-NORK

Ni

hi

hura

gu

zu

nukeen
hindukedan nikean
nikenan

nik

zuek

haiek

nituzkeen
zintuzkedan zintuzketedan nitizkean
nitizkenan

nindukean
nindukenan

hukeen

gintuzkean
gintuzkenan

hituzkeen

nindukeen
hark nindikean
nindikenan

zukeen
hindukeen zikean
zikenan

gintuzkeen
gintzikean
gintizkenan

zituzkeen
zitizkean
zitizkenan

guk

genukeen
hindukegun genikean
genikenan

hik

zuk

Nindukezun

zuek nindukezuen

zintuzkeen zintuzketen

genituzkeen
zintuzkegun zintuzketegun genitizkean
genitizkenan

zenukeen gintuzkezun

zenituzkeen

zenuketen gintuzkezuen

zenituzketen

Ninduketen
zuketen gintuzketen
zituzketen
haiek nindiketean hinduketen ziketean gintizketean zintuzketen zintuzketeten zitizketean
nindiketenan
ziketenan gintizketenan
zitizketenan

NOR(sg)-NORI-NORK

Niri
nik
hik

hari

niakeen
ninakeen

niokeen
niokean
niokenan

Hidakeen

zidakeen
hark zidakean
zidakenan
guk

hiri

ziakeen
zinakeen

guri

zuri
nizukeen

zuei

haiei

nizuekeen

niekeen
niekean
niekenan

hiokeen

higukeen

hiekeen

ziokeen
ziokean
ziokenan

zigukeen
zigukean
zigukenan

ziekeen
ziekean
ziekenan

geniakeen geniokeen
geninakeen geniokean

zizukeen

zizuekeen

genizukeen genizuekeen geniekeen


geniekean
140

141
geniokenan

geniekenan

Zenidakeen

zeniokeen zenigukeen

zeniekeen

zuek Zenidaketen

zenioketen zeniguketen

zenieketen

Zidaketen
ziaketen
haiek zidaketean
zinaketen
zidaketenan

zioketeen ziguketen
zioketean ziguketean zizuketen
zioketenan ziguketenan

zieketen
zieketean
zieketenan

zuk

zizueketen

NOR(pl)-NORI-NORK
Niri
nik
hik

hiri

hari

nizkiakeen
nizkinakeen

nizkiokeen
nizkiokean
nizkiokenan

Hizkidakeen

Guri

nizkizukeen

zuei

haiei

nizkizuekeen

nizkiekeen
nizkiekean
nizkiekenan

hizkiokeen

hizkigukeen

hizkiekeen

zizkiokeen
zizkiokean
zizkiokenan

zizkigukeen
zizkigukean
zizkigukenan

zizkiekeen
zizkiekean
zizkiekenan

Zizkidakeen
hark zizkidakean
zizkidakenan

zizkiakeen
zizkinakeen

guk

genizkiokeen
genizkiakeen
genizkiokean
genizkinakeen
genizkiokenan

zuk

zuri

zizkizukeen

zizkizuekeen

genizkiekeen
genizkizukeen genizkizuekeen genizkiekean
genizkiekenan

zenizkidakeen

zenizkiokeen zenizkigukeen

zenizkiekeen

zuek zenizkidaketen

zenizkioketen zenizkiguketen

zenizkieketen

zizkidaketen
zizkiaketen
haiek zizkidaketean
zizkinaketen
zizkidaketenan

zizkioketeen zizkiguketen
zizkioketean zizkiguketean zizkizuketen
zizkioketenan zizkiguketenan

zizkizueketen

zizkieketen
zizkieketean
zizkieketenan

POTENTIAL PRESENT
NOR

ni

hi

hura

gu

zu

zuek

haiek

naiteke
daiteke gaitezke
daitezke
naitekek haiteke daitekek gaitezkek zaitezke zaitezkete daitezkek
naiteken
daiteken gaitezken
daitezken

141

142

NOR-NORI

ni

hura

gu

dakidake
hakidake dakidakek
dakidaken

niri
hiri

hi

nakiake
nakinake

Zu

zuek

haiek

dakizkidake
zakizkidake zakizkidakete dakizkidakek
dakizkidaken

dakiake gakizkiake
dakinake gakizkinake

dakizkiake
dakizkinake

nakioke
dakioke gakizkioke
dakizkioke
hari nakiokek hakioke dakiokek gakizkiokek zakizkioke zakizkiokete dakizkiokek
nakioken
dakioken gakizkioken
dakizkioken
dakiguke
hakiguke dakigukek
dakiguken

guri

dakizkiguke
zakizkiguke zakizkigukete dakizkigukek
dakizkiguken

zuri nakizuke

dakizuke gakizkizuke

dakizkizuke

zuei nakizueke

dakizueke gakizkizueke

dakizkizueke

nakieke
dakieke gakizkieke
dakizkieke
haiei nakiekek hakieke dakiekek gakizkiekek zakizkieke zakizkiekete dakizkiekek
nakieken
dakieken gakizkieken
dakizkieken

NOR-NORK

ni
nik
hik

nazakek
nazaken

hi

hura

hazaket

dezaket
zezakeat
zezakenat
dezakek
dezaken

gu

gaitzakek
gaitzaken

Zu

zuek

haiek

zaitzaket

zaitzaketet

ditzaket
zitzakeat
zitzakenat
ditzakek
ditzaken
142

143
nazake
hark nazakek
nazaken

hazake

guk

dezakegu
hazakegu zezakeagu
zezakenagu

zuk

nazakezu

dezake
zezakek
zezaken

dezakezu

zuek nazakezue

gaitzake
gaitzakek
gaitzaken

zaitzake

zaitzakete

ditzakegu
zaitzakegu zaitzaketegu zitzakeagu
zitzakenagu
gaitzakezu

ditzakezu

dezakezue gaitzakezue

nazakete
dezakete
haiek nazaketek hazakete zezaketek
nazaketen
zezaketen

ditzake
zitzakek
zitzaken

ditzakezue

gaitzakete
ditzakete
gaitzaketek zaitzakete zaitzaketete zitzaketek
gaitzaketen
zitzaketen

NOR(sg)-NORI-NORK

Niri
nik
hik

hiri

hari

diezaaket
diezanaket

diezaioket
ziezaiokeat
ziezaiokenat

Diezadakek
diezadaken

Guri

diezagukek
diezaguken

diezaioke
ziezaiokek
ziezaioken

diezaguke
ziezagukek
ziezaguken

diezaake
diezanake

guk

diezaiokegu
diezaakegu
ziezaiokeagu
diezanakegu
ziezaiokenagu
Diezadakezu

diezaiokezu

zuek diezadakezue

diezazuket

diezaiokek
diezaioken

Diezadake
hark ziezadakek
ziezadaken

zuk

zuri

zuei

haiei

diezazueket

diezaieket
ziezaiekeat
ziezaiekenat
diezaiekek
diezaieken

diezazuke

diezazueke

diezaiekegu
diezazukegu diezazuekegu ziezaiekeagu
ziezaiekenagu
diezagukezu

diezaiekezu

diezaiokezue diezagukezue

Diezadakete
diezaiokete
diezaakete
haiek ziezadaketek
ziezaioketek
diezanakete
ziezadaketen
ziezaioketen

diezaieke
ziezaiekek
ziezaieken

diezaiekezue

diezagukete
diezaiekete
ziezaguketek diezazukete diezazuekete ziezaieketek
ziezaguketen
ziezaieketen

NOR(pl)-NORI-NORK
Niri
nik
hik

hiri

hari

diezazkiaket
diezazkinaket

diezazkioket
ziezazkiokeat
ziezazkiokenat

diezazkidakek
diezazkidaken

hark diezazkidake

diezazkiake

guri

diezazkiokek
diezazkioken

diezazkigukek
diezazkiguken

diezazkioke

diezazkiguke

zuri

zuei

haiei

diezazkizuket

diezazkizueket

diezazkiek
ziezazkieke
ziezazkieke

diezazkiek
diezazkiek
diezazkizuke

diezazkizueke

diezazkiiek
143

144
ziezazkidakek
ziezazkidaken

diezazkinake

ziezazkigukek
ziezazkiguken

diezazkiokegu
diezazkiakegu
ziezazkiokeagu
diezazkinakegu
ziezazkiokenagu

guk
zuk

ziezazkiokek
ziezazkioken

diezazkidakezu

diezazkiokezu

zuek diezazkidakezue

ziezazkieke
ziezazkieke

diezazkiek
diezazkizukegu diezazkizuekegu ziezazkieke
ziezazkieke
diezazkigukezu

diezazkiek

diezazkiokezue diezazkigukezue

diezazkidakete
diezazkiokete
diezazkiakete
haiek ziezazkidaketek
ziezazkioketek
diezazkinakete
ziezazkidaketen
ziezazkioketen

diezazkiek

diezazkigukete
diezazkiek
ziezazkiguketek diezazkizukete diezazkizuekete ziezazkieke
ziezazkiguketen
ziezazkieke

POTENTIAL PAST

NOR

ni

Hi

hura

gu

zu

zuek

haiek

nintekeen
zitekeen gintezkeen
zitezkeen
nintekean hintekeen zitekean gintezkean zintezkeen zintezketen zitezkean
nintekenan
zitekenan gintezkenan
zitezkenan

NOR-NORI

Ni
niri

hi

hura

henkidakeen zekidakeen

Gu

zu

zuek

haiek

zenkizkidakeen zenkizkidaketen zekizkidakeen


144

145

hiri

Nenkiakeen
nenkiokeen

zekidakean
zekidakenan

zekizkidakean
zekizkidakenan

zekiakeen genkizkiakeen
zekinakeen genkizkinakeen

zekizkiakeen
zekizkinakeen

Nenkiokeen
zekiokeen genkizkiokeen
zekizkiokeen
hari nenkiokean henkiokeen zekiokean genkizkiokean zenkizkiokeen zenkizkioketen zekizkiokean
nenkiokenan
zekiokenan genkizkiokenan
zekizkiokenan
zekigukeen
henkigukeen zekigukean
zekigukenan

guri

zekizkigukeen
zenkizkigukeen zenkizkiguketen zekizkigukean
zekizkigukenan

zuri Nenkizukeen

zekizukeen genkizkizukeen

zekizkizukeen

zuei nenkizuekeen

zekizuekeen genkizkizuekeen

zekizkizuekeen

nenkiekeen
zekiekeen genkizkiekeen
zekizkiekeen
haiei nenkiekean henkiekeen zekiekean genkizkiekean zenkizkiekeen zenkizkieketen zekizkiekean
nenkiekenan
zekiekenan genkizkiekenan
zekizkiekenan
NOR-NORK

Ni

hura

Nintzakean
nintzakenan

hezakeen

nintzakeen
hark nintzakean
nintzakenan

zezakeen
hintzakeen zezakean
zezakenan

guk

genezakeen
hintzakegun genezakean
genezakenan

zuk

Gu

zu

nezakeen
hintzakedan nezakean
nezakenan

nik
hik

hi

Nintzakezun

zuek nintzakezuen

zuek

haiek

nitzakeen
zintzakedan zintzaketedan nitzakean
nitzakenan
gintzakean
gintzakenan

hitzakeen

gintzakeen
gintzakean
gintzakenan

zitzakeen
zitzakean
zitzakenan

zintzakeen zintzaketen

genitzakeen
zintzakegun zintzaketegun genitzakean
genitzakenan

zenezakeen gintzakezun

zenitzakeen

zenezaketen gintzakezuen

zenitzaketen

Nintzaketen
zezaketen
gintzakete
zitzaketen
haiek nintzaketean hintzaketen zezaketean gintzaketean zintzaketen zintzaketeten zitzaketean
nintzaketenan
zezaketenan gintzaketenan
zitzaketenan

NOR(sg)-NORI-NORK

Niri
nik

hiri

hari

niezaakeen
niezanakeen

niezaiokeen
niezaiokean
niezaiokenan

Guri

zuri
niezazukeen

zuei

haiei

niezazuekeen

niezaiekeen
niezaiekean
niezaiekenan
145

146
hik

Hiezadakeen

hiezaiokeen

hiezagukeen

ziezaiokeen
ziezaiokean
ziezaiokenan

ziezagukeen
ziezagukean
ziezagukenan

Ziezadakeen
hark ziezadakean
ziezadakenan

ziezaakeen
ziezanakeen

guk

geniezaiokeen
geniezaakeen
geniezaiokean
geniezanakeen
geniezaiokenan

zuk

hiezaiekeen
ziezazukeen

ziezazuekeen

ziezaiekeen
ziezaiekean
ziezaiekenan

geniezaiekeen
geniezazukeen geniezazuekeen geniezaiekean
geniezaiekenan

zeniezadakeen

zeniezaiokeen zeniezagukeen

zeniezaiekeen

zuek zeniezadaketen

zeniezaioketen zeniezaguketen

zeniezaieketen

ziezadaketen
ziezaaketen
haiek ziezadaketean
ziezanaketen
ziezadaketenan

ziezaioketen
ziezaguketen
ziezaioketean ziezaguketean ziezazuketen
ziezaioketenan ziezaguketenan

ziezazueketen

ziezaieketen
ziezaieketean
ziezaieketenan

NOR(pl)-NORI-NORK
Niri
nik
hik

hiri

Hari

niezazkiakeen
niezazkinakeen

niezazkiokeen
niezazkiokean
niezazkiokenan

hiezazkidakeen

guri

Hiezazkiokeen

hiezazkigukeen

ziezazkiokeen
ziezazkiokean
ziezazkiokenan

ziezazkigukeen
ziezazkigukean
ziezazkigukenan

ziezazkidakeen
hark ziezazkidakean
ziezazkidakenan

ziezazkiakeen
ziezazkinakeen

guk

geniezazkiokeen
geniezazkiakeen
geniezazkiokean
geniezazkinakeen
geniezazkiokenan

zuk

zuri

zuei

niezazkizukeen

niezazkizuekeen

ziezazkizukeen

ziezazkizuekeen

geniezazkizukeen geniezazkizuekeen

zeniezazkidakeen

zeniezazkiokeen zeniezazkigukeen

zuek zeniezazkidaketen

zeniezazkioketen zeniezazkiguketen

ziezazkidaketen
ziezazkiaketen
haiek ziezazkidaketean
ziezazkinaketen
ziezazkidaketenan

ziezazkioketen
ziezazkiguketen
ziezazkioketean ziezazkiguketean ziezazkizuketen
ziezazkioketenan ziezazkiguketenan

ziezazkizueketen

POTENTIAL HYPOTHETICAL
NOR

ni

hi

hura

gu

zu

zuek

haiek
146

147
ninteke
liteke gintezke
litezke
nintekek hinteke litekek gintezkek zintezke zintezkete litezkek
ninteken
liteken gintezken
litezken

NOR-NORI

ni

hura

gu

lekidake
henkidake lekidakek
lekidaken

niri
hiri

hi

nenkiake
nenkioke

lekiake genkizkiake
lekinake genkizkinake

Zu

zuek

haiek

lekizkidake
zenkizkidake zenkizkidakete lekizkidakek
lekizkidaken
lekizkiake
lekizkinake

nenkioke
lekioke genkizkioke
lekizkioke
hari nenkiokek henkioke lekiokek genkizkiokek zenkizkioke zenkizkiokete lekizkiokek
nenkioken
lekioken genkizkioken
lekizkioken
guri

lekiguke
henkiguke lekigukek
lekiguken

lekizkiguke
zenkizkiguke zenkizkigukete lekizkigukek
lekizkiguken

zuri nenkizuke

lekizuke genkizkizuke

lekizkizuke

zuei nenkizueke

lekizueke genkizkizueke

lekizkizueke

nenkieke
lekieke genkizkieke
lekizkieke
haiei nenkiekek henkieke lekiekek genkizkiekek zenkizkieke zenkizkiekete lekizkiekek
nenkieken
lekieken genkizkieken
lekizkieken

NOR-NORK

147

148
Ni
nik
hik

hi

hura

hintzaket

nezake
nezakek
nezaken

nintzakek
nintzaken

gu

hezake

gintzakek
gintzaken

lezake
lezakek
lezaken

gintzake
gintzakek
gintzaken

nintzake
hark nintzakek
nintzaken

hintzake

guk

genezake
hintzakegu genezakek
genezaken

zuk

Nintzakezu

zenezake

zuek Nintzakezue

Zu

zuek

haiek

zintzaket

zintzaketet

nitzake
nitzakek
nitzaken
hitzake

zintzake

zintzakete

litzake
litzakek
litzaken

genitzake
zintzakegu zintzaketegu genitzakek
genitzaken
gintzakezu

zenitzake

zenezakete gintzakezue

zenitzakete

Nintzakete
lezakete gintzakete
litzakete
haiek nintzaketek hintzakete lezaketek gintzaketek zintzakete zintzaketete litzaketek
nintzaketen
lezaketen gintzaketen
litzaketen
NOR(sg)-NORI-NORK

Niri
nik
hik

hiri

hari

niezaake
niezanake

niezaioke
niezaiokek
niezaioken

Hiezadake

Guri

niezazueke

niezaieke
niezaiekek
niezaieken
hiezaieke

liezaioke
liezaiokek
liezaioken

liezaguke
liezagukek
liezaguken

liezaieke
liezaiekek
liezaieken

guk

geniezaioke
geniezaake
geniezaiokek
geniezanake
geniezaioken
zeniezaioke

zuek zeniezadakete

haiei

Hiezaguke

liezaake
liezanake

Zeniezadake

niezazuke

zuei

hiezaioke

liezadake
hark liezadakek
liezadaken

zuk

zuri

liezazuke

liezazueke

geniezaieke
geniezazuke geniezazueke geniezaiekek
geniezaieken
zeniezaguke

zeniezaieke

zeniezaiokete zeniezagukete

zeniezaiekete

Liezadakete
liezaiokete liezagukete
liezaiekete
liezaakete
haiek liezadaketek
liezaioketek liezaguketek liezazukete liezazuekete liezaieketek
liezanakete
liezadaketen
liezaioketen liezaguketen
liezaieketen

NOR(pl)-NORI-NORK
Niri
nik

hiri

hari

niezazkiake

niezazkioke

guri

zuri

zuei

haiei

niezazkizuke

niezazkizueke

niezazkiek
148

149
niezazkinake
hik

hiezazkidake

niezazkiokek
niezazkioken
hiezazkioke

hiezazkiguke

liezazkioke
liezazkiokek
liezazkioken

liezazkiguke
liezazkigukek
liezazkiguken

Liezazkidake
hark liezazkidakek
liezazkidaken

liezazkiake
liezazkinake

guk

geniezazkioke
geniezazkiake
geniezazkiokek
geniezazkinake
geniezazkioken

zuk

zeniezazkidake

zeniezazkioke

zuek zeniezazkidakete
liezazkidakete
haiek liezazkidaketek
liezazkidaketen

niezazkiek
niezazkiek

hiezazkiiek
liezazkizuke

liezazkizueke

liezazkieke
liezazkieke
liezazkieke

geniezazki
geniezazkizuke geniezazkizueke geniezazki
geniezazki
zeniezazkiguke

zeniezazkie

zeniezazkiokete zeniezazkigukete
liezazkiokete liezazkigukete
liezazkiakete
liezazkioketek liezazkiguketek
liezazkinakete
liezazkioketen liezazkiguketen

zeniezazkie

liezazkieke
liezazkizukete liezazkizuekete liezazkieke
liezazkieke

SUBJUNCTIVE PRESENT
NOR

ni

hi

Hura gu

zu

zuek

haiek

nadin hadin Dadin gaitezen zaitezen zaitezten zitezten


NOR-NORI

ni
niri
hiri

Hi

hura

gu

hakidan dakidan
nakian
nakinan

hakion dakion

guri

hakigun dakigun

zuek

haiek

zakizkidan zakizkidaten dakizkidan

dakian gakizkian
dakinan gakizkinan

hari nakion

zu

gakizkion

dakizkian
dakizkinan
zakizkion zakizkioten dakizkion
zakizkigun zakizkiguten dakizkigun

zuri nakizun

dakizun gakizkizun

dakizkizun

zuei nakizuen

dakizuen gakizkizuen

dakizkizuen

haiei nakien

hakien dakien

gakizkien

zakizkien zakizkieten dakizkien

NOR-NORK

149

150
ni
nik
hik

Hi

hura

gu

hazadan dezadan
nazaan
nazanan
hazan

guk

hazagun dezagun
nazazun

zuek nazazuen
haiek nazaten

zuek

dezan

haiek

zaitzadan zaitzatedan ditzadan

dezaan gaitzaan
dezanan gaitzanan

hark nazan
zuk

zu

gaitzan

ditzaan
ditzanan
zaitzan

zaitzaten

ditzan

zaitzagun zaitzategun ditzagun

dezazun gaitzazun

ditzazun

dezazuen gaitzazuen

ditzazuen

hazaten dezaten

gaitzaten

zaitzaten zaitzateten ditzaten

NOR(sg)-NORI-NORK

Niri

hari

diezadaan
diezadanan
diezaan
diezanan

guk

diezaagun
diezaiogun
diezanagun
Diezadazun

zuek Diezadazuen
haiek Diezadaten

zuri

zuei

diezaion

haiei

diezazudan diezazuedan diezaiedan

diezaioan diezaguan
diezaionan diezagunan

hark Diezadan

zuk

guri

diezaadan
diezaiodan
diezanadan

nik
hik

hiri

diezagun

diezaiean
diezaienan
diezazun

diezazuen

diezaien

diezazugun diezazuegun diezaiegun

diezaiozun diezaguzun

diezaiezun

diezaiozuen diezaguzuen

diezaiezuen

diezaaten
diezaioten
diezanaten

diezaguten

diezazuten diezazueten diezaieten

150

151
NOR(pl)-NORI-NORK

Niri

hiri

guri

diezazkidaan
diezazkidanan
diezazkian
diezazkinan

guk

diezazkiagun
diezazkiogun
diezazkinagun
diezazkidazun

zuek diezazkidazuen
haiek diezazkidaten

zuei

diezazkion

haiei

diezazkizudan diezazkizuedan diezazkiedan

diezazkioan diezazkiguan
diezazkionan diezazkigunan

hark Diezazkidan

zuk

zuri

diezazkiadan
diezazkiodan
diezazkinadan

nik
hik

hari

diezazkigun

diezazkiean
diezazkienan
diezazkizun

diezazkizuen

diezazkien

diezazkizugun diezazkizuegun diezazkiegun

diezazkiozun diezazkiguzun

diezazkiezun

diezazkiozuen diezazkiguzuen

diezazkiezuen

diezazkiaten
diezazkioten
diezazkinaten

diezazkiguten

diezazkizuten diezazkizueten diezazkieten

SUBJUNCTIVE PAST
NOR

ni

hi

hura gu

zu

zuek

haiek

nendin hendin zedin gintezen zintezen zintezten zitezen


NOR-NORI

ni
niri
hiri

hi

hura

gu

zu

henkidan zekidan
nenkian
nenkinan

zuek

zenkizkidan zenkizkidaten zekizkidan

zekian genkizkian
zekinan genkizkinan

hari nenkion

henkion zekion

guri

henkigun zekigun

haiek

genkizkion

zekizkian
zekizkinan
zenkizkion zenkizkioten zekizkion
zenkizkigun zenkizkiguten zekizkigun

zuri nenkizun

zekizun genkizkizun

zekizkizun

zuei nenkizuen

zekizuen genkizkizuen

zekizkizuen

haiei nenkien

henkien zekien

genkizkien

zenkizkien zenkizkieten zekizkien

NOR-NORK

ni

hi

hura

gu

zu

zuek

haiek
151

152
nik
hik

hintzadan nezan
nintzaan
nintzanan

hezan

gintzaan
gintzanan

zezan

gintzan

hark nintzan

hintzan

guk

hintzagun genezan

zuk

nintzazun

zenezan

zuek nintzazuen
haiek nintzaten

zintzadan zintzatedan nitzan


hitzan
zintzan

zintzaten

zintzagun zintzategun genitzan


gintzazun

zenitzan

zenezaten gintzazuen
hintzaten zezaten

zitzan

gintzaten

zenitzaten
zintzaten zintzateten zitzaten

NOR(sg)-NORI-NORK

Niri
nik
hik

hiri

hari

niezaan
niezanan

niezaion

Hiezadan

guri

hiezaion

hiezagun

ziezaion

ziezagun

hark Ziezadan

ziezaan
ziezanan

guk

geniezaan
geniezaion
geniezanan

zuk

Zeniezadan

zeniezaion

zuek zeniezadaten
haiek Ziezadaten

zuri

zuei

haiei

niezazun

niezazuen

niezaien
hiezaien

ziezazun

ziezazuen

geniezazun geniezazuen geniezaien


zeniezagun

zeniezaien

zeniezaioten zeniezaguten
ziezaaten
ziezaioten
ziezanaten

ziezaien

ziezaguten

zeniezaieten
ziezazuten ziezazueten ziezaieten

NOR(pl)-NORI-NORK

Niri
nik
hik

hiri

hari

niezazkian
niezazkinan

niezazkion

Hiezazkidan

hiezazkion

hiezazkigun

ziezazkion

ziezazkigun

hark Ziezazkidan

ziezazkian
ziezazkinan

guk

geniezazkian
geniezazkion
geniezazkinan

zuk

zeniezazkidan

zuek zeniezazkidaten
haiek ziezazkidaten

guri

zeniezazkion

zuei

haiei

niezazkizun

niezazkizuen

niezazkien
hiezazkien

ziezazkizun

ziezazkizuen

ziezazkien

geniezazkizun geniezazkizuen geniezazkien


zeniezazkigun

zeniezazkioten zeniezazkiguten
ziezazkiaten
ziezazkioten
ziezazkinaten

zuri

ziezazkiguten

zeniezazkien
zeniezazkieten
ziezazkizuten ziezazkizueten ziezazkieten

152

153

IMPERATIVE
NOR

ni hi

hura gu zu

hadi bedi

zuek

haiek

zaitez zaitezte bitez

NOR-NORI

ni hi
niri

hakit

hura

gu zu

bekit

zakizkit

zuek

haiek

zakizkidate bekizkit

hiri

bekik
bekin

bekizkik
bekizkin

hari

hakio bekio

zakizkio zakizkiote bekizkio

guri

hakigu bekigu

zakizkigu zakizkigute bekizkigu

zuri

bekizu

bekizkizu

zuei

bekizue

bekizkizue

haiei

hakie bekie

zakizkie zakizkiete bekizkie

NOR-NORK

ni

Hi

hura

gu

ezak
ezan

gaitzak
gaitzan

beza

gaitza

zu

zuek

haiek

nik
hik

nazak
nazan

hark naza

haza

itzak
itzan
zaitza

zaitzate

bitza

guk
zuk

nazazu

zuek nazazue
haiek nazate

ezazu gaitzazu

itzazu

ezazue gaitzazue

itzazue

hazate bezate gaitzate

zaitzate zaitzatete bitzate

153

154
NOR(sg)-NORI-NORK

niri

hiri

hari

guri

iezaiok
iezaion

iezaguk
iezagun

biezaio

biezagu

zuri

zuei

haiei

nik
hik

iezadak
iezadan

hark biezat

biezak
biezan

iezaiek
iezaien
biezazu

biezazue

biezaie

guk
zuk

iezadazu

zuek iezadazue
haiek biezadate

iezaiozu iezaguzu

iezaiezu

iezaiozue iezaguzue

iezaiezue

biezaate
biezaiote biezagute biezazute biezazuete biezaiete
biezanate

NOR(pl)-NORI-NORK

Niri

hiri

hari

guri

iezazkiok
iezazkion

iezazkiguk
iezazkigun

biezazkio

biezazkigu

zuri

zuei

haiei

nik
hik

iezazkidak
iezazkidan

hark Biezazkit

biezazkik
biezazkin

iezazkiek
iezazkien
biezazkizu

biezazkizue

biezazkie

guk
zuk

Iezazkidazu

zuek iezazkidazue
haiek Biezazkidate

iezazkiozu iezazkiguzu

iezazkiezu

iezazkiozue iezazkiguzue

iezazkiezue

biezazkiate
biezazkiote biezazkigute biezazkizute biezazkizuete biezazkiete
biezazkinate

III Tavi
154

155

zmnisgareTa destinaciis tipologia qarTulsa


da baskur enebSi
naSromis pirvel TavSi moyvanil destinaciis zogad models
mTlianad Seesabameba qarTuli enis destinaciuri sistema.
Uunda aRiniSnos, rom Cven mier zemoT warmodgenili
klasifikacia eyrdnoba metyvelebis nawilebis SaniZiseul
klasifikacias da kategoriaTa tradiciul gaazrebas, rac garkveul
cvlilebebs namdvilad saWiroebs, magram am sakiTxze
msjeloba Cveni sadisertacio naSromis farglebSi zedmetad
migvaCnia.
destinacia, rogorc morfo-semantikuri kategoria, aisaxeba
brunvisa da uRlebis sistemebSi, zmnis formebSi, saxelTa
derivaciasa da TandebulebSi.
qarTuli enis Mmorfologiuri formacvalebadi fleqsiuri saxeluri
destinaciis nimuSia micemiT, naTesaobiT da viTarebiT brunvaTa
daniSnulebiTi arsi da maTi formebi. viTarebiTi brunvis
destinaciuri Sinaarsi (mag. Cemda, Cemad ) Tanamedrove
qarTulSi SedarebiT daviwrovda naTesaobiT-micemiTis da TvisTandebuliani formebis aqtiurobis xarjze am kategoriis
gamoxatvisas. Tumca unda aRiniSnos, rom daniSnulebiTmiznobriobis TvalsazrisiT, viTarebiT brunvas gansakuTrebuli roli
gaaCnia qarTul enaSi. savaraudoa, rom sawyisis a warmoSobiT
viTarebiTi brunvis niSnis naSTia: wer-a formidan wer-ad, miT
ufro, rom destinaciuri Sinaarsi naTlad ikiTxeba aseTi tipis
infinitiur konstruqciebSi - dajda werad. sxva enebSi damatebiT
sxva brunvebsac SeuZliaT destinaciis Sinaarsis gadmocema
( magaliTad, destinativs, benefaqtivs da misT. ).
morfologiuri formaucvleli destinaciis nimuSia Tandebulebi:
Tvis, da, iza/guliza/gulobiza da zmniswinebi mi da mo. Cveni
Rrma rwmeniT, aseTi analizis dros dialeqturi formebic
angariSgasawevia. yvelaze ufro meti dialeqturi siWrele
TandebulebTan axasiaTebs destinacias. asevea baskurSic,
destinaciuri Sinaarsis Tandebulebi dialeqturi nairgvarobiTaa
warmodgenili enaSi.
morfologiuri formacvalebadi fleqsiuri zmnuri destinacia
aRiniSneba uRlebaSi. sayuradReboa mesame seriis formebi da
e. w. medioaqtivebi.
morfologiuri formacvalebadi derivaciuli saxeluri destinacia
mkveTradaa gamoxatuli saxelTa warmoqmnaSi daniSnulebiTobis
mawarmoebeli sistemiT: sa-e, sa-o, sa-eT, sa-ur,
cirkumfiqsebiT, -ad sufiqsiT da a. S. amdagvari tipis destinacia
155

156

wminda semantikuri TvisobriobiTa da met-naklebi destinaciiT


gamoirCeva. Aam tipis destinaciur formebSi arsebobs garkveuli
gradacia am kategoriis TvalsazrisiT. rigi afiqsebi ufro mkveTrad
gadmoscemen destinacias sxvebTan SedarebiT; MmagaliTad,
cirkumfiqsebi sa-e da sa-o sakmaod mkafiod miuTiTebs
destinaciis semantikaze, sa-eT da sa-ur ki SedarebiT sustad
gadmoscems am Sinaarss.
qarTulisaTvis mainc yvelaze mniSvnelovani, ra Tqma unda,
morfologiuri formacvalebadi derivaciuli zmnuri destinaciaa,
radganac igi SedarebiT tevadia da qarTulSi mTlianad
warmarTavs sintaqsur variaciebs. Ddestinaciis semantikas
Seicavs qceva anu versia, refleqsivi da kontaqti. cxadia, versia
aris centraluri da ZiriTadi kategoria, romelic marTavs am
semantikis gamomxatvel Sesabamis sintaqsur kombinaciebs.
ama Tu im semantikuri kategoriis sintaqsuri forma aris
morfologiuri formebis garkveuli kombinacia. enaSi universalurad
arsebobs sami tipis Teoriuli sintaqsuri kombinaciebi:
1. miRebuli da saliteraturo normiT ganmtkicebuli kombinaciebi;
2. kategoriis gamoxatvis TvalsazrisiT Warbi an nakluli
kombinaciebi, romelic dasaSvebia, magram ara saliteraturo
enisaTvis;
3. enisaTvis miuRebeli kombinacia, anu akrZalva.
sintaqsuri destinacia SeiZleba, iyos ganpirobebuli an
gvqondesYTavisufali variaciiT. ZiriTadi morfo-sintaqsuri
destinaciis distribucia aseTia:
1. avaSene sxvisTvis
avaSene - CemTvis
avaSene - aravisTvis
avaSene
es formebi pirveli tipis kombinaciebs ganekuTvneba.
2. aviSene CemTvis - es aris meore tipis kombinacia.
aviSene - es aris pirveli tipis kombinacia.
3. avuSene - misTvis - miuRebelia, es aris mesame tipis
kombinacia.
pirvel SemTxvevaSi neitralur formebs aqvT varianti
sintaqsurad gadmoscen morfologiuri modelis samive wevris
Sinaarsi.
meore SemTxvevaSi sintaqsurad mxolod refleqsivis
gadmocemaa SesaZlebeli (es kidev erTxel adasturebs zemoT
gamoTqmul azrs refleqsivis Sesaxeb rom igi kerZo movlenaa ).
mesame SemTxvevaSi ki sintaqsi mTlianad SezRudulia
arCevanSi da mxolod morfologiuri prioriteti aRiniSneba
( damatebiTi mimaniSnebeli aqtantis gamoCenis iSviaTi
156

157

SemTxvevebis garda, mag. avuSene me mas is CemTvis an


sxvisTvis ).
N neitraluri versiis formebi sintaqsur datvirTvas aZliereben da,
bunebrivia, monopersonalur enebSi aq iqneba ZiriTadi aqcenti.
enaTa umravlesobaSi destinatis brunva micemiTia an Tvis
Tandebuliani naTesaobiTi ( an am funqcias sxvadasxva
brunvebic inawileben).A am TvalsazrisiT sagulisxmoa qarTul
enaSi iribi obieqtis bedi sampiriani zmnis mesame seriaSi.
infinitiuri konstruqciebi miznobriv-destinaciuri semantikuri
Sinaarsis matarebelia. zmna-sawyisi (infinitivi) viTarebiT
brunvaSia warmodgenili: dajda werad. Aam formaTa paraleluria
zmna momavaldroiani mimReobis formebiT: dajda dasawerad.
Nnaklebad mosalodneli paraleluri formaa zmna sawyisi
(infinitivi) Tvis TandebuliT: dajda dawerisTvis.
infinitivi aris nulovani moqmedeba, e. i. potenciuri aqti anu
semantikurad Sesasrulebeli (dasawyebeli, igive sawyisi ).
Uuniversaluria, rom aseT formebSi aucileblad ivaraudeba
destinaciis miznobrivi Sinaarsi. aqedan gamomdinare,
universaluria infinitiuri kategoriebi daniSnulebiTobis SinaarsiT.
Aamdenad, gasagebia, Tu ratomac aris SesaZlebeli am
konstruqciaTa Canacvleba momavaldroiani mimReobebiT.
rogorc zemoT iTqva, sxvadasxva enaSi destinaciuri Sinaarsi
aqvT kerZo brunvebs. Bbrunva aris winadadebaSi sxva
sityvebTan urTierTobis forma. saerTod, LenaTmecniereba
icnobs Semdgom brunvebs:

ablativi

absolutivi

akuzativi

benefaqtivi

genetivi

dativi

elativi

equativi

ergativi

esivi

vokativi

ilativi

inesivi

instrumentalisi

kauzativi

komitativi

lativi

lokativi

nominativi
157

158

partitivi
prolativi
superesivi
translativi

aqedan, rogorc traski wers, baskurs axasiaTebs Semdegi


brunvebi:
absolutivi 0
ergativi: -k
dativi: -i
genetivi: -en
instrumentalisi: -z
komitativi: -ekin
lokativi: -n
ablativi: -tik
alativi: -ra
terminativi: -raino
direqcionaluri (mimarTulebiTi): -rantz
benefaqtivi: -entzat
destinativi: -rako
( r. traski, 1999 )
traski 13 brunvas afiqsirebs. i. zicari ki baskurSi gamoyofs
Semdeg aT brunvas:
s.
pl.
nominativi anu saxelobiTi - 0
-(a)k
ergativi anu moTxrobiTi
-k
-ek
dativi anu micemiTi
- r-i
-ei
genetivi anu naTesaobiTi
-z
-az/etaz
komitativi TanaobiTi
- r-ekin -ekin
naTesaobiTi - gansazRvrebiTi - tako
-etako
lokativi adgilobiTi
- tan -etan/engan
direqcionaluri- mimarTulebiTi tara -etara/engana
ablativi gamosvliTi
-tatik
-etatik/engandik
partitivi - nawilyofiTi
-r-ik
----- ( i. zicari, 1955)
158

159

zicarTan calke brunvebad ar moiazreba alativi anu


miznobrivi, terminativi anu miRweviTi, radganac es orive aris
direqcionaluri anu mimarTulebiTi brunvis Semadgeneli
miRweviTobis Sinaarsis mqone formebi erTnairi Zireuli
markeriT ra.
mniSvnelovania, rom traski calke brunvad gamoyofs
destinativs, rac aris SinaarsiT igive benefaqtivi, Tumca
gansxvavebulia markirebiT, radganac benefaqtivi -entzat sulieri
saxelebisTvisaa gankuTvnili, xolo destinativi rako usulo
saxelebis brunvis formaa. Aaq adgili aqvs destinatis klasis
mixedviT gansxvavebul markirebas.
amrigad, baskuri ena destinaciis kategoriaSi aSkarad
ganasxvavebs klasis kategorias sinqroniul donezec. sxvaTa
Soris, brunvaTa sistemaSi dResac sakmaod produqtiulia klasis
kategoria baskurSi. kerZod, sulieri-usulos kategoria aisaxeba
lokalur brunvebSic:
adgilobiTi - tan brunvis markeri usulo saxelebSi da
-etan/engan sulier saxelebSi;
mimarTulebiTi tara usulo saxelTa brunvaSi da sulier
saxelTaTvis -etara/engana;
gamosvliTi brunvis markeri usulo saxelebSi -tatik
da
-etatik/engandik markeri sulier saxelebSi.
am formebSi klasis niSanic ki gamoiyofa, sulierobis markeri
en. Ees movlena nawilobriv isiar lakasac aqvs aRwerili Tavis
gramatikaSi (i. laka, 1993 ).
unda aRiniSnos, romBbrunvaTa am formebSi ricxvis
mixedviT klasis kategoria sxvaobas ar qmnis, anu mravlobiTSi
igive markerebia, rac mxolobiTSi.
Tanamedrove baskologiaSi mkveTri zRvari araa gavlebuli
saxelTa brunebisas Tandebulian da uTandebulo formaTa Soris
da, rogorc vnaxeT, yvelaferi erTiani sistemiTaa warmodgenili.
Cven veyrdnobiT tradiciuli baskologiis am arsebul
monacemebs da ar ganvixilavT Tandebulian formaTa lokaluri
brunvebis siaSi Setanis mizanSewonilobis sakiTxs.
baskur enaSi destinaciis Sinaarsi aqvs brunvaTagan
Semdgom saopozicio formebs:
1. dativi;
2. genetivi;
3. benefaqtivi, romelic traskis mixedviT brunvaa da zicarTan ki
mxolod Tandebuliani brunvaa;
159

160

4. destinativi, romelic traskTan brunvaa da zicarTan ki mxolod


Tandebuliani benefaqtivis opozicia.
dativisa da genetivis SinaarsTa garkveuli siaxlove
sayovelTao faqtia, magram ZiriTadi sxvaoba maT Soris aris is,
rom dativi aris zmnuri destinacia-posesiurobis semantikis
amsaxveli, xolo genetivi mniSvnelovanwilad saxeluri tipis
destinacia-posesiurobas gadmoscems. cxadia, dativi aris
destinaciis ZiriTadi brunva.
saxelTa fleqsiur destinaciaSi upirvelesi roli ekuTvnis dativs.
Oorive enaSi (baskurSic da qarTulSic) igi aris iribi obieqtis
brunva, rogorc adresatis, recipientis, benefaqtoris an posesori
aqtantis brunva.
baskurSi aRiniSneba dativis ori forma. kerZod, zogierT
dialeqtSi saxelebs CvenebiTi nacvalsaxelebi daerTvis formantiT
xe, romelic, saerTod, win uZRvis brunvis niSans, MmagaliTad:
Honexek/horrexek/harexek ekartzen du egunkaria.
Ma/i/mas erg. moaqvs gazeTi.
Honexen/horrexen/harexen arraina da freskuena.
Ma/i/misi gen. Tevzi axalia.
Tumca, rogorc irkveva, aseT SemTxvevebSi sxva
brunvaTagan gansxvavebiT dativs aqvs poziciis dialeqturi
arCevani. is SeiZleba win uZRvodes an ukan mosdevdes am
formants:
Hone-xe-ri erosi diot arraina.

Hon-i-xe erosi diot arraina.

M(a)mas dat. Tevzi movutane.


dativis formaSi gaCenil r-s xmovanTaSorisad miiCnevs i.
Llaka. igi wers, rom r ar miekuTvneba brunvis morfemas da
aq adgili aqvs epinTeziss (i. laka, 1993, gv. 4).
trasks miaCnia, rom baskur enaSi gramatikuli relaciebis
ormag gamoxatvas aqvs adgili zmnaSi da brunvaSi. i. laka am
azrs ase ayalibebs, rodesac garkveuli azroblivi xazgasmaa
saWiro, maSin aucilebeli xdeba zmnis aqtantebis sintaqsuri
gamoxatva Sesabamisi nacvalsaxelebiT (i. laka, 1993, gv. 24).
isiar lakas mosazrebas zemoxsenebul sakiTxze Cven
mTlianad viziarebT.EaqtantTa Sesabamisi azrobrivi datvirTva
xom universaluria polipersonaluri enebisaTvis pirveli da meore
pirebis SemTxvevaSi, radganac es metyvelebis aqtSi monawile
konkretuli pirebia. baskuri did mniSvnelobas aniWebs
mosaubre pirs da ganasxvavebs meore piris xuT formas.
160

161

(mxolobiTi, mravlobiTi, zrdilobiani forma da e. w. alokuturi


formebi: mdedrobiTi da mamrobiTi) Ees ki, Tavis mxriv, zrdis
adresatuli formebis ricxvs.
zemoT moyvanili destinaciis zogad models baskuri,
qarTulisgan gansxvavebiT, mTlianad ver avsebs. qarTul enaSi
ufro farTod aris destinaciis sistema gaSlili, vidre baskurSi.
qarTuls SeuZlia es Sinaarsi asaxos destinaturi Sinaarsis mqone
derivaciuli afiqsebiT. baskurSi ki aseTi ram SeuZlebelia. mas
saerTod ar axasiaTebs iseTi tipis sityvawarmoeba, rogoricaa
qarTuli saxelebis afiqsuri derivacia.
destinaciis zogad models baskurSi aklia saxeluri destinaciis
derivaciuli formebi da zmnuri fleqsiuri destinacia. Tumca
savaraudoa, rom es ukanaskneli diaqroniul WrilSi dadasturdes
baskuri zmnis xmovani prefiqsebis morfo-semantikur fonze, ris
Sesaxebac zemoT gvqonda saubari.
rogorc zemoT aRvniSneT, ama Tu im kategoris sintaqsuri
gamoxatva aris am kategoriis semantikis farglebSi morfologiur
formaTa kombinacia. Sesabamisad, Dsintaqsuri destinaciis ori
ZiriTadi modeli aseTia:
1. datiuri konstruqciiT warmodgenili destinacia. Ees aris zmna
destinaciuri markirebiT plius datiuri aqtanti.
Destinat.

-Verb + N-Dative
2. zmnisgareTa destinacia warmodgenili zmnis neitraluri formiT
da saxeli destinaciuri TandebulebiT.

Neitral. -Vebr + N-Destinat. postpostiton.


mTavari sxvaoba baskursa da qarTul sistemebs Soris isaa,
rom zmnaSi gamoxatuli destinacia qarTulSi SeiZleba iyos
markirebuli neitraluri formac da sasubieqto formac. amitom
Cven mxolod saobieqto qceva unda viqonioT mxedvelobaSi
aseTi Sepirispirebisas. Tumca, cxadia, rom sistemaTa
morfologiuri sxvadasxvaoba pirdapir aisaxeba sintaqsze.
rogorc givoni wers: dRevandeli morfologia es aris guSindeli
sintaqsi (T. givoni, 1990 ). aqedan gamomdinare,
albaT,NSesaZloa, xvalindeli morfologiis ageba dRevandel
sintaqze dayrdnobiT. Yyovel SemTxvevaSi, struqturulad
SesaZlebelia momavlis zogadtipologiuri enobrivi Teoriuli
modelebis Seqmna konkretuli enebis diaqroniul-sinqroniuli
masalisa da maTi ganviTarebis tendenciaTa safuZvelze.

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ZiriTadi daskvnebi
warmodgenil naSromSi mocemulia termin destinaciis damkvidrebis
cda da gansazRvrulia is, rogorc farTo semantikuri kategoria, romelic
konkretul enaSi realizebulia Sesabamisi morfo-sintaqsiT. Ddestinacia,
rogorc morfo-semantikuri kategoria aisaxeba brunebisa da uRlebis
sistemebSi,
saxelTa derivaciasa da TandebulebSi.
naSromSi ganxilulia baskuri da qarTuli destinaciuri sistemebi,
Catarebulia am sistemebis tipologiuri analizi.
miRebuli Sedegebi, SesaZloa, ganzogaddes ZiriTadi daskvnebis saxiT,
miTumetes, rom winamdebare naSromi Teoriuli TvalsazrisiTac Seicavs
garkveul siaxleebs.
destinacia, rogorc semantikuri kategoria kerZo enaTa morfo-sintaqsSi
Sesabamis modelebs qmnis.
destinaciis zogadi enobrivi modelis
mixedviT,
baskuri da qarTuli enebi polipersonalur zmnaSi gamoxatul destinacias
aniWeben upiratesobas. am enebSi zmnuri destinacia gansazRvravs da
ganapirobebs destinaciis mTliani sistemis funqcionirebas enis ierarqiis
sxvadasva doneze.
saerTod, zmnuri destinacia mxolod polipersonalur zmnebs axasiaTebT
da, Tavis mxriv, polipersonalizmi aris umTavresi piroba destinaciis zmnuri
gamoxatvisaTvis.
destinacia ganasxvavebs ori tipis semas: posesiuri destinacia da
orientirebuli, anu miznobrivi destinacia.
es oriOsema erTmaneTTan
sakmaod axloa da xSirad urTierTgadamkveTi, saziaro semantikuri velebiT
xasiaTdeba.
zmnuri destinaciis Teoriuli modelebidan qarTuli enisTvis sinqroniul
doneze samgamzomilebiani modelia damaxasiaTebeli, Tumca
diaqroniulad, baskuris msgavsad, qarTulSic organzomilebiani modelia
amosavali. Aamis dasturia qcevis saerTo markeri sxvadasxva saopozicio
formebisaTvis.
Ddestinaciis interkategorialuri mimarTebebi gansazRvravs am
kategoriis umniSvnelovanes rols gansakuTrebiT polipersonaluri zmnebis
mqone enaTa sistemebSi.
piri, brunva da destinacia iribi mimarTebis gramatikul formaTa
TanaSemoqmedi kategoriebia. paralelurad pirdapiri mimarTebis
semantikur-gramatikuli kategoriebisadmi kombinirebul midgomas
gulisxmobs piri, brunva da ergatiuloba. rac Seexeba klasis kategorias, igi
marTlac gamsWvalavs orive enis morfologias da sintaqssac.
ergatiuloba, rogorc gramatikuli kategoria, simetrias qmnis
destinaciasTan. erTi pirdapiri obieqtis kategoriaa, meore ki, - iribis. Cven
mier ganxilul enaTa Sesabamisi monacemebi gviCvenebs, rom SeiZleba
gvqondes am ori kategoriis Serwymuli variantic - ergatiuli adresatoba.
BsemantikuradEergatiuli destinacia gulisxmobs iseT formas, rodesac
tranzituli zmnis moazrovne subieqts hyavs adresati partniori zmnaSi, anu
vin kategoriis destinati. aseTi ( ergatiuli destinaciis ) morfo-semantikis
matarebelia baskuri zmnis ki morfema.
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baskuri, rogorc wminda ergatiuli ena SedarebiT Tanmimdevrulia
ergatiulobis gamoxatvaSi, qarTuli, ki, rogorc nawilobrivi ergatiulobis
mqone ena, destinaciis kategorias upiratesobas aniWebs gamoxatvis
planSi.
warmodgenil naSromSi mocemulia baskuri enis destinaciuri sistemisa da
baskuri zmnis adresatobis srulyofili daxasiaTebisa da gamokveTis cda.
faqtobrivad es aris baskuri enis destinaciuri sistemis kvlevis pirveli cda.
adresatoba aris gramatikuli, kerZod, morfologiuri kategoria, romelic
uCvenebs, Tu visi interesebisaken miemarTeba, visken aris orientirebuli,
anu adresirebuli subieqtis mier Cadenili moqmedeba. adresati aris iribi
obieqti, anu zmnis moqmedebaSi iribad CarTuli dainteresebuli aqtanti.
Tanamedrove enaSi sinTeturi uRlebis sul aTiode zmna SemorCa
baskurs. swored am zmnebSi gvaqvs adresatobis kategoria gamoxatuli.
sinqroniul doneze baskur polipersonalur zmnaSi destinacia
gadmoicema ki/i sufiqsuri markerebiT. Tumca, safiqrebelia, rom
diaqroniulad baskur zmnas destinaciis prefiqsuli markireba axasiaTebda,
qarTul polipersonalur xmovanprefiqsTa msgavsad. aqve unda aRiniSnos,
rom qarTuli polipersonaluri zmnis kategoriebisa da maTi referentebis
analizi naTelyofs im garemoebas, rom qarTuli sul ufro da ufro scildeba
aglutinaciis principebs. erT morfemas xSirad aqvs ramdenime tipis
gansxvavebuli funqcia da mxolod konkretul formaSi xdeba am Tu im
morfemis konkretuli semantikis realizeba. es aris erT-erTi ZiriTadi
sxvaoba baskursa da qarTuls Soris. baskuri ena myarad icavs aglutinaciis
wesebs.
baskur zmnaSi sinqroniul doneze adresatobis markeris pozicia aris iribi
obieqtis sufiqsuri niSnis win, rac rangobrivad gulisxmobs am kategoriis
(adresatobis) upiratesobas.
qarTulSic da baskurSic destinaciis markeri rangobrivad iribi obieqtis,
anu destinatis pirad markerze maRalia. qarTuli da baskuri zmnuri
destinaciis referencialuri done gviCvenebs sarkisebr asimetrias. qarTulSi
qcevisa da iribi obieqti markerebi prefiqsuria, baskurSi adresatobis
markeric da iribi obieqtis niSanic sufiqsuria. aRsaniSnavia, rom am or
kategorias (qcevasa da adresatobas) izomorfuli semantikuri veqtorebi
aqvs.
znisgareTa destinacia warmodgenilia destinaciuri Sinaarsis
TandebulebiT, aseve amave semantikis brunvaTa formebiTa da
derivaciiuli afiqsebiT.
sintaqsuri destinacia gulisxmobs morfologiurad gamoxatuli destinaciis
formaTa dasaSveb kombinaciebs enaSi. am TvalsazrisiTac, ra Tqma unda,
gadamwyveti sityva ekuTvnis polipersonalur zmnas, romelic awarmoebs
ZiriTad modelebs orive enaSi.
naSromSi mocemulia axali tipologiuri meToduri funqcio-formaluri
Teoria, romelic Tavisi arsiT sinTezuria da gulisxmobs funqcionalizmisa da
formalizmis miRwevaTa racionalur gamoyenebas. funqcio-formaluri
racionaluri meToduri Teoriis mixedviT, esa Tu is enobrivi movlena
aixsneba xan formidan, xan ki funqcidan gamomdinare aixsneba.
funqcia aris pirveladi amosavali, magram rig SemTxvevebSi, rodesac
ukve Seqmnilia enobrivi sistema, igi ukve damoukideblad, sistemis
kanonebis Sesabamisad, enobrivi inerciiT muSaobs. aseT dros yalibdeba
formaluri erTeulebi, romlebic sakmaod dacilebulia funqciur sawyiss.

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enobrivi analizi iTvaliswinebs kvlevis meTodSi formisa da funqciis
erTianobas.
naSromSi mocemulia veqtorialobis Teoria: ena kanonzomier
urTierTmimarTebaSi myofi erTeulebis sistemaa - es qmnis veqtorul
sidideebs. gamoiyofa lingvisturi veqtori enis ierarqiis yvela doneze:
fonetikuri, morfologiuri, sintaqsuri, leqsikuri, semantikuri; aseve
SesaZlebelia doneTaSorisi veqtorebis gamoyofac: morfo-semantikuri,
morfo-fonologiuri, morfo-sintaqsuri, leqsiko-semantikuri. Aarsebobs
garegnuli, anu referencialuri da Sinagani, anu semantikuri veqtorebi. A
warmodgenil naSromSi aris istoriul-SedarebiTi enaTmecnierebisaTvis
axali sabaziso Teoriis Semotanis mokrZalebuli cda. enaTa naTesaobis
dasadgenad saWiro da sakmarisia morfemebSi bgeraTSesatyvisobebisa
da morfologiur kategoriaTa funqciur-struqturuli simetriis an asimetriis
gamovlena referencialur doneze.
tradiciulad regularul bgeraTSesatyvisobaTa gamovlena leqsikis doneze
xdeba. faqtobrivad moqmedebis centri gadagvaqvs morfologiaSi.
bgeraTSesatyvisobaTa gamovlena unda moxdes yvela tipis morfemaTa
doneze da ara mxolod Zireul morfemebSi. aseTi midgomiT miviRebT
diaqroniuli vertikalis gacilebiT qveda, adreuli fenebis realur komparatiul
suraTs.
warmodgenilia inerciis kanoni enaSi.
NnaSromSi pirvelad aris agreTve baskur-qarTuli komparativistikis
istoriaSi zmnis morfo-semantikuri kategoriebis tipologiuri kvleva.
saerTod, Zalze sainteresoa baskuri zmnis morfo-semanitikuri
kategoriebis sistemuri Sepirispireba qarTuli polipersonaluri zmnis
kategoriebTan. Tumca aseTi naSromebi faqtobrivad arc mogvepoveba,
Tu mxedvelobaSi ar miviRebT calkeul movlenaTa Soris analogiaTa Ziebis
mcdelobebs.
amrigad, warmodgenili naSromis daskvnebs warmovadgenT Sedegebis
saxiT:
naSromSi gamovlenilia baskuri zmnis adresatobis morfosemantikuri kategoria morfo-semantikur da referencialur
doneze. warmodgenilia am kategoriis paradigmatika;
gamovlenilia qarTuli enis destinaciuri sistema. axleburad
gaazrebulia qcevis kategoriasTan dakavSirebuli rigi sakiTxi;
baskuri enis destinaciuri sistema; destinaciur sistemaTa zogadi
enobrivi modelebi; zmnuri destinaciis zogadi enobrivi modelebi
polipersonaluri struqturebisaTvis; ganxilulia destinaciis adgili
enis sistemaSi, misi mimarTeba sxva kategoriebTan da
kategoriaTaSorisi urTierTobani; naSromSi mocemulia axali
sinTezuri tipologiuri meToduri Teoria funqcio-formalizmi; axali
sabaziso Teoria istoriulSedarebiTi enaTmecnierebisaTvis;
lingvisturi veqtorialobis Teoria; inerciis kanoni.
naSromSi gamovlenilia ramdenime lingvisturi universalia;
axleburad gaazrebulia rigi kategoriebi: klasis kategoria,
ergatiuloba, personalizmi, refleqsivi.
naSromis bolos warmodgenilia ramdenime danarTi
. AgreTve mocemulia
Sesabamisi bibliografia. D

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TAMAR MAKHAROBLIDZE
THE TYPOLOGY OF DESTINATION SYSTEMS
OF BASQUE AND KARTVELIAN
GENERAL INFORMATION
THE ACTUALITY OF THE PRESENT RESEARCH
The present research is about the destination systems of Basque and Georgian describing them in
typological aspect. In our time the significance of diverse type of typological researches is out of doubt among
the specialists.
The typological researches of any item first of all mean the complete investigation and the analysis of
this item and then generalization of the results. The present work is the first researching experience of the
following linguistic themes: the destination typological systems, the inter-category relations and destination
models of ergativity. As a matter of fact the description of concrete morpho-semantic models of poly-personal
languages from the point of universal parameters of course always has the actual meaning for modern
linguistic sciences.
From typological point of view the isolated languages are very important. The proper investigations
of Basque poly-personal verb - as a part of isolated language system, may answer many significant questions
in linguistics.
THE AIM OF THE PRESENT RESEARCH is the synchronic analysis of the destination systems of
Basque and Georgian and their typological characterization; bringing to light universal regulations in terms of
this category.

THE METHODS OF THE RESEARCH


In present research the synchronic typological methods are used. There is also a new methodological
theory exposed in the work - the rational principle of functio-formal attitude. That means to explain the
language facts basing on their functional level and on the formal level at the same moment. The function is
very important; its the origin for any linguistic form. But when the language system is already formed, very
often it acts independently from the forth of language inertia. Then the language creates the units, which are far
from the functional beginning. Such cases must be investigated by formal point. We offer the synthetic functioformal typological methods of research using them in the present work.

THE SCIENTIFIC NOVELTY AND THE GENERAL RESULTS OF THE RESEARCH


Each part of the research includes the scientific novelty. As a matter of fact this is the first investigation
of Basque-Georgian morphological systems. This is the first trial of typological consideration of the presented
themes.
The general results are as following:
1. The present work brings to light the morpho-semantic and referential levels of the verbal category of
addressee of Basque. The paradigmatic system of this verbal category is exposed.

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2. The present research exposes the destination system of the Georgian language. Some aspects of the
verbal category of version are interpreted in a new way.
3. The present work exposes the destination system of Basque.
4. The general language models of destination are exposed in the present work.
5. In the present research the general language models of verbal destination are exposed for poly-personal
verbs.
6. The place of destination categories in language system and its relations to other grammatical categories
are revealed in the present work.
7. The new synthetic methodical theory of functio-formalism is exposed in the present research.
8. In the present research a new basic theory for historical comparative linguistics is exposed.
9. In the present work a new theory of linguistic vectority is exposed.
10. A few linguistic universals are exposed in the present research.
11. The law of inercia is exposed.
12. Some grammatical categories (such as class, ergativity, verbal personality, reflexivity) are explained in
a new light.

THE THEORETICAL AND PRACTICAL VALUES OF THE RESEARCH


The new linguistic theories are exposed in the present research. The Georgian and Basque destination
systems are analyzed in typological point of view generalizing the final results. We think that above mentioned
novelty of the present research shows its theoretical and practical value.

The brief content of the present research


INTRODUCTION
In The introduction of the present research the latest linguistic methods of functionalism are discussed
and a new functio-formal methodology is exposed. This is a new typological rational synthetic method offering
to use the best results of functionalism and formalism.
The language has the two sides of the coin the form and function and we can lay on functional and formal
data analyzing the language systems. The function in the prior, but when the language system is already
functioning, it may follow only to the formal system in its way of development creating some forms basing
only on the formal system parameters. Such forms must be explained from the formal point of view. Linguistic
analysis needs to unify the functional and formal analysis.
The importance of Basque as an isolate language for typological investigations is explained in the
introduction.

The First Chapter


THE GENERAL PARAMETERS OF DESTINATION SYSTEMS
Analyzing the general parameters of destination systems we exposed the universal typological models of
destination and relations of these systems with other grammar categories in the languages.

1. THE TYPOLOGICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF DESTINATION

SYSTEMS
Destination is the eldest universal semantic category, which exposes its content on each level
of language hierarchy (expect of the one side, phonetic level) corresponding this semantic by
proper forms of language.
The terms destination and destinator are from Latin, but as linguistic terms they came
through the English and Spanish lexicons. The presented research is a trial of using these
terms with proper meanings. Destination means the aim result destination/direction. Destinator
is a person (or a form) to whom the the verbal act or nominal destination forms are oriented.
There are grammar and lexical destinations. The first one means the morphological and
syntactic destination. The morphological destination can be expressed by flexion of words and
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derivation. Different languages have the different possibilities to expose the semantic category
of destination.
Destination has two semantic meanings:
1. Possesive destination
2. Oriented or aimed destination.
These two meanings are too close to each-other and sometimes with crossing semantic fields.
As the eldest linguistic category destination makes the proper morpho-semantic models in
different languages. We can expose the linguistic regulation EACH LANGUAGE HAS
THE SEMANTIC CATEGORY OF DESTINATION. This regulation is based on the
following famous regulation that any language can express any idea.
There are a few parameters for language classification in linguistics. We could take
destination as the classification parameter like ergativity. Such classification would be based
on concrete grammatical distribution of semantic destination in the languages defining the
proper models.
The semantic category of destination is exposed in morphology and syntax. The differences
between the languages in exposing the destination semantic are shown on these grammar
levels: in morphology and syntax and the functional distribution of the forms.
One row of languages (such as Indo-European languages) mainly is forming the lexical and
syntactic structures for destination semantic. But the morphological destination is weekly
exposed. Another number of languages mainly have the morphological structures for the
destination semantic and their syntax is comparably free from this semantic structures.
Its clear that in poly-personal verbal structures the verbal category of destination plays the
most important role. The language distributes the semantic contents and categories among the
grammatical categories. Poly-personal verb carries a lot of different semantics inside the verb.
The present research exposes the theory of linguistic vectority explaining the Georgian
category of version as a vectorial category.
The language is a system consisting of units in appropriate relations with each-other. These
relations could be exposed by vectors. We have the linguistic vectors on each level of language
hierarchy. There are phonetic, morphemic, syntactic, lexical and semantic vectors, showing the
attitudes and directions of the units. There are the inter-level vectors as well: morpho-phonetic,
morhpo-syntactic, morpho-semantic, lexico-semantic vectors.
We have two general types of vectors showing inside or outside orientation in language
systems. The outside vectors are very easy to understand in phonetic changes, such as
progressive or regressive assimilation or dissimilation. The proverbs showing the direction or
orientation of verbal acts are also clear with their vectors.
The samples for inner vectors: from the one hand there are inter morpheme vectors showing
the relations between the markers of the indirect object and category of version in Georgian,
from another hand there is inner destination vector expressing intro- or extra-vertization,
according to M. Machavariani.
THE GENERAL MODEL
OF LANGUAGE DESTINATION SYSTEM
SEMANTIC DESTINATION

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MORPHOLOGY

FLEXION
NOUN VERB

DERIVATION

SYNTAX

LEXIC

ORIGINAL PRODUCED

NOUN VERB

2. THE RELATIONS OF DESTINATION WITH THE OTHER MORPHOSEMANTIC CATEGORIES


There are no independent categories in the language. Any category is in relations with other
categories. The place and role of the category is defined by these relations with some other
categories in the concrete languages.
Destination as a morpho-semantic category is in close relations with the grammatical
categories of person and case from one hand and from another hand it is connected with the
categories of classes and ergativity. But there relations are not symmetric. The categories of
case and person are taking part in creation of the grammatical category of destination, while
ergativity and ergative models are exposed as the parallel system to it. But the category of
classes is the basic category for the all above mentioned categories.
We are interpreting the ergativity and the destination as the categories of objects. Must be
noted that here we mean the wide field of the semantic and grammar categories and not only
the morphological or the syntactic levels.
The languages show the different positions to the object. Nominative-accusative languages
give the priority to the direct object and transitivity referencing them in their grammar, while
the ergative languages concentrate towards the indirect object, as the ergativity already shows
the general idea about the direct object and transitivity in these languages. In the languages of
ergative constructions the gradation of destination is the basing diathesis. Even more, the
transitivity-intransitivity is not relevant for destination. Its clear that the destination is the
elder category than ergativity, as it doesnt depend on transitivity. In ergative languages the
principal opposition is not the binary model of transitivity, but the gradation of destination,
which in synchronic level is expressed by the verbal prefix vocals in the Georgian language
and by the vocal/vocal and consonant suffix markers in Basque.
Inter-categorial relations look as follow:
THE OBJECT CATEGORIES

DESTINATION <------------------- > ERGATIVITY


CASE < ---- > PERSON

CASE < ---- > PERSON

The categories of case and person are in collaboration to create the destination forms.
They make the parallel configurations having the same kind of relations with ergativity.
Finally, these two object categories show the parallel structures.
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The category of classis goes through the all language system appearing as a basing
category for its morphology and syntax. In poly-personal languages the relations between the
general categories look as following:
Category of Class ergativity
Category of Class destinationreflexivity
Category of Class personpoly-personality
Category of Class case
Because of its week role on the synchronic level the category of classis looses its
importance. But its clear that without the category of classis its impossible to understand
many other categories in the language.
AA. DESTINATION AND THE CATEGORY OF CLASSES
Basing on the investigation results of the general semantic parameters of the language we can conclude,
that the general semantic categories are universal for any language. We could expose this as the universal
regulation. So, the semantic of the category of classes seems also to be universal.
Different languages expose the regulations by diverse type linguistic models giving the priority to the
dominant categories. There are the different kinds of reflection of the universal category of classes in different
language systems. The Indo-European languages have three forms of gender, Iberian languages have the
category of animated-unanimated things, the other languages have the different signs for such classification.
Some languages use the systems of religious or social signs for proper identification etc.
The destinator or the addresser is an animated person first of all. The indirect object is the second
animated argument as a verbal person involved into the verbal act after the subject. Although we must
remember, that on the highest level of linguistic abstraction there is no specific border between the forms of
animated/un-animated objects and we also have un-animated indirect objects.
In the Kartvelian languages we have the semantic category of classes not only in the diachronic level,
but on the synchronic level of these languages as well exposing the class category with the concrete
morphological and semantic units. Although the category of classes is not productive in temporary system of
the Kartvalian languages and it has the tendency of disappearing.
On the synchronic level of the Georgian language the category of classes is exposed in its morphology
and syntax: it is in the noun groups, in the case and plural systems, in participles, in the different groups of
pronouns, in verbs, in proverbs and so on.
We think, that the ergative markers in Georgian and Svan m/man comes from pronoun of the human, who
category (from me, mare). The same origin has m - the first person object marker; v - the first person subject
marker; in mi-mo proverbs the center of orientation is the first person, expressed by m having the proper
opposition c and etc.
The general diathesis of the category of person is animated-unanimated semantics. This category is very
well exposed in the semantics of the different groups of Georgian pronouns.
The personal and demonstrative pronouns have the rests of the class opposition of s- m.
The marker of ergative follows the forms in the other cases as well like the North Caucasian type of
declination.
Nom. is
Erg. m-a-n here n is the later marker of ergativity
Dat. m-a-s
Gen. m-is(i)
Inst.( i)-m-it
Adve. (i)-m-ad
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What ever we think about affix a either consider this with the previous consonant or take it as the interconsonant vowel, in spite of it, we must say that the ergative declination is quite clear in the Georgian
language. This is the same model of declination as in the other Caucasian languages.
In the Georgian language the class category is in the all system of the language. Its spread by pronouns
into the noun declination and verbal conjugation. It is properly exposed in poly-personal verbal system. The
class category appears in the basic semantics of the each category of the poly-personal verb. Who-what
semantic category is the base for many categories in the language, although in the modern language it has no
referents itself except just a few forms.
As noted the class category is the base for the semantic of many other categories and this is the reason
why there is no need to be exposed and now it has no morphological referents in Georgian.
Georgian personal and demonstrative pronouns have ergative case, where we have the rests of class
categories in so called actantive cases.
The verbal destination as the category of the personal relationship inside the verb of course is connected
with the class category. There is no open relation on synchronic level between these categories, but its
impossible to describe the destination without the category of classes.
There are the different forms for the different classes in the Basque language. For example, the post
position for has the different references for animate and un-animate nouns. Basque also has so called
allocutives in the verb showing the gender for the second verbal person (subject, object direct and object
indirect). It has feminine and masculine gender, while there is no gender in the pronouns and nouns in the
Basque language.
This is very interesting fact the Basque language has the two types of class category gender and whowhat category. These categories produce the proper systems in the language.
The synchronic comparative analysis of relations between destination and class category show a big
difference between Georgian and Basque.
The semantic and referential levels of the class category in Georgian and in Basque are exposed in this
part of present research. There is also the observation of the class category in word languages and the universal
classification scheme is offered:

1. Human
1. a. Female
1. b. Male
1. c. Neutral
2. Thing
2. A. Animated
2. A. a. Female
2. A. b. Male
2. A. c. Neutral
2. B Un-animated
2. B. a. Classes by the different signs (size, color, forth, light, dynamic, growth,
astronomical things, religious units etc.)
2. B. b. Anything else.
According to empirical data the simplier this schemme looks the level of abstraction is higher in a nation.
The category of calsses is universal linguistic phenomena and each language had to exopse this somehow
shoiwng its individuality.

B. DESTINATION AND ERGATIVITY

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Being the object categories destination and ergativity have the very close realtionship between each other
according to their semantic and grammatic parameters.
There is the short information about the history of investigations about ergativity in the present research.
In the present work the genesis of ergative in Zanian is discussed. To our opinion suffix k in Megrelian
verbs comes form the indefinite pronoun kochi like the appropriate ergative marker in the nouns. The marker
with such origin is outlining the animated category of the subject. Its very important, that this verbal marker
appears only in the first and the second persons. The first and the second persons are always animated ( except
a very small number of some semantic meanings ).
In the present research the referential and semantic levels of ergativity in the Georgian and the Basque
languages are observed in specter of typological comparison.
The transitivity (which means the verbal act with direct object) could be exposed by accusative,
instrumentalise or it could be out of verbal reference. In other words it also could stay the only semantic
argument, but grammatically non referenced verbal person as it is in Indo-European languages. But its
necessary to expose the subject as the acting person, which has the different type of marking in different
languages.
The most important is that the general semantic opposition in the category of person is who-what
opposition. The ergative subject is who-category, animated subject. This is a real acting actant or argument. We
offer a new term for the ergative subject the thinking subject. This term includes the differences between
agency and patient in its semantic.
The different languages have different attitudes to the class category and this is the cause for nominative and
ergative constructions in language systems. To our opinion the subject of the what-unanimated category has
nominative character while ergative subject is a who-category active person.
In the Kartvelian languages the referents of ergative are given with animated class signs/markers. These are
the morphological markers of the animated who category thinking-subject making the opposition
configurations with intransitive and non active in-animated thing class category subject. The in-animated thing
class category subject and the intransitive subject together with the same in-animated category direct object
have the shearing inactive semantic fields exposed by the absolutive case.
We can suppose that historically the thinking subject was exposed only in ergative case and later the
changes in distributions between who and what classes subjects gave us the temporary picture in the Georgian
language.
Its significant that the un-deliberate action of the verbal subject in the rows of the third serya ( so called
turmeobities ) are not expressed by ergative case. Neither potentialis or indefinite common actions or future
tenses are considered as any real act with ergative characterization in Georgian. Following the many other
linguists we must say that as a matter of fact the semantics of results and perfect are very important for
Georgian ergative. The done fact or done action by the thinking subject is the base for Georgian ergativity.
Later this was spread to the other forms in the second serya. Megrelian spreads the ergativity even in the forms
of the subject of intransitive verbs in the second serya.
Zanian transitive verbs have the ergative subjects in the other rows of conjugation for transitive verbs. So
then we could also expose the opposite opinion that the Kartvelian languages were fully ergative languages
and not with the split ergativity as it is now.
According to the last data of online encyclopedia Wikipedia, there are the following three types of split
ergativity:
1. In the Australian languages (like Dyrbal) the ergative is exposed morpho-syntactically, but with the first
and the second personal pronouns we have nominative and accusative cases.
Wed love to put the parallels between these forms and Megrelian verbal suffix k, which appears in the
first and seconds persons. Besides these first two personal pronouns have the same forms in Georgian
(being out declination).
From the Caucasian languages the Batsbian language shows the similarity to this group, although we
have ergative in the first and second persons even with intransitive verbs. This fact outlines the importance
and the main role of the class category of the thinking subject.
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2. The languages which have ergative for the subjects in perfect tenses.
The modern Georgian ergative system belongs to this group.
3. The languages which have the ergative for intransitive subjects (Dakota).
The subject of active verb (he runs) is in ergative like the subject of the transitive verbs. But the
subject of semantically passive or inactive verbs is in nominative case. Typologically it seems very
interesting comparison with Megrelian ergative forms of intransitive verbs in the second serya. We suppose
that in Megrelian diachronically the verbs of active nature got the ergative case first spreading this fact into
other forms later. Unfortunately there is no written material to investigate this development. Georgian also
could join to this group with its medio-actives.
This fact that the Kartvelian languages give all variants in this classification is very significant and we
cant consider such classification relevant even only on the samples of Kartvelain data. Georgian can join
to the second and the third groups. But such kind of combinations are not considered in this classification.
According to semantic and morphological meanings of the arguments of predicate or other verbal
actants (all the verbal persons that are involved in the verbal act) the diathesis of ergativity and destination
is general opposition of direct and indirect objects as their functional and formal opposition. The indirect
object with its all wide specter is considered as a destinator and ergativity is connected with a direct object.
Such attitude is quite understandable because there is no morphological category of transitivity in Georgian
and in the other Kartvelian languages. Transitivity has no morphological markers and as a semantic
category its connected with the direct object being reflected in its morpho-semantic.
According to some linguists in Georgian the ergative construction in the second serya is not prior, as
the ergativity is given only by syntactic way and the personal merkers in the first and second serya are
symmetric, besides there is no ergative marker in the verbs. We neither have any common reference for the
ergative case in the Kartvelian languages.
We suppose that in Megrealian verbs the suffix k is the ergative suffix confirming the verbal
ergativity in the Kartvelian languages. The very important fact is that this suffix is in the first and the third
seryas.
To our opinion the thematic markers which appear later have some kind of ergative meanings. By the
way according to their distribution we could think that these are markers of the verbal ergativity in the
Zanian language.
The fact that the thematic markers just like Megralian - k appear in the intransitive verbs, outlines the
importance of the thinking subject and not the transitivity for the Karvelian ergativity. Zanian ergative
suffix is the reason for un-demanded strict system of the thematic markers in the language in opposite with
Georgian.
The thematic markers activate the dynamism in the verbal process. This is a semantic significant for
the who-animated thinking subject.
To our opinion the verbal forms with the thematic markers are the opposition forms to the second
serya ergative construction, which is the classic form of ergativity. So, that we have the oppositions of the
who- category thinking subject by the ergative markers in the nouns from one hand and in the verbs from
another hand. In the other words there are the constructions formed by ergative or by ergative dative in the
perfect tenses and for the dynamic verbs there are the verbal markers of ergatiovity.
Better, we have the three types of ergativity in kartvelian. The thematic markers are not the obligator
markers in the third serya, because of ergative-dative case for the subject and the perfect tense. In this serya
we have the combination forms of the first two seryas.
So, we have the verbal ergative in the first serya, the classic form of ergativity in the second serya
with the subject in the ergative case with the perfect tense and the combination forms in the third serya
with ergative-dative.
We must outline that this is a very big theme and it needs to be investigated more carefully. In the
presented research we are just arising the question.
Concerning the reconstruction of the ergative case in proto-kartvelian although there is no common
referent exposed, but we have the same semantic for the ergative markers in all Kartvelian languages as we
noted above.
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Many scientists considered that the opposition of nominative and ergative constructions is the most
important for Basque verb dividing them on two groups:
1. The verbs with the subject in nominative case or in partitive case
2. The verbs with the subject in ergative case.
If we take in consideration that the agence (the transitive subject) and the dative actant have the
identical markers in the verb, we can see another opposition: nominative and partitive from one hand and
ergative and dative from another hand. Such close relations between ergative and dative in Basque verb,
remains us about the dative construction for Georgian transitive verbs in the third serya. Concerning the
partitive case we must say that it is often used as a subject case for negative forms in different languages.
The whole point is in distribution of semantics of the who-what category in the subject. The thinking
subject of who animated category is in ergative and what-conversional subject is in nominative.
To our opinion ergative and nominative constructions diachronically may show the parallel
development.
In the Georgian language the system of destination is widely open but there is the split ergativity in it,
while the Basque language has the classic ergative constructions but with less exposition of destination
systems in the language. It means that the destination semantic and the indirect object are prior categories
for Georgian while Basque gives the priority to transitivity and semantic categories of the indirect object.

C. DESTINATION AND VERBAL PERSONALITY


Well known fact is following if the verbal morphology is rich, there is the less demand for some other
categories. The poly-personal verb and the case system are like guarantees for relatively free word order in the
sentences. The verbal destination also reduces the number of theoretically possible other morphological and
syntactic forms and categories of destination in the language.
The poly-personal Basque verb in difference from Georgian is always exposing all markers of all its
verbal persons. There are some morphologically non referenced or weakly marked, or partially marled verbal
persons/actants in Georgian, while Basque doesnt have such facts being very accurate in exposing each verbal
person. It has the strict succession in exposing its grammatical categories such as personality, ergativity,
plurality, etc. Sometimes the Basque language has even double referencing for some grammar categories.
In Georgian verbs some personal referents meet each-other in prefix position and this fact became the
reason for many different opinions about this item.
According to some modern Georgian linguists verbal personality is a morphological category and only
referenced persons can be taken into account. We disagree with this opinion as we think that its very important
for the Georgian verbal morphology to include in the verbal personality the zero-marker persons and even nonreferenced persons such as the third direct object in the modern Georgian language.
The conjugation system in Georgian is based on such understanding of personality. Besides, this new
theory of verbal personality is full of logical problems.
If we consider valentity as a semantic category, we can expose the appropriate linguistic universal
regulations THERE ARE DIFFERENT VALENTITY VERBS IN EACH LANGUAGE AND THE
REALIZATION OF THESE DIFFERENCIES ARE THE PROBLEM OF THE ROPER GRAMMAR.

II. CHAPTER
VERBAL SDESTINATION
The models of verbal destination:
O
1. S
S

O
2. S

3. S

S
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4. S

( Here S - is the subject, O - is the object indirect and O - is zero.)


There is the first model in the modern Georgian language. We consider that historically there was the
forth model in Georgian like Abkhazian and Basque. The same morpheme i can not be used to distinguish the
opposition forms inside the one category. So the opposition was between the forms with version and without it.
The classification of verbal destination runs through the opposition members by two parameters:
1. Functional identification of verbal person subject, object direct or object indirect:
2. Verbal persons general personal identification - the first person, the second person, the third person.
In the both cases the class category of verbal person is a very important matter.

1. THE TYPOLOGICAL ANALYSIS OF THE CATEGORY OF VERSION IN


GEORGIAN VERBS
The category of version is the general category of destination in Georgian, which is well investigated by
many specialists in Georgia and abroad.
The present research introduces the traditional and modern theories and positions concerning the category
of version. Some opposite opinions are also exposed in the dissertation. The category is characterized by
morphological and semantic points of view. The verbal poly-personality is discussed here and the universal
linguistic regulation is revealed ONLY THE POLY-PERSONAL VERBS CAN EXPOSE THE VERBAL
CATEGORY OF DESTINATION.
The modern Georgian language has the strict succession for the morpho-semantic category of version:
Neutral version - O, a
Objective (or so called extravertial) version i, u
Subjective (or so called introvertial) version - i
We outline the peculiarity of the category of version. The existence of a few anomalies together with the
regulations is considered as a normal fact in the languages. The grammar category of version has the following
peculiarities:
1. The difference between transitive and intransitive verbs by the category of version is systemic. The
three dimensional model of Georgian version is available only in transitive verbs. Intransitive verbs
may have only the two dimensional model, because there is no subjective version in intransitive verbs.
This is the systemic difference of principle character showing the importance and initial twodimensional model of version in the Georgian language.
2. The verbs that are lacking some forms of the category of version. There are the two groups of such
verbs:
A. The lack of the forms inside the one row of conjugation with the missing opposition forms of version,
for example: we have vacnob-vicnob, but there is no objective version form - vucnob.
B. The lack of the forms in the verbs that are missing the forms in conjugation paradigm, for example we
have the opposition of the static verbs ceria - uceria and they both have etcera in the second serya.
The three personal verbs also lose the meaning of version in the forms of the third serya. When version
creates the new forms of conjugation rows having the function of flexion the verbal forms its loosing
its destination the meaning.
3. Sometimes there are two indirect objects in the verbs. Of course this doesnt mean that the both of them
are exposed in the verb.
A. Two indirect objects in intransitive verbs in passives: micvia (you me him) mimepkar (you me him); in
medial verbs: mimidevs (he me him), mitkiva (it me him). One from these two is always a possessor object and
it could have the alternatively descriptive syntactic forms with a two personal verb and the argument in the
possessive object case - genitive or dative (out of the verb); for example: micvia me cols kaba compare
with - Cems cols kaba acvia.

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B. Two indirect objects in transitive verbs create the four personal forms: mimicera (he me it him ) mimixata
(he me it him ). In such cases mostly causatives are used: gamiketebine (you me him it), damixatvine (you me
him it). All types of such forms have the objective version without any exceptions.
The adding the indirect object has two ways and reasons:
I. The causation needs to have the executive object or
II. The possessive beneficiary semantic needs to be outlined.
The forms with two indirect objects mainly have the semantics of objective version.
4. The poly-semantic forms of version.
There are a few verbal forms in the Georgian language with the conjugative direct object and it makes
possible to have the forms of subjective version in the objective rows of these verbs. These forms are
mostly poly-semantic (damiyena/dagiyena).
5. The verbs without the category of version. Such verbs have no opposition forms and therefore have no
category of version: uyvars, icis, axsovs, hgonia, uciravs, szuls
These verbs have the two groups as well:
A. The forms without the markers of version: scams, czuls, hqvia and etc. These verbs have no markers
and neither understanding of version.
B. The forms with the markers of version: i-cis, u-yvars, a-qvs and etc. These verbs have the version
markers without destination semantic, besides they have no opposite forms.
We suppose that no marker can appear in the forms without the proper meaning and such forms
show diachronically different pictures. This is proved by some form comparisons from other the
Katrvelian languages, for example the opposition by version is restored in the following forms: vici
(Georgian) - mixa-xoxa (Svan).
6. The question of the formal and functional diachronic changes of the category version is a big theme
that needs to be investigated very carefully.
Following the many scientists we confirm that this category passed a long way to the modern situation.
It is connected with the categories of class, parson, case, mood, causation, conjugation and many other
verbal categories. The independent analysis of any grammar category is not considered expedient by us, as
the language is the system and all its categories are connected with each-other painting the proper picture
of its individuality. This is very well shown on the samples of the deictic vowels in Georgian.
Concerning the verbal prefix vocals in Georgian verbs A. Shanidze wrote that the prefixes in passive
were from the category of version by their origin. Of course its clear that the prefix vocals unify the
function of version and mood in one marker. Actually the mood and version have the same ranges in the
verbal morphemic row and this identical position of these two categories makes complicate the final
answer for e-i opposition. In modern Georgian we have the poly-functional verbal vocals in the prefix
positions.
To our opinion the prefix vocals in Georgian verbs are poly-personal affixes with synthetic
semantics outlining the concrete semantic in concrete morphological forms.
This fact (together with some other facts like that) separates the Georgian language from other
agglutinative type of languages.
The present research brings the light to the non-functional forms of version in the third serya.
Generally, the version is the category of an indirect object. In the third serya where this indirect object goes out
the verb, the forms lose the meaning of version although they have the markers, which are left in the verb in
order to keep the destination semantics of the verb. Besides, the indirect object out of a verb takes the post
position tvis for to keep the destination semantics. Factually, in these forms the semantics is left the same, but
the morphology is changed. The semantics of destination chooses the other morphological forms to expose its
content. But the destination semantic doesnt let the verb free from it leaving its markers in the verbal forms.
These markers are out of function as they stay without the verbal indirect object.
As it is already noted, the languages dont know any non-functional markers any marker
synchronically or diachronically had the proper meanings and functions, which were changed or lost later. As a
matter in fact the morphemes are with two sides of the coin: with the proper semantics and their formal
references. We speak about non-function morphemes when these functions are changed or their semantic fields
become narrower. The semantic field of the word is changeable. It can be changed in different ways. This is
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not only about the root morphemes but about the all types of morphemes as well. But of course its clear, that
the speed of coefficient for such changes is much lower in morphology.
Its well known fact that historically the forms of the third serya came from the static verbs and the
appropriate historical analysis is also different. Today the forms of the third serya are on the other space
paradigmatically and syntagmatically. These are the opposition forms for the forms of the first and the second
seryas and they are far from their original static semantic. Now they act with their modern semantic.
Diachronically the above mentioned situation looks as following: the historical indirect object becomes
the subject while producing the forms of the third serya from the static verbs. That explains the fact of
inversion in Georgian. Realizing this fact in a new way a new verbal person appears the indirect object,
which is the only legal indirect object in the first and the second seryas. In the third serya we have the
historical indirect object with its markers (in the case systems of the nouns and in the personal marker of the
verb), although now this is already the subject for these forms. The verb doesnt take the second indirect
object and puts it out the verb. We got a simple object with a postposition. In many other languages such
objects are considered as verbal arguments. As a matter in fact the Georgian verbs may have two indirect
objects in one form (micmie, mismie), but usually this is a fact of another category the causative relations
are exposed by these forms. Besides, in such forms the only one indirect object from these two has the priority
of being marked in the verbs.
Its significant that even without this new indirect object which cant realize itself in the verbal
morphology we already have the markers of version from the original static forms. These markers were the
functional markers in static verbs and therefore these markers can be considered without new indirect object.
Only diachronic analysis wouldnt be correct as the language even creates the poly-semantic forms to express
the new meanings. We must understand the tendency and the reality - the new forms have new semantics.
From their side the static verbs have the version: ceria - uceria - aceria. As there was a demand to
outline the destination semantic in the third serya, the referenced forms with objective version were taken as
basic for new forms. This choice between the forms of static verbs seems absolutely understandable. On the
synchronic level these forms are non-functional forms as they stayed without the indirect object and no
objective version can exist without indirect verbal relation.
The version is a relative category. Reflexive is a binary type of relation. To our opinion there was the twodimensional model of version in the Georgian language (and in all the Kartvelian languages as well). It was as
the prior opposition of the forms with and without the version. Later the prefixal mono-personality of
Georgian verbs actively helped to create the new forms of the opposition of subjective version.
The reflexive and version flow together. But we must note that the reflexive is a different grammar category
with its proper syntactic and morpho-semantic models. Reflexive as a semantic category loses its
independence joining to the morphology of version creating the three dimensional model in the Kartvelian
languages.
The verbal type of marking of reflexive reduces the need of any kind of other references at the other spears
of morphology. With tvis postposition the category of reflexive produces out-verb reflexivity creating the
parallel schemes on the syntactic level.
The primary function of the postposition tvis is reflexivity as it is produced from the form tavi (head). In
many languages head produces the reflexive forms. Such scheme is in the Basque language: the noun or the
pronoun in dative + head (buru) in dative; for example: Gure buruari - for us, Bere buruari for himself.
Georgian syntactic reflexive is mainly produced by the form tavistvis which is reduplication of the
formants. Such reduplication was used to distinguish reflexivity from the syntactic category of version.
The distribution of reflexivity and version on the morpho-semantic level makes the following scheme: if we
have the forms of objective version the forms with tvis postposition are not acceptable there; for example:
miketebs chemtvis is prohibited in the language, while with reflexive version we can have viketeb chemtvis.
So, the reflexive as a category can accept the reduplicative referencing in opposite to the category of version.
This is a significant difference between the reflexivity and version.
The poly-semantic form damiyena (he me) expressing the subjective version with conjugative object, loses
its reflexivity. The best expression of reflexivity is in the forms where the object is in the subject and
additionally can be given by adding the form tavi; for example: ixatavs tavs, ilamazebs tavs etc.
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The reflexivity needs the special attitude with causation when the direct object is the first or the second
person; compare: daavicya - man mas is and daavicya - man mas sheni tavi, dagavicya- man shen chemi
tavi, damavicya - man me sheni tavi. The first and the second direct objects enter the verb by reflexive forms
as the third person - through the possessive pronoun and tavi. This has no alternative in the modern Georgian
language. Its rare, when the first and the second persons create the forms not like the third one. This can be
considered the appearance of the class category. The third person has a choice in this paradigm: to give the
verbal referencing daavicya - man mas is or to follow the first two persons making the symmetric system
daavicya - man mas misi tavi.

EGORY OF ADDRESSEE OF BASQUE BERB


The first of all, the destination is exposed in the verb. The category of addressee is the category which shows
the destination of a verbal act. Such destination in Basque verb can be only for indirect object. The Basque
language has the forth model of verbal destination.
The general idea of the category of addressee sounds as following: this is a verbal form, which shows to
whom the verbal act is destinated or addressed. The destination vector may be directed to the first, second or
the third person of singular or plural forms.
In Basque the destination is oriented only to the indirect object. The opposition is between the neutral
forms without markers and the marked objective forms. This is the general semantic of the category of
addressee of the Basque verb. The formal side of the category has a very simple model. The markers of the
category of addressee with any kind of indirect object are ki and i , although sometimes zki appears in plural
forms. The general marker of addressee is i , which is the dative case marker originally. Dative is the case for
indirect object. Many linguists noticed this i in the verbs and most of them call it dative i , and such verbs
were determined as the verbs with dative markers. But the proper verbal category was not exposed in their
researches.
Analyzing the category of addressee we consider very important to outline the fact that its marker is always
exposed in the verb and its position is in front of the obligatorily referenced indirect object marker, which is
the suffix on the synchronic level of the language. Actually the both morphemes (of addressee and of indirect
object) are obligatorily presented in the Basque verb. If we have indirect object this means that we have the
category of addressee as well. So, it could be named as the category of indirect object, as its always attached
to the indirect object in Basque.

A. THE CATEGORY OF ADDRESSEE AND ITS MORPHO-SEMANTICAL


ANALYSIS
The addressee is a morphological category of Basque grammar which shows to whom, to whose
interest the verbal act is destinated. In other words this category shows to which indirect object the destination
of verbal act is addressed or oriented. The addresser is indirect object which is involved in the verbal act, this
is an interested argument.
The indirect object in the Basque language usually is animated person answering to the question Nori?
(whom, for/to whom?) In nouns the addresser could be differently referenced. In the most cases it is exposed
by the dative case, sometimes the addresser appears with the destination postposition for. Syntactically the
addresser is an indirect object of a sentence.
The category of addressee is the verbal destination having the subject as a central point in spite of the
degree of its activity.
Schematically the relations of Basque addressee look as follow:

S1

S2

s.pl.

A2 s.pl.
A3 s.pl.

s.pl.

A1 s.pl.
A3 s.pl.
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S3

s.pl.

A1 s.pl.
A2 s.pl.
A3 s.pl.

According to famous person combination prohibitions in verbs these relations bellow are not acceptable:

S 1 s.pl. --- A1 s.pl. and

S2

s.pl. ---- A2 s.pl.

The reflexivity in the Basque language is not a morphological category of the verb. As a matter in fact its
exposed by the lexical means. The verbal act done by the subject directed to the interests of the subject itself is
not expressed by the Basque verb. So, there is no verbal intro-vertization or subjective type destination in
Basque verbs.
Sometimes we have so called formal reflexivity in the Basque language; for example there is the
ergative passive without the subject in the sentence ikusi naiz I am seen and ikuzi dut - I have seen.
In Basque there is no destinative reflexivity in such sentences: Bere buruari ezan diot. - He told himself
(-to his own head). We have the formal indirect object and the formal reflexivity.
Some Georgian linguists call the analogical forms gasxvisebuli, that means changeable becoming of
others. Bere buruari to himself - this is the addresser in dative. To our definition, this is the formal addresser
exposed by the reflexive pronoun buru head and therefore we have the formal addressee. So, the verbal
reflexivity can be exposed only by the formal addressee the Basque language.
The addressee of Basque verb can express only the content of objective version, which means that the
aim orientation is out of the interests of the subject. The vector of destination is oriented from the subject to the
indirect object. If we consider the subject as a center fro a verbal action, than the addressee is the centrifugal
vectorial category.
The Basque language shows no dialectal differences in exposing the category addressee and indirect
object markers.
There are two types of addressers:
1. The closer addresser in dative that is involved to the verbal act,
2. The addresser with the destination postposition or so called syntactic addresser.
The language exposes only one - the closer addresser in the verb.
In the Basque language the most verbs have the analytic forms. Only a few verbs keep the synthetic type
of conjugation and even they have the parallel analytic forms at the same moment. The influence of the Indo
-European languages on the Basque language is so big that even having the synthetic forms Basque native
speakers give an advantage to the analytic forms.
According to the Basque linguist I. Laka the number of verbs that can inflect some of their forms
synthetically is very small, compared to the entire set of verbs in Euskara. The overwhelming majority of verbs
can only inflect with the help of an auxiliary verb. Older stages of the language had a much larger set of
synthetic verbs. The grammar of the Royal Academy of Basque Language estimates that in modern spoken
Basque there are only about ten verbs where synthetic form are used: egon 'stay', joan 'go', etorri 'arrive', ibili
'walk', izan 'to be', jakin 'know', eduki 'have', ekarri 'bring', eraman 'take', ihardun 'engage'. Some other
verbs, like jarin 'to ooze, to flow', erabili 'to use', irudi 'to look like', esan 'to say' are used synthetically only
in a few forms, and finally there is a third set of verbs, like atxeki 'attach', jarraiki 'follow', esan 'say', eman
'give' or entzun 'hear', which are occasionally used in synthetic fashion in literary language.
The category of addressee as the morphological category of the poly-personal verb can be exposed only in
synthetic verbs and in the auxiliary verbs as well.
There are the following groups of verbs the Basque language:

1.
2.
3.
4.

Nor? One personal intransitive un-ergative un-addressee,


Nor-Nori? Two personal intransitive un-ergative - with addressee,
Nor-Nork? Two personal transitive - ergative un-addressee,
Zer-nori-nork? Three personal ergative - with addressee.
So, there are three groups:
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1. Without object - un-addressee - un-ergative - one personal or absolute verbs;


2. With two objects - ergative - with addressee - three personal verbs;
3. With one object or alternative verbs: with ergative or addressee - two personal verbs.
The choice between the ergativity and addressee appears in two- personal verbs, where the object is
either direct or indirect. The absolutive one personal verbs have neither ergative nor addressee. Thats normal,
as the category of addressee like the category of version needs to have the poly-personal verb to be exposed at
least it needs one more argument to be added to the subject the indirect object to whom the verbal act can be
oriented. Without such argument no verbal destination can appear. One personal verbs and two personal
transitive verbs cant expose the category of addressee.
The case for addresser is dative. When the same semantic goes out of dative and is expressed by the
postpositions it is a descriptive addressee or a syntactic destination. In such cases the verb stays neutral, its
without addressee.
The dative case marker is the suffix i, which has inter-vocal r in a post-vocal position: Mendi-r-i - to the
mountain, ama-r-i - to the mother.
The classification of Basque verbs by addressee is given in the present research. The destination doesnt
depend on transitivity although there are ergative and un-ergative addressee in the Basque language. The
system is created because of the two way object meanings direct and indirect. By the way this linguistic fact
also is expressed in the markers of addressee. To our opinion, the general marker of addressee ki consists of
dative i and ergative k. We suppose that the ergative destination was at the very beginning of this category.
According to the data of addressee the following classification is also available:
I. The verbs which never add the indirect object and are always un-addressee can be considered as negative
forms:
1.Nor
2.Nor-Nork
II. The verbs that always have indirect object and always have addressee can be considered as positive forms:
1. Nor-Nori,
2. Nor/Zer- Nori-Nork E
III. The verbs that may have indirect object and may not - can be considered as medial forms. Sometimes they
have the category of addressee and sometimes - not.
1. Nor (+ Oidn. Nori )
2. Nor-Nork (+ Oidn. Nori)
E
The ergative destination creates the following schemes in Basque verbs:

THE BASQUE VERB


NEGATIVE

MEDIAL

POSITIVE

un-addresee with addressee


ergative addresee un-ergative addressee
ergative addresee un-ergative addressee

B. THE MARKERS OF THE CATEGORY OF ADDRESEE

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Historically the general marker of addressee is i and on the synchronic level we have ki/i. The addressee
can be marked by one or two markers. There are the both possible in Basque verb. On the synchronic level the
both type of references are suffixes. The two-morpheme marking is the classic form for verbal destination
category exposed by the markers of indirect object and by the markers of addressee. According to
agglutination principles the general semantic meaning of destination is exposed by the markers of addressee
and the concrete addresser is exposed by the second morpheme by a marker of indirect object, which shows
the person and plurality of the addresser.
The one-morpheme marking is available only with the indirect object markers, without the markers of
addressee as they dont show the person and plurality/singularity of the addresser.
The markers of addressee dont change in the different verbal rows of conjugation and neither by verbal
persons. We suppose that diachronically there was the prefix i for the verbal destination, which gave the
prefix-suffix forms (i-ki/i) at the second stage and finally weve got the suffix ki/i . This process was possible
because of one reason the destination lost its meaning in the prefix position.
K and i are the different morphemes. I is a form of the dative case in the Basque language. We think that
the formant k is from ergative and we have the ergative dative in verbs, which loses its prior ergative meaning
in alternative forms with one object forms with addressee. Today ki is understood as one morpheme.
To our opinion the functions of ergativity and addressee came too close to each-other and were co-joined
in one reference. Actually basing on the data from imperatives we suppose that k appears on the second step
(prefix-suffix) as the ergative member of verbal destination act. As rows of imperatives show the marker of
addressee first appears at the third person indirect object as a suffix. When the subject is the third person here
we have ki . We suppose that it spread from the three personal verbs with two objects to the other verbal forms.
We think that these events were parallels with suffixization verbal destinative markers.
The first and the second persons are the members of communication, so they are concrete persons and
dont need to have any type of additional marking. The third person, which is so called non-person being the
unmarked member of the correlation, needs to be exposed concretely. It could be proximate or obviate.
Its significant that in the Basque and Georgian languages have the identical space relations in the
demonstrative pronouns. Its the famous three dimensional model which needs wider semantic for the third
person. At the same moment this verbal persons will need better identification. It explains the reason for the
appearance of destination marker in the third person. To our opinion then this marker was spread to all verbal
system by analogy or symmetry.
We must say that the markers of addressee originally come from the demonstrative pronouns like the
origin of verbal persons.
The presented research gives the genesis of morpheme zki. It consists of z of plurality and ki of addresee.
On another steps of language development zki is realized as one morpheme of transitive/intransitive plurality
for verbal persons.
The Basque language often exposes the verbal destination by double marking. Zki itself repeats the
marking of addressee by adding to ki. The second step (prefix-suffix) of marking is also double type of
marking. The classic variant of destination in the Basque language is by the sum of the two morphemes.
In the two morpheme marking the first marker ki/I - the marker of addresee stays unchangeable and the
second marker (the marker of indirect object) is a changeable grammar unit.

C. THE SAMPLES OF CONJUGATION OF THE BASQUE VERB WITH AND


WITHOUT ADDRESSEE
Bellow we have the samples of conjugation of one personal verb (Nor), the two-personal intransitive verb
( Nor-Nori), the two-personal transitive verb (Nor-Nork) and the three personal verb (Nor-Nori-Nork):

Nor etorrr
S 1 s.
S 2 s.
S 3 s.
S 1pl.

(to come)

nator
hator
dator
gatoz
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181
S 2 pol.
S 2 pl.
S 3 pl.

zatoz
zatozte
datoz

Nor-Nori etorri

s/Oind.

1 s.niri

2s.hiri

3s.hari

1s.ni
2s. hi
3s.hura
1pl.gu
2 pol..zu
2pl.zuek
3pl.haiek

--Hatorkit
Datorkit
--Zatozkit
zatozkidate
Datozkit

natorkik/n
--datorkik/n
gatozkik/n
----datozkik/n

natorkio
hatorkio
datorkio
gatozkio
zatozkio
zatozkiote
datozkio

2
pol..zuri
--natorkizu
hatorkigu
---datorkigu
datorkizu
---gatozkizu
zatozkigu
---zatozkigute ---datozkigu
datozkizu
1pl.guri

2pl.zuei

3pl.haiei

natorkizue
---datorkizue
gatozkizue
------datozkizu
e

natorkie
hatorkie
datorkie
gatozkie
zatozkie
zatozkiete
datozkie

Zer/Nor-Nork ekarri (to bring)

s/Od.

1s.nik
2s. hik
3s.hark
1pl.guk

1 s.ni
--nakark/n
nakar
---

2 pol..zuk
2pl.zuek

nakarzu
nakarzue

2s.hi
hakart
--hakar
hakarg
u
-----

3pl.haiek

nakarte

hakarte

3s.hura
Dakart
dakark/n
Dakar
Dakargu

1pl.gu
--gakartzak/n
gakartza
----

Dakarzu
gakartzazu
dakartzue gakartzazu
e
Dakarte
gakartzate

2 pol.. zu
zakartzat
---zakartza
zakartzagu

2pl.zuek
zakartzet
---zakartze
zakartzegu

3pl.haeik
dakartzat
dakartzak/n
dakartza
dakartzagu

-------

-------

dakartzazu
dakartzazue

zakartzate

zakartzete

dakartzate

Zer/Nor-Nori- Nork ekarri

s/Oind.
1s.nik
2s. hik
3s.hark
1pl.guk

2
pol.zuk
2pl.zuek

3pl.haiek

1pl.guri
--Dakarkiguk
Dakarkigu
---Dakarkiguzu

2 pol. zuri
dakarkizut
---dakarkizu

---

3s.hari
dakarkiot
dakarkiok/n
dakarkio
dakarkiogu
dakarkiozu

--dakarki(n)ate

dakartkiozue
dakarkiote

dakarkiguzue
Dakarkigute

----

1 s.niri
--dakarkidak/n
dakarkit
--dakarkidazu

2s.hiri
dakarki(n)at
--dakarkik/n

dakarkidazue
dakarkidate

dakarki(n)agu

dakarkizugu

---dakarkigute

2pl.zuei
dakarkizuet
---dakarkizue
dakarkizuegu
----

3pl.haiei
dakarkiet
dakarkiek/n
dakarkie
dakarkiegu
dakarkiezu

---dakarkizuete

dakarkiezue
dakarkietete

1. THE TYPLOGICAL COMPARISON OF ADDRESEE AND VERSION


In opposite to Georgian the Basque verbs have the strict sequence in exposing the verbal persons and
verbal destination. In Georgian the verbal persons are not always referenced in the verb.
There are the two variants in Georgian verbs:
1. The verbal forms with indirect object but without version ( miscera, scema).
This group has two subgroups:
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a. Without version at all ( miscera, scema),
b. With the neutral version (aatala, gamoacala).
These are two personal intransitive verbs or three personal transitive verbs.
2. The verbal forms with indirect object with exposed version. Like the first group these are also two
personal intransitive verbs or three personal transitive verbs.
There is the third variant which is significant only for Georgian this is the subjective version in two
personal transitive verbs, which is considered as the opposite form for the forms of objective version in the
modern Georgian language.
Must be note, that diachronically reflexive is a different category although today it successfully creates
the well organized system of the category of version together with the forms of objective version in the
Georgian language. The verbal reflexive is the special from of destination in Georgian, which appears as the
most important difference in exposing the verbal destination between these two comparative languages
Georgian and Basque.
For the Georgian three dimensional model of verbal destination the Basque verb has the two dimensional
model to be compared with the two possible variants:
1. There is the indirect object with addressee in the verb,
2. There is no verbal indirect object and no addressee.
Such different systems differently open the destination in the languages structures. The Basque seems to
be more succession in exposing this category in its verbal system and therefore its limited in exposing the
destination semantic by other grammar forms.
In opposite to Basque the Georgian language is richer in exposing the destination semantic by other
grammar units.
In the presented research the new basic theory for historical-comparative linguistics is exposed.
Generally accepted regular correlation of sounds in historical-comparative linguistics has no
alternative for researching the genitival relativity between languages. Of course there is no doubt about
this theory. Although we must say that the regular correlations exposed on the lexical level of a language show
relatively new data of the language diachronic vertical. When we talk about the history and past of a language,
we mean much elder period than it could be appear in its literature. The language development is much slower
and longer process with no doubt.
The different languages have the different speeds of changes. It depends on diverse type socio-historical
and cultural-political factors. We suppose that the coefficient of systemic changes in a language is
approximately 10-12 times less comparing with the literary language changes.
Talking about diachronic and historical factors we must take into our consideration this coefficient as the
language investigations are based on the proper literary data.
In the cases where we have no regular correlation of sounds, but the genetic relationship is out of doubts,
we offer another way for resolving the problem:
We offer a linguistic axiomatic theory the genetic relationship between
the languages can be proved by exposing the regular correlations between morphematic sounds ( on
morpho-ponological level) showing the functional-structural symmetry or appropriate asymmetry.
This theory is based on generally accepted idea about much slower changes in morphology than in the
lexical level. The morpheme is a concrete semantic form, a grammatical body of the semantics category (we
consider a root as a lexical morpheme). There is no morphology without semantic. Each grammatical category
has some semantic-functional content. The morpho-semantic level is a heart of any language. Traditionally we
expose the regular correlation of sounds on lexical level. Now we offer to remove it to the morphology.
Factually, we must find the regular correlation of phonemes on morphological level and not only on rootmorphemes. We speak about morphonology. With such attitude we really get the much elder diachronic
comparative picture. We would need to reach a decisive percent of morpho-semantic systemic correlations.
The question cant be considered as resolved with data of one or a few categories.
The most morphemes originally are the independent words, for example the pronoun origin of markers of
cases and the verbal persons in many languages. Morpheme is the eldest formant in a language and if such
formants show the phonological correlations together with parallel structural identity between the languages,
the genetic relationship between these languages would be without any doubt.
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183
Factually, the eldest picture of language micro-semantic is in morphology.
Morphemic correlations of language systems are defined by 4 parameters:
1. Proper morpho-semantic and grammatical meaning,
2. System of oppositional forms,
3. Affixal form (position)
4. Relations with the other categories.
We distinguish the relevant and irrelevant data for such comparatives; for example, the systems of interjunctions and verbal poly-personal categories cant have the equal importance. Only the core grammatical
categories are relevant.
For such comparison the theory about linguistic vectors could be widely used in practice for typological and
comparative linguistics.
For investigation of the morpho-semantic level of a language we need to define the relevant and irrelevant
matters with two conditions:
1. To define the sound diapason or so called phonetic variants. All possible changes this sound may have.
2. To define the semantic diapason for morphological categories. All possible morphological variants that
may appear.
The morphological system of a category often goes far from the expected variants even in relative
languages of the same genitive family. We have a lot of such samples (For example, the references and
semantic sides of Megrelain ergative is out of Kartvelian system).
We must define what is important for the structure it would be the morpho-semantic meaning which is
more important then a referent itself. Although we must remember that this could lead us to the linguistic
universals. (This could be the shortest lingo-poetry way to Babylon.)
Well, we think that about 75-80% of structural coincides can resolve the problem. Linguistic vectors on
different levels also must show the similarity. We consider very permissive the future investigations of this
theory for Iberian-Kartvelian and North Caucasian languages.
Here we must outline that the presented research is strictly oriented to the typological and not historicalcomparative linguistics.
The typological analysis of verbal destination in Basque and Georgian must be investigated in three levels:
1. Functional semantic,
2. Morpho-syntactic and
3. Referential levels
On functional semantic level the addressee and the version both seem to be the identical categories showing
the direction of a verbal act to the interested verbal person. This is a dynamic category with the inside vectors.
Although as we already had mentioned, there is a subjective version added to the destination system of
Georgian verb. This is the general difference on this level.
The typological comparison between the Basque addressee and the Georgian version on the morphosyntactic level shows more differences. The Georgian version differs inner categorical forms (neutral,
subjective, objective), while Basque addressee doesnt know this. The forms with - and without addressee are
forming opposition system of Basque verb. The reason for two dimensional destination model of Basque verb
is the fact that reflexivity is not a verbal category. But if we take into account the historical picture of Georgian
model (as its noted above, there was the two dimensional model in Georgian) we could talk about
isomorphism of addressee and version on the function semantic and morpho-syntactic levels.
For both verbal category for addressee and for version the two dimensional model is prior. Such
binary scheme of the verbal destination seems to be universal by the typological point of view.
The verbal destination is mainly the indirect relation binary category and therefore it would be correct
to compare addressee only with the objective version. The semantic models of addressee and the objective
version forms are identical:

S+Oind=>S, Oind.
S,Od. +Oind=>S, Od., Oind.
There are some semantic differences between the addressee and objective version. Its important to note
that the Georgian indirect object can have a wide semantic field and it could be an addresser, a possessor, a
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184
locative, a benefactive and etc. So, we can have the two personal intransitive verbs in Georgian without
version and to get the destination character there forms will need just to change the meaning of indirect object
and not to add the verbal argument; for example: azis-uzis, acevs-uwevs, etc.
The addressee and objective version have the same syntactic models: the verbal argument in dative is the
interested actant the indirect object in free word order in the both languages.
The picture of function-semantic and morpho-syntactic typological comparison of the Basque and
Georgian verbal destination looks as following:

Verbal
personality
S
S, Od.
S, Oind.
S, Od. Oind.

Version

Addressee

No objective
version
No objective
version
objective version
objective version

Un-addressee
Un-addressee
Addressee
Addressee

On the synchronic level the version of Georgian verb has the three dimensional model while the
addressee of Basque verb has the two dimensional model.

version

neutral
subjective
objective
addressee

addressee
un-addressee
The Georgian version and Basque addressee both are destination categories of poly-personal verbs and
they are indifferent to transitivity.
We found more differences in the referencial level. The identical vocal i for both categories could be
considered as an accidental event. First of all, we must say that the positions of the verbal destination markers
in Georgian and Basque are different on the synchronic level. The markers of version are prefixes and the
markers of addressee are suffixes. Although we talked about the diachronic development of the positions of
addressee and noted that these markers were prefixes.
The positions of the markers of version and addressee show the mirror asymmetry as the indirect object
markers and the verbal destination markers are prefixes in Georgian and suffixes in Basque. But the markers of
destination in the both matters are oriented to the markers of the indirect object.
The phonology of the markers of addressee and version are different: ki/i - i/a/u, although there is the
same i in the both matters. We consider this as an accidental fact.
Today we have three vocals (V) in Georgian and vocal and consonant in Basque (VC/V) as the markers
for the verbal destination. The difference is clear.
The category of version in the Georgian language has one or two morpheme marking. There is the same
situation in Basque. But the difference is in inner structures of the opposition forms. For example, in Georgian
there is the two morpheme marking in order to make clear the three dimensional model viketeb-miketeb.
Factually the personal marker brings the light into the version. The other Georgian specialists also noted this.
The marker of version i cant even distinguish the opposition forms of version.
The one morpheme marking is available in neutral version, where we have only personal markers
swers, stisi or the forms with only a neutral marker - aketebs, ashenebs and the forms of objective version with
the third person uxatav, ucer, usheneb. The one morpheme marking of the objective version is available
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185
only with the third person subject by appearing of the different morpheme u . In Basque there are no different
destination markers for different verbal persons.
The both categories (version and addressee) may have one morpheme or two morpheme marking, but
they have the difference attitudes to this question.
As it is already mentioned the markers of the Georgian version and the Basque addressee have the mirror
asymmetry as the both of them are oriented to the indirect object markers.
The morpho-semantic vectorial asymmetry of version and addressee looks as following:

Indirect object marker -- marker of version -= verbal root, or


O ind. i/u/a Verb
verbal root --E marker of addressee ----_> Indirect object marker ,
or
Verb ki/I O ind.
Diachronically the morpho-syntactic vector of addressee in Basque absolutely repeats the Georgian model:

i/e -O ind. Verb.


III Chapter THE TYPOLOGY OF THE OUT-VERB DESTINATION IN GEORGIAN
AND IN BASUQE
The destination as a morphological category is exposed in declination and in conjugation systems,
in verbal derivation forms, in noun derivation and in postpositions.
The samples of Georgian noun flexion destination are the destination meanings of dative, genitive and
situative cases. The destination meaning of situative (cemda, cemad) in modern Georgian becomes narrower
because of activity of the postpositional forms of dative and genitive. Although we must note that the situative
case has a very important role in exposing the destination semantic in the Georgian language. Like the other
linguists, we suppose that suffix a in infinitives comes from the situative case marker being the rest of it: cera from the form cer-ad, besides, the destination meaning is absolutely clear in such infinitive constructions:
dajda cerad (sat down to write).
In the other languages there are other cases (destinative, benefactive, etc. ) to expose the destination
meaning.
The samples for non-flexion destination in morphology are the post positions: tvis, iza/guiza/gulobiza and
the pre-verbs mi and mo.
The conjugative destination is in the third serya and in so called medio actives.
Noun derivational destination is greatly shown in the noun derivation in the Georgian language. This is
the well known group of derivation system with the affixes: sa-e, sa-o, sa-et, sa-ur, suffix -ad etc. Such
destination forms have the diverse degree of destination. We could talk about the gradation of destination in
these forms. Some affixes show this semantic better than others; for example: the circular affixes sa-e and sa-o
are directly exposing the destination meaning, while sa-et and sa-ur are having less degree of the destination
meaning.
There is no doubt that the most important for the Georgian language is the verbal destination or verbal
derivational destination. It leads all destination system of the Georgian language organizing the syntactic
variations. The meaning of destination is exposed in following verbal categories: version, in reflexivity and in
contact. Of course the version is the most important among them. The category of version organizes the proper
syntactic combinations for destination semantics.
The syntactic form of any semantic category is the combination of the proper morphological forms.
Theoretically there ere three universal types of syntactic combinations in a language:
1. Literary accepted forms that are considered as the norms.
2. The forms with lack or abundance of meaning, that are not the norms but still acceptable in a language.
3. Combinations that are not acceptable for a language, or so called prohibitions.
The syntactic destination may be conditioned or existed by free variation.
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4.

The general distribution of destination morpho-semantic looks as following:


avasene sxvistvis
avasene - cemtvis
avasene - aravistvis
avasene

These combinations belong to the first group.


avisene cemtvis - This is the second group combination.
avisene - This is the first group combination
6.
avusene - mistvis - This is prohibition, the third group combination.
In The first samples the neutral version forms may use the syntactical variants for the three members of
the model.
In the second samples only reflexive version is available to have the syntactically formed variants. This
fact once again confirms that the reflexive is a special matter for version.
In the third samples the syntax is very limited and the morphological exposition takes an advantage.
(Expects of a very few samples of the appearance of some additional demonstration meanings, - for ex. avusene
me mas is cemtvis or sxvistvis ).
The forms of neutral version have the better basic to produce richer destination syntax and of course, the
mono-personal languages will have the general orientation to such exposition for the destination semantics.
In the different languages the proper cases have the destination meanings. There is no clear difference
between the cases with and without postpositions in the modern Basque grammar. In the Basque language the
destination meaning have dative, genitive, benefactive and destinative.
The meanings of dative and genitive are very close. But the general difference between them is the fact
that dative shows the verbal destination while genitive is for the noun type destination and possession. Of course
dative is the general case of the destination semantic.
The dative case has the most important role in the declination semantic. In the both languages it is the case
of the indirect object, the case of a recipient, an addresser, a possessor or a beneficiary argument.
There are two forms for dative in the Basque language. In some dialects the demonstrative pronouns are
added to the nouns with formant xe, which usually takes the position before the case marker. In difference with
the other cases dative has a choice: this additional format xe may be in front of the case marker and may follow
it as well.
The general meaning for the first and the second persons are universal as they are the members of a
communication act. The second person is very important in the Basque language. It has the five forms for the
second person exposing the gender and polite forms along with ordinary singular and plural forms increasing
the number of verbal destination forms.
The general model of destination in Basque has the lack of noun derivation forms and the verbal
destination that would form the conjugation rows. But we could talk about the possible diachronic variants of
such destination meaning in the verbal forms with the destination prefixes.
As its noted above, the syntactical models are the combinations of the morphological forms of
destination. There are the two general models of syntactic destination:
5.

1. Destination with dative construction. This is the marked verbal destination plus the dative
argument.
Destinat. -Verb + N-Dative
2. Out-verb destination exposed by the neutral from of the verbal destination and the
nouns/pronouns with the destination postpositions.
Nietral. -Vebr + N-Destinat. postpostiton.
The mean difference between the Basque and Georgian destination systems is the following: the Georgian
language can produce the subjective and objective forms and it has the markers for the neutral version while
the Basque language is marking only the forms of addressee with objective parameters. Thats why mainly
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we were oriented to the objective version for comparison, although its clear that such difference is directly
reflected on the syntactic systems of these languages.

THE GENERAL CONCLUSIONS:


The presented research is a trial of using the term destination defining it as a wide semantic category, which is
realized by the different morphological and syntactical units in different languages. The destination as a mprphosemantic category is exposed in the verbal and noun flexion and in their derivation, also in the postpositions.
There is a trial of the typological analysis and comparison of the destination systems of Basque and Georgian in the
presented dissertation.
The results of the research could be generalized the more so, the presented research includes some theoretical
novelties as well.
Destination as a semantic category creates the proper grammar models in the different languages. According to the
general linguistic models of the destination category the Georgian and Basque languages give an advantage to the
exposition of the verbal destination. In these languages verbal destination defines and conditions the all destination
system and its functions on the different levels of the language hierarchy.
As a matter in fact the verbal destination is possible only in poly-personal verbs. The poly-personality is the main
condition for the verbal destination.
The destination has the two semantics:
1. The possessive destination and
2. The aimed or oriented destination.
These two semantics are very close to each-other sometimes even with the crossing semantic fields.
From the theoretical models of the verbal destination Georgian has the three dimensional model on the synchronic
level of the language, although as its already noted diachronically it had the two dimensional model like the Basque
verb. The same marker for the opposite forms of the category of version proves this well enough.
The inter-categorial relations are showing the importance of the category of destination in the language system for
the poly-personal languages.
The categories of person, case and destination are the indirect relation categories while the parallel system of the
direct relations consists of the categories of person, case and ergativity. The category of classes gets through the
morphology and the syntax of these two languages.
Ergativity as a grammar category makes the symmetric system with destination. The first one is the category of a
direct object and the second one is the category of an indirect object. The observed data had shown the possibility of
joining variant of these two categories ( ergative addressee). Semantically ergative destination means the existence of the
forms of transitive verbs when the subject has a partner in the verb as a who animated category indirect object; for
example, the marker of addressee ki in Basque verb carries such semantic.
Basque as a fully ergative language is comparably strict in exposing the ergativity, while the Georgian language has
the split ergativity giving an advantage to the grammar exposition of the category of destination.
The presented research is the trial of complete description of destination systems in Georgian and Basque. Factually
this is the first experiment in this field.
Addressee is a morphological category that shows to whom the verbal act is oriented. The interested argument is the
verbal person - the addresser that is indirectly involved into the verbal act.
In modern Basque there are just a few verbs with synthetic conjugation. Only these verbs have the forms of
destination. The verbal destination is exposed by marker ki/i on the synchronic level of the Basque language although
we suppose that there were the destination prefixes in Basque verbs like the Georgian poly-personal verbal affixes.
Must be noted that the deeper analysis of the Georgian poly-personal verb take us far from the agglutinative
principles. One morpheme very often has a few meanings and functions. So, the concrete semantic of such verbal
morpheme becomes clear only in each concrete form. The Basque language is strictly agglutinative. This is the mean
difference between Basque and Georgian.
In the Basque language the position of the markers of addressee is suffixal, just in front of the indirect object
markers. This shows the higher range of destination comparably to the indirect object markers. In the Georgian language
the destination markers have the same type of advantage.
As its described above there is the mirror asymmetry between the markers of destination in Georgian and Basque.
The markers of version and indirect object are prefixes in Georgian and the markers of the addressee and indirect object
are suffixes in the Basque language. The vectors of these categories are isomorphic.
The out-verb destination in the Basque and Georgian languages is exposed by the destination postpositions, by the
case forms of the same semantic meaning and by the proper derivation affixes.

187

188
The syntactic destination means the possible combinations of the morphologically marked destination forms and of
course in the both comparable languages the poly-personal verb carries the most difficult role in this matter as well.
The new methodical theory of synthetic functio-formal analysis is exposed in the present research. This method
means rational acceptance the best results of modern formalism and functionalism. According to this new functio-formal
theory the linguistic phenomena could be explained from the point of view of the form or of the function. Seems, that the
function has some kind of priority, but when the language system already exists, it may follow just formal systemic
dynamism in its development and then some forms are created by formal system. Such forms must be explained from the
formal point of view. Linguistic analysis must unify the functional and formal data.
In the present research the theory of linguistic vercority is exposed. The language is the canonical system of its units
and these relations could be given by the linguistic vectors on the each level of the language hierarchy. The linguistic
vectors are: phonetic, morphemic, syntactic, lexical and semantic vectors. There are also some inter-level vectors, such
as morpho-phonological, morppo-semantic, morpho-syntactic and lexico-sematic vectors.
The theory of linguistic vectors seems to be very comfortable fro diverse type of investigations.
The presented research is a trial to expose a new linguistic for theory fro the historical comparative linguistics. The
genetic relationship between the languages can be proved by exposing the regular correlations between the sounds in
morphemes on the morpho-phonological level of the language hierarchy showing the functional-structural symmetry or
appropriate asymmetry. This theory is based on the generally accepted idea that the speed of the morphological changes
is much less then it is on the lexical level of same the language. Factually, the eldest picture of the language microsemantic is in its morphology. So, then we can get the earlier picture for comparison.
The presented research is the first trial of a typological comparison of the morphological and semantic structures in
Basque-Caucasian comparative linguistic. As a matter in fact the systemic comparison of such systems is really very
interesting it could bring the light to many questions, although we have no such type of linguistic investigations except
of just s few unfinished experiments.

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207
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. ,
, . .

. ,
, .
. (3 ; 75) ., . , . ,
. .
-
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, . 1987 ,
-
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, . .
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1980 . .
. 1950 .
.
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3 ) .
. .
1981 -
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1984
. . , . .
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5) .


.
.
.
. .
.
( . . . 3 .
1977 37-47 ; . . O . 1955 5 ; . .
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. ( . . )
. , . .
. . . ,
. .
207

208
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, , , , , , , . , . .
.
80- : ()
, , , , , ,
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.
1988 .
: ,
, .

. 1982 . .
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.
1985
. .
. 1985
,
.
.
, .
1991 . .
.
. 16
.
, .
.
, , , ,
, . .
,
. .
, , .
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. .
1991 .
, . ,
.
.
.
1995
- ,
. .
. .
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? ... ....
: ,
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, . (1;.134)
2005
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. :
( -
), ,
? ,
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, ,
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danarTi 2
Tamar maxarobliZe

filologiis mecnierebaTa doqtori


211

212

axali interdisciplinaruli dargi


(difuziuri lingvistika)
bolo aTwleulSi gansakuTrebiT gaizarda interesi interdisciplinaruli mecnierebebis
mimarT da es gasagebicaa. yvelaze seriozuli samecniero kvlevebi yovelTvis scildeba
konkretuli dargis CarCoebs. amaswinaT Cven mer wamoyenebuli axali interdisciplinaruli
samecniero dargi difuziuri lingvistika exeba enisa da azrovnebis urTules sakiTxebs,
rogorc fundamenturi mecnierebis poziciidan, aseve gamoyenebiTi, praqtikuli kuTxiTac.
adamianis tvinis lingvisturi funqciebi, riTac mas SeuZlia wera-kiTxva, metyveleba da
metyvelebis aRqma warmoadgens neirokognitiuri lingvistikis kvlevis uSualo sagans.
faqtobrivad es aris tvinis enobrivi sistema, romelic, cxadia, am TvalsazrisiT moicavs
rogorc zogad universalur struqturebs, aseve kerZo individualur parametrebsac. cnobilia,
rom neirokognitiuri lingvistikis sfero aris interdisciplinaruli mecniereba, romelic
aerTianebs enaTmecnierebis, fsiqologiis, biologiis da neirologiis sxvadasxva dargebis
uaxeles miRwevebs. es miRwevebi Tavis mxriv realur safuZvels uqmnis neirokognitiur
lingvistikas Semdgomi urTulesi sakiTxebis gadasaWrelad:
1. dadebiTi da uaryofiTi verbalur-kognitiuri diapazoni
2. lingvoenergiis modelireba da misi gamoyenebiTi potenciali
3. feris leqsikis kognitiuri kvleva
4. morfo-sintaqsur sistemaTa kognitiuri modelebi
5. Sinagani metyvelebis kvleva
6. Tvali, sityva da azrovneba
7. azrovnebisa da metyvelebis doneTa kognitiuri sistemebi
8. deduqciuri kognitiuri universaliebi
9. meore ena da bilingviuri kognitiuri sistemebi
10. bavSvis ena
11. ZiriTad morfo-semantikur kategoriaTa kognitiuri modelebi (dro, sivrce, feri,
kuTvnileba, daniSnuleba, simravle, klasi da a. S.)
sxvadasxva enis matarebeli biologiuri subieqti, vfiqrobT gansxvavebas uCvenebs
neirokognituri parametrebis TvalsazrisiT. difuziuri lingvistikis mixedviT am tipis kvlevebi
iZenen tipologiur xasiaTs, rac Tvisobrivad axal samecniero ganzomilebebs qmnis.
samwuxarod, saqarTveloSi saerTod ar arsebobs kognitiuri lingvistikis mimarTuleba.
mentaluri procesebi, ra Tqma unda, daxurulia da urTulesi sferoa. zedapirze ar aris
advilad xelmisawvdomi. aq saWiroa maRali teqnologiuri laboratoriuli baza. uamravi
procesi amouxsnelia neirologebisaTvis. Tavad metyvelebisa da azrovnebis ganuyofeli
kavSiri, vfiqrobT ganapirobebs warmatebul neirologiur kvlevebs. Cveni konkretuli
neirolingvisturi kvlevis meTodi aris metyvelebis kognitiur procesebze uSualo dakvirveba;
kompiuteruli imijis da eleqrtoencefalogramis meTodi Sesabamisi lingvisturi programiT.
es saqarTveloSi am etapze xelmisawvdomia, magram ar aris sakmarisi.
difuziuri lingvistikis interdisciplinaruli kvlevebis erT-erTi ZiriTadi konceptia
lingvoenergiis modelireba da ekologiurad sufTa bio-energomatareblis Seqmna
metyvelebisa da azrovnebis materialur da naxevrad abstraqtul doneebze.
Kdifuziuri lingvistikis sakvlevi obieqtis erT-erTi konkretuli magaliTi: gadasaWrelia
biofizikuri amocana. mocemulobaa sametyvelo energia meqanikuri da biologiuri formiT,
siTburi energia da azrovnebiTi energia. amocana mdgomareobs SemdgomSi: distanciuri
sensoruli aparaturiT movaxdinoT am energiaTa (lingvoenergiis) akumulireba da
modelireba minimum subieqtis mciredi moTxovnebisaTvis. sametyvelo energiam (Tbur
energiasTan erTad an damoukideblad) unda uzrunvelyos mobiluri telefonis kveba, majis
saaTis kveba, wnevis gasazomi aparatis, kompasis, wveris saparsis an jibis farnis kveba.
es aris lingvo-energiis minimaluri SesaZleblobebi. Mmaqsimumis zRvari iqneba
212

213
metyvelebisa da azrovnebis umaRlesi abstraqciis doneze da Sinagani metyvelebis
bazaze, rac savaraudod maRal energiebs gulisxmobs. TavisTavad, es ar gaxlavT martivi
amocana, ramdenadac adamiani aris maqsimalurad optimaluri biologiuri subieqti da es,
ra Tqma unda, aisaxeba energetikis kuTxiTac.
lingvoenergiis maxasiaTeblebia:
1. bgeria da misi simZlavre,
2. sametyvelo aparatis meqanika,
3. metyvelebis bioTermuli koeficienti
4. SesaZleblobebis diapazoni
lingvoenergiis aTvisebis principi zogadi da universaluria, magram yovelTvis
subieqturi da individualuria misi gamoyeneba. Llingvoenergia greTveAsubieqturia
bioekologiis TvalsazrisiTac, ramdenadac individualuri parametrebiT xasiaTdeba.
aq mniSvnelovania lingvoenergiis universaluri kanonzomiereba: moTxovna yovelTvis
Seesabameba saWiroebas. nebismieri biologiuri subieqti yovelTvis gamoimuSavebs
imden energias, ramdenic mas sWirdeba, anu moTxovna arasodes Warbobs produqcias.
biologiuri subieqti verc moixmars imaze mets, ramdenis gamomuSavebac mas SeuZlia.
Mmetyvelebisas gvaqvs realuri sami tipis energia da saWiroa misi reproduqcia.
sagulisxmoa isic, rom xSir SemTxvevaSi Tavze marjvena hemisferosTan TiTqmis uSualod
kontaqturia mobiluri aparati.
sxvadasxva enebi, cxadia, sxvaobas gviCveneben bevri parametris mixedviT:
MmagaliTad, fSvinvieri bgerebis mqone enebSi meti simZlavre eqneba haernakads,
vidre yru mkveTri bgerebis fonologiur sistemis mqone enebs. saerTod, am TvalsazrisiT
qarTulis sameulebis sistema, ra Tqma unda, meti diapazonisaa vidre rigi binaruli
opoziciis mqone enaTa konsonanturi sistemebi. Tumca, ra Tqma unda, es ar aris
erTaderTi parametri.
difuziuri lingvistikaSi lingvoenergiaTa gamoTvlili koeficientebi fundamenturi
mecnierebis garda iZens praqtikul Rirebulebasac da Tavis adgils hpovebs gamoyenebiTi
lingvistikisa da modelirebis sferoebSi.
Frogorc ukve aRvniSneT, faqtobrivad, SemoTavazebulia axali saenaTmecniero dargis
Camoyalibebis mcdeloba. rigi interdiciplinaruli kvlevis mimarTulebaTa sferoebi
fsiqolingvistikaze, anTropologiuri lingvistikaze, sociolingvistikasa da neirokognitiur
lingvistikaze dayrdnobiT axal interdicsiplinarul dargs warmoqmnis - es aris difuziuri
lingvistika, sadac fundameturi sabunebismetyvelo mecnierebaTa rigi mimarTulebebi
xdeba kvlevis Semadgeneli nawili (neirologia, medicina, biologia, fizika, qimia da a. S.)
difuziuri lingvistikis kvlevis ZiriTadi Temebia:
1. metyvelebis formaTa Tburi aqtivoba;
2. fiziologiuri lingvistika anu metyveleba da fiziologia;
3. lingvoTerapia (nawilobriv es aris fsiqoTerapia da locviTi Terapiebi);
4. axali kuTxiT gadaiazreba sametyvelo defeqtebis Tema;
5. sicruis deteqtoris axali biolingvisturi da neirokognitiuri formulebi;
6. sametyvelo kodebis Tematika;
7. pozitiuri da negatiuri biolingvisturi aqtivoba da misi koeficienti;
8. Sinagani metyveleba da eqstralingvisturi fatorebi;
9. dnm-is struqturaSi lingvisturi xazis daZebna
10. lingvofagis gamoyvana dnm-is kodidan da a. S.
unda aRiniSnos, rom axali lingvisturi dargis Camoyalibebis proeqti enaTmecnierebis
samive sferos moicavs, anu mas aqvs Tanadroulad Teoriuli, pragmatuli da gamoyenebiTi
Rirebulebebi.
cxadia, romelime erTi proeqtis farglebSi ver gadaiWreba yvela zemoT CamoTvlili
sakiTxi. magram mniSvnelovania swori midgoma da safuZvlis Cayra. am TemaTagan
nebismieris ganxilvac ki namdvilad daamSvenebda msoflios wamyvan universitetebs.
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vfiqrobT, rom Cveni proeqti Sanss aZlevs qarTul mecnierebas, rom igi gascildes tradiciul
dargebs da Tavisi kompetenturi sityva Tqvas mecnierebaSi. miT ufro mniSvnelovania am
tipis proeqtebis mxardaWera, ramdenadac, samwuxarod, tradiciuli dargebi fatobrivad
momakvdavi dargebia Tanamedrove samecniero sivrceSi interdisciplinaruli
mecnierebebis ganviTarebis fonze. aseT dros axali dargis Seqmna udavod didi
Rirebulebaa. dRemde cnobili interdisciplinaruli lingvisturi kvlevebi ZiriTadad
gulisxmobda socialur da sxva humanitarul mecnierebebTan (nawilobriv
sabunebismtyvelo mecnierebebTan) sferoTa gadakveTas, Cveni ZiriTadi prioritetia
lingvistikis integracia iseT zust mecnierebebTan, rogoricaa biofizika, molekularuli
biologia da bioqimia.
nebismier interdiciplinarul saenaTmecniero sferos safuZvlad morfologiuri sistemebi
udevs. Tanamedrove mimarTulebebi TiTqos daSorda tradiciul morfologias da aqcenti
xSirad keTdeba enis leqsikursa da semantikur doneebze. gvinda aRvniSnoT, rom enaSi
ar arsebobs araviTari damoukidebeli semantika morfologiis gareSe. gvaqvs mxolod
morfo-semantika. igive socio-lingvistika sakiTxebs ganixilavs semantikuri da leqsikuri
analizis fonze da jerovan yuradRebas ar aqcevs axali enobriv-socialuri erTeulebis
morfologiur sqemebsa da srtuqturebs. ra morfologiuri procesi ikveTeba sociolingvistikis
ama Tu im sakiTxTan dakavSirebiT. aris es kategoriaTa gadaweva, kliSe, Tu standartuli
formati da a. S. is, rom adamiani, upirveles yovlisa, enaa, eWvs aRar iwvevs. ena ki,
upirveles yovlisa, morfologiaa, rogorc metyvelebisa da azrovnebis fundamenturi baza.
gansxvaveba sxvadasxva morfologiuri struqturis mqone enaTa da adamianTa Soris
savsebiT logikuria da axsnadi.
difuziuri lingvistikis ZiriTadi amosavalia koncepti adamiani aris metyveleba.
(cxadia, aq igulisxmeba yvela tipis metyveleba.) adamianis mTliani biologia da
mentaluri struqtura ganisazRvreba lingvoinformaciiTa da misi enobrivi diapazoniT, anu
adamianis Semswavleli nebismieri mecnierebisaTvis sagulisxmoa enobrivi faqtoris
gaTvaliswineba. vfiqrobT, lingvisturi maxasiaTeblebi gaamdidrebs da xSir SemTxvevaSi
gadaWris rig sakiTxebs sabunebismetyvelo mecnierebebsa da medicinaSi. midgoma
aris ormxrivi bioqimiidan da biofizikidan lingvistikisaken da piriqiT. Cveni
azriT, enis struqturebis modelirebul formebze dayrdnobiT umaravi amocana
amoixsneba daxuruli neiro-kognitiuri procesebis analizisas. enaTmecnierebis am
axali dargis safuZveli xdeba am konkretul dargebSi dagrovili codna.
termini difuziuri lingvistika pirobiTi, samuSao terminia. (samuSao alternatiuli
saxelebi: interlingvistika, infralingvistika, lingvobioenergetika)Aam dargis kvlevaTa
ZiriTadi mimarTulebebia:
1. integraciuli gramatika (integraciuli morfologia da integraciuli sintaqsi);
2. biofizikuri lingvistika da lingoenergetika;
3. bioqimiuri lingvisitika da neirokognitiuri tipologia.
difuziuri lingvistika axali sityvaa qarTul (da ara marto qarTul) mecnierebaSi da
imedia, es proeqti kolegaTa saTanado mxardaWeras hpovebs.

New Interdisciplinary science


(Diffusive linguistics)
The human brain is home for language with individual and universal parameters at the same time. The
functions of brain which acts while reading, writing, listening understanding this is a linguistic system of
brains.
The interdisciplinary sciences we intend to involve in our future researches are biology, physics,
chemistry, anthropology, psychology, sociology and of course linguistics. The base knowledge of these
sciences could integrate into a new interdisciplinary scientific direction, which could bring real positive results
for human.
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We exposed a trial of basing a new field of linguistic we call it diffusive linguistics. The priority is to
integrate linguistic not only with social sciences, but with physic, biology, chemistry, neurology and math.
Diffusive linguistics will investigate the following themes: Positive and negative verbal-cognitive
diapasons; Modeling of linguistic energy; Cognitive researches of colour; Cognitive models of morphosyntactic systems; Inners speech; Eye, word, mind; Cognitive systems of hierarchical levels of thinking and
speaking; Deductive cognitive universals; The second language and bi-lingual cognitive systems; Childrens
language; Cognitive models of central morphological and semantic categories (time, space, owning,
existence, destination, plurality, class, colour, etc.) The termo-activity of speech; Physiology of linguistics;
Language therapy; New attitude to speech problems; New bio-linguistic and cognitive formulas for detector of
lie and other practical instruments; Codes of speech; The coefficient of positive and negative biological
activity of speech; Inner speech and extra-linguistic factors; Finding a linguistic line in DNA code; Making of
linguistic phages for practical uses.
Needles to say, that different biological subject will own the difference in neuro-cognitive parameters. Of
course the cognitive processes of brains are closed and not easy to watch. But we hope that language could
give the key to biochemistry. As language is the most open side of mind. The models of linguistic systems
when they are correctly done, could give real help to other sciences. We hope to have two-side collaboration
with other fields.
The directions of diffusive linguistics are:
1. Integrative morphology and integrative syntax;
2. Biophysical linguistics;
3. Biochemical linguistics;
4. Neuro-cognitive typology.

danarTi 3
Tbilisi 0144
1- dolabauris quCa 65.
Tel. (99532) 778090, 999517778, 899317776
E mail tamera7@access.sanet.ge

C U R R I C U LU M V I TAE
ganaTleba Tbilisis ivane javaxiSvilis saxelobis Tbilisis saxelmwifo universitetis
filologiis fakulteti, filologiis mecnierebaTa doqtori
dabadebis TariRi da adgili - 24.01.59. Tbilisi
enebi qarTuli (qarTveluri), rusuli, inglisuri, espanuri.
profesiuli gamocdileba
2006- arasamTavrobo organizacia membranas (xelovneba da mecniereba) gamgeobis
wevri
2006 maisi gavakeTe Aganacxadi axali samecniero interdisciplinaruli dargis
Seqmnis Sesaxeb difuziuri lingvistika. Tsu axali da Zveli qarTuli enis
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kaTedrebis gaerTianebuli sxdoma, zogadi enaTmecnierebis kaTedris sxdomaseminari; enaTmecnierebis instituti;
2006- Cemi kino-scenariT bedi jeison spenseris niu iorkis studiam daiwyo
srulmetraJiani mxatvruli filmis gadaRebebi. http://tmakharoblidze.backpackit.com/page/777300
2006- samecniero jildoebis gadacemis mudmivi komitetis wevri (pasuxismgebeli
humanitarul mimarTulebaze)
2006 maisi gavakeTe Aganacxadi axali samecniero interdisciplinaruli dargis
Seqmnis Sesaxeb difuziuri lingvistika. Tsu axali da Zveli qarTuli enis
kaTedrebis gaerTianebuli sxdoma, zogadi enaTmecnierebis kaTedris sxdomaseminari; enaTmecnierebis instituti;
2005 gamoica ori lingvisturi monografia Ddestinaciur sistemaTa tipologia
da baskuri zmnis adresatobis kategoriis tipologiuri analizi, var ormocze
meti samecniero naSromis avtori.
2005 2 noemberi - sadoqtoro disertaciis dacva Temaze: qarTuli da baskuri
destinaciuri sistemebis tipologia (specialobiT tipologia da komparatiuli
enaTmecniereba)
2004 sazogadoebriv saqmeTa institutSi (jipa) miwveuli leqtori, eqsperti saerTaSoriso
media menejmentis sakiTxebTan dakavSirebiT
2004 - saqarTvelos S. rusTavelis saxelobis Teatrisa da kinos saxelmwifo universitetis
proreqtoris g. doliZis dakveTiT Sevadgine kino-menejmentis saswavlo kursis silabusi da
kurikulumi specialistebisaTvis
2004-2005 Cemi kino-scenariT Butterflies in The Wind studia sinema klasikma (Cinema Classic)
gadaiRo amave saxelwodebis mxatvruli filmi (aSS. Llos-anJelesi, Hholivudi) filmis promo
wardga kanis saerTaSoriso kinofestivalis marketze http://www.releasing.net/TheWay/
http://www.releasing.net/TheWay/synopsis-character_breakdown.html
http://www.releasing.net/TheWay/stills.html
2004-2005 Sevadgine da wavikiTxeDliteraturuli menejmentis kursi Tsu sagamomcemlo
saqmianobis magistraturaSi
2003 seqtemberi sabavSvo piesa daibeWda AaSS kvartalur literaturul JurnalSi Words Words
Words: <http://www.wordswordswords.4t.com>www.wordswordswords.4t.com.
2002 Telavis moyvarulTa TeatrSi daidga sabavSvo speqtakli T. maxarobliZis piesis mixedviT
(reJisori m. sxirtlaZe)
2002 oqtomberi afrikis poeziis institutis saerTaSoriso konkursis gamarjvebuli. Sesulia
anTologiaSi oqros Zafi
2001-2003 goris giorgi erisTavis saxelobis dramatul TeatrSi daidga speqtakli sizmaras yvelaze
lamazi dRe T. maxarobliZis imave saxelwodebis piesis mixedviT (reJisori a. gvaZabia)
2002 gamoica sabavSvo feradi ilustrirebuli wigni literaturuli zRapari.
2002 saerTaSoriso arasamTavrobo organizaciis PRI (cixis saerTaSoriso reforma, amierkavkasiis
ofisi) menejeri. Aam organizaciisaTvis movipove granti. faqtobrivad Camovayalibe es
organizacia da Cavatare saerTaSoriso konferencia
2000 (aprili da agvisto) AaSS poeziis ori konkursis gamarjvebuli /www.poetry.com/ aTaswleulis
saukeTeso anTologia sibnelesa da sinaTles Soris
2002-2004 holivudis Sida sinterneto wris wevri /www. alivestories.com/
1998-2003 qarTuli zmnis kategoriebis kvleva, Tsu (sagranto dafinansebiT, d.
meliqiSvilis jgufi)
1998 ienis fridrix Sileris saxelobis universitetis qarTvelologiuri ganyofileba (germania) miwveuli mecnieri (profesori)
1996 Tsu sazafxulo skola ucxoelTaTvis, qarTuli enis leqtori (sagranto dafinansebiT,
e. xinTiobiZis jgufi)
1995 gazeT 24 saaTis mTavari redaqtori (kviris palitris damateba)
1994 - saqarTvelos respublikis mweralTa centri, mwerali, Jurnalisti.
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217
1991 - saqarTvelos mweralTa damoukidebeli asociacia gulanis wevri, poeti
1993-1994 statistikisa da sociologiis centris direqtoris moadgile
1992-1993 sainformacio saagento kontaqtis damaarsebeli da pasuxismgebeli redaqtori
1989-1990 saleqcio kursebi ucxoeTSi, leqtori (Harward, MIT - USA, SOAS - London)
1989-1991 telemomsaxurebis firma kaleidoskopi vice-prezidenti
1988 - 2006 Tbilisis ivane javaxiSvilis saxelobis saxelmwifo universitetis filologiuri
fakultetis axali qarTuli enis kaTedris docenti. sakandidato disertaciis Tema:
adresatobis kategoriis morfologiuri sistema baskurSi, misi sinqroniuli analizi da
tipologiuri daxasiaTeba.
1985-1992 aSS nevadis Statis qalaq renos baskur-amerikuli sazogadoebis wevri, sapatio
profesori
1984-1992 saqarTvelos saxelmwifo televiziis ucxoeTis qveynebze mauwyeblobis mTavari
redaqciis sagareo urTierTobaTa jgufis ufrosi redaqtori; es samuSao gulisxmobda koordinirebasa
da menejments. vimuSave TiTqmis yvela qveynis wamyvan teleradio kompaniasTan. menejerkoordinatoris funqciiT vmonawileobdi ucxoeTis orasamde programasa da sxvadasxva tipis
dokumentur filmSi. agreTve mivlinebebiT vmuSaobdi sazRvargareTis televiziebSi, kerZod,
bibisis sxvadasxva ganyofilebaSi londonSi.
1989 bibisis pirveli politikuri arxi panorama inglisis samefo akademiis mier premirebuli filmis
"Bloody Sunday" (sisxliani kviradRe) menejer-koordinatori. Aaseve sxva politikuri da kulturuleTnografiuli programebi da filmebi menejeri, avtori, redaqtori, koordinatori (londoni)
1984 tim severinis mogzauroba saqarTveloSi - mTavari menejer-koordinatori
1981-1983 saqarTvelos ssr ganaTlebis saministros maswavlebelTa daxelovnebis centraluri
institutis saredaqcio-sagamomcemlo ganyofilebis redaqtori (Cemi redaqtorobiT gamoica
orasamde meToduri broSura da saxelmZRvanelo)
1978 studenturi erovnuli moZraobis lideri saqarTvelos konstituciaSi qarTuli enis uflebaTa
dacvisaTvis.
1976-1981 Tbilisis saxelmwifo universitetis filologiis fakultetis warCinebuli studenti
1975-1976 gazeT gamarjvebis korespondenti

danarTi 4

Tamar SoTas asuli maxarobliZe


filologiis mecnierebaTa doqtori

ZiriTadi publikaciebis sia:


1. Makharoblidze Tamar Zur Frage des Adressatbezugs im Baskishen Verb, Sprachbau und
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

Sprachwandel, Wissenshaftliche Beitrge der Friedrich-Shiller Universitt, Jena, 1986


maxarobliZe T. veqtorialobis Teoriisa da lingvisturi veqtoris Sesaxeb.
saenaTmecniero Ziebani IV, Tsu, Tbilisi. 1995
. . . . . 1987
maxarobliZe T. adresatobis kategoriis markiorebi da adresatis brunva baskurSi. Tsu
Sromebi XVI, humanitarul da sazogadoebriv mecnierebaTa seria. Tbilisi, 1988.
. . .
. . . 1987
maxarobliZe T. adresatobis kategoriis markiorebi da adresatis brunva baskurSi Tsu
Sromebi XVI, humanitarul da sazogadoebriv mecnierebaTa seria, Tbilisi, 1988
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7. . . . .

. . . . 1988.
8. MaxarobliZe T. baskuri zmnis adresatobis kategoriis tipologiuri analizi. Tbilisi, 2005 (monografia)
9. maxarobliZe T. destinaciur sistemaTa tipologia (qarTuli da baskuri masala)
Tbilisi, 2005 (monografia)
10.Makharoblidze Tamara. Semejanzas tipologicas de la categoria adresada del verbo basco y la categoria de
versioned del verbo georgiano, Fontes Linguae Vasconum, Studia et documentra, Navarra, 1996
11. , . , 7.
, 2005
12.maxarobliZe T. qarTuli enis destinaturi sistemis tipologiuri analizisaTvis. v. Tofurias me-100
wlisTavisadmi miZRvnili samecniero krebuli. Tsu Tbilisi. 2001.
13.maxarobliZe T. baskuri zmnis adresatobisa da qarTuli zmnis versiis kategoriaTa tipologiuri
Sepirispirebis zogierTi sakiTxis Sesaxeb. enaTmecniereba. Tsu Sromebi. Tbilisi. 2003
14.maxarobliZe T. klas-kategoriaTa naSTebi nacvalsaxelTa brunebaSi. Tsu filologiis fakultetis
axalgazrda mecnierTa Sromebi. IX, 2005
15.maxarobliZe T. ergativis genezisisaTvis. KTsu kavkasuri enebis kaTedris 70-e wlisTavisadmi
miZRvnili krebuli. Tsu. Tbilisi, 2005
16.maxarobliZe T. pirianoba da valentoba. saenaTmecniero Ziebani. t. 18, 2005
17. , . -
7, , 2005
18. maxarobliZe T. ergativis genezisisaTvis. gelaTis akademiis Jurnali. quTaisi, 2005, # I
19. maxarobliZe T. vin-ra kategoriis sinqronuli analizisaTvis qarTulSi. gelaTis akademiis Jurnali.
2005, #@3
20. maxarobliZe T. zedsarTav saxelTa tipologiuri klasifikaciis Sesaxeb. b. jorbenaZis
sazogadoebis III samecniero konferencia, Tbilisi, 1996
21. maxarobliZe T. personaJTa metyvelebis dialeqtur formaTa Targmanis tipologia. quTaisuri
saubrebi, III, quTaisi. 1996
22. maxarobliZe T. qarTuli zmnis tipologiuri analizisaTvis. Tsu filologiis fakultetis samecniero
sesia, Tbilisi, 1996
23. maxarobliZe T. lingvisturi veqtoris Sesaxeb, b. jorbenaZis sazogadoebis II samecniero
konferencia, Tbilisi, 1996
24. maxarobliZe T. destinaciuri sistemebis tipologiis Sesaxeb. Language, History and Cultural
Identities in The Caucasus, IMER (international Migration Ethnic Relations. Malmo University. Malmo, 2005
25. maxarobliZe T. qarTuli da baskuri destinaciuri sistemebis tipologia. sadoqtoro disertaciis
avtoreferati. Tbilisi, 2005
26. Tamar Makharoblidze A Few Questions About Basque Noun Morphology. Georgian Academy of science
Moambe, Bulletin of The Academy of Sciences, vol.172, number 1. July-August 2005, Georgian Academy
Press, Tbilisi
27.maxarobliZe T. Umesame seriaSi e. w. ufunqcio qcevis niSnebis Sesaxeb. enaTmecnierebis
sakiTxebi. I Tbilisi. 2005
28. maxarobliZe T. qarTuli da inglisuri uRlebis nakvTTa Sesabamisoba ike, t. 35, Tbilisi, 2006
29. maxarobliZe T. sabaziso Teoria istoriul-SedarebiTi enaTmecnierebisaTvis. QqarTvelur enaTa
struqturis sakiTxebi, t. IX; 2006
30. Tamar Makharoblidze Language as a part of culture. Magazine of the People, El Instituto Europa de los
Pueblos, Fundacion Vasca. Bilbao, 2005
31.maxarobliZe T. qarTuli rogorc meore ena (Sesavali); meTodikuri Jurnali mermisi 1-5
(eukis); Tbilisi, 2005
32.maxarobliZe T. qarTuli rogorc meore ena (arsebiTi saxeli); meTodikuri Jurnali mermisi 1-5
(eukis); Tbilisi, 2006
33.maxarobliZe T. qcevis kategoriis Taviseburebani. saenaTmecniero Ziebani XXI; Tbilisi,
2006
34. maxarobliZe T. Tandebulebi ergativis semantikiT. i. yifSiZis saxelobis krebuli. Tbilisi, 2006
(gadacemulia dasabeWdad)
35.maxarobliZe T. inerciis kanoni; enaTmecnierebis sakiTxebi. Tbilisi, 2006 (gadacemulia
dasabeWdad)

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36. Makharoblidze T. About the Category of Version. Georgian Academy of science Moambe, Bulletin of The
Academy of Sciences, vol.175, number 5. July-August 2006, Georgian Academy Press, Tbilisi
37.maxarobliZe T. arsebiTi saxelis bruneba (qarTuli rogorc meore ena) meTodikuri Jurnali
mermisi 6-7 (eukis); Tbilisi, 2006
38.maxarobliZe T. axali interdisciplinaruli dargi (difuziuri lingvistika). QqarTvelur enaTa
struqturis sakiTxebi, t. X; 2006 (gadacemulia dasabeWdad)
39. maxarobliZe T. zedsarTavi saxelis swavleba (qarTuli rogorc meore ena) meTodikuri Jurnali
mermisi 9 (eukis); Tbilisi, 2006
40.maxarobliZe T. ricxviTi saxelis swavleba (qarTuli rogorc meore ena) meTodikuri Jurnali
mermisi 10 (eukis); Tbilisi, 2006
41.maxarobliZe T. nacvalsaxelis saxelis swavleba (qarTuli rogorc meore ena) meTodikuri
Jurnali mermisi 10 (eukis); Tbilisi, 2007
42. Makharoblidze T. The Law of Inertia. Georgian Academy of science Moambe, Bulletin of The Academy of
Sciences, vol.177, number 9. Jan. 2007, Georgian Academy Press, Tbilisi
43. Makharoblidze T. Postpositions with Semantics of Ergativity. Georgian Academy of science Moambe,
Bulletin of The Academy of Sciences, vol.178, number 10. 2007, Georgian Academy Press, Tbilisi
44. Makharoblidze T. The general parameters of destination systems. Litera Vasconicae Institut Labayru.

Spring . 2007

Sinaarsi
Sesavali ----------------------------------------------------- 4
I Tavi - destinaciur sistemaTa zogadi tipologiuri parametrebi
---------------------- 13
1. destinaciuri sistemebis tipologiuri daxasiaTeba -------- 13
2. destinaciis mimarTeba sxva morfo-semantur kategoriebTan
------------------------------------------ 17
a. destinacia da klasis kategoria --------- 18
b. destinacia da ergatiuloba --------------- 33
g. destinacia da zmnis polipersonalizmi - 53
II Tavi zmnuri destinacia ---------------------- 58
1. qarTuli zmnis versiis kategoriis tipologiuri analizi --------------------------61
2. baskuri zmnis adresatobis kategoria --- 80
a. adresatobis kategoriis raoba da misi morfo-semantikuri analizi
------------------------------------- 82
b. adresatobis kategoriis referentebi ------ 94
3. qarTuli zmnis versiisa da baskuri zmnis adresatobis kategoriis
tipologiuri Sepirispireba ------------------- 124
219

220
baskuri zmnis adresatuli da uadresato uRlebis rigebi
------------------------------------------- 136
III Tavi - zmnisgareTa destinaciis tipologia qarTulsa da baskur enebSi
------------------- 161
ZiriTadi daskvnebi ----------------------------------------- 168
reziume inglisur enaze ------------------------------ 172
gamoyenebuli literaturis sia ------------------ 195
danarTi 1 --------------------212
danarTi 2 axali interdisciplinaruli dargi ------- 217
danarTi 3 avtoris CV ------------------------------------------- 218
danarTi 4 avtoris publikaciebis sia ----------------- 223
Sinaarsi ------------------------------------------------ 225

220