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Segments..... ............122
lines........."... .................. .......122
Procedure
from
- Building Composite lntersections
a 2D Base Map Window
.. .. . ....122
Seismically Aligned
Composite

Procedure
Building Composite lntersections from
an lnterpretation
........................125
Jumper Composite
....121

Window
Section

.. .

Procedure

Creating a Jumper Composite Section....127


Seismic Data Visualization and Manipulation

Windows Ti1ing.............
......130
Windows to Visual Groups Linking
..........131
Procedure
- Linking Windows to Visual Gr0ups..........132
Windows to Coordinate Groups Linking...."..... . ...133

Lesson 4

Procedure

Linking Windows to Coordinate Groups..134

Synchron ized Camera Position for 3D Wind0ws............


Procedure
Synchronizing a Camera Position for 3D

34

Windows......
...13b
Seismic Ghost Curve.
...136
Procedure
..............131
- Creating a Seismic Ghost Curve
lntersection Style Settings
.................. ....138
Settings Dialog Box for 3D Seismic Data in a 3D

Window

..140

.............."... ....."................143
Survey Manager
.................143
Procedure
Using the Survey Manager to Sort and
Manage Seismic Data ........".....
................14b
SEG-Y Settings

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Procedure

Survey

the
- Searching for Seismic Data in .................141
Manager

Data Selection in the Survey Manager ..........................i47


Procedure
Realizing Selected Seismic Data in

-Manager

the Survey

..148
Seismic Data Visualization using the Survey Manager.l48
Procedure
Moving Seismic Data into F01ders...........148
Procedure
Changing the Template for Multiple
Entries in the Survey
..149

Color

................ ......149
Creating a New Color Template ..............150

lmport and Export of Color Templates.......... . .............151


Procedure
Editing Color
..."....j52
0 pacity Ta b ...
.......... 1 b6

- .......... Palettes

I.

Table of Contents

ts

Manager.......

Manipulation............

Procedure

Petrel Geophys cs

Lesson 5

Visualization Tools
- Benderrng.....

.'.......'.157
......157

Volume

Procedure-UsingVolume Rendering.....
Volume Wall

.............158

Optrons

...'.... .160

Displaying Volume Wa11s.........................'l


......162
Light Tool
Applrcations of the lightT001............... 164
........."...' ...... ......"165
Procedure
- Using the Light Tool
..... ......'166
Light Tool Examples
.....161
M0de........"...
lmmersion
168
M0de........
Starting the lmmersion
Procedure
.............169
lmmersion Mode Available Tools
170
Visualrzing Seismic Data . ...... ....
Exercrses
lnterpretation
the
Seismic
rom
Manrpulating Colors
..........170
Toolbar
61

Procedure

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0)

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Manipulating Seismic Llnes ln an lnterpretation

Window

..... .111

Exploring the Settings of the Interpretati0n Window .. 173


Modifying the Seismrc Data Display (Wrggle Drsplay) ..174

Setting a Display Scale for the lnterpretatlon Window 175


Manipulating Seismic Lines in 2D and 3D Windows.....'176
Displaying Base Maps and Annotatlons in 3D
178

Windows.......
Displaying Base Maps and Annotations in 2D

.............179
Windows......
....... ....'179
lntersections
Creating Random
...182
.
CompositeLines.............
Creating Composite Lines in 3D Windows. ....... ........183
Creating Composite Lines ln an lnterpretation

wrndow

Creating a Jump Tie

Section

"

184

...........'.186

Displaying Multiple Selsmic Vlews on the Same

Screen

...........186

Linking lnterpretatton or 3D Wlndows to Coordinate


...........188
Groups

- 0ptional
Curve
Display.
Using the Survey Manager...."..
Editing and Creating Color Palettes

Using a Seismlc Ghost


Modifying the Seismrc Data

.......".....190
..."191

..............19?
.194

lmportingandExportingColorPalettes ..................196
Petrel Geophysics

Table of

Contents.9

V01ume......... ...........191
Wa11s............ ..............200

Rendering a Seismic
Displaying Volume

Summary......

.......201

Module3-Fault1nterpretation......................................'.203

..................203
objectives
.....204
- Fault lnterpretation in Petrel
205
lnterpretation Manager

Learning
'l
Lesson

Manager

206

0pening the lnterpretation


Fault lnterpretation in Petre1............ ........201
..........201
Manual Fault Picking
.""......208
Picking Faults Manually
Procedure
..................210
Fault
Segment.......
Editing
a
Procedure
- Moving a Fault Segment....... ...................212
Procedure
.........214
Move Faults Laterally 0ption ..........
Moving Faults Laterally .................. .........21 4
Procedure
- Displaylng and Annotati ng 1ts............ 6
Procedure
....................218
Clean Faults
.......218
Procedure
- Cleaning Faults.....".....
.. ................219
Fault Autotracking ..............
........221
Tracking Faults .."........
Procedure
Procedure
- Digitizing a Fault on a Surface.................223
.........2?5
Restrict Mode ...........

Procedure

Fau

in

Bestricting lnterpretation Displays


.......................225
3D Window..
...................226
Exercises
- lnterpreting Faults
Manually lnterpreting Fau|ts............ ........226
Procedure

Editing and Manipulating Faults using the Function


..........227

I!
I
!

II

Toolbar

Editing and Manlpulating Faults using the

Window
Cutting a Fault Segment.......
Joining Two Points
lnterpretation

228

.. .............228
.............229

Using the lnterpretation Manager for Handling Faults..229


............230
Displaying and Annotating
................231
Beview

Faults
0uestions.....
Summary......

.......231

10

Table of Contents

Petre Geophvsics

Module

Horizon lnterpretation ...................................233


-0bjectives....
... ......233
Lesson 1
Horizon lnterpretation in Petrel ......................234
Function Bar lcons for Horizon lnterpretation ... .........29s
Horizon lnterpretation Techniques
....236
Horizon Interpretation Workflow...... ........231
Procedure
. .....238
- Creating or lnserting a New Horizon
Lesson 2
Autotracking ..............
...
. .243
Guided Autotracking
.-..243
Procedure
Performing
ided Autotracking .............Z43
Seeded 2D Autotracking...... .. ...
... . . .245
4

Learning

Gu

Procedure
Performing Seeded 2D Autotracking.......Z45
Seeded 3D Autotracking ..
.....246

.........

Performing Seeded 3D Autotracking.......246


Autotracking Tabs and
...............248
Constraints
.........................261
Procedure

Settings
Tab................

Paintbrush Autotracking in 3D Windows .."....................26S


Procedure
Performing Paintbrush Autotracking in

Window
........."............265
Procedure
Performing Box and Polygon Paintbrush
Autotracking
.......................261
a 3D

Horizon Editing and Manipu1ati0n...................269


Seismic Horizon Display Styles
....269

Lesson 3

Procedure

..........

Displaying and Annotating a Horizon

Procedure

Wind0w...."............. ....209
Displaying and Annotating a Horizon in
......................211
Displaying a Neighboring lnterpretation .272

in an lnterpretation

Window
Procedure
lnterpretation Editin9...........
... ... .. .213
Parent-Child Editing..........
. .. .. 274
Procedure
- Editing Parent and Child Points...in..an . Zl5
lnterpretation
lnspector Tool ....".........
. .276
Procedure
Using the lnspector T001.............. .. .Z7B
Horizon Flattening in 2D.............
. 280
a 3D

Procedure

Flattening 3D Vol umes.. ...........................28j


Flattened 0bjects.".......
.......284
lnterpretation Ouality Fi|ter............. ... ....286
Procedure
Filter.....286
- Using the lnterpretation 0uality.................281
Horizon 0perations. Bulk Shift
Petre Geophysics

Talle of

Contents.

ll

Procedure

Horizon

Bulk Shifting a

Horizon

Operations:Smoothing....

......281
....290

Procedure

Smoothi ng a Horizon.. ". "........................... 290


Horizon lnterpretation Surface Converslon

and Surface Attributes Generation


................292
Make Surfaces Process
......292
Procedure
Generating a Surface...
......292
Procedure
ng a H0ri20n...... ..........................294
- Smoothi
Procedure
Creatrng an Attribute Map Based on
Surface 0perations....
.........296
Surface Attributes
..............297
Procedure
............291
- Generating Surface Attri butes.....................299
Exercises
lnterpreting Horizons
Using a Simple Horizon lnterpretation Workflow ....299
Lesson 4

SettingupHorizonTrackingParameters .................302
Editing Horizon lnterpretations Manually and

Automatically

..............."....".305

Horizon 0perations: Bulk Shifting a Horizon

Interpretatron

................307

Horizon 0perations: Smoothing a Horizon

lnterpretation

................308

Displaying and Annotating Horizons: IVodifying the


Seismic Horizon

Display

.....309

Flattening a Horizon and Generating Flattened 3D

Volumes

Generating Flattened 3D

Volumes..

........313
..........314

Creatrng 2D Grd Surfaces wrth the Make/Edit


Surface
..................3'15

Process
Surfaces
...........318
Creating Attribute Maps........".".. ..............320
Generating Surface Attrrbutes
.................320
Review 0uestions.....
................322
Summary......
.......322
Smoothing

Module

Seismic Restoration 2D.................................323


Learning 0bjectives
..................323
Lesson 1
Seismic Restoration for 2D H0ri20ns.....".......".324
Restoration Model ....... ..
.........................325
Bestoring a Seismic Secti0n....................326
Vrew the Restored Seismic
........ 3?9

Tall e of Contents

L=

tE
{E
.
E.

Procedure

12

Petrel GeophVsics

I
:

Interpretation Ouarity check in the Bestored


section."..330
0C the lnterpretation in Restored Secti0n..............
."....330
Bestoration

Attributes

Bestoration Model Settings......


Exercise
Restoring a Seismic
Review

. ..

........332

.........................337

Section
0uestions......
Summary....

.....33g
...............340
.......340

Depth Conversion.
....................341
-0bjectives....
..............341
Lesson 1
Basic Velocity Modeling
............342
Domain Conversion Workflow......
............342
Velocity Modeling Examples
....................344
lnput Data Ouality Control
........................345
procedure
TDB Data...345
- Creating a Crossplot of Well
Model Well Data Method
.. ... ... ....... .....348
Velocity lntervals
................3S0
Procedure
Defining Velocity Intervals.. ..."................ 350
Velocity Modeling Using Well Data .................

Module

Learning

... ......... 353

Procedure

Using Well Data to Create a Velocity


.............."........353
Correction and 0utput from Velocity Modeling .............354
Procedure
Creating 0utput to Ouality Check the
Velocity

M0de1...........

M0de1...........
Well TDR Estimation parameters

Procedure-EstimatingWellTDR.."...
Velocity Modeling with Uncertalnty.

..

......"..3S5

.............3b6
.................357

....".......... ...358
lnserting a Standard Deviation Surface ..358
Using Uncertainty t0 Create a Velocity

Procedure

IV0de1...........
.......................359
Lesson 2
Domain Conversion.... ................362
Procedure
- Performing a Domain Conversion by
Active Velocity Model..... .
.................362
Procedure

General Depth

C0nversi0n...............

.........364
Performing a Domain Conversion of
Several 0bjects Simultaneously.....
.................364
Seismic Data Domain
............366
Procedure

Conversion

Procedure

Performing a Domain Conversion on

Seismic Data
Depth Conversion for 3D

Grids.......

..........368

Petrel Geophyslcs
Tab e of Contents

13

L-

L
r.-

lnterpretation 0uality Check in the Restored Section....330


0C the lnterpretation in Restored Secti0n................ ....330
Bestoration
... ....332
Bestoration N/odel Settin9s................... ...............337

f
f
f

Attribuies

I.

- Bestoring a Seismic Section


0uestions.....
Summary......
Exercise

r_-

Review

r.-

.....339
........... ....340
.......340

Depth Gonversion.
....................341
-Objectives
................341
Lesson 1
Basic Velocity lVlodeling
............342
Domain Conversion Workflow...... ............342
Velocity IVodeling Examples
............... ....344
lnput Data Ouality Control
................... ....345
Procedure
TDR Data...345
- Creatrng a Crossplot of Well
lVlodel Well Data Method
................... ....348
Velocity lntervals
...............350
Procedure
Defining Velocity lntervals .............".".. ....350
Velocity Modeling Using Well Data................"......... ....353

Module

Learning

r,_-

Procedure

Velocity
- . Using Well Data to Create a ......"..."....
....353

M0de1.........

Correction and 0utput from Velocity Modeling ........ ....354

- Creating 0utput to Oualrty Check the........"355


M0de1...........
Well TDH Estimation Parameters
...."..".."..356
Procedure

Velocrty

Procedure-EstimatingWellTDR...
Velocrty Modeling wlth
Procedure
Procedure

Uncertainty

................357

..............358
lnserting a Standard Deviation Surface ..358

Using Uncertainty to Create a Velocity


359

3bt
Procedure

Performing a Domain Conversron by

- M0de1........

Active Velocity
General Depth

.......................362

C0nversi0n...............

........364

Performing a Domain Conversion of


S imu |tane0us|y................................ .... 364
Seismic Data Domain
...........366
Procedure

Severa I 0bjects

Converslon

Performing a Domarn Conversion on


Seismic Data.........
Procedure

Depth Converslon for 3D


Pet

Geoph\,s cs

Grids.......

..........368
Table of

Confefts. l3

-* --Jl-

Procedure

Performing a Depth Conversion on a


Grid368
Exercises 1
Velocity Modeling
.................37i
Ouality Checking Time-Depth Relationships for Wells..371
3D

DefiningVelocityModellntervals...."."........................376

Creating an Uncorrected Velocity Model using Well


.......................317
Creating a Corrected Velocity Model Using Well Data..37g
Creating a Velocity Model With Uncerta inty .................382

Da1a.............
Exercises 2

Performing a Domain C0nversi0n................384

Depth Converting a 3D
General Depth

Grid...............

C0nversi0n...............

.......384
.........384

Using the Domain Convert by Active Velocity Model


.......................385
Using the General Depth Conversion Pr0cess................387
Converting More than One
........387

Command.....

0bject....
0uestions.....
Summary......
Heview

................388

Appendix B

Surface

Attributes

I
L.

......"388

L.
L-'

Appendix A

- Shortcut Keys for Seismic


!nterpretation....,,.............

L,

...,...,...389
................393

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b14

Table of Contents

Petrel Geophysics

a.

L.

1-

About this Manual

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a,

lntroduction
The purpose of this course,is
to introduce you to petrer Geophysics
functionality and the workflows.
Vr, *if irfro,.ougi,

functionalities in petrel and


learn
interpreting 2Dl3D seismic data.

f,o*,,?nrLntly

different

use these for

rr,r pr*rrtritoors and argorithms


can
uni prorpur,s which, in

be used to calculate size/areaof your'leads


turn, can be used for reserves
estimation.
You

will be provided with a ready-to-use petrer


2013 project containing

2Dl3D seismic and well data.


The

exercises provide hands on training


that enabres
you to exprore the
"
functionalities through dedicated
u*urr]rr.'

"

I.

L
L
L
L
L
I

Prerequisites
To

successfully complete this course,


you must have:
English proficiency

o
.
o
o

---

r
u<

-,

L
J

l-r

basic Windows and practical


computing skills
familiarity wirh geophysical fundamentts
Petrel Fundamentalscourse 0r
simitaiexperience

Petrel.

with

[earning 0bjectives
of this course is to introduce you
to the petret
is m ic i ntu,p,.ti o

15 3"y,lq*l.r],:.
19 r se

::y:i:f

ll]:r,ra1e
and visualization
toois

n,;;l;il;

ffi:

rques,

After completing this training, you


will know about:
___-,..i, eH ,ruvv
n9w pr
project
uJtrr,r..vvrrr
with (_:0rrecl
correct prolectton
projecti

.I
r

and unit system


::,1,n, !p
basic seismic data loading techniquls '
various dispray and visuarrzation
techniques incruding mis-ties
analysis

domain conversion

Petrel Geophysrci
About this lvlanual

lE

Lfault and horizon interpretation techniques including structural


framework and 2D restoratlon

t*

calculatrng reserves on leads/prospects and preparrng maps


for presentations.

What You Will Need


ln this course, you

will need the following hardware and applicatrons to


!

perform the workflows:

0perating System

Windows 7 64-bit,

_r
SP1

0uad-core processor (best with a fast clock

L-

l-

speed and hlqh cache)

Ouality of the viewing experience increases


with size and number of monitors
NVIDIA 0uadro K2000 or NVIDIA Ouadro
K2000M
Primary Storage

Fast rotati0nal speed HDD (10K, 15K) or SSD

Secondary storage

0 pti ona

0perating System

Windows 7 SPl 64-bit Enterprise or Ultimate

C
*

t-_

1'

L
rl*
I_

ed rtrons

Dual quad-core or six-core processor (best


wrth a fast clock speed and hrgh cache)

Two monitors, minimum vrewing size of 24


inches (32 inches preferred)
G

raph rcs

Primary Storage

f\

NVIDIA 0uadro K5000


Fast rotatronal speed HDD

{-

(1

0K, 1 5K) or 300

r-

GB SSD

-16.

About this l\,4anual

Petrel Geophysics

alL

rr
L.

L..J

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LLLf--l

What to Expect
ln each m0dule within this training material, y0u will encounter the

following:

o
o
o
o
.

L-J

L,-

L:

rt_

f-rl

f..-ra

o
o
You

0verview of the module


Prerequisites to the module (if necessary)
Learning objectives
A workflow component
Less0ns that explain ab0ut a subject or an activity in the
workflow
Procedures that show the sequence 0f steps needed t0

perform a task
Exercises that allowy0u to practice a task by using the steps
in the procedure with a data set

Scenario-basedexercises
Summary of the module

will also encounter notes, tips, and best practices.

l--{

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f--l
LL4
L-

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L-{

L=1
Petrel Geophysics

About this l\,4anual

17

lcons
Throughout this manual, you will find icons in the margin representing
various kinds of information. These icons serve as at-a-glance
reminders of the meaning of their associated text. The following icons
are used.

i-'; -):''
:

_.'-.

Tips

Notes

Best Practices

This icon points you to a tip


that will make your work

This icon indicates the besl

easier.

This icon ndeates that the


following information is
partjcularly impodant.

Warnings

Questions

This icon indicates when


you need to proceed with
extreme cauton.

This icon dentifes the


questions at lhe end of
each lesson.

way to perform a given


task when different options

Lessons
This icon identifies a
lesson, which covers a
paftcular topic.

a
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Procedures

Exercise

Review Questions

This icon identfies the

This icon indicates that it's


yourturn to practice the
procedure.

This icon identifies the


review questions at the

steps required to perform a


given task.

LL.

end ofeach module.

l.-

rPrerequisites
This rcon identifies any
prerequsites that are
required for the course, or
for ndividual modules.

Learning Objectives

What you will need

This icon identifies any


learning objective set out
for the course, or for the
current module.

This con identifies any


applications, hardware,
datasets, or other material
requred for the course.

Petrel Geophysics

L-

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=

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More Petrel Training Courses


provides many courses for Petrel and
Schlumberger SIS Petrel Training
you how multiple types of training
its functionalities. The chart shows
they are built
can ne combined and for what level
http://www nexttraining net'
For more information, vistt our web stte:

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About this [,{anual

Petrel Geoph\/sics

' l9

Gourse Content and Agenda

ffim%t*il

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Wffi/ ffiffi
mm'*''''lwl @@ffi
visuarization and interpretation
/ I*,m:
::y:':ll.
uncriona ities
in petrel.:ul:ri:
lr,ri ., Vr,,,irn,*r,i,iriXlri,rrfi
f

ic dara, visua I iz, r?,r:_o


ip,
T?,
conventionar horizon, and
se ism

lu,rl L rr,r,

,,rr r,

ume renderin g,
faurt intrrpruturion. in aodtion,
you wi, iearn
about voiume extraction,
attribute ,up rnJr'rn. generation,
surface
generation, and depth
conversion.
vo

l-

The course is intended


for seismic nterpreters
who have some
experience
petrel.

using

Day

"
1

.
.
.
.
.

Set up a New project

Mis-tie Anaiysis
Data Visualization
Display Toois for ZD and3D
Seismic Data

Seismiclntersections

Day 2

Fault lnterpretation

}.-

Horizon lnterpretation (to


be continued)

Day 3
a
a

20.

About this

IViJ

F.

Horizon lnterpretation
Seismic Bestoration 2D

Velocity Modeling

Domain Conversion

Petrel Geophysics

1-

<

Data Sets

1.

The first data set ls located in the Gulf of Mexico and contains
salt induced tectonlc and stratigraphic traps towards the salt.

The data conslsts of seismic data, well data, checkshots, a


velocity cube and stacking velocities. This data set wlll be

2. The second data set contains a high srnuosity channel systems

used for most of the exercises.

developed in drarnage areas dominated by low gradient


slopes.

The data consists of seismic data, well data and checkshots.

t-

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Gloudspin Data Set


The training data set for this c0urse c0mes from the Cloudsptn field in

Gulf of Mexico. The producing reservoir ls bounded to the west by a salt


dome and rts local structure is characterized by smallto large scale

west-east growth faults.


The seismic data set used ln the trainrng comprises of eight 2D lines.
Along wrth seismic, data are available from 28 wells, 20 of whlch are
deviated. Wireline log data are widely varied with different log sets and
most boreholes include trme and depth markers for the picked horizons.

------"l

f
E

Petrel Geoph\/S cs

Ahort thls [.lanua .21

Help Center
ln one place, the Help Center contatns all documentation associated

with Petrel and your installed Dcean plug-ins.

The Help Center contains the latest Petrel documentation artifacts, as


well as documentation from the two previous Petrel versions. ln
addition, you have access to the Support portal, the NExT training

portal, and the Ocean Store.

=
22 .

About th s lvlanual

Pefe

Geophysics

L
=

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l--

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The Help center arso features a universar


search, capabre of searching
through all installed documentation

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Petrel Geophysics
Abolrt this lVanual

.23

Summary

ln this introductlon, we:

o
.
.
.
.

defrned the learning objectives


described the structure of the manual

outlined the tools you wrll need for thrs traintng


discussed course conventions that you will encounter withln
this matelal
listed some terminology used ln this manual.

1-

Module
Proiect Setup
and Data Preparation
ln this module, you wrll learn howt0 set up a new project in Petreland
prepare data for seismrc interpretation. This module includes
drscussions 0n new projects, the projection and unit systems, seismlc

datum, data optimrzation, and analysis of mis{ies.

Learning 0bjectives
After completing this module, you will know how to:

.
.
.
.
.
.
.

set up a project
access and use the projection and unit systems
use seismic datum handling
load basic seismic data
load check-shot data
optimize seismrc data for enhanced performance
analyze mis-tres.

Petre Geophvs cs

Project Setup and Data Preparati0f

.25

If
Lesson 1

Proiect Set Up and System Settings

proecr sYslem
t0 create a proect' spec\fy
.
This lesson discusses how
system' and
reference system and unit
coordinate
the
as
such
settings
load data into the Proiect'

Procedure-settingUpaNewProiectinPetrel
' '-i- opens'
By default' a new prolect
Opun

Petrel'

locatton'
2. Save this proiect t0 your desired
system'
unit
3. Specify the proiect and proiect either bv loadins it or ustns

;,

;;; i.rt data into the


S[';io or the Proiect reference tool'
other options,

t;';;

Settings
Proiect Set UP and SYstem

box to specify the Coordrnate


dialog-You
You use the proiect Settings
the
open this dialog box from
unlil''it*

reference system uno


*.nu nut bv selecting Proiect > Proiect

#5

T
-l
F-

:t
-_l
F-l

settlngs"''

-If-

--

rcLlpsEtJrin,

loGgeun*s "
lnt
Z

O,splal opcf,s
'-.--:j

Lllog iomlt

'ir' a)eq:tx-rilrriai i*i'liiil!

u*

r- -,,r:: rajn

fuea unrt

Vlla

lnil

Seisslc

lme:

ns

..r lr::t*.iJl;l]

Serrsic

velo

Ytll! f-l

llum

F;'"r-,I ."r-,rsr, 0
6.

0n
Project Setup and Data Preparat

Gecdelic dailm

Projecl relerEn'<

T.
E

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.
rl
I.
I

Projection System

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It is vitalthat every type of data, including


seismrc and well data, is
displayed in the correct pr,jectr0n systemi
Errors can read to incorrect
interpretation. ln worst case scenarios,
seismic data can u urqriruO'
from the wrong rocation and wers
can be oritteo of structure or off
target due to an incorrect projection system.

Procedure

Accessing the Coordinate Reference System


P.etrel has the capability
to handle the coordinate reference system

effectively"

1. ln the Petrel main window, select project > project

2.

settings.
ln the

Project settings dialog box, go to the Coordinates

and units tab.

t_
r-

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L-

Lra

t_

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lE-ra

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LJ

t_

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Project Setup and Data preparation

27

fI

^l
-I
b

Proiect Units

:.Si:,.

.;
:

--

You cannot convert


Units after data is lmPorted
XY and Z units are defined
,

on the

:t
-l

L-r

It is important that the proiec: It: - ' : system. The unlt system can be eiir:'
standard units used tn the area trom

Coordinates and

units tab in the Settings

System
You can change the Proiect Unrt
UTlvi se
Field
or
Field,
Metrrc,
predefrned

'

F-

Petrel

-l

e:' --:

F.

us: -^" not follow any 0f these systems exactly'


US foot c' X\
selection. The training proiect uses

-l

clialog box for the Proiect

--r

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-.-

systenlCRSi

-l

!nits

Slullo

H
Storsge

lnts

XYrrd
Zunli
Are

unrt

Virme unl

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m!

!EGfrricrioc\

mls

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Petrel GeoPhVSlcs

28.

Prolect Setup and Data PrE3:''

-I

Seismic Reference Datum


A Petrel project must be defined with a single
seismic reference datum
(SBD); however, you can import
data from diiferent SBDs.
The sBD is the onry predefined reference
datum that y.u can change in
Petrel. You can edit the distance from Mean
Sea Lever (MSL) in tne
Settings dialog box for the SBD.

A positive number means that the sBD is going


in an upward direction,
for example, 200 ft higher than MSL. you cann"ot
edit the other
predefined datums in the Templates pane
because they are fixed
reference levels (MSL) or well-specific references (KB
and CRD).

rtr

Petrel Geophystcs
P,o,ecr Se-to

.0 D, a p,opo

al,orl2g

User-Defined Datums
You also have the option to add user-defined datums. To access these
datums, right-click rhe Datumsfolder ln the Templates pane' You can
choose a name for the new datum, the Z distance from MSL, and a time

datum. You specify the time datum by using a replacement velocity, or


by entering two-way time (TWT) from the SRD.
Elevation at Time Zero (EII\ rs, in theory, elevation of the seismic
source used in a check-shot survey. when check-shot data is processed,
the reference can be converted to another reference level. This needs

to be considered when importing check shots through 0penSpirit. See


the Petrel Help for more information.

Procedure

1.

Setting Up Reference Datums

Go to the Templates pane > Datumsfolder'

f-

:*fs.$?s
rt{S

.i_

iffi

-i-a.

#J?s

Select Seismic Beference Datum (SRD).


OB

b.

30.

Pto

SelJp a.d Data P eoa a ior

Right-click Datums and select lnsert new datum

Petre Geophyslcs

Double-click Datums to open Settings dialog box.

i-

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il.&

rrl'i*
fP

1*
l

f*r

"r*{'

dx9'!n'.'

i,i!,!ff.e'i1,rigx

(ll;rrr

il .:: it;tr-;l

:a'r

,,1"-

r,tr

r,.,

I*r*,iL
i.

fr,ls

2*{

T;n* *rr:
1 11 T 1

r' *rf::(kn.'.!'.*!!(j

o e;l!'
iC!l

Specify the Datum domain settings

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a: is' t.n

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lpe +satss
__

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MSL

tus d*m$s lerlig


tfli irlL

lJt

"i!fl rtu

llfi

fem

*Q*

:!. *ei,laexer,t v*ctf

Petrel Geophysics

ili

Prolect Setup anC !ale F'e:'aI : r

31

Checkshot Reference Datum


You cannot set the checkshot Reference Datum (cBD)
regionally in the

Templates pane because it is a well-specific referenr..\lvh.n yo,

import check shots, you can serect the cBD as depth and
time datums
by entering values in the corresponding fields.

ffi

'

Impor.e

chJchotsl Diant+nd

14,cs

f,snnedttEfE

::l: Hename:

specific reference

Velocity Modeling
Defining a time datum in velocity modeling sets the starting point
for
the model. Typically, y0u use the sBD (defining the distance
from the

MSL), or y.u can select a user-defined datum if a time


datum is set for
the SBD (as specified in the Temptates pane).

lime: -'1f,-FE*--,
XW
orher:
Ldiijlilitriffii[:l ;

*--:__grer

32

Project Setup and Data preparation

nppr'riher:

:? :'-:+:

"

:
l-

L-

Data Loading

Seismic
part of any setsmic interpretation
Seismic data loading an integral

Lesson 2

is

project. ln some ,u,t',

in
load the data themselves and
by a
loaded
is
data
where

'n"'fitiers
are ptouiJti with a project

L_

some cases they


data loading sPecialist'

t_
L

of the
for the interpreter to be aware
ln etther case, it is rmportant
steps
These
for loading data
trnO*.*uf seismic data loading steps
you
the loaded data' ln this lesson'
,f r. ,.rr n.f p with quality checkig
and check-shot data into
will learn how to load 2 and 3D s'eismic

1_

1_

Petrel.

Seismic Data 0rganization


to
in Petrel into folders and subfolders
You should organize all data

a specrfic Seismic

--r

tismic data rs stored in


keep the project u,uuu"J
ftlters
p"OttintO hierarchy of folders and
main folder. ln thrs foldi u
folder'
bulk data in the Sersmic
extsts. You sfroutO store f f

!J

can be stored outside of the


Some data types, such as interpretations'
of the available
gives a less accurate overview
structure, but doing so

L
L

L
L
I-#

--

tei"i'

seismic data.
survey
you Can Create multlple setsmic
ln the Selsmic main folder,
The 2D seismic data is

for each survey'


folders, preferably ont totOti
rs the
3D seismic data lf the format
iftt
loaded in the same *r7 as
load all lines in one operation'
same for all 2D lines, y0u can

L
-,-

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f
---t

lc

aI
-,------a

-.

Pt.-.
Petrel GeoPhYsics

'

--oFrt

s.tup .nd Duta Preparatlor

'

33

,s*rc
i ::: i

r& +
tr*
liB

ca]:::;#

Procedure
Survey

1.

Creating a New Seismic Main Folder and

ln the menu bar, select

t@

lnsert > New seismic main folder.

L4

ll

jss

,.,;,,:,.:
- -" -_ -_-

i
I

ff

_"-_-_ "

iler.r anncia:.icns

i {,
,l

j
i,

kS

f,lrrr intersertirn piane

;+

i ,ff it*u, *,"i1

$$

tier,.*re;i :*p.s

S U**:tcrirfl*lt
I fJ ldeit:r-secn-irn
ile,x grct--au3,
I fi
i S fdr*r stratig.aphl iBclEr
j & g.le#:S re.siam:i*r rnclel

i.,---,,,---,,-h t{Err raut: otcf es ,-,tder


jfi lrlerr lL'd +ctder
iliert nrap seruire.,.

ir_
*,.," ll*u'-idder
,

I ilS_: il,I,s nxrFrl,iicr fcicler

.+ l{ert -ock chys,cs rerds


ffi Neor se;srn;c mtn tcrder

lW.
i
i.L

';'.

f.
t"i

:: ::. ..i:' ;,: : i

f,Jir sei cldr

, r.::i:

l&

:r,r

:,:r;

Find it in the lnput pane with predefined subfolders:

.
.
.

Vintages

lnterp survey inclusion filters


lnterpretation tolder with an active seismic

horizon.

i' eimlc

I S f*:re6s
;, S **psavq,,c1tre,.i?sffisns
ot .l In$ertrehtio blder
1

&l]

;*,*.eryitfssios#,e

Ssmlehsrhsnt

I
I

34

b.l\>

Project Setup and Data PreDaration

Petrel Geophysics

rL
L
rI--

Insert menu. You also can right-click the Seismic


main folder and select lnsert seismic survey.
Use th'e

r_
--t

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--2

A-t

r_--

L-.

---

a_

l
arlF--

aU

Au

L
L
L
-

L
,-4

T.

Seismic Data lmport Format


The standard format for 2D and 3D seismic data is SEG-Y which is a
binary format that you can import easily into Petrel. The resolution of

the data is decided by the bit size, the in-line, and the cross-line
spacing (3D) or trace spacing (2D).
There are two SEG-Y import options in Petrel: SEG-Y seismic data
and SEG-Y

import with preset parameters. Petrel

uses the SEG-Y

sesmic data format to find the correct byte locations for X,


Y-coordinates and line numbering automatical ly.

A SEG-Y cube can be full-fold data, near and far offset cubes, inversion
data, and attribute cubes. In addition, y0u can import data in the ZGY
bricked format.
The ZGY format is a seismic file in which the seismic representation is
changed to a bricked format rather than the traditional trace format.

When seismic data is displayed, only the required bricks are loaded into
mem0ry. Petrel loads large bricks with low resolution into memory
first, then loads the smaller bricks with high resolution.
Seismic data is shown as a c0arse resolution that refines overtime as
Petrel Geophysics

Proiect Setup and Data Preparation

35

-__-=--:

the program loads the smaller bricks into memory. The benefit of
seismrc bricked data is that large volumes of data can be rendered
the 3D window.

rn

User interactions always are avarlable, because Petrel stops loading


the bricks if you move a seismrc line. This means that even volumes
larger than the physical memory of the computer can be rendered and
handled without data loss if you interact with the data.

Survey Geometry Definition


You can predefrne the survey geometry wrthout loading the selsmic

cube by using the options on the Geometry tab in the Settings dtalog
box for the .Surveyfolder.

This typically is done in the final stages of a processing job, afterthe


intermediate outputs from the processing sequence are loaded and
before the final seismic cubes are defined.

SEG-Y lmport

with Preset Parameters

When you import sersmic data with the ,SEG-)'w ith presef
parameters option, you must specify the correct byte locations. You
define byte locations in the SE6-}/ headers from first f/e section of
the SEG-Y lmport dialog box. You can ignore traces wrth zero
coord i nates.

You can specify SEG-Y loading parameters automatrcally from a

previously loaded SEG-Y file by usrng the blue arrow at the top of the
SEG-Y lmport dialog box. Scan the frle to check rn-line and cross-line
numbers and X and Y coordrnates. This quality control step is very

important because the seismic data cannot be set up to correctly read


any other byte locatrons afterthe data is loaded. You would have to
reload the cube.

Seismic Data in ZGY Bricked Format

When using seismic data in ZGY bricked format zgyl as input, the file
is read wrthout an option to specify parameters. When the frle is
loaded, a Vintage selection dialog box opens and then the Input data
dialog box opens. Use options in the lnput data dialog box to change
36

Project Setrp and Data Preparation

Petre Geophyslcs

L-

the name, template, domaln, vintage, and X, Y conversion for the


seismic data.

Goordinate Reference System (CRS)


uses the Esri catalog for coordinate reference systems. All CBSs
in Petrel are available by clicklng Other GRS in the lnput data dialog
box where y0u set the correct reference system for the file that y0u are

Petrel

rmporting. lf the CRS for the file is not displayed in the file header, you
must flnd it and set it manuallY.

Goordinate Transformation Between Reference Systems


By default, you choose the CRS of the project in the lnput data dialog
box. lf the CRS of the file is drfferent from the CRS of the project, then
y0u must selectthe CRS from the list displayed rn the lnput data dialog
box. A coordinate transformation between the project and flle reference
systems is run and the data is positioned c0rrectly in the project
reference system.
Note that unlt converslon is not possible;X,Y and Z unlts are defined in
the Coordinates and units tab in the Settings dialog box for the
project.

Petrel Geophysics

Pr0ject Setup and Data Preparati0n

37

Seismic Data

(on selectionlto
- Loading
u ,r,uir7 totOtr and select lmport
1. Right-click

Procedure

open the lmPort

2.

bor

file

dialoO

. .. . .. .,.....,.,..,.,",.,,:,,.r1:r::L'}:

0pen
Choose the file and its type' Click

F,'e xap'e,Cscr'Pton

T.

Y'mpor a'ros

Eet bErora tl'e h'as a' oadeo


erd tne rle tan tre scannd

p9rarel's to be

s SEG
'aJr'g
-"rl .i v ,"i"- .*"i"' po.,tol' t"n b* 't

Petrel GeoPhYS cs

38-.o.ohcl

Se,Jp and Dard PreparaLlon

rL
r

3.

Line
Set corresponding data type (2Dl3D), define vintage and

detection method.

L
L
l-,

a-,

lgnere EGY coordinates

,? lgnore traces uil nuli {.0i oordinates

nYt!.
poston

13 -

r_

Line detcEn

meiod

Headerfomlai
.: bl.te (32-brt) intsger

iffi',

,t b}"ie i3?'biti inieEer

i. ,- , :Witt

Aetamatic

Line detection

method > Automatic, the


most likely line/inline and

trace/crossline headers are


selected from trace headers

-,_-

4.ChangeLinedetectionmeth0dtoTraceheadersfieldslfyou
need t0, check the headers and adjust

o
o
5tc.f bF!
l* ::.:t'_'_.'
..

_'-'

::l

.l,r

1i

ln-line/cross-line number byte positions for 3D data


CDP and SP byte position for 2D lines'

. l.
ii : tWaSEY.@iee )

r@t

analysis. In this case,


scannlng is unavailable
because the headers are
undetermined until the SEGY

file is read.

&id4

, Sa!t*..dd$$&iir@

l.,
lt

ll

parameters
Scan a specified number 0f traces to quality check

Prolecl SelLIl oro Dol PrPpral o1


Petrel Geophystcs

'

39

6.

ln the

lnput data dialog box, choose

a color template and a

domain.

Template
Domain:

vrntage:

@ffiEffi-

Cocrdinate refsrense sysietn {CRS}

FrojectCRS:

SPCS27-17$2

0-$erQ!..
Rsultifts dat rnge {approx.}

---*

7. Create or add a Vintage.

40 o Pr0ject Setup and Data Preparation

ill Seismic {default}


tJ EleYationtime

v ,

r\Ew

'-.

L
L
L
l-:

f-

I-

L
L
L
I-

t.-

B. Specify the CBS of the loaded seismic if it differs from the


project

r_-.-

l_

r-_-

l_.*

L
L
rLL
r,-

-_-

---t

is\
il
tl
i..

ffi

Input data

l*

CRS transformations

exporting to a file or using


the Beference project

Name,

S typ"'
I?

---*i

aiso can be done by

General

Template:

tool
3D seismir

Domsin:

ii

Vintrage:

ffi

$;(d"r";ki

ProjectCRS:
File

CRS:

'-

ri."*ii."ii-*

Coordinate reference system {CRS}

r__

I-_-

CRS.

-.----'-'.'-'

PCSI7-1702
SDCSZ7 1702 C'i*IEN'TCR SPCS2I

1702 v

t.i:;#

OtherCR5..,
Resuhing data range (approx.)
X range:
Y range
Z range:

UNDEF
UhIDEF
3502C0,0

fl

UNDEF
UNDEF

US
frUS

20$0.{X} ms

Unit conversion

Seismic Vintages
When you load seismic data or create attribute cubes in Petrel, a
sesmic vintage is assigned to different versi0ns 0f the same data.
Typical examples of vintages (or versions) are fullJold 0r near and far
trace cubes of the same v0lume. Different attributes that generate

mis-tie corrected lines also will generate a new vintage.


A vintage is an independent seismic type; 3D cubes and 2D lines can
have the same vintage.
Vintages are different versions of the same seismic data.

a-=4

--r

U
I-:
-*1

----

Petrel Geophysics

Project Setup and Data Preparatlon

41

a Display Window
Different Vintages in

u,,.,,

u',. n d
1r : l:1, :*xn,f ;',U
call vrruorrLe
or on the lnput pane' Y0u
window'
oblects in an active

I; fl [ fii,jJ::'JiT,.i,.Ji:;

o]

is shown'
line' with zoom iacto111{Oosition'
The same part of the
and volumes'
iittrent vintage lines
making it easy to

'o*pu"

to select

interpretation toolbar
if you use the seismic
bv
ln the 3D window,
visible seismic planes
vintase, 1,ou can
'pp
'htt;i;t't
tcon'
vintage
clicking the APPIY

io

urr

by clicking the Reset


to its original vintage
intersection
the
Reset

vintage icon'
The previous vintage

to using the Shift

Up

* Sftitt + Down key combinations'


and

Assignly^Yllttntt

Editing
'i'*1i11t1::::Sl toolbar
the
to
1 -; r'p'"l to*1r'9 the

Procedure

ii,*

iron, are equivalent


,no Next vintage [@

Go

:;;

si'Jtus'ba r)

fi

avai I abl e,vi nta

nd

es

,ffi!'i;.':+;i;".,rrlli'.,lrii'i ;l'

l-ffi j
:, ,{

sersmic

w*aso
" #!} fr'dc]rsdq'
-,
B$ - 'b'i{#'stc'r'
fyO,+SsSr'"*'

i,'..1

4'r

ei':

riras'rr'

Psr!
F5-8,*d

iffi.l#Seismic fime:'

40

Petrel GeoPh\/Slcs

z'-+roprt s.tup

und Data Preparatton

l_
l_
aI-

L
L
L
L
L
L
L
L
L
L
L
I_

a-

a-

Display one line in an lnterpretation window or several lines


in a 3D window from various seismic cubes.
Assign different vintages to each line from the Seismic

interpretation toolbar or lnput pane.

i=ffffi

: W{ t**se

!-

I_

*
,a]
#*

B#

I-

5?r..ftiirs Srroi

prdd
PSA,

I-

Ad

,a--

rr
L

5.

ot @
Activate the Seismic interpretation process and click
vintage
selections
all
in the Function toolbar to scroll through
for an intersection.

---

lr--<

Petrel Geophysics

Project Setup and Data Preparation

43

Checkshot Parameter Selection


you loaded is correct, invest
To make sure that the check-shot data that
to
understand what each of
try
some time in parameter selection and
entry rn the
these parameters does. lf you click 0n an Attrlbute or unit
a drop-down list
spreadsheet of the lmport checkshots dialog box,
change the depth
opens where you can select the parameters' You can
datum.
input
and time datum references to match the available
The acronyms used are

.MSL:Meansealevel,inthefileshown'TVDSSreferstoTVD

o
.
.

subsurface (that is, MSL).


KB: Kelly bushing elevated from MSL
SRD: Seismic reference datum
CRD: Checkshot reference datum'

E-

-t-

YouenterthevaluesforthegrayedoutfieldsinfheDepthandTime
sectionsofthelmportcheckshotsdialogboxIntheTemplatespane
details'
during project setup. See the Petrel Help for more
given as negative
Even if time and depth values below MSL are

(MD' TVD' and


numbers in display windows, the spreadsheet numbers
positive, you
not
are
values
TWT) for check shots are positive. lf these
Negate
fhe
you select
must reload the check shots. Make sure that
box when
time values check box in the lmport checkshots dialog

tL

time and depth values are positive'


_L_

L
L

E-

L
E
44 o Projeu, Setup

a|d Datd Prepa'alior

Petrel Geophysics

Procedure

[oading Check

Shots
- l-.-: c< .ce Wells
foiOer anJ s-etect
trmport (on
.- :t:^ r.e lmport
selection)
dia/og box.

----

L
L
L
L

.*_i

,*

_- .t
L

1r;

Yr-

____

| ffi|il:tJffi:?.t*,osh0ts
,4
a

I---

4.

ct:^t
Ciick
0pen.

"jlr

5GL,s.r be

I-J

l$ etiilgs

{,G*

-i

r,rmar(ASCI)

llles to import.

(.

.)

I-_-

L
L
L
L
L
---_

--

lr----

I.

--=.

L
E-

f---4

L.

L
F-J

L
t,F-J

E----./

Petrel

Geophffi
erolect Setup anJOata
ereparation

.m

Selecting Gheck'shot Parameters and


Procedure
Ouality Ghecking Check-shot Data

1. Fit input parameters (A) to file (B).


2. Yer\fy Connect to trace and Number of header lines
3. Choose a time and depth datum.
ffi

46

Pr0ject Setup and Data Preparatl0n

Impert rheckhokr Biawnd-l4 cs

Petrel Geophysic:

4.

Bight-click Checkshots inthe Global well logs folder and


select Spreadsheet.

1vffi

l,Jr,.

!:itir,ri

tE! I'n]!.t ir,n releCir,:

i3

l*

&

Edit Elrbsl ;Erlrrtille

':1

5.

ir

,: clert,:C l5o Jr lDt

ttr,pli:r

Change depth from MD to TVDSS and compare TVDSS and

TWT with input files and other time-depth information.


{$

Crt',*ts::or :preaAshet

{e'Diffiild-14..r

ltell:

d-.ri ','tx"

..

--

onie

l#-lLlElr4liryl
tA
'1

TUJa

Araq

*loity

lateml Elay

1E

1C.3i

'185

539

tire

3i

.5:{:

,5*1.8:

"E4G.6

-\281 i

-5&41

*l

4
,5813.:

$5

le
11

-5;:{ *

'

'l

1
14
15
1

:3-

E:

-8.n

,sEt1.2

-3T.5,S

-t: .6i

i:gq Fl
ii

iiirP

irES:i,

19

ai

F't1.81
ria *'t

51

A':R i]{21 4f
33F.i

am$l

SS:;

D{a,@#'}4

17421

1514.3:

:Ld

-'5.5i

3t.;

15'1.Ee

niffsBl.'1d

4.!;

iwe$f4
DMSt4

r:

0imd-:1,"{

15146.1

1.tr
j''l* l{

51

151eS

1g*::

I51.i3 1{
I

514E.24

t-5i\:1

-Si4

243 [d

31'1.l

D-swd.]4

Erod-14
Bism&14

15T{i.3i

l1

l,! Bi*Mxd-1S

13'd,.tl

Eil

d-1

3:5.4

Biawrdl-1ia

5t"8

-6:68.11

3E3.;i

.EEZ' 3:

z1

EriEffild-

Ditrwld-'14

15'144.
].]',l

.Eqq m

2*

Petrel Geophysics

7!

,11.1tJ

A.{

i#sd*-1
&14

--{6-?.f!

1A

z2

-383

,6:-2:{

11.

l24r.t
1.r+. l

151+8.55

-:{*,

l{. }t

fi2

.s'r{.sl

-485.:d

Bi*m&14
tumd].1,*

1 E'1

r3

rre[
t4

,54?A.li
]S*:.S!

,nft
:'i.;'1

-5,r,:S.8
.51't:.,n

,5:5,!.rl
1

*if=,*t

-58.3fi.3

'1

soBtu

l3.Tt

EliMd14

Project Setup and Data Preparati0n

47

Reference Project Tool


The Reference project tool is useful for quickly transferring

horizons,

faults, models, surfaces, and data from a backup project to the working
project.
The Reference project

tool is object generation aware; it can identify

older object versions from the most recent ones in the working and
background projects. This information is iconized behind each object
entry in both projects. You can filter this information for easy selection.

lf incompatible coordinate or unit systems are set for the working and
background projects, you cann0t c0py the data. The Reference project
tool performs coordinate transformations between reference systems if
the projects are set up with different CRSs.

48.

Pro.er . SetL0

a.o Ddtd Prepatat

0r

Refer to the

Petrel Help for more details about the Reference project

tool and its

use.

Petrel Geophys cs

--

L
L
L
L
I-

Procedure
Data Through the Reference
-Transferring
Project Tool

--

1.

ln menu bat select File > Reference proiect tool.

I-<

I-r

LL-

ffi

2.
File

E-

L-

i';1

trl'Lol

fioudspin_SecandaryProiest.pe{R y

pe:

3.
4.

t*ai

Choose a Background project

nme:

Files nf

A*l*r*nr* prrer:i

l Fdrel files {".pd

"pdR}

Toggle on the Background


Click

[El

*pen
f,eql

project dara check

boxes

to transfer to the Working projecr.

"re..-" so'*t trl

--

anrdinb

l6prs!.i i!al4 dd:3sCtl P.

rFeH ptslr_1rf &&rffi Pa:i 14?&

E, tr I .C

::---!

radr

3yr&n! sFc:-t ffi,

*", i;i-*-lL

i-ulrffi H?_118?N

:v

:,e , .;

--<

r__-----

:t

.&i

a'mr

s
ta

&i
i. ri
rl
E]::
ii:]
J ri
"l
Br

,l

irde

- rl;

l----1
I r...1-.I

I:

,
SEG-Y 2D Toolbox

Petrel 2013 introduces the SEG-Y 2D toolbox to improve loading of


2D seismrc data that has navigation and header issues. The tool is
intended to be used with 2D SEG-Y files that cannot be loaded correctly

using the standard SEG-Y import tools in Petrel.

A major focus of the tool is the handling 0f 2D navigation data. The


SEG-Y 2D toolbox can work with navigatr0n data from multiple
sources, including:

a variety of externaliextfile formats that have either a fixed


number of characters per field, or files where fields are

delimited by a specrfic character, for example, a tab, c0mma,0


semi-col0n in Excel's comma separated (CSV) save formats. lt
also can work with UK00A standard formats including
lonqitude and latitude c00rdinates.
Pefel Geophysics

Pr0ject Setup and Data Preparati0n

49

sesmc vintages that are loaded onto 2D seismic lines that


already exist in the Petrel project.

offset-VSP seismic data, where you specify a surface location,


(for example a wellsurface location), the azimuth, and a fixed
distance between traces.
links to coordinates of a polyline set.
For more
6S sre-v.zr
Tcalbm
Lcading

details on the SEG-Y 2D toolbox, see the Petre! Help.

to*t**

t{ut1,
*rrldcx

rqqq { Uqlie

i
i

EE-Ydrectcqr r,i"*"i.

r---:

i_,,i

j
I

E/le positors:

f.or

i"nn*O

f,,iavgatirnsauree: iqF.q.Iq*g",.qlgs!e.,F-u,.........,,........,.....,...,.......,,,:J

,!

-'ll

'.,.;;

EEG'Y a.*n!des:

Corrdie relererc system ltESi


lnpull CHS

OuhL.tfle 'GroiPcJ

Cnh

eslnan

itruP'

t"iJi"J r,=r"-iJ;;;

&s

tdo cordnate slstem detned

_;:

r .:

!.inao: i"Jit
OUFTJiSEG-Y

diretrry

50

Pro.lect Setup

afd Data Preparati0n

Lnad gen*rated SEtrryles t* Plrl

Petrel Geophyslcs

1_
l-

L
l-

Seismic Data Export Formats


The standard export format for 2D and 3D seismic data is SEG-Y which
is a binary format that you can import easily into other applications.
The other export format is ZGY bricked format (3D seismic data only),
which is faster for rendering data through a cube than the SEG-Y
format.

Procedure

Exporting Seismic Data

1. Bight-click

the seismic data and select Export.

i+ rc".:...

C1.1.t

'E

:d'1

'

r,.u'",",

..;r;,.

'

.:: .rl.: :.rie

.uta,x

eatt:

a)

ro', 1y,.".,.'

TY L:a !rr'
!G lu: a,:
. B
' ". ::.:r.:*, .
i $ Ser ii r:f-rrir-!
. )e1tE.-. t.- t.t.s'r../
# .'e:e s:tgr., -ar.er,rr
B rr:e,rr-qo,:':,c..,nd.r
ffl :u-:r..,qr,..
6i ir:erPrEi:r.1 rra:qr.,
r

2.

Specify the output File name and format. Click Save.

Seismic data in ZrIY bricked format {'.zgyJ


Shapefile i'.shpl

3.

Complete the export dialog box to create disk files


SEG-Y

export

--,.:: :.',,

r,.l:: :,

s'rdinatqcaleict.

lpit1.'.'.r

ffi

amplevelueformat rrrrrcatlntfoini'
l_.ll

'.-it-:::1,,,1:-'t;,.,rt:,1,

Lr-e,[,-,-j
Petrel Geophvsics

; i--i
'- ; i;
.,)
i-,_.:i

{,

Project Setup and Data Preparation

51

Enhanced
0ptimization

Lesson 3

ln this lesson, you

Performance Through Data

will learn to optimize your data through cropping

and

realization, which can help improve computrng performance'

3D Volume and 2D Line CroPPing


the amount of
By cropping a 3D volume or aZD line, you can reduce
you to focus on the
Ota avatante from a 3D volume. Cropping helps

time'
zone of interest and allows for faster computlng
you can crop the 3D sersmic data by reducing the volume in the X, Y or
with 2D
Z domain. lt also is possible to skip in-lines and cross-lines.
that y0u can reduce
lines, you can skip trace numbers, CDPs, or SPs so
the vertlcal range as well as the extent of the line'

rii'-*li
il .,:ir iii

,:1 - .l

:1 --.-i

GroPPing a Volume
Procedure
1'Bight-Clicktheseismicvolumeandselectlnsertvirtual
the
croppeO volume' A virtual seismic cube appears under
original seismic cube with identical ggonn'tty

: ffi

,+] Lrieg sruey inrlusien frlfers

i5q

: ffi

Iriterprelisa fslder

& ;-] $e*srnc

1; 38mfe4n irrlsa !?es

lrarizon

,$ i-l S:rrvey t

Crop the virtual

cube:
h.

a.

Click SelecVpick mode

lS

'

in

tht

process toolbar and

the green handles display in the 3D window'


OR

b.
52. P'oier'SelLp d'd Dat"

Prepa'otror

Select Settings > Cropping tab and specify line ranges

5e*iilqsict ,iil $rssl

i?$e

1'

isl

iir*r*lin*:ange Jru

,5

'

;**

li{*{;i:ste.

,l:t

tr
certain types of data manrpulation and interpretation (for
example, autotracklng and ant-tracking), it is convenient t0
reduce the size of the cube when you work wth lt.

To do

.si.'
l
..-....

-...:

A contlnuous read0ut

of the volume size disPlaYs in


the lower r ght corner when
graphical y cropp ng the
cube.

Seismic Data Realization


Realrzation ts the process of creating a physrcal copy of seismic data in
the ZGY brcked selsmic format. The orrginalvolume can be an imported
SEG-Y file, virtual seismic data (for example, a cropped volume), or a
previously realized volume.
Realizatron serves four important purposes. lt

creates a physical representation of a cube. A reallzed seismic


volume is created as a ZGY format file. lt cannot be used in
other applications that supp0rt only SEG Y However, you can
rmport it into another Petrel project. The reallzed seismic
volumes usually are noticeably faster t0 use c0mpared to a
SEG-Y file. You can export the realized data into a SEG-Y

ormat.

changes value resolution. Many SEG-Y files use 32-bit floatingpornt format for trace amplitude values. Such resolutlon
sometimes is not necessary. lt adds a certain overhead to all
operations on the volume. You can gtve volumes that are
realized in Petrel a value resolution of 16-bit or even B-bit
integers, which can increase the available storage space.
However, gorng from a higher bit format to a lower bit format
can decimate seismlc data Changing back to a higher bit

Petrel Geophysics

Proiect Setup and Data Preparation

53

format adds to the storage size only and will not recover the

initial data.
changes how seismic data is handled. You cannot completely
visualize arbitrary intersections of any volume. ln a SEG-y file,
for example, data is always stored sequentially as trace
following trace, then in-line following in-line. The realization
operation creates a new volume file that is organized for rapid
ACCESS.

increases memory-loading speed. A realized cropped cube is


significantly faster to upload than the equivalent virtual
cropped cube. The entire original cube needs to be accessed
when loading a virtual cropped cube.

54

Project Setup and Data Preparation

Petrel Geophysics

L
-,--

L
L
L
L
L
L

ffi

Settings for'miq'

JI-

,tI-

---l16.8SESlo -1 14.1lll
Srce anlpltuds rtsngs:

-) Setfronr s*urce as shom above

'

..

Sifronr source symnretjcal

l,':

UsEr dfined

8j

Zero

centric

P+li:

Histogranl

:;

+w

ffi

40
Lower clipping: 0.01186".'!, Upper clipping: 0.C0Bi

320

suv

SEGO

+G00

J-

r--

L
L
L
L
r,_-

-88

-48

I-

I,

Realized v0lunits

L
T
L
L
--L:
-=

size: Max$2.

M8

kl:-,[-'..]

Et!*] @:g-l

Bealization requires disk space and can be a time c0nsuming process" lt


is strongly recommended that you save your project to a specific
location, preferably the local hard disk, before realizing large seismc
volumes. Otherwise, the system's temp0rary directory (for example, C.\
TEMP)will be used for the generated volume file.

-a-1

;---=
F

Petrel Geophysics

Project Setup and Data Preparati0n

55

Seismic Data

Realizing
1 0pen-the Settings dialog box for the cropped setsmic cube'
2. 0n the Operations tab, g0 t0 the Realize sub'tab'

Procedure

3.
4.

+-

Toggle off rhe Zero centric check box'


option as the
Select the Set.from soLtrce as showtt above
Source amPlrtude range'

5. Click Scan.
6. 0bserve the histogram'

Click

the Filterbx and observe that the spike (zero values)

is

removed from the histogram display'

B.

Ensure that the

Realization quality is lnteger

bit

56

so

r0

'10

rower cippng: .&0s09i lJpper clippiilg: 0 Sgfl:t

Petrel GeoPhvs s

Pr0lect Setup and Data Preparation

lL
-,-

Prefetch to Cache 0ption

--

lnteractively browsing through huge 3D seismic cubes and 2D Iines in


an exploration scenario requires quick access to the data.

-,-

r_-,-

The speed at which data is read from the disk can reach 100 IVB per
second. However, in some cases this is not sufficient. With the
emerging 64-bit operating systems, it is possible t0 store data in BAM;
Petrel includes an 0ption to prefetch seismic data to cache.
You can use the Prefetch to cache option on seismic volumes with a
size that can reside in the computer's memory (independent of operating

system, that is, 32 164 bI) Both SEG-y and ZGy volumes or 2D Iines
have the option to load all seismic data into memory. This operation

will

run as a multi-threaded asynchronous task.

Prefetch to cache is similar fofhe Load iruto


used in pre-Petrel 2007 releases.

m,n,y option that was

Procedure
Using the Prefetch to Cache 0ption for
Seismic Data
1. Select Tools > System settings > Seismic tab t0 set the
Seismic cache size and graphics card memory.
:

Tt:*le 1-Wind*.w..,!:!!p

(,,.'
t9l _r*iefi]51iifi!5.,.
.'

....

.,
h

2.

Right-click on a seismic data object (3D volume or 2D line in


either a SEG-Y or ZGY cube) and select prefetch to cache.

-:

il

.t SEG y and ZGy


voiumes can be prefetched

I .-,,

to cache if the volume is not


larger than the available
cache size.
Project Setup and Data Preparatl0n.5T

:-

=-

-.t_

+
lf you selected a seismic cube in SEG-Y format, the Task
manager 0pens (if it is not already open) below the
graphc display area of Petrel and a counter updates until

it reaches 100%. At this point the volume is successfully


Ioaded into cache.
lf you selected a seismic cube ln ZGY format, the petrel
Message log opens and reports the Levels 0f detail (L0D)
that is prefetched to cache. When Level0 (highest level of

detail) is completed, the volume is successfully loaded into


cache.

Seismic Calculator
Use the Seismic calculator to generate virtual calculator volumes
based on existing cubes or between two or more existing cubes. The
calculator expects that all input volumes are of the same size and
definition (in-line, cross-line, and sample count).

Any calculator volume can be realized as any other seismic volume.


--<

58

-4I}**

Pr0ject Setup and Data Preparati0n

Petrel Geophysics

Procedure

1.

Usino the Seismic


Catculator

Righr-ciick the

** =.:?l1-f_1l.1ru and select Catcutaror


#:-:g:il
,

.:4

2.

l:iJ

{alcultor,..

Enter the equation


bv tuninn and selecting
from the seismic
variables and
,n._ calculatoi
vv,wq,qLUl brtton,
uurruils.
^",^,,,1l.]yprng

^;;:=-

vartffi
lm

aces, functions).

L4;j
SelBCt seismc vBriable:

:o,1,.r"
$m:n
r*t

il'"

i';,,----:- ;-----

,;-i_Tt

,Fornea

seismic.

T:.11::::19::::

L, G:]

;#=r_EErE@E4rr
ggEqE8,

#*PgEqFrtrr:s
I
4
f,

th e eq

"r'[:llilT#l

uation A new,iu,u

*illi,,o,.uo

@,-*j m,q-F;r*{

i i& il
: j-il-l
:$ ll

x#*

tntine 77

xlrne 4rc

r-ffr
tJe,*-rht

: r& i_l

Petrel

Geopffi

l..-l

Intine 35

tu.*

+zO
Pro;ect Setup and
Da-a ppaitton

.E

Examples
To

cut back a seismic cube between two surfaces:


NewSeis = lf (Z<Surfacel (X,Y) And bsurface2
NewSeis: The name of the new volume
Surfacel and Surface 2: Surfaces

(X,Y), Seismic, U)

!-

Sersmic:Theseismicvolumeonwhichtoperformthetransform
To clip values

to a value range of (MinVal, MaxVal):

NewSeis = in (MaxVal, Max(Sersmlc, MinVal))


NewSers. The name of the new volume
perform the transform
Seismrc: The selsmic volume on which to
To transform selsmic using a function:
NewSeis = Function (Seismic)

NewSeis: The name of the new volume


perform the transform
Seismic: The seismrc volume on which to
pane that acts like a
Function: The function stored in the lnput
lookuP table

60

Project Setup and Data Preparation

a:-

+-

=-

Mis-tie Analysis
this lesson, you will learn howto analyze and remove mis-tres from

Lesson 4
ln

the seismic data.


ln an ideal world, a sersmic interpreter would prefer to work on seismic
data that does not have mis-ties. However, this might not be the case,

particularly when interpreters have to work on data sets coming from


different vrntages that were acquired with varying acquisition
parameters and processed differently.
Mis-tie analysis in Petrel allows you t0 extract and apply mis-tie value
corrections for different seismic surveys. All lines contained ln the
Surveyfolder or a subfolder with the same vintage will be used when
a mis-tre set is created. You can estimate and correctforthese mlstie
va I ues:

o
o

Vertical Mis-ties: Corrects any vertical mis-tie between seismic


lines. You can define if the correction to be applied is a
c0nstant shift (default)or a floatrng shift.
Gain Mis-ties: Balances the amplitude differences between
the sersmic lrnes, applying different sets of gains to normalize
the display. Correcting for these mis-ties is useful when data
from vrntages that have been processed wrth drfferent

parameters are drsplayed together.


Phase Mis-ties: Extracts a phase rotation value for every line in
relation to the respective cross pornts. This value can be

=
)

applied t0 c0rrect differences in phases between lines. For


every crossing point, the algorithm calculates the correlation

between traces at the corresponding line and tries to minimize


the difference between them.

-1
<
urveyx

<

ffill4:v+
:/,.?{r1By

>

:'rl 3

L
--

@.

i,,*

,.

$ir6tJ

FinMiE
Tirne{vrtualelsssedl

5fcleo 1u

k:r:::l gi:L,l

H.

Virlc

Petrel Geophysics

PrOiecl Setup and Data Preparat on

61

---?-

Mis-tie Manager
The

Mis-tie manager

is an interactive t00l for managing vertical, gain,


and phase mis-ties and corrections between 2D or3D seismic lines in
Petrel. You can use it to calculate or specify correcti0ns, select
reference lines, clear Iines to exclude from mis-tie analysis, and select

which 2D lines to display in the active graphic window.

Procedure
Manager

1.

Managing Corrections Using the Mis-tie

lnsert the mistie set by right-clicking on the Ser'smic main


folder.

,SF:ffi*,,

,#!lmiqil& -..'
-\e. LItLl5 . ,
bSvlr,=
r;;;"
;;J.;;";;,',
.&; xi T
,

;l rfli l* ixpnr: , ..
@i; r 3*ier*. .
;&tj x
P:k ltr:lr
&'-- *is [
{

,;:

"

firl+L

. Survel,:', ,F.i

r:.--. ...- ,,,,--._

trsei': -'lder

,'#F-lsluI"" tJrrllaps* irerrsirr*.1


rffqsrnzj. Erpand ir*rr:rsi,',ei
o # e ura:i*
Ssru+ fo*r ic nkl*r-;
# i *tu J 5*ri hy narr*r
I Ss srbi
,rr-i Ly inline nur-.rber
S s stbl err &u:*. crlr all
# ,yl slb .ry
$ il Filters i cs ..uir name ali
'*'ciun* Iribu:ps,,,

lnseri nflls-ire

se: I\

Pr*:ei.h; ra.he
62.

P'oject Setup and Data Dieparat.on

Pelrel Geophysics

The survey selector showing selection of multiple surveys

Use the Mis-tie manager to control which lines to correct,


what corrections to perform, and how to perform them.

ki

0rM

The original and corrected composite lines show in the

.4

Mis-tiesfolder.

ff
"F,

H[s+iesesl *mey2

ffi 7

Potueeon lis-lie sef

Survey Z

finginal composite seismir

-al
-_
-a

Petrel Geophysics

Project Setup and Data Preparation

. l

Seismic Mis-Tie Visualization


You can dynamically create composite lines of mis-tie corrected seismic

data and visualize it


:owi*ooriranyl
.

i-

I
I

0rigrnal and corrected composite lines appear in the lnput pane under
the Mis-tie set

,#

rvils{r

i,.l

hlis-tie set'l 2 lines

,' ,:4 i-:i Points finm h;lis-tie set

1 l line
seismic
site seismic

l, m i.,l riginel conrp*siie

64

Project Setup and Data Preparatlon

Petre Geophysics

I
You can display mls{ie values In a 2D window.

LI

l_*
]-

l_
l_
l_
r--l
I

I.-

L
l*
r.

An interactive point set with attributes is generated for quality control.

L
L
tr
L
r

,g; ur+ey

ffit{
,r

6f

ft

inis-tie set

Surxey I

p*, 1fr Folnts fron tis-te set 1 SurYey

t-r

htis-ties

f,*u,r;: Attnhutes

tT ir.l
tI
i:, J

:-l
E
i::ll

furtor

\ertical mis'tie torrelation


\rertical mis'tie residual itutal ualuei
:_.'

,,:i :...-l

ii

Phase nris-iie {ahsolute ualuel


pnas* mis-tie rorrelaiion furtr

1 ,i': e=n

ffi

mis-tre {nnrmalized ualuei

Line name

11'>l

t-1

1-1
--{

Perre Geopht/s cs

Project Setup afd Data Preparati0n

'

65

!Exercises
Data

Setting up a Proiect and Preparing

ln these exercises, you

wlll get hands-on experlence with setting

up a

new Petrel Seismic lnterpretatlon project and preparing data for


interpretation.

Exercise Workflow

o
.
.
.
o
.
.

Create a new project and select the projection system


Set the seismic reference datum (optional).
lmport seismic data into Petrel'
Transfer data between Petrel projects'

Prefetch to cache.
Crop and realize the 3D volume'
Analyze and remove mis-ties.

Exercise Data
has been assigned to
ln this directory"
create
thatyou
data
you. save all proiects and other

You

will

be working in

a studentdirectory that

Vou run find this directory inthe Geophysics Fundamenfalcourse


ls located
directory (see the figure). The input data used in this exercise

in the

--

these folders.

+-

oafa importfolder and the pre-made Petrel projects are located


you cannot find
in the secon dary proiectsfolder. Ask the lnstructor if

i i

Geophysirs tundanrentai

i
!
I

Data lrnPurt
Serondary Frcjerts
Student

66

Project Setup and Data Preparation

Petrel Geophysics

-*
:
j-

Creating a New Proiect and Selecting the Proiection


System
ln this exercise, you willcreate a new project in Petreland selectthe
projection and unit systems.

Petrel is coordinate enabled, meaning that coordinate transformatlons


can be done during import, export,0r by using the Reference proiect
tool.
i

L_

t-

t_-

LLL-*

Unit conversion can take place during data lmport, but flrst y0u must
specify or checkthe unit and coordinate systems used in a new project.

1. Open Petrel.
2. Create a new project.
3. From the menu bar, select File > Save proiect as.
4. Choose a name for your project and save it in the Student
folder.

5.
6.

From the menu bar, select

Prolect > Proiect settings.

ln the Settings dialog box on the Coordinates and units tab,


click Select to choose a coordinate system.

ffi

Setrings fo*'New

prejef
tilisrsettircs2 I Sotsbae
C6..dinstesandunits

{fl &s:L-:l

Cqardnale refeence
system iCRS):

L:

i,-jH!:9j!,'.-']

l..lntsysenrl

1-

Sinrslaon

units:

cliPsf'nnf

DisplayopDns - '.-

Storage unis

L
L
L
l-;

)=

--*--i

Lal{ongfomat

Y soit

fIJS

Z unit

11

fuea unit

t?

,:::) Dcmal angle (dgrees

,.'l

"i

Degrees'minutes-seconds

Voume

rrt

fll

Gesdetc dahrnl:

Seisnric

time:

nts

lit

Proiect datunr

eismic

velocity: f;

,.:'-:

wcse,l

fL-1

L
L

Proiectrefrencedatu$ -Tine

r_--)

Depth

r----J

iSRDi:
fL,iSLl:

f lcP,,--li{.e{--:.l
Petre Geophyslcs

l{-...na l
Project Setup and Data PreDaratior'.67

"__

+.J
<

ln the Goordinate

enter NAD2
o

o.

reference system selection dlalog box,

7 Loui s iana for Fllter by string.


Louisiana State

SelecI MENTOR: SPCS27

-1702:l'{AD27
Planes, Southern Zone, (JS Foot" f rom the list and cllck
0K.

l-

<
S+le

ffidmsF refumm slFiffi

{CFIS)

Fiiie tly

FilkbYsEig: N'\D27Le
F&er

try:

i,

&xnt insrde aea

cd

!alq:

iEHF!a*

&

eGct6lw eblqg lf

.11,".'

u*

l:r Ma shape dis**im

;;*Cr frrysl CR asd *a

HdzBbl nit

w&

Aut-

lB

'MENTC'RTSFCS3-1][3:NAB3 Lsisine SBe Rn* Oiishore Meb'"


-Me Ug Fmi'
'*IENTR:SetS2f-l?01:MD27 Leisiann te F!en* NEdhetn

(}fhDe h{ets'
"MENIORITAriP-Oj-|PN L*iisna ShE Plane,
'MEiITOR:LA-:IIAS?? Lsaisns Stqte Flses fe{&sn Ztre U

F@i

"trENTAR lA83SF:itADS3 Leiisna S:eb Planes- Olh@. US Fd"


%tENf O:L483-O:NAD83 Lruiiaa SbE Flsne, O!{shtre Mds"
'irIENIOF:SPC?-LI]03 NAB27 Lfti$sa SsE Plnes' Of'hse. US
'IiENTO*:LA O t'{4D27 Leiiana SSae FIan*. {ihr' US Fd"

sRthm ?tre.

US

'MENTCR:LA-:iAD2f Lsane Sl6!e Ple.a.


'TIENTOF L-AiP{F:HFG}.i LHiitns bte Pin- OlJshGe U

FN'

Fd'

Fml'

;lU

StS

sts
irats

{tl-rs

ls

iU
:.US

*US

cus

l
sts
sts

68

Project Setup and Data Preparati0n

9.

CIick

0K

in the Petrelmessage box that refers to the Xy unit

in ftUS.

# P"to*l
i-----"
l

.r::,.
#

The selected coordinaE iferenee s-ysem {CRs} re-desse )l ueit o .lt_js,,


T6 voidftis. click Csnc end
Do

see.ts difreBntaRs.

youMtto B-define iheXf uni

10

0n the Coordinates and units tab in the Settings dialog box,


click the Unit system drop-down menu. The default unit
settng in Petrel is [Vletric.

Petrel Geophys cs

Project Setrp and Data Preoarat on

59

All input data is given in feet. Changing the unlt settings to


Field

will ensure that a correct import is done. You can change

the unit settings after you import the data; howevel the data
itself will not be changed, so a correct position of all data is
not guaranteed.
11. Select Field , click Apply and click 0K.

12.

From the menu bar, select File > Save

proiect'

Setting Reference Datums (0ptional)


setttng reference datums ls required for onshore projects only. This
exerciie shows you how to set up the reference datum in a Petrel
project.

1.

ne, find

lnthe

the Datumsfolder and expand it

q*&.. %.,m$.:i
,.armlf
trr ,*rsrl'/6*i,

ffi
n:
tri
m
tr
: ffi
: frf
) ff
r. m
' ffi

=-

" *SX
-";t

,?rsaF$.*$rF,rrP
daprt i#s rtrPrb

Prsdatfi41sfi18!6

#sfrrtdFs96i:if/#srsfr
$4$"rioa,tetriespefrbrrp,r*&3
,i$1edtcF+Fcdfltpspi,rs.,

rsrffiesl,?t*r*fiF*l*s
F6f/*$m

cfifis#

esprbP
r sfig-8

5Jc-4str-6

st ,rrlrFlf,
,ts

rf

i.

2.
3.

ffi
SsS

!&

5xin.

Bight-click SBD (Seismic Reference Datum) and select

Settings.
0n the Datum settings tab, the Z from MSL field can be set ln
project units, for example, 200 ft higher than MSL FoT this
exercise, make sure Z from MSL is 0 (zero, because thls data

set is referenced to MSL). Note that Time datum is nof


editable.

4.
5.

Cancel the dialog box.


Open the Settings dlalog box for MSL, KB, and CBD. Observe

that nothrng can be edited!


s
70

*Iln-*

Pr0lect Setup and Data Preparation

Petrel Geopl'r

7
B

Open the Settings dialog box for the new datum.


0n the lnfo tab, change the name of the new datum to

uy

Datum.
9.

ln the Datum settings tab, enter a value for Z from MSL (such
as 300 feet).

10

=
11

=
=
i-

1_

L
t

L
L
.I

r-r

velocie check box).


Click 0K (you will not use this datum in the project).

Loading Seismic Data


This exercise shows you basic loading of a 3D seismic cube. More
advanced opti0ns for Ioading data are out 0f the scope of this course.

1. From the menu bar, select lnsert > New seismic main

2.

Toggle on Time datum and enter a value for Beplacement


velocity or TWT from SBD (toggle off fhe Replacement

folder.
ln the Input pane, review the Seismic main folder and its
structu re.

3. Right-click Seismic and select lnsert seismic survey.


4. Double-click Survey 1 to open the Settings dialog box.
5. 0n the lnfo tab, change the name of the survey t0 3D
seismic.

6
.

Right-clck the 3D seismic folder and select lmport (on

B.

selection).
lnfhe Data import/Seismic input data/3D volumes

9.

directory, select the flle mig.sgy.


Set Files of type to SEG-Y seismic data with preset parameters
(".") and click 0pen.

Click 0K.

--)

--

P'0lect SetJp d1d Dar D epdrar

or.7l

l--r

-:
Look

in

.
e&

.i

- *r

3D volumes

\ame

moo.f'ecj
l, ..,2004 I I.l;4V

Ddle

m1g.sqy

"-

,,e

SGv -,

5 e

2.t?.980

(B

Reaent PJace5

ffi
B
De!Kop

iirrres

:r&,
Cop!ter

t&
Uetwork

File name:
F'solrype

File xample/descilplor:

mig

SLC.,"o.""uu,rp,es-tL,a-ek,sr'.1

Opefl
Cancel

";;;;;

/t

inls SfC V rmpon attows loading parameies to e setbforeiheftes sre joa;d


TheSEG'Yfacehesderposronscabesetan!hllecanbEcned

<

10

The SEG-Y lmport dialog box opens with default parameters


Change the parameters to 3D to fit the input data.

11

lnthe Vintage drop-down list, leave the selection as Set


default vintage (this command creates sequential vintage
names, the first being Seismic Time

12
1.)
IJ.

1).

lnlhe Line detection method drop-down list, change


Automatic Io Trace header fields.
Try

figuring 0ut the different parameters for in-line and

cross-line numbers by scrolling down in the SEG-y headers


fromJirst.fi/e list in the lower part 0f the dialog box (bit

location information ts found under the first three SEG-y trace


headers).

72 o D oject Se. tp

,Er

drd Data o epa a.ion

&-

Petre Geophysics

r!,r$r

t{-

.,;

'?'3s

coof8te
:,t*

issr ree$ wdh ry;il {*,*}

X csndi.'r*s

,:

Y sssrdir!tE

::

i-rsle deteta'1 me{,hsd

irce

!-r*de

fr*l** r I

su{i&r
oss:rr n ber

l:]

,r'iiise

m,*b*r
Sheipsil* &L'eer

{*F

Sagrrplefoan&

Wisspsrfusc

* btle

b;ie

e:**r*S**

32.Lrt,

,rg;er
l

Trace*

.! btre

JV

i3;-btj iric*r ?

bytr i*?-bitl in**r

ilf-biij

l*

s*av:

0+:l

iEiier

l.-:

': xlxgep*iss
ssfisie

f{eader larlai

p.sf}n

Ilaee heder*;

!{r:taqe etd*iarlt';ir,lcgre

SamBte

"er.ra

,.:

r"l {o*rd*txe s**i*

l-le taee waddrrq faet*rs

l..l

kp ked*reegy qecks

GY headels {r.n lirs file

5EG-Y i'rt:

Inret

!ra{l {1-,i}
!:nc. { -8)
f j dr {9-111
irecf a:.3-161
n /r : i>n\

cd 431-34,1
-l-*
LU'J!

r:':

, v>

....
-;,
r_)_l

d i:-;t]
{)*5

iraCe hsd!*

r.8{?

3SA

6i.

;
s

?
*
!
sr{.fi} iS't71,163 :1"3{i61{63
5 6.:L
6:
s
!
l
t
,'-.''-l
,

F Lancd

14. SetTraces to

scan t0 1000 and click Scan. 0bserve thatthe


graphic displays of in-line, cr0ss-line, and X- and Y-coordinates
are sequential, indicating that the parameters are set c0rrectly

(lnline number ai byte p0slt0n 221 and Crossline number at


byte position 5 or 21).

Petre Geophysics

Project Setup and Dara Frearar o 73

E
l-+
rnl i ne

500. g

500,0
500.
500.
500,
500.
500.

lnline

o
o
o
o

f60.0 15s858?. OO _170134.00


361. O 15S8617. OO _170114. OO
162.0 1598692.OO -170134.O0
361,0 1598747. OO -170134. O0
164. 1598802.00 _170114.00
365. O i598857. O0 -170134. OO
366. 0 1598912. 0S -i701 14. 00

.,|
I

: r.,
"'-

.tt

_-<

._

L--

f-.

E-

L-"

,l ,' .

-t

--

"E

--l

2fl0

4oo

600

,'t3:"':e,

]oi

/l /i ll ll
ill1/{,7
/l
It t/ ti ii
/t U
/ lll,
tll l/ li l/u --i--ll1
=

"

rl

U
?00

ll
400

-l

t-

:.J
Jrl
lE

-)

--a

f-

t.

.J-

.l

, V
Trad.b seo
60 800 tri
,

_l
_l
.-J

Click 0K in the SEGY Scan dialog box.

_L.d

_t

-\{
74

Project Setup and Data Preparation

Petrel Geophysics

_l

:l:J

16. Click 0K

in the SEG-Y lmport dialog box.


An Input data dialog box opens. The X, y Z ranges should
be the same as illustrated in the figure.
By default, the color template for the seismic data is set to

Seismic (default). You can change this color template in the


Template drop-down list. You also can change it after the
seismic data is loaded.

ffi

lnput data

6eneral

Name:

ffi

Type:

$g

Template:

3D seismic

Domain:

fr%.r jG

Vintage:

Caordinate referenee sysiem

Froj+ctCR5:

iHi

SPCS27 i7C?

File CRS:

0grCR...

158554.5
-"!5S1.i.5

X range

Y range

Zrange.
Unil conversion

-35S2

i6ts7s?.5{i

fll

-':?Cl{re.50

ftUS

*8

'.-

ij

i-"*---i

lf you use SEG-Y

Seismic data {".") as the


format when loading the
seismic volume, steps

Z conversian:

j-'St

10-16 in this exercise will


not be performed. A

Negate Z-values when mostly pasilive

Vintage selection dialog


box opens, after whrch the

Input data dialog box

in

Step 16 opens.

17. Click 0K. A new icon

is displayed in the

lnput pane under

fhe 3D sersmic folder.


lf the Petrel message log opens, view its content and
close it.

18.

the menu bar, select Window > New 3D window,


19. In the lnputpane, toggle on mig to displaythe outline of
the seismic data.
In

Petre Geophysics

lf you load a bricked


seismic volume usng Files
of type: Seismtc data in
ZGY bricked format

{"

zgy),

the same Vintage

selection dialog box


appears and Step 16 and

the remaining steps are


requ ired.

Pr0lect Setup and Data Preparai 0n

75

+
20. Toggle 0N lnline and Crossline to display the seismic data

iCli:re

ffi*;na*r1any

+
I

>

-.--.

>
:

21

Observe that

lnput
22

the Vintages folder (under Sersmic ln the

pane) n0w c0ntains 0ne entry, Seismic Time

Save your prolect.

Loading 2D Data
1

Bight-click the Sersmic main folder and select lnsert

seismic survey.
0pen the Settings dialog box for the new folder (Survey 'j).
0n the lnfo tab, change the name of the new folder to 2o
1

Click 0K

tr

Rght-click fhe 2D lines surveyfolder and select lmport


(on selection).

6.
7

76

Project Setup and Data Preparation

rne s.

4
.,

lnfhe Data import/Seismic input data/2D lines


directory, select the ".sgyfiles.
Make sure Files of type is set to

SE6-l seismic data with


Petre Geophysics

Click 0pen.
Complete the SEG-Y lmport dialog box as shown in the
figure and click 0K.

10

ln the Input data dialog box, make sure that File CRS is set

to

SPC27*1102... and click 0K for all. lf the Petrel


message log opens, view its contents and close it.
Save your project.

Petrel Geophysics

Project Setup and Data Preparat on

77

E
LTransferring Data between Petrel Projects
The Reference proiect tool is object generation aware. lt displays
information about which version of the same object is newer 0r
older in the local and reference projects.

1. From the File menu, select Reference project tool. An


0pen project dialog box opens.

ffi

fetrel 2S13.1 {64-bt} alpha -

lNevr

prqect - lmpo

Fl

ii

loler,*

prejec:

pen prcjet:

impart.ile.

l-

.: ffi 5a'd preieci

L-

C:rl+5

ffi Save :rejec:r as. ..


e* ..--i.i.:
Sl Database lcol...
ffi pr-t" serch lnd*x
o3 i:t:1. s11:c! s5rel::r:n

L.

[L

m
-5" irrrnl ...

il*i

Lr-i {_

T_

: t't ,:'

Find Cl o ud s pin_S

ry P roj e ct.p efR in the


Secondary prljects folder and open it. (lf the Petrel
message log appears, view the content and close it.)
All available data in the selected reference project is listed
e c onda

on the right srde of the Reference

!L

proiect tool dialog box.

78.

Proiect Setup ard DaLa Preparal on

Petrel Geophysics

-.

----{

r-_J

Rderepojdtd

r__
r--

Ba.kgroud prcid

1_
r-
1_

i,Ei

Olceophyss Fudamenbliscondary ProFcialcudspin co"a..ve..crpen


Cood$abqsbm: SPCS2I l2{'UENTOR SPC27-I& W27LoinaSEl

ii$l

',".lEllElB@iliEJ

%8tr
"*" :

--J

LL-l
.

r.-

f
f
f

>.:spr-:- o e,e,

.,"

v 'Ti
,i"rHii. r-,-J,
'El sq:.-

u
E

,i ,'.c[B dsta
- I'rr-d:il-?r_(6t)-

.r ' armcr Polrp


'l 1", o' 4er.*
f
3v uqq
ii3 r, N{m*r
5 lsirududr@*e
r/r

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q
E

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r--r
--*l:'uu'""*
.

.i

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f/m+

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li
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Debils lAlrackPofaonl

i&cloudainl

rime:

r-

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Ti:

f:l

Fb2m706S:59

Eetsnce. DlceophysiFn&enblscondary

--

+il. makh'n!

E--

L
L
1L
=

---

f
f

'[

oaer&'s

k"

Toggle on the check boxes for these objects: Wells, Well


Tops 1, Cultural data, lmported lnterpretation, Surfaces,
ATrack Polygon, and New model.

*\
,i
i

lf there are any

mismatches between the

4.

Use the blue left arrowto copy data into your Iocal project.

coordinate systems of the


local and reference projects,

The Petrel message log lists the copied objects.


Close the Reference proiect tool and save your project.

a warning message is
displayed and you will be
unable to transfer the data.

This limit prevents you from


copyinq data between
geographically incompatible
projects.

Also, if the two projects have


different unlt systems (metric
vs. field), you will get an
error message and you wlll
be unable to transfer the
data.

-4

Project Setup and Data Preparati0n

79

Prefetching Data to Cache


Accessing volumes is one of the most critical and, potentially, time
consumrng processes when interpreting and handling seismic data.
Both SEG-Y and ZGY format volumes are stored and accessed from
disk, although the bricked seismic format (ZGY) is handled much

faster than SEG-Y

Ir

To reduce the trme t0 access volumes, you can prefetch data to

cache if the size of the volume is not too brg for the c0mputer's
RAM. This process involves loading the entire volume rnto computer

mem0ry.

1.

--

ln the

lnput pane, right-click on mrg and select Prefech to

cache.
The Petrel Message log opens and displays the prefetch

status of each level starting with 0 (zero) and continurng


upward until all levels requrred to prefetch the entire
volume

at full resolution

are loaded.

the Message log if it is closed, gofo View >


Panes > Message log.
The volume size cannot be larger than the set seismic
cache srze for the project.
Change the cache size:
Go to Iools > System settings > Seismic tab.
lncrease the cache size so that you can load larger
volumes. However, do not to set t too high because a

--,
-,
-,

y._

To display

2.

a.
b.

high number can cause unstable performance. The


range is dependent on the available BAM of the
computer. Hold your mouse pointer over the question
mark to frnd out how to calculate the optimalvalue.

**l

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80 o Project Setup and Data Preparation

Peel Geophysics

:l

Gropping Seismic Data


cropping the seismic data means reducing the
vorume in the X, y

or Z domain and skipping in-rines and cross-rines.

with 2D rines, the


same process means reducing the vertical
range as wellas the
extent of the line by limiting or skipping trace
umbers, CDps, or
SPs.

1. Rght-crick on the 3D seismic cube (mig) and serect rnsert


Virtua! cropped votume.

A new icon with the same name as the original


followed by
[Crop] / appears below the original icon.
Open the Settings dialog box for the cropped
volume.
0n the 0perations tab, change the Bealization quality
to
B, 16, and 32 bf.0bserve the changes in file size

2.
3.

(realized volume size).

4. Open a new 3D window.


5. Display the cropped data by roggling on mig [Crop] 1. The
6.

B.

outline of the seismic cube is displayed.


Under mig [Crop] 1, toggle on lnline and Crossline.
To add
more lines, right-click the cropped volume and
insert

in-line, cross-line, time slice, or seismic intersections


from
the menu.
Activate Select/pick mode. The corners and

edges of the
volume appear with green squares. By clicking
thse green
squares, you can drag the edges of the cube
manually.
A continuous readout of the size when cropping
down a
volume is displayed in the lower right corner
petrel.
of
Get an exact cropping to a specific in_line and
cross-line
range by opening the Settings dialog box
for the cropped
volume (if not already opened) and slecting
the Gropping

:*'..
i*r
-

You cannot use

Selec(pick mode to

crop
2D lines graphically in a 3D

window

tab.
Set these parameters:

o
.
o

lnline range from 500 to 700, Skip g


=
Crossline range from 360 to 580, Skip
=
Vertical range from _800 to 2500 ms

Petrel Geophysics
Project Setup and Dut,

p,.pu,utrrffi

t-.

L-

tt_

L
10.

Apply and check the Statstcs tab.


Go to the 0perations tab > Realize subtab for the
Click

cropped volume and check the file size again.


1

1.

12.

Cancel the Settings dialog box.

a.
b.

c.

Rght-click 0n 0ne of the imported seismic lines and


select lnsert virtual cropped 2D line.
0pen the Settings dialog box for the inserted 2D line.
0n the Gropping tab, set the Vertical range t0

Click 0K

3.

14.

-4000.

e.
1

t-

Crop a 2D line:

With a 3D window active, toggle on the cropped

2D

line in the lnput pane.


Change the lateral extent of the cropped 2D line. Select
appropriate values in the drop-down Iist for First trace or
Last trace on the Gropping tab in the Settings dialog box

You can also enter a number for Skip traces.


Save your project.

=.
l'srEd @e :

.4f3:

C*T
Ff.ffi

82

Project Setup and Data preparation

- tr 0

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Petre Geophysrcs

,)

Realizing the 3D Volume


L
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L

lealilalpn is the process of creating a physical copy of seismic


data in ZGy bricked format.
A reatizei ,,r'i rr.,
faster to upioad than an equivrl.niuotruf'J.ppeO is significantty
cuOe. tt s
strongly recommended that you
save y0ur prolur, to a specific
locarion, preferably rhe locat
hard dis[, Ouior.uulrng
large
seismic volumes. Otherwise,
tf-le.sysiemt t*po,u,V directory (for
example, C\TEMP)will be used
foithe generaieo volume file.
1
0pen the Settings dialog box
for the cropped seismic

f--

0n the Realize subtab on the


Operations tab, toggle off

the Zero

centric check box.

G*#:**"i*i:;i.ll:rt:,::i:i

I-d

-,

cube.

2.

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Iff.,*i *r*Y. 1'*:


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. il*'o*

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'-,s ]i

3. Use the Setfrom soltrce as shown aboveoption


as
Source amplitude range andciick
Scan.
"4. Observe the
histogram.
Petrel Geophysics
Droiect

Serrp and

pgpflffi

--:
check box and observe that the sprke
(zero values) is removed from the histogram display.
Ensure that the Realization quality ls lnteger B bit.

Toggle onfhe
b

Filter

Keep the remainlng values as defaults and click Realize


The Task manager opens under the graphic window area

showing the status of the realization process. The


information also is written to the Petrel message log

'i**q *

-.:i **:.

*. :,i,;:*i *: e; e

*4

B'--: mig Ecrryl I

[Fteaizedl

0.

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.*:-i

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:A:,,1 nlin &3


..:,-: Xline4?&
Z=_t752

-]

--l

B. Close the Settings dialog box.


9" Realize the mig cube in a similar way.
1

Save your Project.

Analyzing and Removing Mis-Ties


The Mis-tie manager is an interactive tool for managing

L-/

mis-ties

between 2D lines and 3D surveys. lt works in much the same way


as the Survey Manager for sorting and viewing data.

-]
>l

>

You can generate mis-tie sets for the entire survey folder or for
different subfolders ln the main survey folder.

ln part A of this exercise, you will analyze and remove the mistie in
allvintages. ln part B, you will remove the mis-tie in selected lines.

Part A. Analyzing and Removing the Mis-Tie in All Vintages

1.

ln the

2.

Choose both the 2D lines and the 3D seismic survey and

lnput pane, right-click the 2D /rnes folder and select


lnsert mis-tie set.

-<

click 0K.

=
=
84.

Prolect SelLp ano Data Prepatatior

;e" 4,+e*. -til t;**""

A new seismic volume named mig [Bealized] 1 appears in


the lnput Pane.

'

-l
_l
!J
[.-

Petrel Geophysics

L_

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L_

rl

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!.l.,.,-l1@.-j

L-

The

Mis-tie manager opens as a spreadsheet with

one

entry for each crossing between the 2D lines and the 3D

L_-

survey.

feiiffil

:t****",-.,1il

L_-

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t_
LLr___-

t-i
ari

191 St_ E: la.

t-r
l-f

Toggle on lhe Vertical and Gain check boxes in the top


section of the

l1

Mis-tie manager, but leave Phase toggled

off.
4.

>a

t--l

L-

L
L

Leave the Start and End values as the defaults (they define

the time window or which statistics will be computed


between any two crossing lines).
Click Gompute mis-ties and observe the values entered
into the different columns.
Use Constan as the method for calculating mis-tie
corrections and click Gompute.

L
U

I.

P.l rel Geophysics

Project Setup and Data Preparati0n

85

r:

crrertions

rii Constsnt
r

1.

Varisble

Ihe Gain correction and Vertical correcfion columns


are filled in. You can edit the c0mputed values in these

columns manually. lnlhe Vertical correction c0lumn,


enter - 10 . 0 (10 ms downward relative to the crossing

lines) for all entries of slb2.


Click Apply.

>_

>

9.

11

You can use and lock different 2D lines by selecting the

appropriate check boxes in the Us and Lock columns


Use all lines, but do not lock any of them.
When satisfied with the set-up, click Realize to generate

physical versions of the mis-tied lines.


1?

ln the Realize

mis-tie corrected seismic dialog box,

>

make these selections:

a.
b.

Toggle onfhe Scanfor exact amplitude check box.


Toggle off the Zero centric check box.
Use lnteger '16 bit as Realizatlon quallty.

c.
d. Selecf Default vintage.

==

85

Proiect Setup and Data Preparation

Petrel Geophysics

I
-a

-J
I

-l=
I

13

Click 0K. These lines can now be found at the bottom of


fhe 2D /rnes folder. The realized Mis-tie 3D volume is
found at the bottom of the iD seismicfolder.

14. 0pen a 3D window and display


the original lines by clicking the first column as shown
rn the figure.

o
-l

--tI

&ffi1
r., *ti{
'1

r*;? **r_. a1

, -

l*r*feut*-

:r- tt * e *rr*st*{$ i *t*rs eeti **t

5 Click 0K to save and close the Mis-tie manager.

16

--/

the virtual mis-tied lines by clicking the second column


as shown in the figure.

Open a Map window and view the points from

Mistie

set,

found in Ihe Mis-tie foldel under fhe 2D /inesfolder.


17. 0pen the Seftings dialog box for the points from mis_tie
set.

Petrel Geophysics
Project Setup and Data Preparation

-1

g7

L.

.--
10

to. 0n the Style tab:

a.
b.

c.

-l
-J

Activate the Number annotation.


Toggle on the ,Sftow check box.
Select a font suitable for display.

lE-l

19

Click 0K

20

Expand the Attributes folder of the Points from mis-tie set


and choose attributes to disPlaY.

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=
88

Project Setup and Data Preparation

Petrel Geophysics

Part B. Removing a Mis-Tie in Setected Lines


Bight-click fhe 2D linesfolder and select lnsert mis_tie

1.

set.
2
3

Choose the 2D lines survey only.


Select the Seismic Time 1 vintage.
Click 0K.

A new set named Mis-tie set 2 is generated and the

Mis-tie manager

opens.
Bemove the tick marks for all lines in the tse column

except slbl and slb2.


Set tick marks in the Lock column for slb1.

E.n **

Co.d.tu
lador

13:

3,

1351

531:

4tl:
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:ti"--5ij;: - 'ii,
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?;--

idb!

sal
7

B.

ve&t
c.rdon

lgr

Use Vertical as the method and click Compute mis{ies.

Make sure Constant is selected and click Gompute.


0bserve that only two entries are present in Ihe Vertical

correction column where the two lines

cross.

9. Vertical correction for slbl is 0 (zero) because this line is


0

locked. Enter -2 0 .
ms infhe Verticctl correction
column for slb 2 (20 ms downward relative to slbl and
)

click Apply.

10. View the result in a 3D window by using the two eye


columns in the Mis-tie manager.
1 1. Compare the two different mis-tie
corrected versions of
slb2 (manually select/clear them by expanding slb2 in the

lnput

pane)"

A mis{ie set is created for the Surveyfolder or subfolder


from which it is inserted. All lines in that folder belonging
to the selected vintage are displayed in the Mis-tie

manager, including all subfolder lines.

Petrel Geophysics

Pr0ject Setup and Data Preparati0n

89

Review 0uestions

Why is it important t0 use the correct projection and unit


system?
Can you import different vintages of seismic data with

different SRDs?
ls it important for projects to have the same projection
system when using the Reference project tool?
What are the benefits of cropping and realizing seismic

data?

What are the different types of mis-ties that can be


computed in Petrel?

Summary
ln this module, you learned about:

.
o
.
o
.

.<

setting up a new project


setting project and unit systems
loading 3D and 2D seismic data

importing check-shot data

vL

optimizing data by

.
.
.

cropping

>

realizing
performing a mis-tie analysis.

90 o Projecl Setup and Data Preparatl0n

Petre Geophysics

I
-

2-

Seismic Data
Module
Visualization
will be introduced to the seismic interpretation
ways t0 visualize and display seismic data.
various
interface and

ln this module, you

Learning 0biectives

r:='r
r-a

After completlng this module, you will know how to:

o
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
o
.
.
.

use the seismic interface and toolbar

display 2D and 3D seismic data


set up a seismic disPlaY scale
make and annotate seismic base maps
make and display composite and ump tie lines
use and link multiple windows
use color template and palette optimization
use the Survey manager
use the visualization tools

render volumes in 3D windows

tool
lmmersion mode.

use the Light


use the

Pelrel Geophvsics

Seismic lnterpretation Preparatl0n

'

91

lnterface

Petrel User
The Petrel user interface consists of two main areas, the Display
Lesson 1

window and the Petrel Explorer panes.

Display window: Displays objects. The objects can

different types. You can open any number of windows at the


same time and use window tabs to select them'
Petrel Explorer panes: Contain all data used in the project:

.
.
.
.
.

be

lnput pane: Contains imported and created data.


Models pane: Contains created models

Templates pane: Contains predefined templates'


Results pane: Filters simulation and volumetric results'
Processes pane: Contains a Iist of the available
processes in Petrel in the order ln which they are t0 be

:
->

performed.

.
.

Workflows pane. Contains workflows that you insert from


the lnsert menu and modify using the Workflow editor'
Gases pane: Stores all simulation and volumetric cases'
Windows pane: Stores all used wlndows (30 window'

InterPretation wi ndow).
Favorites pane: Allows you to customize access to the
data and processes in Petrel. lt conslsts of shortcuts to
data (lnput pane and Models pane), processes, windows'

>
>
>

temPlates, workflows, and cases.


These features provide access to the functionallty in the Petrel user

>

interface.

.
.
.
.
.
.
92.

Se smic

lrterpte.arion Preparatior

Toolbar: Dlsplays general tools related to import and


visualization.

Menu bar: Drsplays familiar Windows menu commands, such


as File > 0pen, Edit > Copy, File > Save, and Help >

Manual.
Function toolbar: Displays tools related to the active process in

the Processes Pane.


Object tnformation: Displays information about an Object when
you select that object in the Display window.
Status bar: Displays the status of the last performed action'
Message log: Displays a log of all actions done in a Petrel
session. You can toggle it on and off from the View menu'

Petrel Geophysics

l,
-
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tr

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Cases, Workflow, and Windows Panes

information

Seismic InterDretati0n Preparation' 93


Petrel Geophysics

-J
i--.

-_l
t-_l

Geophysics Processes Pane


look at the processes
Before you start t0 visualize the data set, take a
the Processes pane.
and thelr related toolbars under Geophysics in
process actions
When you select a pr0cess, the process toolbar and
that process and
toorui change, depending on the available tool in
you have
*u, tvp. of"wirdo* (20, 30, or lnterpretation window)that

t--

I>

active.

prerequisite steps for the process


A grayed out option indicates that the

with a red circle


nave not been completed. A grayed out option
that utility'
indicates that you do not have a license for

>

4
4
a.

TL

i!

rl$.-

lnpu

L,

ffi Seismic interPreiatian


ffi Volume atlributes
t$ Surfuce aributes
'{ft Autarnatic fuult extraclion
lY1 $,{ake velocitY mndel
,,
i j r {r+::: . f
=.,+,ii iif lr
GeabadY interPretann
Seismic rr,'ell tie
Make restaratian 2D model

ffi
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er

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94

Seismic lnterpretati0n Preparation

F
L.-

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I-

L
L
L
l-

J-

J#

Lesson 2
Data

Display Tools or ZD and 3D Seismic

ln this lesson, you wilr rearn about toors that you can
use in petrer to
display and interpret ZD and 3D seismic data.

Seismic lnterpretation Toolbar


The seismic interpretation toolbar provides easy access
to commonry
used interpretation tools. lt is available for 30, 2D, and

lnterpretation

windows. You can turn this toolbar on and off by using the
in the menu bar.

vibw

menu

These are the available toors in their defaurt order of


appearance:

o
'

.
o
a

Active seismic obiect: rndicates the active seismic object.


color scale: Disprays the coror tabre of the active sectin and
allows you t0 c0mpress (symmetrically), rotate, or alter the
opacity.

Fp color table: Flips the color bar.


Reset color table: Besets changes made to the color bar.
Active property template: Shows the property template of
the active section and allows y0u t0 change property
templates.

Toggle wiggle and bitmap: Toggles between two VI/VA/


VAVI displays in the

lnterpretation window.
lt/horizon interpretation: D isp lays the contents
of the active lnterpretation folder in a drop_down list.

Active

fa

Choosing a horizon or fault from the list makes it active.

Create new fault/horizon: AIlows y0u t0 create new faults


and horizons and add them to the active rnterpretationforder.
Toggle on/off all interpretation obiects: Hides or displays
all seismic horizons, faults, and surfaces.

Selected vintage: Lists the vintages available for the current


intersection. You also can select a new vintage.

Apply selected vintage to visible seismi planes: Applies

the selected vintage to all visible intersections.


Reset visible seismic planes to original vintage:
Resets
the vintage of visible intersections to the vintage
that
is

defined for the displayed intersection.

Petrel Geophysics

Sei.- 'rre,p.ert o-

Pepd,or

01.

95

Procedure

1.

Using the Seismic lnterpretation


Toolbar
View > Seismc interpretation

From the menu bar, select

toolbar

YiPH

rlt{

rn ps

Il
I

.,sFEa:L-r

:(

-{
.1,J,

Tir

pi'y'er

ilirlh:

si r"; r:

5::us

ba,-

:r:rlsr

:cr

:c

r: j h

ar

;rii srieet
5.L'.! Ji:;i,.!,trrali-f.,-:,._,\

I:hase'cr
Seisr:rlc

im.

lr..
.a
Li
:EJ

?;{

.jf.r

inteipr*itinn :ofl

learch:r:r:lL,ar

!:lil
l

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:.

:Ll ::.1!

ir_s.

.,

trie

lrericus pan*
inpr-:; pane

)b

ffi
2
.)
J.

4
tr

jL]tsr

Jrncesles p:ne

prc.i=r:

;5
5hi-: + FE

f:r!-f
f:i+1

irlcdis trnp

Create new faults and horizons.


Select a template for seismic display.

Activate and switch between restorati0n


models.
Activate and swtch between vintages.

.m"....r

Procedure- 0pening and Displaying

a Seismic Line in an
lnterpretation Window
1. From the Window menu, select tnterpretation wndow.
Alternativery, right-crick 0n the
seismi, ruri0, and serect
Create interpretation window.

2.

3.
96 o Seismic

lnre,pret"r,ofi[ffi,

Choose an l-line/X-line from a


3D cube or a ZD line from a
survey folder. lt displays in-the
lnterpretation

window.

&

Select the View mode


to ,ou. seismic data or zoom in/
out using the mouse wheel. Right-clicking
opens a menu with
different options.

r:

Seismic nterpretation Preparatisr'r. 97

4.

From the process toolbal select between

,..,

.to display

the prevrously displayed seismc secti0n.


The top secton 0f the Interpretaton window displays the
intersecting lines. SP and CDP can also be displayed.

&

#
4
4
#

&
4
#

5. Flip the seismic line by using


6.

on the player bar'

Change the color display of a seismic sectlon from the


lnterpretation toolbar.
J!)!:'

L rj:'r-:i

.
L

-,

!1-.wi.*,,w{w-*+'**"-***i*

----- .-'-.'t-i'it'{l

rtt

Click Llr on the Seismic interpretati0n t0olbar to toggle the


wiggle and bitmap display 0n or off
To display the next cross-ltne or in-line, press etther Page Up or
.

Page Down 0n your keyboard. Jump to a particular Iine by


specifying the line numller in the General rntersection player.

Specify the increment that you wish to use t0 jump to the next
cross-line or in-line.

=
)'

*
-:

nr!*..:..

.,.,...,....rr.r:.........r..r.:.:...,rri

i#*.*@@#,#,!.

*. l. I&tisr':d*:'t*:ll
i;,. -"

:-:i

,,

/ tFIl

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I---.

I--.-r

1_
r-_

i-t)
l
I

:,.."1
I

,..,,|
i
l

----

.,]

I
I

rl
.

aa:r1

t..o,l

i
I

-..)
I

'..1

Petrel Geophysics

Seismic lnterpretatl0n Preparatlon

99

>

lnterpretation Window Data Posting


To post wellbores and picks, select the check boxes for the wells that

you wish to post inthe Wells folder and the propertres and tops in the

WellTops folder. A time-depth relationshrp for the well must

be

avarlable before the data can be displayed.


To adjust the

well path appearance, use the Settings dialog box for the

Wellsf older.
To adjust

well posting parameters, use the Settings dialog box for the

ts

respectrve attri butes in lhe We I I attr i b ute s f older.


You can display other objects (such as interpretations, faults, and

surfaces) in the lnterpretation window. Choose them in the Input

pane"

Procedure
1

Posting Data in an Interpretation Window

Display objects from the lnput or Models pane: Horizon


interpretation, Faults, Wellbores (needs a time/depth
relationship), Logs, Well Tops, and 3D grid data (propertres,

-b,

edges).

>

->
>:

Change the display on the Style tab in the Settings dialog box

for each object.


a

J.

ln the Settings dialog box on the Style tab,

lnput settings

subtab for the displayed seismic line, set a distance limit; part
100. Seismlc lnterpretati0f

Preparati0n

Petrei Geophysics

4.

of the wellbore and well tops beyond the llmit are n0t posted.
ln the 3D grid settings subtab, set the display style of the 3D
grrd data.

Settings

t*

for'Xline 580'

3 intersecti*n pl,rne

r,nFy

:.]

Co[*r

Wid$rjsize

_1

Surfaces:

'sS

ir'Jetis:

ffi Seismic:
.(; Palygons:

l-_j epth ntrset

As s-rt*ce
A.s +.,tll

Linost nmn

Style Settings Applied to All Similar Obiects


r']r-l
Clicking ':Q: on the Style tab applies the settrngs to all objects of the
same type that are attached to the same pr0perty template.

Se smic Interpretatlon

Preparatl0n.

t0l

Wiggle Trace
When you display seismrc rntersections in an lnterpretation window,
you have the option to display wiggle traces. You can access this option
on the Seismrc rnterpretation toolbar or from the Style tab in the
Settings dialog box for the seismic interpretation when an

lnterpretation window is actrve.

ffi

$ettins {*r'flnig'

r-t:*

li
ll*
ii
li li':

lilLl
I

It
htrplatl0fl

'n*thrd

ruqn r, Bilin*ar ':':

li

il,

il
I .r:l

Brati,

BilflrBF

,J

=+w

'!q'igglsE -.

r'

----

Bhavr
Fril p0tslnv
h r{r

EBqalJr'

lntr'r ll

iJt

h'lanuai ainr

E.

l,Viggls *nty di*play


102. Seisnrlc lnterpretation

Preparation

Petrel Geophys cs

Lr--{
Laf

L"
La{

rLr1:

-.__1

f-ra

ln the Settings dialog box, you have options to fillthe negative 0r


p0srtive side of the traces, increase the gain (X scale) of the wiggles,
and determine the number 0f traces shown.

Wiggle traces are available 0nly in the lnterpretation, Intersection,


and Well secton windows (synthetic seismograms). Toggle off the
Show bitmap check box t0 remove the voxel display backdrop.

lnterpolation Methods
There are three available interpolation methods.

rJ

r.--a

None: Renders voxels as original values for the bitmap. The


wiggle trace has linear interpolation.
Bilinear. Benders voxels by bilinear interpolation for the
bitmap, honoring the original values. The wiggle trace has
linear interpolation.
Smooth: Benders voxels by squared distance weighting for the
bitmap, smoothing the original values. The wiggle trace is
interpolated by a sync function.

f--

1:
r--
1:
r--

Seismic Display Scale for an lnterpretation Window


Most interpreters want to set a fixed scale for the seismic display
during seismic interpretation. You can select the desired scale in the

Settings dialog box for the lnterpretation window.

1_
r-r

L"
E

l_

r
a--f

t_
L-<

Petre Geophysics

Se

s-

c'^re.preiario^ Drepraro.. 103

Procedure
a Seismic Display Scale for an
- Setting
lnterpretation
Window
This procedure sh.ws you how to have the same display scale
for all
seismic lines in the lnterpretation window.

1.

ln the Windows pane, right-click on the interpretation and


select Show settings.

iffi,n"qr.,..

.ffiat:ffiee

ffi

3D wir,don "

lArr] j

, ,

:c1..

se::

rL.ts

l:+::
I :'

2.
I

'

Seismlc Time I _ ]tine ,!XI

[Tyy T] - mg

>

!.+x

i,T/ Eirhll
hi
r rr- : tnterpreta:ian *inday I

,.

t+

ts

rlcii:ss+ i.-.5.,6:

'i ..::ail r a-..s ,.


.'!.1: rr= ali

'.

=-

Choose the appropriate Xy and Z scale for the trace display.

ffi

Settinqs fsr'lnterprctarlon

I X i'

1'

=
L

=
l'l
,

=
Ymin: .;J.:i..
Tmax: ! :
Unit of

Fight

marorns
r

+
-i
:..

r. 1. L

ri.at l1tii1

104 o Sersmic lnterpretati0n preparation

Petre Geophysics

_l

--r

This frgure shows examples of different display scales for the same
section.

:::-=

!e:phvs cs

Seismic lnterpretat 0f Preparat 0n.105

Procedure

Displaying Seismic Data in a 3D Window

1. From-the Window menu, select 3D window.


2. CIick on the seismic data to be displayed; it is displayed

in the

3D window as a base/location map.


1{.?E: -

ti

il
:li *'
l;l

::tl
r&l
:

.a:
i
I

-;;i."'

L:

rii
ss6ir awse*s

>

I
1 t:r:re, qnrr,t
I
'? ii]er; itr5rrr
l,,r,ir-.n.+ure*;.r,.
h.1r
:!r !1*!
I
'ei..&
i:.:
:

:,4:;d

*.:;erhnltill,rfrltlr
'.,i **
h::1_k'.-;;' .: q-*

:t..&.o*..

" ,l

*I

'':;
>

<G;,

,'"'ir*l.-,,t

trace data, make sure that lnline/Xline is


selected. For a2D line, expand the window and click on the
seismic 2D line"
To display the

_--

106.

Sersmic Interpretati0n Preparation

Petrei Geophysrcs

rL
-r

L
1_
L

=+L;ga-.ir:

I'dl

r--

a--
f-ra

1=;F@;

Lr--
L--I

f
f

-'.l
-LJ

u
l---J

time slrces, right-click on the


3D cube and select the appropriate command from the menu'

To add in-lrnes, cr0ss-lines, and

# Ii:ert inlirtr ir:ter:eiticn


e Ir*rit rr*:llir,* iirt*rreitilr,
S Irrlert tir',e -ilise inttr:**i;'r,
& fi*',, irt*rle*ti!'r Blsnr

f
J'

l-_---J

-J

Se's"r'l c

trle-p etatior o-epa-dti01

'

107

Click

View mode to rotate the view and Z scale to change the

display scale in a 3D window. The seismic color display also


can be changed in a 3D window from the Sersmic
r

nterpretation toolbar.

&iq, ! tt {rSt*

, :,

k*-^.p,"6n.i u*r

'n;, :.' 1-.,...-..,,r,'

=
r.?ft:

::

::r*eA&i

t :r

ll,rr::ri

,.

1t.i:j,J!1.1

>_

108 o Se smic

lfterpretat 0n Preparatl0n

Petrel Geophysics

rL
F

--l
rt

Lr--t

L
f
1_
f
L
f
f

General lntersection Toolbar

rr:

General intersection toolbar is actlvated in a 3D wlndow that has a


3l cube and in-lines and cross-lines displayed. This toolbar provides
::ions to select and manipulate seismic lines'

-ire toolbar also is available for a 2D window with different optrons.


.lse the Clip plane optlons t0 remove posted objects ln front of or

:a.'"0

---l

,r'3u

seismrc drsplays.

als0 can ghosf objects by adjusting the clip offset parameter in the

Settings dialog

r-J

box.

-Jjust the lrne type in the Style tab > Plane settings subtab For
:rample, if you set the clip offset to 50, the objects within 50 project

-r ts (feet

II-J

or meters) of the seismic line are displayed'

tr

r-J

:* *ee#*.&1ff,1

tr

---J

---

1-

Step through volume


PIay through volume

-.--r

Set step/play increment

l,_
->'!

Clip plane

-l

Snap plane position


Select plane position

L---{

---
Selsmic lfterpretat on Preparatl0n

'

109

Displaying Seismic Data in a 2D Window


Window menu, select 2D window and click on a
2D lines survey folder in the lnput pane.

Procedure

1.

2.
-rj

peirel 201:.1 {fi-bi1: alph! -

JNe!r'

From the

0pen a 2D seismrc line from a 2D window by clickng ,'18 in


the process toolbar or (K) and click on the 2D Ilne to be opened
The seismic line appears in the lnterpretation window.

project - Ssmi( lQrultiol

?D

e/i*de

tAny;

':.

i3,

r..

i:
t:

t;
lL
;lj

i:
L

l:r

l"
t.'

1r

l'

i=
i
t;
ir

t_

l'l
t+.
i +..

1...

E
t;

seismic line from a 2D wrndow, click on your 3D


(make
sure that cube is bold).
cube

To open a 3D

4.

ln the toolbal these icons are activated

ffim Click one of

them. A dotted lrne appears on the survey outline.

5.

Double-clrck the dotted line to open the sersmic line in the

lnterpretation window. You also can right-clrck 0n the dotted


line and select Create interpretation window.
110.

Selsm c lnterpretation Preparatlon

Pelre Geo:'

-------_---4

i-

Se,s*

'rLe p,e,a io- P

ep.,.tio-.

lll

Base Maps
Seismic rnterpreters frequently navigate through base maps during an
rnterpretation. ln Petrel, you can use 2D , 3D and Map wrndows to
create and display base maps.

Base Map Annotation in a 2D Window


You can turn on in-line and cross-line annotations for3D volumes in a

Draw everlt n'h inline, every n'h


crossline option on the Style tab in the Settings dialog box, a base
map grid with rn-lines and cross-lines is displayed with the increment

2D wlndow. lf you select Ihe

that you specify.

Ihe kxt evetlt n't' nlne, everl) n't'crosslire option displays the
in-line and cross-line numbers. Change the size of the text with the

Font size option.


Make and display base maps with seismic, well, and culture data in 20,
30, and IVap wrndows. New seismic acquisition plans can be displayed
in the base map as culture data.
tlt drlq

ia'irl

L-

b-

L-

L.-

112.

Seism c

lnterpretati0f Preparat 0n

Petrel Geophysics

rL
l.

r.-J

L'
L'
af-

Procedure

Creating a Base Map


0pen the Settings dialog box of the selsmic survey.

1
2

0n the Style tab, choose the base map annotation parameters


that you wish to display. The Style tab is active in 2D and 3D
windows.

--_

eitings

f*r'IG

:'J,: Shew

lines

ti'dth:

rrsmes

hrpe: !' li:


.jt end:
--ci:rt

iines'

AJ

--

-.--J

ljne

5h,:r

,
:

v trc.
J !ho:r number Tlpe
Shrr tikmrk !ie:

l-nrBvery

---

-.

tri

r:-

:i

Hide lhels mr*nrJing {ont

:
:

5P
:

.i

si:*:

i
i
I I

,li
irl

3[i sei:n'i+

lirr:tti*r

Col+r;

5rer,ifie-.:

i*r'dih:
I

iP [fiP

-1

*!i-

Bsse m,:p nnttisn

t' Drou elreni ill' j TsJl,:\rery '!*11 F,nt ric

iline, E'/E+'

inline. ever

':rosslin*

rr**sline

ilirce,ttin:

Crl*r:

fu sulj*ct

Iilfn

-
Se smic

lterpretat cn Preparat 0n.113

r-G:

Base Map Annotation in a 3D Window


You can display a base map view of 2D seismic lines in
a 3D window.

The 2D lines can be a coror based on the seismic survey


0r vintage. you
also can set the depth of the display (for example, to -1000

ms). setting
the depth is useful for displaying the intersecting 2D seismic line
directly in the 3D window.
You can postthe 2D line names at both ends ofthe intersection
and
show number annotations as trace, Sp or CDp numbers.

There are similar options for posting 3D seismic in 3D windows.

C0iGr:

F!t size:
Shsvrlins

il,

show rumes

Forerery r

i
i'l
l.

't

V..r$hl
Ln

ii.i

SpsciiieC

{pe:

Al ed:

qlid

Sld
L

l!: ,...?

] hownumber
hcwnckmark

tiaie:
Type:

iail

lze:

L-

ilid+ labels exeediag {ont size


L

ts
114. Seisr ..'^terpretoti0..t Prepararior
Petrel Geophysics

b-

---

Selsm

c nterpretati0r

Pre!aratl0n

115

Procedure

Window

1.
2.

Displaying Seismic Line Annotations in a 3D

Display seismlc data in aZD or 3D window.


Open the Settings dialog box and open the Annotation
subtab on the style tab

I
i--

^
+

.L-

3.
ffi

Choose the preferred optons for the annotatons.


Seaing fcr'?D lneC

-L

..,:,1,t:.:-rlili.r:iiii

,L

th
=
Ftrnt se:

Shrw lines

llridrh:

fi

Shov+ names

Al md:

Line

ff

Shawnumb*r

F1 howtirkm*

116.

Seism c Interpretation Preparati0n

pkels

t-

-_

pe
E

rorevery luJ

l-j

tEE:
Tvpe:
Si=e:

Hide label*emeedingfsnt

size

Petrel Geophysics

lr--

The annotations appear in the 3D window

Selsm c

lnterpretatl0f Preparatl0.. 117

<

Lesson 3

-Seismic
you

ln this lesson,

.L*

lntersections

will learn howto create and use differenttypes of

intersections in Petrel. These intersections can be random lines,


polyline intersection, composite lines, and jump tie lines.

---L-

ly
Random lntersections in Petrel
Handom lines and polyline intersections in petrer are any vertical lines
that do notfollowthe full length of an in-line or cross-line. composite
intersections are similal but they can combine various 2D and 3D
seismic data.

_-H

.&._

--<
L.r

.L-

You can convert any intersection or line coming from a seismic cube

(in-line, cross-line, random, composite) into a stand-alone 2D seismic


line by right-clicking the object in the !nput pane and selecting Convert

.-:<

I..

.L-

<

to 2D seismic.

--

.L.
.1r

l,:i'j**

irei
'i:==:rii

Procedure

1.

Working with Random Seismic Lines


Activate a 3D seismic volume in the lnput pane and a Seismic
interpretation in fhe Geophysics folder of the processes
pane.

r #r nrB,
& m tntinE 638

nput

m Xline +H]
i; m =-]?5r

tratigmphy
Gecphysics

ruffi

randomly.

,ffiI.m,Fj lr'6C

hffixrp
rlcl survel

3.
18 o Seismic Interpretation Preparat0n

.-1
-<

_.1

Right-click the seismic volume and select New lntersection

&La z

-z
L-

_l-

lL.E

plane. A vertical intersection is created that you can align

WE

-z
ts

,<l

l--t-

nEert inline !1rrE.iiEn

lneeri rroEsline iniererticn


nsert tinre siice nterEecii*n
f.JErr

inlerserli*n

plane

.<

l-E

.t-

l@W,&]

Click one of these ron,


lro atign it vertrcaily,
north to south, east to west, or horizontally.
Petrel GeophVsics

)-<

-.>.

_--1

l-
>-

Click Maniputate plane Ia , in tne process toolbar and drag


it to a new position. To rotate, press Shift while dragging.

Procedure

Window

Rotating a Random Line in an lnterpretation

You can rotate random lines in an

lnterpretation window. Botating

lines is usefulfor aligning them with well paths.

1. Bight-click

the volume of interest and select prefetch to

cache. This command gives you a smoother rotation.

2. Display the random line in an lnterpretation window.


3. ln the Processes pane under Geophysics, activate the
Seis mic

4.
5.

Click

the

interpretation

process.

#j iron in the process toolbar"

ln the lnterpretation window, click the reft mouse button and


drag the mouse horizontally on the random Iine to rotate it.

Petrel Geophysics

Seismic lnterpretation Preparati0n.

llg

Polyline lntersection
data in a 3D window, you must have an object that is used to
supply X, Y, andZ reference points (for example, TWT). When entering
points for the seismic aligned polyline, the movement of the
cursor is
restricted to either the in-line or cross-line direction. For the arbitrary
polyline, random directions can be digitized.
To create

t,-..-..-.i You can rename


these general intersections
to something more
descriptive.

Polyline intersections are composed of two parts: the polygon trace and
the vertical seismic intersect0n. The polygon trace is stored under the
General intersection object in the lnput pane under the appropriate
seismic volume.

Procedure

1.

Creating a Polyline lntersection

Activate a seismic volume in the lnput pane.

.'/Pro..o"=

iI Lo,:
Strabsraphr
I a Geophysrcs

I }{if:l-.;:r:=:=
2.

i&'.ig

h-: j=[il::1iI "

!..

is,

Display a time slice in a 3D or 2D window and click

or

to create an arbitrary polyline intersection (digitized in


random directions), a seismic aligned polyline intersectlon
(in-line or cross-line directions), or a combination of both.

120. Seismic nterpretati0n preparation

-.-----ilfFn--

Petrel Geophysrcs

Digitize points along a time slice.

Double-click to end. The intersection appears and is stored in


the !nput pane with a polygon describing the path.

.# 7

mislRedizedl

@ fi
[{
@
l_.-- a-

lv:

1
To

tntine 635

XUne 47*
=-

---

, ry m Gemral nter*dior
Fl i-*j rttr*r

tFrbitray polygronl

FGlysDr*

edit the polygon, activate/bold the arbitrary p0lygon

in

lnput pane and the Make/edit polygons process under


Utilities.

J.-l

L-

Click the show points in Polygon

anO

Polygon editing

in the process toolbar.

f
l

Ir---

r---

I.--

Drag and re-draw the orientation 0f the line. The arbitrary


seismic intersectron is updated accordingly.

Selsmlc lnterpretati0n Preparric

121

Procedure
Gombining an Arbitrary Polyline with
Seismically Aligned Segments

1.

2.

Activate he Seismic interpretatiol? process.


If you are using a 3D window, post an object (for example,
trme slice). This is not required in a 2D

3.
4.
5.

window.

\<ll

Click Greate arbitrary polyline intersection


Draw the polygon using the left mouse button. To snap to an
in-line or cross-line direction, hold down the Ctrl key while
.

moving the mouse. The segment is restlcted to the seismic


cube alrgnment.
Double-click when you are finished drawing the polygon.

---,.

The seismic data displays automatically.

Composite Lines
Composite Iines display seismic data where multiple lines (in-lines or

F
J

interpretation.

.EI
)
>-l
^-_l

Procedure
- Building Composite lntersections lrom a 2D
Base Map Window

,l

cross-lines from a 3D cube or 2D lines) are displayed togetherto aid

_l

There are several ways t0 build composite lines. This procedure


describes how to build composite intersections from a 2D base map

window.

1.

2.
3.
4.
5.
r-#..
tl

6.

:i

t.---...,..-.i

Activate the Seismic interpretation process.


0pen a new 2D window and display all relevant data (for

.Ll
)
-

example, 2D sersmic Iines).

From the function list on the right side of the window, choose

Select composite section

t0] ..

Start clicking in the display window on the various seismlc


sections that you wish to keep in your composition.
To change the selection, press Delete repeatedly to go back

step-by-step.
Double-click the last input to close the selection.

Composite selections

are marked in white.

122. Seismic Interpretati0n Preparation

Petrel Geophysics

"%.-*--h.

Double-click to end the composite.


The component is displayed in the Composite folder in the

lnput

pane.

Corrposie folder

i, i f-l

. $ fliC-p-:ip_-;_i

l-

Composite line'!

line-::

il iE Campasite line 3
u EgrErelrqtste4rylrybi!Iypslysq{{rysl

t!,tsll

Seismic lnterpretatlon Preparatl0n

.,.e--

123

_iia-.-_5t!!l!
:lr:Jri
ii!
ilLrlna! (t:

Eli
4:

rt.4r

---,_?-L-_,,.,,1-._.F-

!i,
5{l
i!:
.w

h::it irr

il3
01

t.?.

j
::j

li,fri
I

:l

:ri,lr-ir:

ol .i, ,l,l',

l:
i

rrll,ie I i!jgii

ti!-]

:lli

itil

124.Se:(-

l,

e p e.a. or o epa o-0.

Petrel Geophysics

Procedure
Building Composite lntersections from an
lnterpretation Window

This procedure describes how to build composite intersections from


an

!nterpretation window

1.
2.

Activate fhe Seismic interpretatior? process.


Open a new lnterpretation window and activate a relevant
2D Iine inside it

l ti,l Corilposie

**ne

Y-, Xl-ne 5e* [mig]


Seismic ?D tine [slb6]

l g

right side of the

Se,'^ L ^ "'p'"r

io

Dpp. io, .l2E

\<
I

-=<
I

<
,L

-a
_-L-

--L-

Where there are rntersecting lines (potenttal compositton


parts), the cursor appears with a black vertical marker line.
lf you are using Compose with crossline (Shift+l) , you can
compose only 2D data with intersecting 3D cross-lines.
To compose wlth valous parts of the crossing line (the part

.L

extendrng away from you or against you), a comblnation of


keyboard inputs is required. To see the full list of available
combrnations, go to the Petrel Help and enter composite lines
on the Search tab. Various clip and extend composite section

possibilities also are described in the Petrel Help.

126. Seismic lnterpretatlon

Preparation

Petr e1 Geophys

rs

I--

a-

f
f

I--

--l

Jumper Composite Section


Ihe Jumper composite section enables you t0 open 2D seismic lines
that are not rntersecting each other. I\4aking a jump correlation is
particularly useful when interpreting for regional evaluations.

r.--

l_"

Procedure

arr--
af
f
L'

1.

f
E
f
f

IL--r

Creating a Jumper Composite Section

Display your 2D seismic lines in a 2D window.

aa*t

Ir---

I-_-j

r--

r-#l

Click Select composite section

urO click on a 2D line

that you wish to include in the jump tie.

-'-

----a

'-.--l

r--

Selsm c

lnterpretati0 Preparation. 127

_.

E-J
.^l

)
--!.

3. Draw Jumper composte section &

is activated. Click
the icon. Thrs gives y0u an option to select either the entlre or
part of the first non-intersecting 2D line.

-',]

-J

-l

-L

,)
--

4.

Select some part of the 2D line by dragging the cursor on it.

>-
.L

.L

i-

-L-

-t-

.L

r-

5.

Click on this line and jump to another non-intersecting line to


whrch you wish to tie the first.
>

128.S";

r L^-rpp-dliot oep"aiol

Petre Geophys cs

Seismlc lnterpretation Preparati0f ''129

=J

Seismic Data Visualization and


Manipulation
Lesson 4

=<

ln this lesson, you will learn about different ways t0 visualize seismic
data and the tools that you can use to make visualization and

manipulation of data easier and more effective.

-J

Windows Tiling

Tiling 30, 2D, and lnterpretation windows is a powerful tool for


interpreting seismic data. You can see the data and rnterpretation
srmultaneously and interactively in all windows. lf the same seismic
line is selected in all windows, line manipulation is interactively
updated in allwindows. You can resize the windows as you wish.

,
--.d

r--J

.L

A cursortracker is available for each window. When the


selected for multiple windows, the cursor location in one window is
dynamically displayed in the other windows. Note that this can have an
rmpact on performance. Seismic lines are automatically linked; you also
cursor is

can link other posted objects.

--
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thartirq taindcn
WEli se.iir hiNilr,' ..
liy,!:fdr: irlcl ldfr.lc8

lffil

l:n11Crett-;1-

ilrrlisplay aii data

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130. Seismic lnterpretati0n Preparation

Petre Geophyslcs

Dual Screens
lf you have two monitors, you can resize the petrel main window so
that it can be displayed in both monitors, which allows additional
screen space to display data. For details about the recommended
hardware for using Petrel on dual screen setups, contact local support
through the Schlumberger Support Portal at support.slb.com.

Windows to Visual Groups Linking


The option to link windows to visual gr0ups is very useful during
interpretation. lt allows a simultaneous similar display of the data in

different windows.

when objects are posted in one window, they are displayed in the other
linked windows. when you change the display of objects in the active
window the other linked windows are affected.
0bjects posted in multiple windows can have parameters specific to
each window. For example, you can post wellbores in a 3D window
using a pipe and post the same wellbores in a 2D window using a
dashed line. Petrel manages each object in each window
independently.

Petrel Geophysrcs

Seismic Interpretati0n Preparation.

l3l

Procedure
'l-.-.'j

Visual Groups

Linking Windows to
-Windows
pane, open the Settings dialog box for each

1.

ln the

2.

displayed wlndow and select Linlred to visual grolry


Choose Flrst from the drop-down list.

ffi

Settlfis

f*r

'3D !.*fido, 1 aAyl

i-;:::

l{6 r*o .!i:.


i:iU
9::i5.1-=
3D ind6$Name: 3Di

Cclor:

I
Af

*ndo*

ffi

Visual group

'd:

Linkedt0 Ysal gruF

Sssnd
Thnd
FGUrth

Activate 0ne wndow and select an 0bJect in the lnput pane. lt


L

:L

l-

Click

Cursor tracking to

see the cursor position in all

wrndows.
1.,:lr..,

132.

Se smic Interpretatl0n Preparati0

rlr

-4x
,

r,

Petre Geophysics

When objects are posted in one window, they display in the other
lrnked wrndows. A change in the display of objects in the active
wrndow effects the other linked windows.
0bjects posted in multiple windows can have parameters specific to the
wrndow. For example, y0u can post well bores in a 3D wlndow using a
pipe and post the same well bores in a 2D window with a dashed line.
Petrel manages each object in each window independently.

Windows to Coordinate Groups Linking


You can link two 0r more 3D or

lnterpretation windows with a camera

so thatwhen you 200m, pan, and squeeze the objects in one window,
the action is synchronized in the llnked windows. You can display

different objects in each window.


When you click the Camera icon, the names of all of the windows that
are linked together are updated.

Petre Geophysics

Selsmic Interpretation Preparation o 133

lir:**"*:ri
II

'*:r:

I -*i

Procedure

[inking Windows to Coordinate Groups


1. ln the Windows pane,".a-gtivate the window to link.
2. Click Gamera linking tH (0ru or 0FF) in rhe menu bar.
3. Bepeat steps 1 and Z or other windows of the same type.

4.

Activate one window and pan, zoom, and squeeze its seismic
content. 0bserve the other windows

xli

-S
a$!i4*

IL

HL

{i,tw

i@,
-.-..LF**,,._..j:,r.;..

.
+lts

-iJ

-*
4*,

5n$

IL

94.1

JNL

"

$*

ir''e-e

".L?,:, q3,iif,

*
)

L-l

_-J

-j
_]
!

Synchronized Camera Position for 3D Windows


To synchronize

the camera position for several3D windows, y.u must


link the windows by using the camera linking tool. use
this tool to
link two 0r more 3D windows together so that ny mov.m.nts
or

rotations are mirrored in all linked windows. you can display


different
objects in each window.

_l

-J

_l

LJ
134.

Sersmic lf

terpretatlof preparation
Petrel Geophystcs

{h

E-J

Procedure
Windows

1.

Synchronizing a Gamera Position for 3D

ln the toolbar click the Gamera Iinking tool


that the 3D window is active.

.ffij

Make sure

The text (Camera link) appears after the name of the 3D

window.

2.

Actrvate the next 3D window and click Gamera linking.


The windows are now linked and any movement, such as

rotations, is reflected in both windows, simultaneously.

Petre Geophys cs

Seismic lterpretatl0n Preparatl0f

135

E-L

Seismic Ghost Gurve


Use the ghost curve to create a small bitmap of reflectors 0n a seismic

line. You can move the ghost curve area to other parts 0fthe same
sesmic line or other seismrc lines to compare signal patterns and

identify the same horizons across a fault.


When you create a ghost, it is stored inhe lnterpretation window
folder in the Windows pane. The seismic data and the ghost in the

lnterpretation window share the window display.

L
i:
L-.-

-ito,

can have as

many ghosts as you wish,

but it is recommended that


you periodica ly clean up the
ghosts.

L.

lf you click the ghost in the lnterpretation window, the ghost is


activated in the Windows pane. lf you click the seismic data displayed
in the lnterpretation window, lnterpretation 1 under the
I nte rp retati o n wi n d ow f older is activated.
ln practice, this means that you can have different settings for the ghost
and the seismic data in the lnterpretation window. For example, you
can display the ghost with wiggles 0r another attribute while displaying

the seismic data in a conventional mode.


From the Windows pane, you can toggle the ghost on or off, delete the
ghost, and access the settings. When the ghost is bold/activated, you

L-

L-

lL
L

can change the display options for it.

lL
l*

E
b-

F
L
136. Seismlc lnterpretation Preparati0n

Petrei Geophysics

*--

.".

,.

illFF

_*

*-

ar-.

I.

Procedure

1. 0n the

I-..-.-

r_r_-

Greating a Seismic Ghost" Curve


toolbar ctick Seismic Ghost

f}

,-}
.

...:

I--<

1LL--

2.

Draw a rectangle over the seismic line

l3

I\love the mouse


inside the ghost area jn the

-_-

interpretatron window and


click with the right button
The rmage inside the ghost is
updated with the seismic

r.-

I'

beneath it.

f
f
f

--_-

-,__-

r-_-

a.

I---r

--,-

L.
L.
L.

3. Drag the Ghost to the part of the line you wish to correlate.
4. To stretch and squeeze, position the cursor on the edge, then
5.

click and drag.


To rotate, press Ctrl + Shift.

II-

-1

Seismic lnterpretati0n Preparat cn

lntersection Style Settings

r-l:

ii

i.-----l

Working with ZGY


data in Petrel can enhance
visualization and
performance.

The lntersection subtab is similar for SEG-Y and ZGY data; however,
s0me settings are n0t actve for both formats.
These setting are avarlable on the Style tab, lntersection subtab in the
Settings dialog box for the seismic data.

lnterpolation method: Displays the seismic section with


sub-sample appearance. Smooth is the default selection, but
y0u can display intersections without interpolation (to see
seismic sections wrth original sampling interval, blocky display,

l-

or bilinear interpolation).
Enhance intersection resolution: Active for SEG-Y data only.
This option is purely an interpolation of the seismic data set.

There is no added data, but the result gives a smoother looktng


seismic display. Note that texture memory increases, on

low-end computers, this can slow down visualization.


Enable zone and segment fllters for intersections: Works for
seismic volumes that are attached to a 3D grid. This optton

>

allows you t0 use segment/zone filters on the intersection.


Enable bump mapping: Gives an artificial display of the seismic
sections where light and shadows enhance the events so that

lL._

they appear as bumps on intersections.

]L

)>

E
L
]*

r
LL---

138. Seismic lfterpretatl0n

Preparation

Petrel Geoph,

I-

rf
---

Setti*gs far'mig'

f
L-

{r

J-,-t

Styl

:,*'BsEp'annotson

Tl{

a--l

Stnngs re in"eriEd om psrentlotder

--t
Visuslia!in

iilers lqr tntasEciifi

lfl
MBx

EneblE ksparen) for intrssition

rsolution , Full

P erfo rm anc
i.?-.1

ns

hladiunr

Ftsst sssn mpuemeht

DBeimBoh whrle dregging


TimE tD

wsitfor data

']JTI '

Pefe

Geoph\/sics

50jl

Selsmlc lnterpretation Preparation. 139

Settings Dialog Box for 3D Seismic Data in a 3D Window


3D seismic
These optrons are available in the settings dialog box for
data ln a 3D window.
Enable transparency for lntersections: works in conlunctron
the opacity curve found on the Colors tab Typically' the

-d

_!-

i-

with

crossover, 0r zero values, are made (partly) transparent'

.Maxresolution:Controlsthemaximumresolutionusedfor
display.lfmediumresolutionisselected,thehighresolution

seismicdatawillnotdisplay.WhenusedwiththePreJetchto
cacheopfion,amedtumsettrngmeansthatnolevelofdetail

t-.-

atlevel0(highresolution)willdisplay.However,ifthevolume
is used to compute a new one, for example with the Seismic

al

calculatorortheVolumeattributedialogboxes,thenthe

full resolution is used.

smooth
Enable compressed textures: Shows a slightly less
the
seismic display at the lntersection This option compresses

Is

seismic data before lt is sent to the graphics card The

compressionisnotlosslessandshouldnotbeusedfordetalled
many 2D
work. This optron is especially useful when displaylng

L-'

lineslnthe3Dwlndowbecausetheoptronreducesthetexture

[-

memory usage.
you move a
Decimate when dragging intersection: When
on the factor
based
slice
selsmic
the
seismrc slice, decimates
you
browse
lets
factor
that you select. A high decimation
through large volumes by looking at a less mem0ry intensive

!.

level of detall.
when you
Fast scene movement: Maximizes the performance

l>

rotatethescenewhiledisplayingseismicdata-Thisoption
acttvates lhe Time to wait.fbr data conlrol'
Time to wait for data: Controls the time the seismic

->

intersectionisallowedtowaitfordatabeforemovlng0nt0a

L.

new Position.

L_

t*
f40

Petrel Gecp"

.:

Se smic lnterpretation Preparation

-._----.-d

--

ra
l...ir-i

Sttngs are rnhe.iled liom pBrentfoidei

,f^lone

'

i r Eilirar

,6 Smooth

ErihoreiIiertecl4nr5.rilriia]n

Verticat: f -i.

.J

Horiontsl:

li

V,su 3lizarion

Enabl zdne :ind segn*i lritEr:1 i.r{ .rl!:.:iiinr:f


Eneble !rump mappinE
BumF seEle

:t'.

Fast scene movement

De.imatisn while draEging


Time to h'aitfor dat

i.i
0

Seismic nterpreta 0n PreDarat 0n.141

Meta Data Tab and Geometry Tab


The Meta data tab contains the processing details of the seismic
survey in the project" You can specify the details manually.
The Geometry tab displays the geometry parameters of the survey. you
can assign geometry to the survey from another survey using the

Get

from Selected button.

Refer to the Petrel Help for details on the these 0pti0ns.

ffi

Settings far'mlg'

;-'-- --:

:t.-:t

'-:

t::ta:::
i* . ltvF- i&- t"rq
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SEG.Y*lhns

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L O99_r"u, tr.taOuta ,p*iry I Q@trtyilab'xs lercpfe-.,
e*pf*

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;.,J

il Acquisition aate, lliz:+srji *ur"*ou,


pl'.."j

;FrY::l .
*;;:-"
ir
li

srr"r.

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t/pe
Ful,
qqte ldeoreesl
Stack

. -.- -

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3e" iE

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--ilil

:-

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[deg.ees]:
'-----.*Steps

Azjmuth

Processins detaits

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I42.

Seismic lnterpretation preparati0n


Petre Geophysics

L
I--r

SEG-Y Settings

l-

L-

f
f

0n the SEG-Y settngs tab for a seismic object, there is a list of the
loading parameters as well as binary and ASCII (EBCDIC) headers for
the file. You cannot edit any 0fthe c0ntent on this tab, buty0u can see
the header of the seismic data that y0u are w0rking on.

-,

&

li&*.@

se*B.r* ri*'

asrl@'.&l*

.@gft*

hI.B

:*'

!s 4a{

r0! rir!

r-. -,t'i, . i..-,!-:sl.ic**ny i **r*uu* ip*u*


i

.*a &r1 ft{is:rtc


rsr
(!6 *flt
rr*!-{ n@wr4Pr[5iE{t
{ *}L{ rr& fr511tn( rf

-,

f
t_
f

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k. h&i

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Pds e8t !bt,

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3S 4*si ilrrk tude,
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w: !si'r 3!3re p:
",",."-* clfle !i
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l

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If
-=-

II-

L
--1

L
l-

Survey Manager
Use the Survey manager to sort and manage seismc data in Petrel.
You can controlthe parameters for 2D lines as well as 3D volumes,

including the number 0f traces, vintage, file path, and storage type, and
sort and move data into folders.

suruey manager

-1

Mis-tb set 1 28

li

You also can use the Survey manager to visualize data.

Petre Geophys cs

'- a

L.I prto :0, D opo

d .113

laE
jLli s

trE@E

tr

tr

Lryl Lal

t_-__

r_a.J

iH Fi i-rl lld

tr

tr

rin riEl G] l:

trmEn

Ei :.;

ftEi

Show setting dialog for selected seismic


Search for Seismic rn the Survey M
Turn on

/ off the selected

seismic in current window

Toggle visibility of the selected seismic in the current window

Delete the selected seismlc

Clear filter setting

Move selected seismic to another sub-folder


Real ize selected seismic

Vertically shift selected seismic


Set vintage on selected selsmlc
Set template (color table) selected seismic
I

Scan or set mrn and max amplitude on selected seismic

Vertically crop and declmate traces of selected 2D Seismic

Settings for the Survey Manager


Sort by double-clicking on the column name. You can make the columns
wider or narrower by dragging the column boundaries. Click on the top
left corner of the spreadsheet t0 select the entire spreadsheet for
copying.

L.

l-

tt144. Selsmic lnterpretatiof

Preparation

Petrel Geophvs

r:

fl

f
f
I--r

Procedure
Using the Survey Manager to Sort and
Manage Seismic Data

2.

Right-click Seismic main folder and select Survey manager


Click the Select columns to display in Survey manager icon

to control the appearance of the spreadsheet.

J-,4

r_r_-

, id f"!lj

iry;t

i,iil.trl$ iBii$l

i.&l i!{,1 il
Oo@ar fme

lrmpbt

--

rrJ

---

I
1
a
1
---

II=-

-_-

i2a

.Ii-' '*'--'----

i2t
1zz

"ita

i?3

sii

r*;;:x"

"r*:a

;rA

j5

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a,2?

II-

L"
fI-a

1.
#

T
r-

'-,

Gecphysics

Si

.lerflre"'' o"p"":or

o145

Choose columns to display.

Colurn* sefetian
Visible
Nam
I sumev
j

&

..

\linraae
ub folder
Dsmain
TYPe

Template
I Direclion
, #l rnes
# Traces

# amples
ample interual
i Firsi P

i-t
t::i
il
I lt: .l

LasiSP
Fi.sl CDF
Last CDP
lt ".1 X min

r,;-l

lll

,l

il-l xmax
il:' lYmin

,i , Yma
Z min

Zmx
Frmai
File size
Storas
Min amplilude
l"ilax amplifude
traqe lype
Fi palh

l-

Aibute

1i 'lempl'le lk
0risinai CS
esric line idsntier

emeEy line nae


i GEftetry linE

idedilt

r.

t
146. Seismic Interpretation Preparatlon

Petrel Geophysics

If--J
Procedure
Manager

Searching for Seismic Data in the Survey

1. Click Search tool for seismic in the Survey manager to


display the search engine.
2

Enter the complete name 0r a part of a name in the Find what


field. The search engine starts at the top of the Survey

manager and searches for files that match your search


criteria.
Use these options to narrow the search:

o
o
.
o
o
4.

Match case: Takes into account both upper- and lower_


case letters and searches for files that match the case of
your search criteria.

...t..

lli".*-,,ft

t -ff:j

1..,:..'j

;*r

-,

,lL

-- -i

lhe search is valid

only for the items visualized


in the Survey manager.
Therefore, if you apply the

folder filter, then only the


sersmic data within the
visualized folder is included
in the search.

Match whole name. Searches for the full name of the file.
Search up: Starts the search from the bottom of the

Survey manager and searches

up.

Find next: Highlights the next name in the Survey


manager Ist that matches the search criteria.

Select all: Selects all names in the Survey manager that


match the search criteria.
Click Close to close the dialog box.

Data Selection in the Survey Manager


You must select data in the

delete it, 0r move

itto

survey manager before you can display it,

a folder. There are severalways to select ata

for these tasks


To

select only one seismic data file, click on the corresponding

row/line in the Survey manager.


To select several seismic

files simultaneously, select one line


and press Shift, then select another line. All seismic data
between the selections are highlighted.
To select specific files, select one line and press Ctrl, then
select another line. Both selections are highlighted.
To select

all files, click on one of the header columns.

Pe,'el Geophysics
Seisrnrc lnterpretation Preparati0n

147

Realizing Selected Seismic Data in the


Procedure
Survey Manager

1.

Select the seismic data t0 be realized in the Survey

managef

2.
3.

Clrck Realize

seismic data

-
:=
_/
-

_l

._1

Choose the preferred amplitude range and realization

quality in the dialog box that opens. Petrel realizes the


selection rnto a specified folder.

-
.-

_-

Seismic Data Visualization using the Survey Manager


You can select and vlsualize seismic data from the Survey
manager. The sortrng mechanlsms rn the Survey manager make it

,,'-

easier to frnd the relative data and visualize it.

i {"-l

i.f{,:Turn on the selected seismic in the current


window to visualize the selected seismic data in the
Click

active window. Keep rn mlnd that vrsualizrng a large


number of 2D lrnes in the 3D window mrght stress the

-1

graphics card.
Click Turn off the selected seismic in the current
window t0 remove the visualization of the selected

-a

sersmic files in the active window.

':'-

-1

.. j Toggle visible

of the selected seismic in


the current window to lnvert the view for the selected
Click

sersmic data.

Data into Folders

Moving Seismic
and manage seismic data efficiently, you can create and

Procedure
To organrze

move data into subfolders from the Survey manager.

tJ

1. 0pen the Survey manager.


2. Select seismic data an-d.9!_ick Move selected seismic to

You can create

iH,:

subfolders in the survey


folders by right-clicking on
the Surveyfolder and
selecting lnsert new

another sub-folder i--':l

folder. You can drag


seismlc data from lnput

3.

Data into the folders.

148. Seismrc nterpretation

fr*-'

Preparation

,-

E-

.i

A new dialog box opens where you can select a folder to


move the data into. lf no subfolder exists, y0u can create a
new subfolder rn this dialog box.
If a subfolder already exists, click in the parent field for the
Peel Geophts.!

1aL-

selected line in the Surveyfolder t0 select the data io

--

move tnto a Predefined folder.

rr.___-J

---

I*

r_--

a-

Changing the Template for Multiple


Procedure
Entries in the Survey Manager

managef

f
f
f

Click L9$i Set template (color table) on selected

seismic.
Select the appropriate template from the dialog box that
0pens.

4.

Display the seismic data with the new colors.

Color Manipulation

f-r

Most objects in Petrel are tied to a template. A template ts a


comm0n object consrsting of an icon and a color table. This sectl0n
focuses on color manipulation related mainly to seismlc data.

ft

I-.-

,r,-

iV*t

--j

1. Select the objects and drag them lnto the Survey

3.

f
L

When you attach multrple seismic objects to a new template, all


selected objects are updated.

2.

rL-

iilri

All seismic objects in a prolect are attached to color templates that


you can change rn the Settings dialog box for each of the objects.

-l-

I---..

*:1i
ii i:1 it:!
tit

Color Palettes
The defautt color template used for selsmic data in Petrel is the
Sersmrc default template. Positive amplrtudes are displayed rn red
and negattve amplitudes are displayed in blue. By default, Petrel
estrmates the mlnimum and maximum amplitudes for the visualized
se rsmic.

You can modify the colors for the seismic object easily in the Colors
tab rn the Settings dialog box. You also can change the color

templates

rn

Peirel l:eophysics

the Templates Pane.

Seisrnlc nterpretat 0n Preparali0

'

149

\J
_F.

Greating a New Golor Template

Procedure

1. Go to-the Templates pane and expand the Seismic color


fables f older.

ffi

: ffi

1#'rp#y'f[-c.8n-es.1--

y_-

Teun*aeo/;cr

El L:l ri+?i

,t'*,ite &/iie

I il #dr,ffiiri'e I{,re fiers/


I {:-l als,qsrrcl,l.1,i1ib
@[ ease
ffili'-i

Fase&snd

Frsq{re/rcl.
ta,seredsesJ

El
@n

jr

-,',

o,'
@ |1 x*mr*n

&l

il

im
ir

ffi

,M
rM
!M
!M
tM
I ffi
rffi
rM
.. &
i, M
M
)M
l. M
:, ffi
! &
, fil
t, il:
i, ffi

-.1
L.d

{e--qj

Serb*lri ca/!b&/es
srsr?rbfde&ir{J
He.*teae

El n
El l:

J
_F

lr

"4*sraeaa
!-J ,4rrlrac*rg
csltrbde
GerrP.fbslfrrF/a,ss

=-/
Y

{,-e*p*ysrbe/ternplates
Fe&oprlysrba/ter*Pla/es
Fu/fprFeryfFj?lP/ete
l/s/r?e fe,.rrp/EtF
Hre/i tro6te*rp/etEs

LJ

,!

.3&/sgfrrp/sfes
&rbcreti* lrc#logrlenrgJafes
Corapfe$ol:sttsrrP/ele-s
FraslufbrFrrEnlsls
ricrerbprqPedYrP/sts
tar$iolsiacr+propedyfempy'afes

[]icrefafacrtnepreperfyfi-'rlP/'3ies
{r-esrl?ecr?ie felqp/afss
FetsrJelnrsys*rnslbnip/als

l--

ilprSrsffseslprll*rplafps
rbrrerts o#erflelrrplafes
Safrrns
$,fe//see*bnlP"mpdafes

Fepoternpy'atefrlder

E-

E-

r
150.

Sersmic Interpretati0n Preparati0n

Petre Geophysics

L-

2.

Copy and paste the Seismic (default) template. A new


template is added with the name Copy of Seismic (default).

Ses*zir xolartables

Errffi
Resrrt*e**re

;
@;

El I*i

Rean*i,rae{acx,8.o,n

wfiire

blse

"
xe{*ttebtue{ta*s}
l;
J #farf greyr,,vfitre
@; r*ase

'""*'"'

f,j',,.'.
ll .-1 rregeficy
i-; fsrarce{sersj

Eli:

,p

@ Jl lr?Jr
@ fi ,4rerua*bn

&

11 ,4rrrracrllg

El

!:

i:

Srfeez a#r:buE

q"jy siqsEryEi:{cf"y!{.

lmport and Export of Color Templates


To import color templates, right-click the Sersmic color tables
folder in the Templates pane and select lmport (on selection).
Export color templates in the same way as any object and select the

correct format.

Color lnterpolation Models


The continuous color table in Petrel has different settings for color
interpolation of the color scale. ln general, the HSV(Max)

interpolation setting gives a color scale with a maximum number of


colors. The HSV(Min) and BGB settings give two slightly different
color scales with a minimum number of colors between the
maximum and minimum colors that you select.
For more information, refer to the

Petrel

Help.

Seismic interpretat on Preparat 0n

151

-_i-

io**G

rc

Procedure

Editing Color Palettes

1. From-the Templates pane, double-click

the template Copy

of Seismic (default)and g0 to lnfo tab in Settings dialog


box to edit the palette name.

tt

-*

_
ar

Settings for 'Copy of Seismic {defult}'

-:to the Golors tab to edit the colors.

Go

Click

J.

flf

fL

and drag it to change the balance of the palette

Semngs tcr'Btack Yeilcrs Red":'!,,:.

I
I

^
-<

L-

--.

Max
ffi

ll
-r-'-'r
LI]14]

mi
l
tH)t

LE]I

HSv{Max}

f,::l
L.I

i-: Hsvluin
,l nce

L]
i_ii
l"il

Lnrphssrze

lfi

llr;li

olor interpolaiion:

,*

---r

l''i(

Hon linear gradient

- '-" -

Mi

ffil
:t:

-L-

L-

LI-]i

\,!--

:::jl

,{rr Irllil
in

E-

i{

0paci 4

152 o Seismic Interpretation Preparation

rz

l-

_l-

l"li

ftl
Irlil

t{,...'...'.,'}

_L-

f{-,ieqsJ

t_.

ttH

l*l:le..'.,j

Petrel Geophysics

t-

L
r_---

Go

to lnfo tab in the seismic cube Settings dialog box to

change the template.

r_-.

L'

r_-

L-

L
I--.

dJ

Eleletiengener8l
GEnetsltime
-Thickoss depth
Tvf :re vettcal thickess
TsT -rre sttEttgrsphtc thEkness
rhrknessltnle

I-_-

l-

j
zI

r_-

a_-

f
f
I.

lhrrkness ?en+rsl

Brownwhiteblu
Red uhrle biu-. ltransl
Elsrk qy wh ie
Phase
PhEs frr8rsl

Il

:I

L_......

J+ riequflfil

Varisnce {seis}

I
ll

Aimlrh
AttEnL,tlcn

31

AntirsckinE

I__

Lt_

3l
g

up

SuBrenttribut

Jii.it i;al il;t !!r!-;li;


DJ lessuC,iepth
Drstnce

I-

f
f
L.
f

df

. i:r:irlra aai;it liiit!


lI Seisnric fCelsutri
tl Reawhitsniue
3I Recwhrtebtack

-1

--,--

--1

--,-

f.
aa-l

--1

Color Tables
You can apply the color manipulation from the settings

of a2D

seismic line to other lines. choose 0ne 0f three levels of


c0lor tables
in the Colors tab.

o
.

Local: changes are appried 0nry t0 the specific seismic rine.


Survey and vintage: Changes are applied to all objects
that
belong to the assigned vintage and use the same template.
Other objects that use the same template but are assigned

to other vintages are not affected.


Petrel Geophysics
Seismic lnterpretati0n Prefrarat

0n.

,l53

-J
l,-J

I-l
^

Global: Changes affect all objects that use the same


template regardless of the vintage.

Change Local and Vintage tables on the Colors tab; change the
Global table on the lnfo tab.

LJ

_l

-J

h*

:l

i* #!"r"r*t

L.

:J
t
:J

L.,.r

:l^l

Y-a

t--J
Golors Tabs
To specify

the color settings for a specific object, toggle on the

Override global property template check box on the Colors tab


forthe object. lfthis check box is toggled off, the settings are
inherited from the global property template.

:J
t-r
_^-l

.d

0n the Colors tab, you can modify the colors, the scale, and the
opacity level curve. When you click Apply, the 0pacity tab and the
displayed windows are updated accordingly.
The color interpolation methods are described in the Petrel Help.

^J

l--J

l-.J

J
154.

Se smic InterpreLat 0n Prepa,al 0n

P..t*l

G.".hr*

1--d
-l

-l

I--J

f-

E
-{3

7rF

r--J

f
I_f
f

:s 789;6

-r -,li ir;l-

-L-J

6n&

5S&-

n
E

f,

d0fr

*3,rF

!r*J

--___r

f
f
f

Ir,__r

--J

-----)

Add/remove colors
Change color interpolation

method.
Update (min, max) values.
Make discrete intervals.
Define opacity level curve

=
=

=
Se sm c lnterpretatt0n

Preparati0f.'155

f
I
I
..

0pacity Tab
Any change that you make in the Opacity tab is immediately
applied in the displayed window and in the Golors tab. You do not
need to click Apply.

:.J

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:l-J

5.,

L.

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i--

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lr'J
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156. Seismic lfterpretati0n

I
i

ff-.,..-

Preparation

Petrel Geophysics

_
F.r

L.

Visualization Tools
r this lesson, you will learn about the visualization tools that

Lesson 5

you

can use to display seismic data in Petrel.

Volume Rendering
Volume rendering is a srmultaneous display of all data withrn the
seismic volume. Making the volume partly opaque and partly
rransparent allows you to identify hidden structural and depositional
f eatures. Depending on the size of the seismic cube and the

tiii

computer BAN/, it is a good idea to use a cropped volume forthrs

data.

:.

---..--i Volume renderinq is

possible only for ZGY data

format cubes. This format


allows you to render large

TOCESS.

Select the Volume render check box to activate the volume


renderrng feature and toggle on the volume in the Input pane.

Ilte View aligned s/ices

optton gives the best results wtth large

data, because of rssues with oraphics cards.

reire

Geophys cs

Seisrn

fterpretatr0n Preparat of .157

fr,*-i
if: S

ii;

i.,::,,irt:l,i

Using Volume Rendering

Procedure

1. 0pen-a 3D window and select the realized 3D cube in the


lnput

pane.

!:f

2.

ffi . i mis {Realieed}

ln the cube Settings dialog box 0n the Golors or Opacty

tab, draw the oPacitY curve.

Colrr itrpolaD:

a I Hsvihaxl
.' HSv ir,finl
, RG

i-t

i N0n lnear sradiilr

l_s_l

rJ

H
la

_l

tca

lFl
r;I
l-/ I

m
,8
1:I

F.

r-:l

l:E

iltl-'l
lLli

,;1'r#*'j

158. \e s-,1 ,..e p

t-

prr 0't Preoarati0r

aG*i

,-l

Petrel Geophystr:

1aaa"
----1

Setings 1*:'miq ea1.fld1

t'

-^---1

-.--------

-.-----{

r_r_-'----

-*-.
E--

-,-;

0n the Style tab, Volume visuallzatlon subtab, select


Volume render to drsplay amplitudes specified in the
opacity curve.

Petrel GeophVslcs

Seismlc nterpretali0n Precaratio. 159

;
r. !nt+me*tien

it't

lffi

Yalumevisualizeti+n

ry,lsi

Volume walls

:, I Nsrmal
(,lnsrdP

.'jd l Enable transpar*ncy for

r*ralls

j#; Vclume rend*r

' D"t

1*

align*d slices

i',,

\iEw aligned sliss

Ii

l,lunrber of slic*s for entir+ seismic rolume

I Hide franre,ianntali*n in vierting

;
-1

^,-

mlde

:.
)

-l
--
]

>_J

F-

-l
]

t-.

Volume Wall 0ptions


0n the Volume visualization tab, y.u have these two .pti.ns
f,r

displaying the volume walls:

o
o

Normal. Displays the walls of the cube in a seismlc


box.
lnside: Displays the walls with a view of the volume
from

the inside.
You can use transparency f0r v0lume walls by toggling
on the

Enable transparency.for walls check box and editig the opacity


160. Seismic lnterpretati0n preparati0n

ryry1ofl@jg!j{

pa c

ity

ta bs
Petrel Geophysirs

]
!*_a

I
_l
I

t-{

t--a
t_-l

.I-l

a
a
a

Procedure
',

Displaying Votume Walls


Open the 3D window and toggle on the
realized

in the

--

--l

a'

lnput

ZGy cube

pane.

i*

X ffi

mis {Beetie.di

ln 3D Seismic Volume Settings dialog


box, on the Style
tab, Volume visualization subtab, toggle on
Volume
walls and set the method to Normal or Inside

--

rr'-*

aa"

ffi

Volume walls

-,---J

rj
I---t

l.,lormal

',.-i

lnsde

Eneble tmnspareneyfor xalls

lrate *iigned s!i+e*

Ualume render

I.-.1

E--

!i*lq lii*d *ijt*t


,--

lfl

I tlul,*r

r,t -l:*-+

ftr r:iire s*ismic v*l;:l*

Hidefnme.,,annntatinn in riemno mode

r_-

E
--

T
T
T
-=

Seismic lnterpretatt0n preparation.

i6l

.:J

^*.

Light Tool
Visualization of structural and stratigraphic information is one of the
key elements in an interpretation workflow. Visualizati0n allows you
to identify 0nly what you are capable of distinguishing.
This is particularly true for geophysical interpretation that relles on
illumination and reflectance. Seismic data can reveal such structural
orientations by employing shaded relief techniques that can help to
enhance geologtc understanding.
Shading or better illumination is controlled by lighting p0sition, the
illumination model, and the surface reflectance that acts as a

directional filter. Features that are illuminated perpendicular to the


light source vector will be enhanced, whereas features that are
parallel to it would be illuminated minimally.
Noise removal using structurally oriented light sources creates
volume that can be interpreted more consistently because an
interpreter can focus on particular feature orientations while

suppressing the response found in displays that use only one


headlight.
The Lighttool has an easy-to-use dialog boxthat is available in 2D
and 3D windows and in lmmersion mode. lt allows you to add and

manipulate light sources to enhance geological features.


These light s0urces can have different colors and y0u can move
them by varying the elevations and the azimuth, which allows the

interpreter to illuminate and focus on particular structural or


stratigraphic elements of interest.
You can use the Light tool in many scenarios including:

.
.
o
o

-ar]
-J

:.J

i.--J

_l
_l
_l
t--J
-J

L..J

-l

t---J

_t

l----

:l
-l
I*-

t-J

seismic amplitudes
volume attributes applied on seismic data
gridded surfaces
geobodies.

_t

i-

_l

F_J

152. Seismic lnterpretation

Preparat on

Petrei Geophvsics

-l
-J

a---

---.

Petrel Geophysics

Seismic lterpretarr0n Preparatiof

163

l
:ll
.-J

Applications of the Light Tool


You can insert directional lights into a 2D or 3D canvas wrth varable

colors. You can move these lrght sources byvarying the elevation as

well as the azimuth. This frgure shows the main controls of the
Light tool.
Angle

tra.k

--

{G30 degreesl

L-J

-l
-J
h,J

>-

-l
E--

Tcggle
burnp
mapplng

oggle

Add
rsht

Rergr'e
ltsftt

The diagram in the figure depicts the way the light sources are
added into the display" Assume that the seismic intersection (the

r
.)
i--

subject that is exposed to rlluminatron) is at the center of a sphere


and a light source is at p0int B which can be expressed ln either
Euclidran (x,y,z) or polar (,0) c00rdinates.

t--J

=l

-l
l--{

-_l

l:t
l*J

l'--J

-l

=-.
164. qe smi.

lr lprpretdl o1 Prepardl

0r

Petrel Geophysics

_t

-l

Procedure

- Using the light Tool


1. Click Show lighuoot.

A floating dialog box opens in the 2D or 3D window.


Use these controls to change the lighting effects:

Toggle Bump Mapping. Enables and disables bump


mapping on the 2D seismic data.
Toggle Headlight: Enables and dlsables the headlight,

which is the initial lighting source 0n the seismic

.
.

image.

Add/Hemove light source. Adds up to seven light


sources to the window.
Collapse/Expand light tool: Minimizes rhe display of the
light tool by hiding settngs and displaying only the
angle and elevation tracks.

Petrel Geophysics
Seismic lnterpretation Preparatl0n

. l65

--..l
+]

Light Tool Examples


This figure illustrates the directional behavior of the two light
sources in vector form. The elevation and azlmuth are defined in
polar coordinates; the saturation and intensrty are editable after
adding the source to the window and are used to define the sources

J
-)

:-.,1

in the scene.

_-.]

_l
_j
b..J

>-

.EJ

--.,1

1
i---J

_l

t--.

--l

lt-J

-_l
i"--

_l

:
E-J

__l

=-
166. Selsmic Interpretatlon

Preparation

Petre Geophysics

-_l

Immersion Mode
lmmersion mode allows interpreters to experience the feeling of
rvorking virtually inside the data, delivering high visualquality in a
ful l-screen environment.
Using lmmersion mode, you can create 3D reconnaissance

workflows of seismic data. lnteractive tools for seismic


interpretation and attributes display in real{ime. You also can use
the Flyer tool to navigate through and understand the seismic
volume with functionalities customized for the interpreters.

Petre Geophysrcs

Se smic Interpretation

Preparation. 167

---

_l
bJ

_t

-l
l:l
:l
>

-l
-l
f--l

lj

the lmmersion Mode

Starting
1. Activate a 3D window and display a setsmic cube'
2. ln the lnput pane, right-click on the seismic cube and

I .--. :,i

..1
!:lli:ij

Procedure

.'::

select lmmersion.

3. The flrst time that you access the lmmersion

mode' you are

prompted t0 enter the lmmersron activation code' for


set
example, morpheus. Enter this code and' optionally'
the SLB-PETREL-l MMEBSI 0 N-PASSWORD environment

4.

variable 0n y0ur c0mputer. The activation dialog box will


n0t appear when thls variable is set to the correct code'
ln the active 3D window, display the seismic cube

,
LI
)

t-J
=

4
E-

-E

elements(in-line,cross-line,tnterpretation)tobevisualized

5.

in lmmersion mode.
Click Exit to end the lmmersion mode session'

=E
Petrel GeoPhYstcs

168. Seismic lnterpretation

Preparati0n

al
al
a
a:
r-{

lmmersion Mode Available Tools


You can access these tools in lmmersion Mode.

---{

E--{
-r

E
E

tr m
tr K
tr m
Adds a new seismic horizon

lnteractive change of template

Efficient navigation through the


volume
nteractive seismic attributes
list for the activated volume

Horizon Autotrack interpretation

in lmmersion mode

Petre Geophvsics

Seismic lnterpretation Preparation. 169

r--o
<l

Exercises

r-J

Visualizing Seismic Data

wiil get hands-on experience with using the


visualization tools discussed in this module.
ln these exercises, you

Exercise Workflow

.
.
.
.
.
o
o

Manipulate colors f rom the Seismic interpretation toolbar.


Manipulate selsmic lines in an lnterpretation window.
Explore the settings of an Interpretation window.
Modify the seismic data display (wiggle display).
Set the display scale for the lnterpretation window
Manipulate seismic lines in 2D and 3D windows.
Display a base map and annotations in 3D and 2D
windows.

Create random intersections.

Create composite lines in 3D and lnterpretation windows.


Create a Jump tie section.

Display multiple seismic views on the same screen.


Link

Interpretation

or 3D windows to coordinate gr0ups

(optiona l).
a

Use a seismic ghost curve.

Modify the seismrc data display.


Use the Survey manager.
Edit and create color palettes.

lmport and export color palettes.

Bender a seismic volume.

Display volume walls.

y-

_-.r'
_.-

--

L.l

r-.ra

..]
,-t

,,--.

-_l
--

.]

Manipulating Golors from the Seismic lnterpretation


Toolbar

r=J

-]

ln this exercise, you learn how to manipulate the seismic color

display from the Seismic interpretation toolbar. You can complete


this exercise in either a 3D or an lnterpretation window.
1

2.

Display or activate a seismic line (in-line, cross-line, or 2D


line) in a 3D or lnterpretation window. Notice that the
interface has been updated with a qulck access to the

_J
-J

Seismic interpretation toolbar.

0pen or reopen the toolbar. Go to the View menu and

_t

F-

select Seismic interpretation toolbar.


170. Seismic lnterpretatlon Preparatl0n

_..

_t

Petre Geophysics
!.

Move the handles on the color slider bar and see the effect
The color table is compressed

4.
5.
6.
7

symmetrically
Right-click the color table. The opacity curve opens.
Modify the opacity curve in the same way as if you were
using the 0pacity tab in the Settings dralog box.
Click Reset color table to go back to the default settings.
Change the color palette. Click the small arrow next to the
color palette name and select Black grey white and other
q_ol gl...g-pll
e d ro p-d own m e n u
J,h

9!

a+-

{gq.

J I Seismic (de'auh)

B.

lnsert a new fault and horizon from the toolbar. They


a

ppea r in

fhe I nte r p retati o n f older.

9. Take few minutes to familiarize yourself with the other


functionalities of the Seismic interpretation toolbar.

Manipulating Seismic Lines in an lnterpretation


Window
lnterpretation window in Petrel to display the seismic
section and interpret it. Although y0u can display and interpret the
seismic data in a 3D window, the lnterpretation window is mainly
Use the

where most of the horizon picking and fault interpretation work is


done.

The goal of this exercise is to famlliarize you with displaying and

manipulating seismic data in the lnterpretation window.

1.

Use one of these methods t0 open an

lnterpretation

window:

Select New interpretation

window

under

Window

in the main menu and select a seismic line to be

displayed in the window.


Right-click on a seismic line and select Greate

interpretation window.

Seismlc lnterpretation Preparati0n. 171

ffi^%.

Jt--

-l

-..J
L.J

r S iil
@

mig fRealkedl

i-l

lntine S?2

Hvtff,ffi
k Z=-1440 i_!, Sn.'rv seri"gs .

LJ

3. l"renl:+;:inqs...

lxporl,,.

gii

{:tri+

Edit iocat crior taLrle, .

L.r

( eie{e...

!-1,,:lt1:::::
Assrgn n'retcn

-)
L.J

-l

CrEsig hlerpf EtatiD! wrnlqw

Creae intersec:isn Bitlo\s

acnuert in :D erternal SEGI

I
L.

Press Shift + Ctrl and left-click to z00m in on the seismic

line. Moving y0ur m0use in this position allows different


horizontal and vertical scales for seismic display.
Left-click to pan. Use the scr0ll bars 0n the right side and
0n the bottom of the window t0 200m, pan, and stretch/
squeeze the data.
Pan the data. Press and hold the white area 0f the scroll
bar in the Iower part 0r 0n the right side of your window.
Drag the window by right-clicking (cursor becomes a hand

L-

--J
L-

1l-a
--L

\\\\

sYmbol

-/
,Yt

).

Zoom in on the seismic section.

a.

Click Magnify (Z)

ia,

on the process t00lbar t0 z00m

_-

in on the seismic section.

b.

when zooming.

c.

Take a moment t0 try the other display icons:

View all in

vewport & , ft viewport to width ffi , ft viewport


to height ffi , and Pan viewport to c:,lt-el ffi
B

L.r

Left-click and hold the left m0use button on the seismic


data and drag the mouse. The square indicates the
area t0 z00m n 0n.
Press Shift + Z to unzoom.
Use the mouse wheel t0 target z00m and unzoom. Hold the
mouse Over the area that you wish to zoom in or out and
scroll the wheel. The cursor positi0n is the center point

Traverse a line by using the

player

or the PgUp and PgDn keys. Select;"-19

Fa
I

L-

- : as Plane step

E-

increment.
172. Seismic lnterpretation Preparati0n

Petrel Geophysics

PgUp and pgDn keys, the window


and the seismic
line must be active (bold).
To use

9.

Display a previous

section 0r move back and forth


between
the section and the data that y0u
are viewing by using

Redisplay previous intersection

intersection .ffi-ffi

or.

i in

Oirf try

rr*,

the process actios toolbar.


The location of any crossing lines,
incf uOing 20, 3D, and
any arbitrary Iines, are indicated
with a triJngle directly
above the seismic line_ The names
of tfre ciossing lines are
displayed above the triangle(s)
at the top ot1f.,. *nUo*.
slb6

IL

6S

XL

47

618
470

827

4r0

l*line 632

636
47CI

lnline 651

045
47S

654
47

-1il

Display an in-line in the tnterpretation


window.
Drag the triangle (representing
tne crossinl iine) to another
location.
12

13

Click the triangle to visualize the


crossing line.
Note that both the tnterpretation
windo"w and the lnput
pane, as well as any other
active windows, are updated
with the new lines.
Flip the disptayed line 180 degrees
b-y,clicking

Atign

camera with plane/flip window


-E_ in the status

bar.

Exploring the settings of the rnterpretation


window
1. ln the Windows pane, identify t'he active lnterpretation

2.

window displayed in bold text. For


example, tnterpretation
window l.
Expand the active lnterpretation
window and the
subfolder I nterpretation l.

Petrel Geophysics
g 5mi6 rgpa,i6"

r,*"o0, .173

L<

3. Toggle on different options. For example.


a. 0pen the Settings dralog box for Grid lines and go to

L.J

the Style tab.


Change the appearance of the lines. Use size 1 0 black
crosses and modify the other parameters.
0bserve how the grid lines are displayed in the

b.

lnterpretation

=!-

wi ndow.

ultuxom
---'-:;;;*,

Lr

"ffiififfi
, ffi L* ltrFrtisn I

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L..

i.-l .****c,q'*e*g

i itl d
'"3
i5 -j dsbe
i&:-.: s*xer
::iiJ r-: $e*e ur

, m ,,i{ }* **ndc* t prry}


:,

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j }Bur"d*.*r 1 [kryi

Modifying the Seismic Data Display (Wiggle Display)

You can alter the display of seismic data in various ways, depending
on which display window y0u are using. ln this exerclse, you will
display the wiggle data in the lnterpretation window.

1. Use the active lnterpretation


2.

Senrngs tor'mig lRealizedl

ir':'l. None ,
l!a.l illnesr
Bilinear

.-.'-

Brtmp

l:-,

and open

tab.

the

'1

,;',1
r.

-.:

snrootl
snom

u
!;E

lj
11

Show

Wiggles

--

"

iil

srow

!]

Filtpositve

l-l

Fill neqaiive
lnteryali

B-i Manual gain

174. Seismic lnterpretation Preparation

I
-L

window with a seismic Iine

from mig [Realized] 1 activated and displayed"


0pen the Settings dialog box for mig IRealized]

L-a
L

Petre GeophVScs

3.

For

the Wiggles 0pti0n, toggle on Show and click Apply to

see the changes.

4. Change lnterval to 2 in the drop-down list.


5. Under Bitmap, toggle off Show and click Apply
6. Under Wiggles, toggle on Manual gain, enfer s

de,

and

click Apply.
1.

Under Bitmap, toggle on Show.

Under Wiggles, toggle off Show.

Click Apply.

10

1l

Cllck several times on .ffi in the Seismic interpretatlon


toolbar and observe that it alternates between displays in
the lnterpretation window.
Try the different interpolation meth0ds with and without

wiggles dlsplayed.
12. 0pen a 3D window.
1.)
tJ. Display an in-line and cross-line from the seismic volume
mig [Realized]
14

1.

0pen the Settings dialog box for the volume (lf lt has been
closed).

15

Observe that the Style tab has changed, accordrng to the

actrve window.

Setting a Display Scale for the lnterpretation Window


ln this exercise, y0u set up a display scale for the seismic section ln

the lnterpretation window. This is required mostly when you wish


to focus on particular geological features during interpretation and
have a uniform seismic display scale.

'1.

2.

Display a seismic line from mig [Realized] 1.


ln the Windows pane, expand the active lnterpretation

window.

3.

Bight-click on lnterpretation 1 and select Show settings.

Petrel Geophysrcs

Seismic nterpretation Preparati0n. 175

r-

4.

L.

0n the Settings tab:

a.
b.

Select XY scale from the drop-down list or enter the


scale value that you wish to display. Do the same for
Z-scale.
Toggle onlhe Fixed check box if you want to lock the
display setting. ln this case, all subsequent lines will
be displayed 0n your specified scale. Otherwise, the
scale will be changed when you zoom in and out on the
seismic data manually.

:lJ

Settings for'lnterpretit0n 1.

L.

- -

:l
:l
:)L.
h-

CoordinaEs

fi x*in, li:l:l-..-_. t v*i", i':r*.ii- ., r


illxmar li#rti.,. .l [1 v*o l*ri]ri --

:)hY
:-)

-l
-l
L
LI

Manipulating Seismic Lines in 2D and 3D Windows


The goal of this exercise is to demonstrate how you can manipulate
and display seismic data in 2D and 3D windows.

1. Open a new window from the Window menu 0r actvate

2.
3.

one from the

Windows

lnput pane, toggle

slb2,

and

176 o Seismic lnterpretatl0n Preparation

on the check boxes for s/b1,

slb7.

, in front of it.

a.

Expand

b.

Toggle off the Seismic 2D line check box.

# i:

slbl

c.

by clicking

lr.J

Display the position of a 2D line:

:J
LJ

tb1

S ll

4.

pane.

ln the

v
v.J

Seismic 2D line

Alternatively, toggle on lhe 2D /rnes folder.

Toggle on mig [Realized] 1 to display the outline of the


Petrel GeophVsics

:lr-

.-
Lr

se,srntc v0lume

a
3.

--J
I.._.-

a:
-.--l

aa'aI-_f
L..
!=

Click the outline to display the default in_line,


cr0ss_line,
and time slice for the 3D cube.

Display a random line by right-clicking mig


IBealized] 1 in

ihe lnput pane and selecting New inlersection


plane.
Bepeat this step to insert multiple random
Iines.

,*"ffi,
'&
"

'

*.
f, *,

---l

---l
7---t

Click Manipulate

in the process t0olbar t0

and use the player bar to move the active in_line.

to 15,

&J*e*&*gttr:l

plane

Activate Manipulate
and the 3D window.
Use the PgUp and pgDn keys to move the
active in_line.
Notice that the in-line numbering under mig
[Realized] 1 in
the lnput pane changes.
1 1. Activate the random line.
12 Set the Plane step increment for the specified line. (For

10

--

--r

IL--

---/

plane

poston in the 3D window.


Toggle on an in-line (select it in the petrelexpl0rerso
the
name becomes bold), set the plane step increment

m.ve any in-lines, cr.ss_lnes, 0r rand.m lines to


an.ther

I---...l

E
I

lnlne 632 f :.s*.r.-rr:n,n:a,5cr:.rfa


Xline4TB $S lr,s*-i .rs,:iin* i:*rser:irn
z='144 .$ :nser:,,-*,i.*,r;;,".
h ruauo i;rtemreiinn pian*,

13.

example, enter B).


Use the player t0 move the random line.

15.

Activate Maniputate ptane


Click the random line in the 3D window to
drag it to
another location.

r4

16.

Press and hold Shift or Ctrland the left


m0use button to
rotate the random Iine in the 3D window. Helease
the

key

before repositioning the line again.

17.

Use

Manipulate

another location.

18. Display line

plane

to drag the time slice to

or time annotations by selecting options


in the

Style tab > Annotation subtab in the Settings


dialog box

of your cube.
1

9.

0pen a 2D window and repeat Step 2 to


Step
the same process works in a 2D window.

to see how

-elrel Geophysics

Se.. c "'",o,eta o,

orapo.,o, o777

74:
-

20. Toggle on the Timeslice

(make the name bold in the

lnput

pane) and use the player to move through the data.

Displaying Base Maps and Annotations in 3D Windows


Base maps are integral parts of any seismic interpretation project.

Effectrve base map display and annotatrons help y0u t0 efficrently


navigate the seismic data and effectively present your work.
ln this exercise, you

will display and annotate the sersmic

base

.<

maps in 3D windows

1. 0pen a new 3D window from the Window menu.


2. ln the Input pane, double-click the 2D lines folder to

,-.J

access the Settings dialog box.

3.

0n the Style tab > 2D line annotation subtab, make sure


lhe Basemap sQle and Z level check boxes are toggled
0n.

4.
5.
6.
1

700 . 0 and click 0K.


ln the lnput pane, toggle on 2D lines to display the 2D
ln the Z levelfield, enter

lines in the active 3D window.


Display the outline of the 3D sersmic volume

mig IRealized] 1.
Check the depth of the 2D Iines compared to the 3D volume
mig

Activate and deactivate the display of 2D lines in the 3D


window:
Activate he Seismic interpretation process under
Geophysics in the Processes pane.

a.

b.

Click Select line to display in current or last 3D/

!nterpretation window:G from the Function toolbar

c.

1
!-

<

and click one of the 2D seismic lines.


Click again to deactiva[e.

Double-click |he 3D seismic folder to access the Settings

__

dialog box.
10. Go to the Style tab. Note that the 3D seismic annotation

subtab is active.

rl

11

,l

Change options to draw every 50 in-lrnes and annotate

with the same interval of in-lines.


Clrck Apply.

_l

Display the time values in the 3D window:

178. Seismic nterpretati0n

Preparatl0n

Petrel Geophyslcs

-.]

-l

ag
aaaaE--{

--l

rr--J

f
f
f
I-d

T-

ff
f

a--r

*r-

Click

Apply

ln this exercise, you willdisplay and annotate the seismic base


maps in 2D windows.

Open a new 2D window from the Window menu. The


other windows are now in the background. you can access
them again in the Window menu or in the Windows
pane.

2.
3.

4.
5.

I--

--.

C.

Displaying Base Maps and Annotations in 2D Windows

-.-_J
-.-.

Double-click mig IRealized]1.


0n the Style tab > Annotation subtab, toggle on
Show and select f rom the annotate 0ptions.

6
.

Toggle on the check box in front of the 3D seismic volume


mig" The survey outline is displayed in the 2D window.
Toggle on Ihe 2D /rnesfolder. The 2D Iines are now
displayed in the 2D window.
Double-click fhe 2D linesfolder to open the Settings

dialog box.
0n the Style tab, toggle 0N these check boxes:
Show lines

.
.
.
o

Show names

Show number (Type: CDp)


Show tickmark (Size: 10).
Click 0K

From the

lnput pane, select the wells to display

in your 2D

window.

B.

9.

Double-click fhe Wellsfolder.

0n the Style tab > Symbol subtab, change the annotation


d isp

lay.

Greating Random !ntersections


The option to display seismic intersections along any generated
polygon can be very usefulfor performing tasks such as making

tailor-made sections between wells. ln addition, you can disply a


random line that is aligned to the in-line and cross-line directions. ln
this exercise, you will learn to use both options.

Petrel Geophysics

Seismic lnterpretatlon Preparat

0n.

179

_l

.a--

)
L,--

1.

'l
Display an existrng time slice for mig [Realized] in a 3D

2.
3.
4.

window or insert a new one.


Expand the wlndow to use the full screen'
Clear any other seismlc llnes.
Make sure the Seisruic interpretatior process and mig

5.

IRealized] 1 volume are both active.


ln the process toolbar, click Greate arbitrary polyline

6.
7

-i

iniersection (C) 'J

LJ

_-/
-I
t-

Draw a polygon by left-clicking in the window to design the


path.
Double-click t0 stop the polygon line. A seismic random
lrne rs generatecj automatically and stored under fhe mig
[Realized] I folder.

-:-

=-a
-

.-*.

-
:=
4

-.I
-<

:Y

-:180.

.t

Se smic lnterpretat on Preparation

Petre GeophVsics

aar_ar_aaL'
f
f
---ra

--

, ffi ,*, n.nq f*il,adj

I_-J

@ 'tr:
i:.&

B.

--

9.

I__J

Edit the random line. 0pen fhe General intersection


folder and display and toggle on Arbitrarv polygon.
ln the Processes pane under lJtilities, activate fhe Make/

edit polygons process.


10. 0n the Function toolbat click Show points in the

L----t

polygons

;
E

13

IVake sure Arbitrary


polyoon is activated (bold)

while editing the polygon

. Note that all of the points in the polygon

are displayed

I---

11. Click Polygon edting

:., fne cursor style changes

,oE

r,_.-.,i

12.

Drag and re-draw the orientation of the Iine. The

intersectron is updated automatically.

13. Delete points by selecting them and clicking Delete

E*

,* or

pressing the Delete key.


14. When you are satisfied, right-click Generalintersection
in the lnput pane and select Convert to 2D externat
SEGY. A new object is created and stored in another

f
I.

S e i s m i c S u rvey f older (2D I i n e s f oldel.


15. Activate a (new) 3D window and toggle on the mig
IRealized] I folder and one in-line, cross-line, and random

rIr-.i

line from this cube. The survey outline and the seismic
lines are displayed.

16. Activate he Seismic interpretatior? process and mig


[Realized] l.
17. CIick Create seismic aligned polyline intersection

f
f

1--.-

(Shift+C):J

tne Function toolbar.


in the displaywindow. Click
once t0 change direction and double-click to stop the
polygon lrne. A seismic random line is generated
automatically and is stored under the mig IBealized] l
folder
n

18. Drawa polygon by left-clicking

--,--,-

J-,

Xl-j* fc
"-1gg

,il
Crlcrd ir*erB*diri t*btrare,*6i
h,.tt
"
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lt*rre S**

re:re

Geophysics

c. sr:,

lr

lprpr"

Pr"p.ot O r o 181

l-.-rd

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--J

19. Display the seismic aligned polyline intersection that

you

just created in a 3D window.


You are encouraged to perform this task in the 2D wrndow
a

lso.

-J

t--J

_l
r--J
-i

)
t-

r-.1

l--d

-j

-/
:]L..J
-)
t-J)
**
20.

Edit the created line. 0pen fhe General intersection


folder and display and activate the Arbitrary polygon.
Bepeating step B-10 to edit and modify the intersection

changes the rntersection t0 a polyline intersectron.

_<

Composite Lines
Composite lines are frequently used by seismic interpreters because
they help them to better understand sub-surface geology and aid in
interpretatron. Composite lines also can be considered as pathways
between drfferent seismic surveys.
Traditionally, it is important that your sersmic lines connect to each
other at some point to create a composite section. However, Petrel

now offers functionality t0 create a composite section for nonintersecting 2D lines. These sections are referred lo as jump ties in
these exercises.
182. Seismic nterpretati0n Preparati0f

Petrel Geophys cs

,1

rr
EE-J

f
L'
af
f
f
f
f
---
!r.--l

Creating Composite Lines in 3D Windows

1. 0pen a new 3D window.


2. Activate Ihe Seismic interpretatior process.
3. Display a cross-line from mig lRealizedl 1 and all 2D lines
in your project"

4.

Position the seismic data so that you can differentiate


between the lrnes (select View from above in the
toolbar).

qt$T*n"K

-.--

L_

---

f
L'
f
f
I--

a--

---z

----z

---4

l_

ri .i -.,r., ;s:i,".r

F,.

! .!'-ir'a

,"9:

G
v

E)

-!'

fr. ! ," -i,*, :{ rr:'l


L _H
_.
ilu l'.1 1':-, c':-

.*

-.r

I-

::1

ll[]
L!+l

---

5.

"'=*,

'.,*,

Click Select composite section

(0)l*

and left-click the

cross-lrne in the window. lts outline changes to whrte.

6.
1.
B.

Move the cursor to a 2D line and observe that it turns


partly white.
Move the cursor t0 the other side of the 2D line and

left-click to select it"


Continue to select parts 0f 2D lines for the composite
secti on.

9. After you select four to five 2D lines, repeatedly


Delete key to clear the sections.
10. Wrth Select composite section (0)
1

1.

press the

,*

still active, take


another path through the 2D lines.
When satisfied, double-click t0 generate the composite
r

ntersecti on.

'12. Find Composite folder / in the lnput pane


and expand
line
Composite
1. All sections of the selected composite
are listed.

, G Itj C*nrposl&e tader

,isii-:ffi
i" +

XLrne 47S [mig [Realiz*d] "il

i-4

,,

tQ

y,: Seismic 2D line lslbSl

&

Seismir 2D line [slb8]

iyr Sesnic 2D lin* [slbl]


Seismlc nterpretati0n Preparation. 183

t3

'l
Create a new composite. Make sure that mig IRealized] is
the actrve survey (bold text) because the composrte is
based on it.

14

your selectrons.

jk

Itr
and
I .1.
Click Draw arbitrary composite sections (W
click anywhere on the trme slice. Move the cursor and
observe the white frame.
tb Click on the 3D volume time slice a few tlmes, then change
the selectron to Draw aligned composite sections

1l

t0 construct your composite.


0bserve the alignment to in-lines and cross-lines.
Finalize the composrte. Use Select composite section

(O)

anO continue

i&

to rnclude some 2D lines before double-clicking.


The new Composite line 2 appears under Composite

folder I

in the

lnput

pane.

Creating Gomposite Lines in an lnterpretation Window


The approach to constructing composrte intersections in
lnterpretation windows is different from 2D and 3D windows and
uses a different set of rcons and shortcuts.

1.
2.

3.

lnterpretation window and display a crossthe


lnput pane.
lrne from
CIick Gompose with intersecting line (0)1ffi to
c0mp0se with any crossing 2D line. 0bserve that only
Open a new

existing lines (such as 2D, in-lines, cross-lines, and random


lrnes) are selectable and appear as black lines across the
lnterpretation window.
ln the window, left-click where a black llne appears.
0ne side of the crossing line is selected and displayed. lt is
stored in lhe Composirefolder and named Composite line
3

4.

ln the 3D window, controlwhich side of the line has been

selected. To compose with the opposite side of the line,


use other keyboard combinations while clicking the line.
The possible selection shortcuts are illustrated in
Step 5 through Step 7.
,l84.

Selsmlc lnterpretation Preparati0r'r

ln a 3D window, display a trme slice from mig [Bealized] 1


together with a few 2D lines. lt might be easier to observe

(Shift+W) i[L

Petre Geoph\/slcs

f
f

----

-L-.{

c{

La.LLf

Press Shift and left-click on an in-line p0siton to include

one paft of the in-line.


1

or Gompose

--{

T,
---4

intersecting line away from you.


Left-click + Ctrl: Compose to the left and use the
rntersecting line away from you.
Left-click + Shift: Compose to the rrght and use the
intersecting line towards you.
Left-clrck and Shift + Ctrl: Compose to the left and use
the intersecting line toward you.
Click Glip and extend composite (0)iffi and left-click
somewhere along your line. Any part of the composrte line
to the right of where you click is removed and the line is
extended from that point on.
Press Shift + Ctrl and left-click somewhere further to the
left on your remaining composite lrne. Everything to the left
of that point is removed and no extension of the seismic

rL{

with crossline (Shift+l)1ffi, these shortcuts

determlne which part of the line ls selected.


Let-click: Compose to the right and use the

F--r

-d

with crossline (Shift+l)iffi to extend the

composite line, a fourth rcon is added for editing compostte


lines created in the lnterpretation windows.
For any of these three options, Compose with
intersecting line (0):ffi , Compose with inline (l)rffi ,

If.

I-_an
r_--

Click Compose

composite intersection in combination with the other two


optrons. Because the selections are added instantly to the

r--J

--J

Click Compose

r.--l

f
f

with inline (l)

line is done.
When you use the Clip and extend composite (0) ffi
icon, these shortcuts determine how the clipping is done:
Left-click: Clip the composed line to the right and
extend it from that point on.
Left-click + Ctrl: Clip the composed line to the left and
extend it from that point on.

Left click + Shift: Clip the composed line to the right


and end it at that point.
Left click + Shift + Ctrl: Clip the composed line to the
left and end rt at that point.

Seismic lnterpretatlon Preparati0n

185

I
I

)
'}

i-

Creating a JumP Tie Section


Jumper tie lines allow you to display two or more non-intersecting
2D seismic lines. This is usefulwhen carryrng out regionalseismrc
interpretation with old vintage 2D data.

l--

1. 0pen a 2D window and display all objects inyour 2D


seismic /rnes folder.

2.

0n the-process toolbar, click Select composite section

3.

Click on the first 2D line from which you want t0 start


making your iump tie composite section Notice that the

(0)i*
Draw iumper composite section (Shift+O)i&
Click Draw iumper composite section

(Shift+O)i&"

5.Clickonthesecondseismiclinethatyouwishtoincludein

6.

your iumPer comPosite.


Double-cllck to end your composition You can display the
jump composlte section rn the Interpretation or 3D
window and activate it from the Composite 1 folderinthe

lnput

some polnt in same sectlon, if that is required'

Displaying Multiple Seismic Views on the Same Screen


ln this exercise, you will visualize the same seismic llnes
simultaneously in 2D (base map),30, and lnterpretation windows'

ln the

Windows pane, check that the project has three

2.

windows open in the background (one 3D wlndow, one


lnterpretation window, and one 2D window). lf it does
not, close 0r open windows by toggling them on or off '
Go to the Window menu and select Tile vertical to align

3.

all three windows side-bY-side.


Go to the Windows pane and for each window, take these
stePs.

a. 0pen the Settings dialog box.


b. 0n the lnfo tab, toggle on fhe Linked to visual groLtp
check box.
186 o Selsmrc Interpretation Preparatl0n

-_

pane.

This procedure also allows you to draw a jump composite


that contalns 2D lines that are not lntersectlng' You can,
however, also include Iines that are tred to each other at

'

L-r

icon

now is actlvated.

4.

Petrel

Geophvs.:

c.

From the drop-down list, select the same visual group


for all windows

S"ttlngs for'lntrFretation
$ ri: S*tupryFl
E

Name

uindow

j,rterEretaron wrqdo\i,

f [WT]

- mig

...

--

-,-'rl

'l

-i

:Type

li

lnterprststionwindow

Visual g.oup

lr

r'

t rnKd tc uisual

--l

group

t*l

--.:l
"-"--"--'-'t
_t

a-l)l

Serc

ffi

f-i
t.+-,i
L-:tt -i

i
I

:".

After allwindows are Iinked to the same visual group,


highlight the first window and togole on the Cursor
tracking check box. Hepeat this step for all windows.
From the lnput pane, select a cross-line from mig
IRealized] 1. The cross-line is displayed in all three
windows simultaneously.
Go to the Window menu and tile all windows vertically if
they are not already.
Align your cross-line in the 3D window so that you can see
the cross section.
Go to the ln_t-e-.rpretation window and click Select / pick

mode (P)

ih

and drag the cursor over your seismic data.


0bserve that when you are dragging the cursor in the
Interpretation window, you can see it tracking in the 3D
and 2D windows simultaneously.

Make sure the

Cursor tracking check box


is selected for the three
windows in the Windows
pane.

Display only one window by closing or minimizing the other


two windows. To display them again, go to the Windows
pane or Window menu respectively.

Se smic Interpretation

Preparatl0n. 187

r--

L-r
J

Linking lnterpretation or 3D Windows to Coordinate


0ptional
Groups
lf more

than one lnterpretation window is used, y0u can link them

together in a coordinate gr0up. Any rescaling or repositionlng in one


window is mirrored in the other windows. A similar linking of 3D

l-rr
L

/
L.r

-l
fd

windows also is available.

1. From the Window menu, open two lnterpretation


windows.

2.
3.

4.

Dlsplay an in-line in one window and a cross-line ln the


other window.
Actlvate both lnterpretation windows and cllck Camera
linking ,lB in the toolbar for both of them.
Go to the Windows pane and expand the two

lnterpretation

5.

Open the Settings dialog box for

lnterpretation I under

0n the Settings tab, note that the information is updated'


The same group is selected from the Linked to
coordinate group drop-down list for both windows'
ffi

Lt

_-
Lj
5

wi ndows.

both windows.

6.

st

Settingsfor'lnterpretatin

-
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Linkedto coordinate
: Linkeo to v,sual

group: ;;ih

group

..

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.-

ir

Scal e

XY-scale: i

l: 2580

i,(.1

-r

Unit of

Right

'.

margins:

5r

i;$

. Frenlge

lEr
188

Selsmic Interpretatl0n Preparatiof

Pefel Geophysics

f
f

I--

L'
I-J

aL'
aE.--

---l
,--_)

l_-

Windows pane, make sure 0nly the two


lnterpretation wi ndows are se lected (displayed).
From the Window menu, select Tile vertical.
ln the

---

Activate one window and pan, zoom, stretch, and squeeze


the intersection. 0bserve the other wlndow.
10. 0pen two different 3D windows.
'1
1 . Display an in-line from the cropped and realized volume,
mig 1 [Realrzed] 1, in one window and a cross-line from the
origrnal imported volume, mig, in the other window.
12. ln the Windows pane, make sure only these two windows
are selected (displayed).

13.

From the

Window menu select Tile vertical.

Activate both windows by clicking Camera linking ffi in


the toolbar for both wlndow.
15. Pan or zoom in on one 3D window. 0bserve the effect in
the other window.

14

---

Seismic lfterpretat 0n Preparat 0n.189

iL--

:l-J
:l
I-l
I-_l
tb

Using a Seismic Ghost Curve


the interpreter in picking the right seismic event across the
fault block, use a seismic ghost curve to drag a picture of the
seismic data from one side of the fault to the other.

To aid

1.

ln an lnterpretation window, identify an area that you


want to correlate across a fault block.

2.
3.
4.

Click on lnsert seismic ghost

5.
6.

{*..

B.

PIace the mouse pointer inside the seismic ghost area and

move it to the desired Position.


ldentify the correspondtng events.

tL.J

Display the interpretation inside the ghost by clicking the


horizon interpretations from the lnput pane (while the
Left-click the seismic line outslde of the ghost area.
Observe that the frame of the ghost turns black (ls
inactive).

9.

Use the scrollwheelt0 z00m out 0n the seismic line.

10. 0bserve how the seismic ghost follows the zooming.

11.

CIrck lnside the seismlc ghost and the frame turns blue (is

active).

12. Update the ghost to lts current position by right-clicking


13.

inside the active ghost curve frame.


Stretch and squeeze the ghost curve.

a.
b.

by pressing Ctrl + Shift while

clicking inslde the ghost area.


The cursor changes to a rotation symbol.

15.

L-.-

-l
L--

,.-a
^-l

-t
L-

Position the cursor on the blue frame.


The frame appears as a double arrow.
Click and drag or push the ghost to the desrred shape.

14. Rotate the ghost curve

-.-

\--{

Drag a rectangle over the zone of interest.

ghost is active).
1

t.--

-l

:l
-.J

-l

Remove the sersmic ghost


ln the Windows pane, find and expand the active

a.

lnterpretation

b.

wi ndow.

:_l

Right-click and delete Ghost l.

:]
:

190. Seismic lnterpretation Preparatlon

Petrel Geophysics

I_-

a"
---J

f=
f
----

Modifying the Seismic Data Display


' , - :an alter the display of seismic data ln different
:=:.icrng on which display window ls used.

'
2

ways,

0pen a new 3D window.


Display an in-line and cross-llne from the selsmic volume
mig IBealized]

1.

lume.

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Change the lnterpolation method from Smooth to None and

observe the effect.

5.

Set it back to Smooth and click Apply

6 Click Enttble btrmp mapping.


7. 0bserve the effect by rotating the selsmic data in 3D.
B. Click to clear the rotation

Set IVax resoluti0n to Low and observe the effect.


'10. Change it back to Full
1
Set fhe Decimation while dragging optlon t0 4.

Petre Geoph\/s cs

Seismlc nterpretation Preparation

191

-<a

(MlS and observe the behavior


when you drag an rntersection from the realized volume.

12. Click Manipulate plane

Using the Survey Manager

parameters such as CDB SB Trace number, and line name. You also
can use it to search and sort data, move data into folders, and
visualize data in display windows.

<

L..
<

The Survey manager is a useful tool for sorting and managing


seismic data in Petrel. You can use the Survey manager to control

L.
-.

L-.

L"
-<

Bight-click the 2D /rnes folder and select Survey

manager.

2. View the active 2D window while selecting or clearing any


of the check boxes in fhe Eye

column. This column

E
-.L-

turns the line display on and off.

3.

Click the left mouse button and drag the mouse potnter

over several rows in the numbered column to select the

L-

lines.

boo{*t f}

t*.*t

tW!

6.ig!l c*

lL
b

h
1

Click Turn on the

selected seismic in the current

window @ to view the lines.


Click Turn off the selected seismic in the current
window rffi. to hide the lines.
Sort the lines by double-clicking the seismic column Name

th
-

\
-

Double-click again to reverse the sorting.

Click the Ieft mouse button and drag the mouse pointer

over the number of several rows t0 select them.


Click Move selected seismic to another

sub-folder
I

_I._

192. Seismic lnterpretati0n Preparati0n

&

Petrel Geophysics

I-_=-J

L"

I"
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the Move selected items to folder dialog box, use the


default Create new folder and click 0K.
In

I-_-J

$
]

Mcve seiected tems to flder

Select fotdsr to move th+ items t

I._-J

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Enter an appr0priate name for the new folder or use the


default name

10

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If

[l

tnt",

new {older nanre

Enter name of newiolder

--:)

----J

Ir._=_

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=

=
=

11

Find the new folder under the


pane

12

ln the Survey manager, click Search

2D linesfolder

in the

lnput

for seismic in the

survey manager . The search engine opens.


13

Enter part of a line name, for example

sf b2,

and click

Find next.

Find iems iil rabte

l-nd

what

slD4

:-.-r Match case

i - i Matcir whole name

f'

; Searcir up

rmd

ne{

lf none of the check boxes in the Find items in table


dialog box is selected, the search engine will search for the
words containing the characters that you entered in the
Find what field. The search starts from the top of the
Survey manager.
The Survey manager works for the survey folder from

=
---/
=
--

Petre Geophysics

Selsmic lnterpretati0f Preparatl0n

193

.twhich itwas started. To easily manage allof the 2D lines in


a project, keep all surveys at the r00t level and start the
Survey manager f rom the Seismic main folder. Sort the
different surveys into subfolders at several Ievels if needed.
14. Multi-2D lines can be realized f rom the Survey manager.
Select the lines of interest and click Realize selected

<
Li

<

L,.

f-..

seismic ,,&,.

Lr

Editing and Greating Color Palettes


The industry standard color palettes are included in the Templates
pane. The default colortemplate used for selsmic data ln Petrel is
red (positive amplitudes), light gray (zerolcrossover amplitudes) and
blue (negative amplitudes). You can change or edit the color
template for seismic data easily and create new templates.

1.
2.
3.
4.

1
Lt

folder.

-<
L.r
D

Select the Seismic (default) palette, copy (Ctrl + C) and


paste (Ctrl + V) to make an identlcal copy.
0pen the Settings dialog box for Copy of Seismic (default).

./
-

ln the Templates pane, expand the Seismic

0n the lnfo tab, change the name to

template

5.
6.

<
L.

My

color tables

training

f:l

0n the Golors tab, click [' I to reverse the color table.


Click on the middle color handle (gray) and change it to

white.

f^

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\L
-r-

tL-

r
194.

Sersmic lnterpretati0n Preparation

Petrel Geophvsics

--

Setting: for '{opy of Seismic (default}'

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9.
1

0.

Click and drag the other handles into new positions.

lnsert new handles by clicking between the two color


handles. Change colors.
When you are satisfied with the new color template, click
0K.
ln the lnput pane, t0 0pen the Settings dialog box for
mig"

11

0n the lnfo tab, use lhe kruplate drop-down list to attach


the My training template color template.

12.

Click

13

0n the Colors tab, toggle on fhe Override


Proqer\') temPlate check box.

Apply and observe the seismic data in a 3D window.

global

Seismic lnterpretat 0n Preparat

on.

195

14

Click Use automatic min and max in the color table


r-#.1
htS. Minimum and maximum are now given as changeable
amplitude values.

15

Click and drag the handles before applying the change.


0bserve the result in a 3D window.

the lnfo tab, change back to the Seismic (default)


template and click Apply.

16. 0n

lmporting and Exporting Color Palettes

1.

Go

2.
3.

Right-click that folder and select lmport (on selection).


ln the lmport file dialog box, select File of type (.alut)and

to the Templates pane and find the Seismic color

tablesfolder.

open the color table named

rn

Seismic-Course.alutlocated
s/ f older

Click 0K in the lmport

o.

Use the imported color palette when displaying an in-line.

1.

0n the Templates pane, under the Seismic color tables


folder right-click Seismic (default) and select Export.
ln the Export as dialog box, save the exported file to the
Sfudenf folder and name it My nxported Color-

o
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im p o

rt/C

o Io

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L.-

:l
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:l
:l
L.-

L.L.

L-

L,-

ata
CIick 0pen.
in fhe

f-J

file dialog box.

Palette.

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196. Seismic Interpretali0n

Preparati0n

Petre Geophysics

--.]
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aa:
arI.-J

Rendering a Seismic Volume


By rendering a seismic volume, making it partly opaque (high
amplitude) and partly transparent (crossover amplitudes), y0u can
identify hidden structural or depositional features during your

Lnterpretation. You can render only realized volumes.


1

---{

2.
3.

---f

Display the survey outline of realized seismic volume mig 1


IRealized] 1 in a 3D Window (toggle on in the lnput pane).
Open the Settings dialog box for this volume.

0n the Style tab > Volume visualization subtab, toggle


on Volume render (toggle off Volume walls if enabled).
Click Apply and observe the effect in the 3D window.

se$ings for'miq [Realizedj 1'

Setings are inherited fr6m psrentfoider

_t*

|"}:!_{ffi
.;

voumevisslstsn

#*lf'Llt..i

Volume watls

t;,;,tJrr*al
os,ie
'.1

I Eilbe irrlipatiilsy fo. *ll

:y'. Volunre reader


t- : Iiata aliged slices

,
ll
,'

Viewaligoed slices
; Number of slicestorenre seisnric volunre

Hide frame/annoi,etion in yiewins mode

Seismic interpretat 0n Preparation

197

5.

-_l
r.-a
:_l

0n the Colors tab:

a.
b.

Toggle on Override global

properlt template.

c.

Adjust the 0pacity curve.


Click somewhere on the curve to insert a new point.
Adjust the position and insert more points f0r

e.

adjustment (see the figure).


Click Apply. 0ften, the purpose for changing colors is
to make cr0ssover values (grayish colors with low

d.

negative and posrtive amplitude values) transparent.

!-/

El

fh-

L-J

ts

fh
E

E-

f--1

3
l=E

L.

198 o Seismic lnterpretat on Preparation

Petre Geophysics

I-

-__-__-{

r--=J

a''

a"
a"
a"

0n the 0pacity tab.

Set Full opacity tFl by cticking lm


Select the histogram and drag it onto the 0pacity tab
to set the opacity level (as shown in the figure in Step 6
of the next exercise).
0bserve that the changes take place interactively in the 3D

I._J

b.

r-___.J

I-_-j

window.

$
,e?l;ii

settinqs

rt{

100i:

- --se,r
o

L"i-r

"'
iar*:-T

o.

0n the Style tab, toggle off Volume render.

0n the 0pacity tab, ser Fuil opacity tFl by clicking l.l


Click 0K to accept the changes.

10

Selsmlc lnterpretati0n Preparation

,l99

L--

Displaying Volume Walls


You can display the limits of a seismic v0lume as walls.

1.

Toggle on mig [Realized] 1 to display the wire frame of the


VOIUMC.

2.
3.

Right-click mig [Realized] 1 and select Settings.


0n the Style tab > Volume visualization subtab, toggle

4.
5.
6.

on Volume walls and NormalClick Apply to see the effect in a 3D window.


Try the Inside optlon and click Apply to see the changes'
Toggle off Volume walls and apply the change.

:l
:l
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200. Seismic lnterpretati0n

Preparati0n

Petrel Geophysics

Il_-'
---J

I-

Review 0uestions

l_'
l_'

a composite intersection?

ls it possible to rotate a random line in an lnterpretation


window?
You want to edit an arbitrary polygon to redefine your
arbitrary polyline intersection. You have selected the

-I--

Make/edit polygon,s process, but it is not working. What

L-

could be the reason?


You want to render your seismic volume. From the

!r--

Settings dialog box of your 3D cube, you g0 to Volume


visualization, but it is grayed out. ls it because you do not

l_-

U
U
f
L'
U
,L--

a
a

-,--

u
T
u
T
J-.-

1-4'

have a Petrel license for Volume Rendering or you have


missed a step?
Can you display wiggle traces in a 3D window?
How can you display time value in a 3D window for 3D
seismic data?

----

-E--

What is the difference between a polyline intersection and

Summary
ln this module, you learned about:

.
.

o
o
.
.
.
.
.
.
.

using the seismic interface and toolbar


displaying 2D and 3D seismic data

setting up a seismic display scale


making and annotating seismic base maps
making and displaying composrte and jump tie lines
using and linking multiple windows
using color template and palette optimization
using the Survey manager
using the visualization tools
rendering volumes in 3D windows
using the Light tool
using the lmmersion mode.

Petrel Geophysics

_._r
=

Selsmic lnterpretati0 Preparatiof

201

f'
r-{
aa
aaaf
L'
r.-

Module 3
Fault
lnterpretation

-l

r-{

Tnis module introduces you to the fault interpretation workflow and


:echniques in Petrel.

I-_t

---_J

-..1

Learning objectives
Ater completing this module, you will know how to.

o
.
.
.
o

interpret faults in Petrel


use the fault interpretation function bar and fault settings

manually pick faults

manipulate and edlt faults


track faults.

-E-I

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Fault lnterpretation

203

Jl'.

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ln

in Petrel

Fault lnterpretation
the Function t00lbar
this lesson, y0u will learn how to

Lesson

use

and the

L--a
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&

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lnterpretation manager to interpret faults in Petrel'

, =
:'

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'

Geophysics

'

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Function Toolbar

t,
aF
}6
i;
-Ln

Use the Function toolbar to perform these tasks:

.
.
.
.
.
.

ft-{

f'l

cut, loin, and add points t0 a segment


move, add, or delete individual p0nts
move or delete entire segments
cOpy 0r move segments from one fault to another

lL..J

,l
t .-

_l

rx,

L-r
-Ll

',1s.{

copy 0r move segments to new faults


edit faults in 3D or lnterpretation windows'

I i{

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t?

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L

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tr

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1
2
3
4
204.

Activate fault [Shift+S]

Join selected Points Ul

Selection paintbrush [Shrft

Cut segments [T]

Bounding box select [B]

Select single Point

Eraser [X]

lnterpret faults

IF]

B]

Petre Geopr
Fault lnterpretation

i-

f
f
f
f
f
f
f
f

I-=-J

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nterpretation Manager

-^= lnterpretation manager is an interactive tool that gives you

-:. l's
,

and
IO arrange anO nariOte your seismtc

fault interpretations lt

interpreters'
-,rr, or prolect administrators' seismic
to fllter and sort

and all other

Petrel users lt includes several options

and off
-.:'pretations, create new objects' and turn interpretations on

-a

r,lsible windows.

and
is useful particularly for arranging
on
working
you
are
when
-araging y0ur lnterpretatin (horizons/faults)

--e lnterpretation manager

a cetatled interpretation proiect'

're
-a s

allow you to perform these


tools in the lnterpretation manager
ks:

-==-.

.
o

--*J

.
.

tn current or all visrble


select and clear interpretation objects

windows
selected interpretatlons
show the Settngs dialog box for
in the active
insert new seismic horizons or faults
lnterPretation folder
lnterpretation manager
search for hortzons or faults rn the

lnterpretation folder'
move interpretation objects t0 another

-_*

--_.

r---a

Fault lterl:]retat

of

'

205

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the lnterpretation Manager


- 0pening
Bight-cllck fhe lnterpretationfolder and select
lnterpretation manager.

Procedure

1.

t-

-_t

,ffi;:ffi

I@
I iii]
I ffil
, i$

Shot" se::ings
5pnr1 all

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*,eiri*r'e l ir*rYr tudo


ubse ';*e

trrpatt i*i, sei*ciicrr

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irrl

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iX ilr*let*..,

illeie r*ntnt,

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Lclp5 i.i:urrr?J
a.

-_l

r.recLrrSl'iei
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S"rrt i:y nar-.*rer

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Ser-: bY Z-ualr.r*r

' Autc c*lcr all


& Liic rame ali
ffi Fauh iiarEv.r*rk ehile interprcting
* f *r1"*rt i* in;rpr*'i:it!'i
fi Ccnoert tc interpreia:ion i*ptir1riz*d
T ln:erpr*rarion manager , .
ft nsert seisrric lrerin
S. insen far;lt
f insert in1*rpr'*:atien f*irler
,

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206. Fault Inlerpretation

Petrel Geophyslcs

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Fault Interpretaton in Petrel


'rterpreting faults is 0ne 0f the key tasks rn any seismic interpretation
,',orkflow. ln your routine workflow, faults and horizons are picked and
:rte rpreted simultaneously. For learning purposes, you will learn how to

irterpretfaults in Petrelfirstand in the next module, you


'row to interpret horizons.

will

learn

W Visually grouping t
lnterpretation and 3D

windows together is helpl


in

fault rnterpretation.

n this training, the focus is on manualfault interpretation. Petret

rffers powerful automatic fault extraction using seismlc attributes.


Automatic fault extraction is discussed inlhe PetrelGeophysics:
S e i s m i c I nte

rp

retati o n Wo r kf I ow Iools

cou rse.

Manual Fault Picking


When the Seismic

interpretation

process is actlve, you can

interpret faults manually on in-lines, cross-lines, tlme slices, random


ines, or arbitrary lines in 3D and lnterpretation windows.

---.

---.

E
t--l

Fau

nterpretat 0n.207

LJ

Faults Manually

- Picking
Seismlc interpretation ln the Processes pane.
. Activate
2. Display the selsmic section in the lnterpretation window or

Procedure
1

3D wrndow.

3.

Bight-click lnterpretation folder / and select lnsert fault.


Alternatively, insert a new fault from the Seismic

interpretation

tool bar.

The new fault displays in the same folder and is stored in the
aclive lnterpretation folder in the lnput pane.

-i&G* *
r&&#,m.rr
A).

iii::a:.i:il:!iiri:lrllt:i.,iirii'
},'iii!dss 1{Ar1}}:

,L

& ';,-l Seismic horin


, v Juvolume

r ffi

r?r mig
@ E lnline635

[&

r--t]

xline 4

-r Srruey

, # r'j

srbi

"H

.rh?

m
ffi

.tr

t'5prrstb2

srlo::r.:*,1n9:.t:: .

,":E

S.eirile ali

5ub5(fiile

rLt
i*
tX

5ed ali te Srudic

jf,c S;udic

[mF6.i ic 5e!Ec.ilon] .

ixpcn

,,

elE:e , ,

Crl.

D:l*l:.:!n.*n::

Ccilairse (rE(u5i!e:

ffi f avoriles

! idPr1 (recur:Jei
Auic cclcr rii
iault rameucri( $rilE iriire.ig
!* Cor,o"- :" ie.eIi;c
* fr"e.: ac 'iep.elaiien icplimiled ibr il
ffi fatergreiaiicn inaller ' ,
fr : ,=". : L-'r -c'?c
It( :ns-'dLl:
l)
us
ffi' :"e-,'r.:er+re:a::o -c'de'

L*.i

5&
t"lf

lS

lmpod dat

Siragraphy
Geophysics
e-smic

Volume attribltes

iy-i

J i*fi*ry rr/+s i*n ftte rs


Fault interpretatinn

j(tt Fi Fault interpretation 2


ril

i"r Fault inierpretation 3

L!i

i-t

Surface attribules
.f.ji Automatic fauh extraction
JV1 Make velocily model

: GEriralt:Flir.i,rr!ti:r,li
m GEobody interpretati0n
rj Sirta.il ,lr.:ll f)+
& tdlake restoration 2D model

208

Fault Inter pretatlon

Petrel Geophysics

C rc<

lnterpret faults

in the Function bar or oress the

F key.

5.

lnterpret fault on the seismic line elther in the Interpretation


wrndow or 3D window. Double-click or press N to break the

fault stick

6.

ln the General

intersection plaver, set the increment.

M@

Clicl<
t0 move to the next or the previous seismic
section or press Page Up or Page Down on the keyboard.

Petrel Geophysics

Fauil lnterpretation . 209

qtr"

:t
>--

Procedure

'1.

!.d :.:
f ir 'U',li

6.*i.re

!:1.6r

Editing a Fault Segment -

activate the Fault segment, click " on the Function bar


or press Shit + S before clicking on the fault stlck to activate
it. The color of the fault is highlighted when it is active.

To

_t
rra

I
I

i'.:rii'::iti'

,.1:,: * l;l r'


L

.:

fil

_1
L

ffi

ii

ii,

,n tt . Function bar or press


Io edrt a fault segment, cllck
E. The points on the fault can now be moved 0r new points can
be added to the fault segment to accurately mark the fault

geometry.

:
:
210

Fault lnterpr ettlon

Petrel Geophls cs

0r press
deiete a part or whole fault segment click
potnts
on
Cllck on the active fault to delete two adjoining

To

seg

ment

erre Gecphys cs

Procedure

1.

Moving a Fault-Segment

Actlvate the fault, click I h ., then click on a single cligitized


point (node) on fault stick. Part of the fault segment turns
yellow.

Clrck between any two digitized points (nodes) on the

remaining fault segment to make whole segment yellow..

_=-

212

Fault lnterpretatiof

P.tr-J

Gr.lrhy*;

E
a-1

1.
ar_aE
f
rI-J

--{

E--/l

--.

f
--/l

E
-_

T
a,_
_.

'lt

Click
and click on a single digitized point (node) and drag
it to move the while segment to a new location on the seismic
section.

J-,-

-l
LJ

--J

Move Faults laterally 0ption


0ften, when an interpreter is handed reprocessed data, the faults
picked on earlier versions of the data do not fit the new version. This
sometrmes is the case when the field-processed data version is
different from the final, or more intensive and detailed, processing
versions. To avoid re-picking the fault model, y0u can use the

faults laterally

Move

...

-,

_F

opti0n in Petrel.

I..J

'':

i.'.*--r*
l:1 .-

E -e=E
E'e
F,5::rH
-E==

Procedure

rJ

Moving Faults Laterally

- to Settings > }perations tab > Seismic


1. Navrgate
operations > Move faults laterally.

ffi

Setf*ry tor'Fautrtlnterpretaliun 1'

L.r

f.r

H-M eismlc op*rations

,ir-l$@l

"ffi
S

),-a
L

en*mlfunctions

M Arqhfunrti*ns

o ffi R*plar*wt*re
Elirinst*$hre
l M Lkmrn8t*$rrE.re
I

,l

tochasticfun*isns

it M

C*mmonopemt.rsre

ffi

Surfac* cpamtrons

ffi

f;rnverf pir*sJplygonsjswfac*

.a
l-d

l-r

___.

t-ffi Velcci, ccnversian


tt ffi kmenconv*mion

f-a

_t
lplhe strike

af $'re approximafedfaultplane.

_<
td
--JL

.r<

_\.{

-F
"-

Set the Distance value.


214. Fault lnterpretaton

Petrel Geophyslcs

_1

u
-,r

L-

L_-_-__-

Click Bun and the actrve fault is moved laterally east 0rwest
depending on whether the drstance is set in positive or

I'
LL'
LI'
I----t

negative value.

I----

I-.J

r__-l
I_-_r

I---i

L-

U
U
L_=.r

r=__,,i
J=--

L.
r_.
l_
l_
u
l_
I
-4,__J

-l

---l

------J

rr---J

_::-:

.:-.-r:1l,rS

CS

Fa!

terpretatlof . 215

-l
-l
L-.J

.1'i,s

= t
H'.. ;

Procedure

Displaying and Annotating Faults

This procedure shows you how to change the display settings of the
fault in the lnterpretation and 2D or 3D windows.
ln the settings for a 2D or 3D window,fhe

Surface option also

is

available.

1.

Right-click on the fault inlhe lnterpretation folder and open

2.

the Settings dialog box.


0n the Style tab, change one 0r more of these options for the

l,-

:-J
r-l

.t

-
l-J

fault display settings.

f-J

Points

Displays points for the fault stick. You also


can change the color and size of the points.

:!

Lines

Allows you to change the color, width, and


style of the Fault stlck.

line

Dlsplays the projected location of the same


fault on the previous section. You also can
change the color, width, and style of the lines

-4

projections

Name

Allows you t0 annotate and display the name


of the fault rn the lnterpretation window.

Surface

wlndows, displays the surface


for the co-related fault.

l,-

L-.J

L-4
-,!
.J
\.J

For 2D and 3D

-=-+

l-r

=i

.<
\-r

<t
td
:+
<l
d

-+L-

216

Fault lnterpretation

Petrel Geophys cs

'-'

Seiting:ior'Fuitinterpretaiion

l.

ffi

=",5;L*l

Points

./

Shsvr

;
I
:

urface

sho*

Llolor;

Specifi+d

Tran:paren*y
Material:

Plastic

Ltr't-i lr* -_l b rl.l_l

lau t llerpretation .217

L-l

_:r
l-J
-l

Clean Faults
Performing fault interpretation in both strike and dip directions causes
the fault sticks to be lntersected, increasing the amount of work to be
done during fhe

Fault modeling and Pillar gridding

L..d

processes.
-dl
f.d

It is hlghly recommended that you use the Create clean fault operation
to clean the fault sticks prror to modeling them. Running this operation
ensures one directlonal sticks based on dip and azlmuth.

fr

riri

LJi:in tr.ii

<l

Faults

Gleaning
1. ln the- Fault interpretation Settings > 0perations tab,

Procedure
i:l il

\d

expand Convert points/polygons/surfaces.


J

<,
\

<

"!d

l--,J

-_-L

.J

_
I

..l

Select Create clean fault.


218.

Fau

t lnterpretation

Petre Geophysics

Click Run

Fault Autotrackng
lf the fault ge0metry is not too complex, Fault autotracking rs a useful
tool that you can use to get a quick view of a fault system or to

interpret faults in more detail.


The Fault autotracking meth0d uses existing fault sticks as seeds to
extend the interpretatron throughout a selsmic cube based on how the
autotracking parameters are set. You set these parameters on the

Autotracking tab

in the Settings dialog box of the interpretation fault

Method
lf you are working with conventional selsmic cubes, use the Voxel
corre atron meth0d. lf you are working with Enhance edge detection or
Ant volumes, use the Maximum value method. Lower values will
restrict the autotracking.

Fau

nterpretation .219

tL

Search
The Search area has these options.

o
.

lncrement: lnterval between two segments to tracl(, taken in


the horizontal tracking direction.
Range: Number of voxels in which to search for the best

position.

Elasticity

L<

Ld

lf you select fhe (Jse elasticiQ check box, the faults can change
shape at the top, the bottom, or both but the other parts of the fault

L--

remain fixed.

lf you do not select Ihe (Jse elasticity check box, segments are
tracked by keeping the faults the same shape as the seed segments.

Tracking

Ld
I

lf you select lhe Between seeds only check box, segments are
tracked between seed segments only rather than throughout the entire

_\-

seismic cube. When the fault is tracked, fhe Fault interpretationfolder


in the lnput pane will have a new attribute named Tracked. Use this
attribute to drstingursh between tracked and seed segments.

-L

You can undo the autotracking by clicking the Undo icon in the Function

toolbar.

-t-

220.

Fault Interpretation

Petrel Geophysics

Procedure
1

Tracking Faults

i.1'-'--':.1

Create a new fault interpretatron and interpret it manually on

ii.,l

r:*

t-r:n:S-g+rin:3i

one or two seismic lines.

2. Adjust settings on the Autotracking tab.


3. With a seismic cube active, either:
a. Right-click the fault in !nput pane 0r in the 3D wlndow and
select Track faults.

El

:f-

ersmrc

$:.* l+nrages
B q: f*ferp surv*y mclssb flfe-rs
, S ,-f-,i lnterpretationfolder
, tk i-t: Jl?nrlerydrc/{/sri:n ftP.rs
,' & i:l Seismic horion-i
" *; : Seismic horizon 2
.-.
ilil:ffi.,
.' ault interpretatton 2 L-ti
1

..

' Fault interpretatton 3 m


Fault interpretation a
il;
ffi
{lr , cuiaed Horizon
l:", lVlanual lnterpretatro L4
\;! . Fsultinterpretetions k
{+.t Faull interpretation E
:' : Fault nterpretation I ^
,[i

. Faultrnterpretation 3

Fault interpretation 1

.b-i

i-l Fauli interpretation 1l : r*


' Fault interpretation T '-'
Jt il faun inerprettion !i fl/
"i:
Jttt i--J Fault interpretation Sf
ett Copy of Fault nterpr l=
l1tt .. CopyofFaultnterpr y*.

Jrtt
'.

f nnr; nf trr

Petrel Geophysics

rlt

Cr,py aulri irr,ler*rtatisil {data oniyl

intornr 9

f avEi-t t.} prnis


{cnve-: tc pclygcns
Track:

fults

tniErprPtst;0n Elnqe!' .,,


lnsr ;n-erpre:ricn a::riru:e

Fault

lnterpretatlo

221

b.

ln fault Settrngs, click Track.

"r" ;

,'., ' j ;o^ r"

stui

r--J
+

opereriore

lLlliBlilel
Ir'etl,od

l-#- Choose nethod alltomaticaly

'.:'..

1'..

n.,... ., : , ..

SearEh

...
,.

0.65:
c

s5

--

lflcrerent

Range:

g fop

'"

l0

iJi Use elasti.ity


i
-.. Tp
i
I , Bnltan

t,

End bottEm

Eeteen see,Cs anl-

-4

The fault extends along the seismic cube, as shown in the figure.

222.

Fault lf terpretatlon

Petre Geoprys

cs

r--{

r,_-

E
I--

Procedure

&

r=rE-{
F--__i

Ulitr*ties

ffi Hakefeditpolygaas
ffi rulate/*uit surfce
ffi NaUe simple grid
** Train rstimatinn mudel

a---1

ar=f
f

Digitizing a Fault on a Surface

Activate Make/edit polygons under Utilities.

:
E-

ffi
ffi

;
{

frlap-based rnlume calculatinn


't'''";t'

:ii'"

''

Ljirr:*ii;!;-i'

i;i *piimi:*ri,rri:
Ulohal grrd crarsenrng
frtateeAit annntatinns
*r

:
I
E

ffi
^;r

Display a surface in a 2D window


{'
'.:,.#

IL.T

:.:fi

{;}

The d gitrzed po ygon

can be converted rnto Fault

interpretation.

i:t
-.

-L.-

Ef-{

r=-

F
6jb

.,
-i{

r-j
,:J

.l

r.\j

,lll

ft

retfel Geophys cs

F:uI lterOretation . 223

J.

Click Start new polygon on active set of polygon*


and digitize the fault plane on the surface displayed.

3{

-T
I

a
I

4.

A new polygon displays in the lnput pane. Right-click on


the polygon, open the settings dialog, and select the

display options.

-|
.I
J

I
I

I
224.

Fau

t lnterpretation

Petrel Geophys

c.

,J

Restrict Mode
Restrict node ls useful for interpreting faults in 3D windows

and

showing the horizons and fauits only where they intersect in the
displayed selsmic sections.
.'i.

Procedure
3D

Restricting lnterpretation Displays in a

lj:i

Window
1

2.

liii,*"eE

,il

,&ii
,
i.E

ts.qii.*

Display interpretations and seismic lines in a 3D window


To view only interpretations projected along seismic lines,
click these icons in Function bar:

Click

!ff

for active interpretation.

Click

ftl

for all visible interpretations.

Petrel Geophysics

-.i

Fault Interpretation

225

JL.-

I^J
].-

Faults

lnterPreting
these exercises you will learn how to rnterpret and edit faults

Exercises
ln

in

Petrel and use the lnterpretation manager.

L-J

--J
L.

Manually lnterPreting Faults


of
Good fault interpretatlon often leads to a better understanding
the sub-surface geology. ln this exercise, you will manually interpret

faults to get hands on training in fault interpretation'

1.

Activate fhe Seismic

Processes

2.

interpretation

process in the

Pane.

Display the selsmic section in a Intetpretation window or


3D window. For this exercise, you will llmit the fault

interpretatlon on the cross-lines.

3.Bight-clicklnterpretationfolderlandselectlnsertfault.
You also can use the Seismic interpretation toolbar to

lnsert faults.
The new fault appears in the same folder' A fault is stored
in the actlve lnterpretation folder in the lnput pane'

4.

Bight-click the newly inserted fault, open the Settings


dialog box, and rename the fault cldspin-E10'

5.
6.

'
0n the Functon toolbar, click lnterpret fauhs
in
elther
470
lnterpret the Cldspin-F10 fault on cross-line
an lnterpretation window or 3D window'

B.

ffi

Double-click to break the fault stick.


lnsert at least three more faults and name them
Cldspin-F2 O, Cldspin-E3 0, and

10.
11

Cldspin-

Bepeat SteP 3 through SteP 5.


In the General intersection player, set the increment 1 5 '

the seismic volume and interpret the faults


across the survey. You will use these faults later in the

. Work across
trainlng.

jt,,

J-/

-y
-y
ts

;!<
tE

Petrel Geophystcs

-,

E4 0.

9.

:.J
L.J

Editing and Manipulating Faults using the Function


Toolbar
S=
^

s-lc

interpreters often have to edit and manipulate their fault


ln this exercise, you wrll edit the faults.

-=':r:ration.

0pen an lnterpretation wind and display a few


interpreted faults from the lnput pane.
0n the Function toolbar, click Activate faullhorizon
';l

(Shift+S)

'%

to actrvate the Fault segment.

Click on the fault stick to be activated. The color of the


fault is highlighted when it is active.
0n the Function t00lbar, click Select and add/edit point
;H-

(E).'t+ to edit the

Fault segment. You now can move the


points on the fault or add new points to the fault segment
to mark the fault ge0metry accurately.
Delete a part.of
I

q-r

the entire Fault segment by clicking

r"r

(X),#

Delete
on the Function toolbar. Clicking on the
active fault deletes the two adjoining points on the
segment.
During your interpretation, identify which fault elements
belong together:

a.
b.

c.

0pen a 3D window and display an interpreted fault.


Use the Bounding box

select (B) ,", h-' tool to drag

an

area around related fault elements to select them.


For better control of the point positions, digitize points
on a time

slice.

ir,.:

Alternatively, use Select singte point i*bj, then Ctrl


+ left-click to select the fault elements (click the line
segments between the nodes, not the nodes
themselves).
7

Hight-click the active fault inside the 3D window and select

Move selection to new. A new fault object appears in


the active Fault interpretation folder with its own color.
Note that you also can use the lnterpretation window for

this process.
o

o.

Bepeat Step 6 to make a new selection and create a new

fault object.
Petrel Geophysics

Fault

Interpretation. 227

-J
!--

Editing and Manipulating Faults using the lnterpretation

Window

1.

2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

Activate fhe Seismic


Open an

interpretation

f..-

process.

Interpretation wlndow.

Make a copy of a fault (in this exercise, use Cldspin-F20)


and display it in the lnterpretation window.
Step through the seismic line until the digitized points are
visualized on the fault. You might have to change the step
lnterval number to locate the points.
ln the lnput pane, make the fault active.
Alternatively, y0u can select it from the Seismic
interpretation tool bar.
0n the Function toolbat click Select and ediVadd points

.E

(E):.H
1

B.

Move a point in the lnterpretation window by clicking on


it and dragging it to another location (the point turns yellow

when it is selected).
Move more than one

point.

ffi
point I ]to

Press Ctrl and click

activate the points that you wish to move.


Clrck on the fault segment to activate all points along

Select single

that, ggment, then cllck

Select and ediVadd points

(E)r-_E

9.

-r'

ts
-/
L--

,.

)-.J

,+

ts

Left-click where you want to add points.

on.

Click Gut segments

iltr
(T)
"-!'i

=4

-v
.-/

.,..J
.

Click on the fault segment. The fault is cut into two

-J
ri.

"

segments.
Fault lnterpretation

L-J
4l
)

Gutting a Fault Segment


1 .
ln the lnput pane, activate the fault segment to be edited

-!i

a. Activate the fault stick,


b. Click Select and edit/add points (E)tffi

228

r.J
-l

10. Add points.

2.
3.

L.J

them. Use the Undo or Redo icons as needed.

by toggling it

:l

L..-

Press Ctrl and click on selected points or lines to clear

c.

..{

^-J

Petrel Geophysics

-l

L,,.J

Joining Two Points

1.

2.
3.

Activate the fault segmenttote edited by clicking it.


CIick

Select single pointi-$-i.

Press Ctrl and click the two line segments to be joined

0bserve that all points belonging to these two line


segments turn yellow.

4.

f;,r1

Click

Join selected points

(J)ffi

ro connect the faults.

Using the lnterpretation Manager for Handling Faults


1. ln the lnput pane, right-click your active lnterpretation
folder and select lnterpretation manager.

2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

Click lnsert new fautt

[.&j

0pen the Settings dialog box.


Double-click the first cell of the row for the newly inserted
fault.
0n the Info tab, rename the fault

EauIt rnt

Manager

and click 0K.


Highlight Fault_lnt_Manager in the lnterpretation
manager spreadsheet and click Move selected

,r=.

interpretation to another interpretation folder [t{l


ln the Move to folder dialog box, selecf lnterpretation
folder I and click 0K.

Petrel Geophystcs

Fault

lfterpretation . 229

-l
--r
L-J

Displaying and Annotating Faults


During seismic interpretation, y0u can display and annotate your

interpreted faults.

1. 0pen an lnterpretation window and display a fault.


2. ln the lnput pane, right-click on your active fault and open
3.

the Settings dialog box.


0n the Style tab, select the different options for displaying
and annotating the faults. Play with the different settings
to familiarize yourself with these options.

a$ngr far'Frull

k!*rpxls*l

_l
f.J

-_l
t--a

:_l
l--a

-_.1

lr-

v-,

v
v

--

_-

v
v-
-1
-..a

=
:!.,

t--r
230

Fault lnterpretation

Petrel Geophysics

-.'
-J

Review 0uestions
You have two interpretation folders in your project
under
the .Sersmrc main folder. you have just realized that some

of your key horizons and faults are residing in one


interpretation folder and some in another. you now want
t0
move allof them into one folderto be able to manage
them
properly. How will you do this in petrel?
During your fault interpretation, you want to quickly select
another fault on the seismic section. Which icon or shortcut
can you use to do this?

Summary
ln this module, you Iearned about:

o
.

o
o
.

interpreting faults in petrel


using the fault interpretation Function toolbar and fault
settings
manually picking faults

manipulating and editing faults


tracking faults.

Petrel Geophysics
Fault lnterDretation o 231

Module 4
Horizon
lnterpretation

ln this module, you will learn howto interpret horizons in Petrel.


Various horizon interpretation techniques, such as Seeded 3D and 2D
autotracking, horizon operations, and making surfaces, wlll be
discussed.

Learning 0bjectives
After completing this module, you will know how to:
a
a

access and use the horizon interpretation Function toolbar


change horrzon settings and parameters
open and use the lnterpretation manager

interpret horizons using different techniques


use these interpretation tools:

.
.
.

Seeded 3D autotracking
Seeded 2D autotracking

Guided autotracking
perform manual interpretations

edit horizons and parent/child relationships


lter i nterpretations

fi

correct horizon problems using horizon operations (bulk shiftino


and smoothing)
a
a

flatten horizons
annotate horizons.

Seismic lterpretat 0n Preparat 0n

233

in Petrel

Horizon lnterpretation
ln Petrel, y0u can choose different technrques to rnterpret your seism

Lesson 1

horizons, depending on the time that you have available, accuracy


required, and, more importantly, the size and quality of your seismic
data set.

Essentially, these techniques can be classified into two major


categories. autotracking and manual interpretation. There are several
autotracking techniques, which will be dlscussed in detail later ln this
module.
ln this context, suppose y0u are working on a data set from a complex
tectonic regime where nolse, reflector contlnuity, signal strength, and

structuration are major challenges" You might constder using manual


interpretation because it allows you to draw on the seismlc event.
However, you also could use autotracking by selecting good

t-

autotracking parameters.

t-

Similarly, workrng on data sets from a less complex tectonic regime


with better reflector continuity and signal strength can significantly
enhance the autotracking results, savrng you time and effort.
ln essence, horizon interpretation is a combination of different
techniques. For example, the selsmic event that you wish to pick
depicts strong amplitude and continuity in one of the surveys; howevei'
it gradually looses its amplitude and continuity as the subsurface
geology changes over an area. ln this case, ustng autotracking in the

lL

tt

]L

high amplitude area and manual interpretation in the remaintng area


can be useful.
ln this section, the baslc workflow for horlzon interpretation is

discussed. The focus will be on baslc techniques of selsmic


rnterpretatron. Tying seismic events to well data ls not discussed

After you are familiar with the workflow, you can employ it usrng well
data to pick your selsmic horizons.

234. Seismic lnterpretation Preparati0n

1l-

Function Bar lcons for Horizon lnterpretation

.-

These icons are active when the Seismic


activated.

t7

el.*

ts

Interpretatioz process

is

x S :# I &. :1 ? H q f,#,l.* % *f:$: * *l &..r

ffi
'*
*.

re
l4;
%,
i

&
'

10

11

&

12

lnterpret grid horizons IH]


Seeded 3D autotracking [Shift+A]
Seeded 2D autotracking [A]
Guided autotracking [G]

Manual interpretation [U]


Paintbrush autotracking (resize +/-), [0]

Actve box autotracking [Shift 0]


Autotrack inside polygon
Select interpretation point

Activate Fault

Horizon [Shift+S]

Selection paintbrush (resize: +/-) [Shift + Bj


Bounding box select
Eraser (resize +/-), txl

Petrel Geophysics

Seismic interpretti0n Preparation

235

1--

Horizon lnterpretation Techniques

Petrel offers different methods to interpret your horizons.

.
o
o
.
o
o
o

Seeded 3D autotracking
Seeded 2D autotracking

,-

Guided autotrackinq

-!-

Manualnterpretation
Paintbrushautotracking
Active box autotracking
Autotrack inside polygon.

I\-

ts
-

l--
'Ll

_J
\--{
LI

EI

t-.

r-j

-l

---:,-*-

i;t,

!'<a

J
Lr

_l

236. Seismic Interpretation preparati0n


Petrel Geophysics

.-

Horizon lnterpretation Workflow


The main workflow for horizon rnterpretation is the same for all
methods.

1.

ln the Processes pane, activate the Seismic

interpretation

pr0cess.

2.
3.
4.

lnput pane, activate the

ln the

horizon.

Select the seismic line that you wish to interpret.


ln the Functron toolbal click

Interpret grid horizons

'Bi

and

select the interpretatron method (for example, Seeded 3D

5.

autotracking or Guided autotracking).


Pick the event that you wish to rnterpret.

ln areas with poor data quality or complex geology, the autotracking


technrques can be difficult to use. ln such areas, manual interpretation
can be a way to interpret the seismic data. With manual interpretation,
you click on key picks and Petrel interpolates between those picks.
You can rename both the

lnterpretation folder and the new seismic

horizons on the lnfo tab of the Settings dialog box. You can have
multiple interpretation folders and you can add subfolders if necessary.
However, it is recommended that you manage your interpretation and
rnterpretation

older caref ully, because having multrple interpretation

fo ders can be confusing later in the project.

lnterpretation windows and on


most seismic lines and displays (for example, in-line, cross-line, random

You can interpret horizons in 3D and

line, arbitrary line, and well rntersection fence).


The undo/red0 steps are limitless. These steps are saved for each
horizon, but lost when Petrel is closed.
r:ire

Geophysics

qe.mic lrlprp'erar 0r Preparal

.237

l-l:i.'i*&i:

[ii -*
F:

Procedure

1.

ei4

tri+f,:n=,!

Creating or Inserting a New Horizon


lnse

Bight-click on lnterpretation folder 1 and select

seismic horizon.

Srcr ret:'gs

ntarp

* iLi *eiemic horirca


3D
rSpjmig
q {: !n'in 3.8
@fi xliae:l7n

r i(l

SE:rd

*e!fi!*

irom iludiD

IE

Impc {ea sl*(iion'i

,,

(xi:ori, , ,

slb]

# i-"1 ,tuz
ll rtur
'#
' # lll ,tu+

nEiel8 , ,

''

Clrt.!

aclli]i {r'turgrri

*
a

BF.1::ffi**

li

Subscris

rB i-r 20

: ff rj

a: I.rdi

_*..*** *

:4nd {rciurs,}}
-4uie aoi*r ii
5aui .iafi iqrk Ehie in:e.r1in g

Cn!,e* ic interpretaiiet
Csnrer": i8 inierpfe:rtl*n {optifiied te.

;al

llterprqialiei fi itsqe., . .

-t-

lnsen se,srrc lorizon

r inrtr faul:
# irseit ;niBrprta1in

ildsr
-.L.

Alternatively, create a new horizon by clicking the Create new


horizon icon on the Seismic interpretation toolbar.
lllSeismi.

{.lsi?ultj

Ilo

hcr;zo seltrl

4,

Selgmrc

rre I

Nc restoralion 2rl mo

Activate fhe Seismic interpretatioz process and display the


seismic line you wish to interpret in an lnterpretation
window or 3D window.

t-

f*

&238

Sersmic Interpretation Preparation

PefeL Geophysics

,L
-

StigBphy

:+ Surfae sttributes
'i; Autsmti{ fault extraction
lY1 h,lake velocity model

:'-;icr3r;l,irrsl
ffi Geabady interprtairon
i'. li,iiiii. snii ila
B h,lEke restoEtjon 2D rodel
lrocaure, framesark

Comer poinl griddin


Pr0perty Eodeliac

4.

Activate Seismic honzon 1-in the lnput pane and click

tnterpret grid horizon iffiiunO then one of interpretation

5.

ron,

*3:$&&.#

in the Function toolbar.


Click on the seismic event that you wish to pick as Seismic

horizon 1.

a.

Hold down the left mouse button and move the cursor In

the directron of interpretation.

b.

c.

Either double-click or press N to break the pick.


Continue picking the seismic event across the fault on the
s

Geophysics

ecti

n.

Seismlc nterpretation Preparati0n. 239

tl

t.

_I

L.J

_l

-l
L--

-J
:E--

-l
L-

tr
tr

l--J

-_l
L-r

_l

t-rl
>l
)

F
r'

jl
--

Go

l-.r

the
to the next seismic line by either selecting from

-L

General intersection player or pressing PageUp/PageDown'


jump to the next seismic line by
Set the increment t0 use t0
nt.tlng

tH

value in the Plane Step field on the Function toolbar'

-L

i-

B.

<

(in this case' an rn-line)


Choose an intersecting sesmic line
point where Seismic horizon t has been picked

that shows the

onthecross-|inetoaidinpickingtheeventonthein-line.Build

l-

a loop across as you work on the data set'

Petrel Geophysics

_-L

+1L

f*rFearaX#rt lGry:l

fnerl -

rtt - Seit$itT:r 1-}|q.-riet35

-__:----'------rjF;:r--

'E',*c.sl;r''
:.A .
=vffi

X,_ir

4:i

k?B

ln an lnterpretation window, an active horizon displays a


sectr0n of the survey where the horizon has been interpreted

Petrel Geophyslcs

Selsm c lnterpretation Preparatl0n

'

241

J
_l
L-

-l
\--J

-J
--J

L----

-l
-l
1--J

-l
t--J

--
/ft-, L6r4 .-'

_l
t.

-)
L*

-_l
5l

_1

E
F
242. Seismic lnterpretati0n Preparation

Petrel Geophysics

Autotracking
As discussed briefly the previous lesson, autotracking is a powerful
Lesson 2

in

toolto

use for interpreting horizons, particularly in areas with good

reflector c0ntnuity, srgnal strength, and data quality. ln this Iesson, you
will learn about different types of autotracking and the parameters that
impact the autotracking results.

Guided Autotracking
With Guided autotrackrng, you choose two 0r more points and the
trackrng finds the best route between them. This option gives you a high
degree of control to determine how the interpretation will develop.
li

Procedure

1.

,i* ii!

lr,.r::li

Performing Guided Autotracking

ln Input pane, actrvate and display the seismic line for Guided

Autotracking in an lnterpretation or 3D window.


4g

2. Click
';' lnterpret Grid horizon ffi
"&

c
47

and Guided autotracking

Cllctr along a reflector to select the starting and ending

points. The interpretation follows the seismic event between


the two seed points.

Petrel Geophysics

Seismic Interpretatl0n Preparation. 243

L
519

536
446

4
)

554

4f6

)
,-

h
L----

N- ,---

&

l,-.-

Double-click 0r press the N or H key io end an tnterpretation

L-

segment to break the pick.

lL-L
L

244.

Selsm c lnterpretat on Preparat 0n

Pet el Goph , r

Seeded 2D Autotracking
,^i ith this type of autotracking, y0u choose 0ne seed p0int and the
'rorizon is tracked rn the direction 0f the displayed intersectt0n (crossne or in-line) based on the autotracking parameters. The horizon

continues tracking untrl it n0 longer meets the specifred parameters due


to a fault plan, amplitude decay, or reverse polarity.

I'
---J

I---

I_-

aaIII--

--r

II--

I_--

Procedure
Performing Seeded 2D Autotracking
1.
ln lnput pane, activate and display the seismic line for
2D Autotracl<ing in an lnterpretation or 3D window

Seeded

:@
Click

lnterpretGrid horizon

and Seeded 2D

E.

Autotracking ,+F'

Clrck once along a seismc event. The

interpretation follows the event to each side of the point


selected and stops when an abrupt change in an amplitude
value occurs.
Repeat the procedure for other segments and lines.

f
f
-f-5

If----z

I_-

f
,tu

tl_-"

--.

fr.

--
a--a

Petrel Geophysics

Seismic nterpretati0n Preparation

245

J
:

l--J

Seeded 3D Autotracking
The basic workflow for Seeded 3D autotracking is similar to other
horizon interpretation workflows. However, the real control for Seeded
3D autotracking comes from different options on the Autotracking tab
in the horizon Settings dialog box. These options allow you to pick
horizons that require minimum quality control from the interpreter.
You can choose 0ne 0r several seed points and the horizon is tracked

outward in alldirections from these seed points. When the reflectors


are of good quality, this method is a very efficientway of interpreting
through the seismic cube.

:t
-_l
--.

t--J

-_t
lsa

_l

l-..J

-_l
.$*
=s

Procedure

1.

3D Autotracking

Performing Seeded
- lnput
pane, activate and display the seismic cube to be

ln the

auto tracked. Display the seismic trace data in an

lnterpretation
Click

autotracking

i.

3D

ClrL on the seismic event to be

autotracked. The interpretation expand over the entire cube


o

J.

:l

--a
-)

or 3D window

lnterpretgld horizon iB:tf,.n Seeded

--a

Alternatively, 0pen the Settings dialog box for the horizon.


Choose between peak or troughs, give a seed point on a
seismic section, and click on 3D Track to expand the
interpretation.

1-.
--l
l.-r

LI

_l
:
l--J
L.

_J

F
l-r

t-..,a

ts

246 o Seismic Interpretation Preparation

-_"{..____

Pefrel Geophysics

* s*{** *r ':*r{

,'

je
!-ry*.

rs'affi

ffiffi

l.;..,ryqfr:.. -fry:; S..r

ry-q

rrr./ .+-d

LeC

.*tpy.-1X !rsa(!i*l

56* h:
- lurlq
il 1.5i:nal**u* a l*lr-rr*.! Ps*are4t4
le*ffi,...,@$1,-.,,...

!r*{?

ik&e !e*fi{}

? 5sd.er,*

:-*l

_jl

.*

.i

:!

Vrr.r{

ils

ij
1:

rBg*!,{i eri

9J4r.16

,i:tl

J!Ir

rGl

i.l!!

Petre Geophysics

Seismic nterpretatiOn PreparatiOn. 247

-r

_l

]---i

lu
I

-1:.

{'ii

{}il

_t
_t
]--a
_t
_l
--a
_l
f,--a
_l
F.

*i0

a--

l-

-l
]r-.t

-_l
L-a

-_l

LI
t--

Li
L;
L

Autotracking Tabs and Settings


Autotracking tab in the horizon Settings dralog box has different
options and settings that gives you good control of your autotracking.

The

There is n0 recommended set of parameters for autotracking because it


varies from horizon to horizon, depending 0n the character of the
seismic event that is autotracked. Therefore, the focus here will be on
the parameters available in Petrelto help you decide on the best
options for your autotracking.
2il8

Seismic Interpretati0n Preparation

Petrel Geoph\/slcs

h..-

Use the
a

Autotracking tab to control the way your horizons will

be

utotra cked.

ift

kttinqs ior'Seissd horizon

Seismia vol!me:

Priorityr

ffi

1'

i{-i,ry.":'r

.,.;s

Ouality:

Amplitlde & Prurnrly


i.:-.I

Pk

NQ-era cantric

Aalc

*:

.i

-;B

.,.i

or trcqhs

.q-jl

PaEfieters
Amplirde

3t

=Ji Seerl co*fdence:

i,arl+..r

9.

i1r.il

I Velue rsnge:

i.Ll*

L,,r

Dip

2.t0

=P{
lt
isysmet*cal

-;

ii

?*

l:

2 BE

Symmetrical

Optimize for dipping teffeclors

,-a* l-Jse wavelet

lracking

;orelatewilh:

SedtE

Correltslion qualily:

.t

lj]

samplete

B5

aj

Symmetricalsidows

.ij

Above: 12

samplesiSSms)

IJ

Belaq 1l

samples[48ms)

Length: :.i i sanrplesfgGs)


I

-I":1tll':::1Y-

P:trel Geophys cs

-{--l::!, - Gr

l?t*ry.:-l

Elr-.:-l hGg-r

Seismic lnterpretati0n Preparati0n. 249

fr-.

b_-.-

I p'*.t**" 1-l;-i;;*t"-'.

L--
B
l

LateraJ limits

Eoundary

I
i

i-,i

polygor:

lh

Stp aivisiblefaults

Verticallimits

Uooer t*

oo::l

i--lLou"r ,.*"
i_i

Vertical
,

rend

l-'-

rsnge:

dala.

m5

,!

ms

91":' :l

-
t

lkr
f.,in-zer

ilric

lr-:l-:

l--
L
fili
r...r 1,..sluil

tang:

ii

fisi :ri5t"

;r

L.r,ih

r:irn*r

'Seedjlocking
3D Seeds ck
Viaible points

Selected points

seedfller:.*l:
I nk filior

i*_,

,:

lr-.-.

-,

..J

._-_'.,,

-,
I--a
Ll
)
'>-

'-l

j,1 Ovenide
Itrlax

venical

l-i
rj

smDleslS

i--=:----",
I JU bnp

-l

The activated seismic cube is picked up automatically. Use the blue


arrow to change the seismic cube.

ffi

ettings far 'eisrnic hor;zan 1'


pretisn

_.,]

l.J
L-l

_J
-,
']

A*otrarking

Esic 3x3

L-'

L-
Ll

--J

250. Seisr r lrLe.prerarion Preparattor

Petrel Geophyslcs

_l

l--d

Priority regulates the priority queue of available seed points for the
expansion process.

Friori: Anrplit*de & .:n


'l*lnllll
r --An:nlitude
prsxrmitv
risignat
,i

i:
i

This figure shows the comparative tracking results 0f the three seed

priority methods.

tr

Amplitude & Proximrty


Amplitude
Proximity

Petrel Geophysics

Se smic lnterpretation Preparati0n

251

-{a

Seed Priority

Priorie option regulates the priority queue of avarlable seed


points for the expansion process. Choose one of these values:

Ihe

Amplitude: Prioritizes picks of higher extrema for early


expansion, leaving lower extrema picks to expand later.
Proximity. Prioritizes picks with the shortest expansion paths

over picks with longer expansion paths

Amplitude & Proximity: Combines the first two methods.

The default priority is Amplitude & Proximity, which offers both high
quality growth and trmely finish of points close to the seeds.

Signal Feature
fhe Signal feature opton controls the feature to be tracked. Use the
Non-zero cenfric check box to toggle between these signal features
zero

n0n-zer0 centrc (traces n0t having a mean equal to zero, for

settings tor'Seismr hriEn 1'

Seismic v0lume

. i Sisnalfeature:

l=F

i,

-i

Non-ero

_l

t-

:l
:l
lb-J

l-r

:_l

"-l

centric (for example amplitude cubes)

example impedance cubes).

ffi

_)
l--J

l-

for tracking:

.
.

:t

L-.J
LI

7-t
Ll
)
)"-r
\-

mio

centric

l*
r-

Peks

Toggle off lhe lVon-zero centric check box to get these options

o
.
.
.
o
.
.

l.r

Peaks

--<

L-

Troughs

S-crosslng
Z-crossing

Peaks or Troughs

Any Zero Crossing


None (flat).

b
-

252

Seismic lnterpretati0n Preparati0n

Petre Geophysics

--

-.

Non-zero centlic

Canstrints

Peaks
lw

l-

:nlugns

S-crcssing
Z-cr*,tsing
Peak cr tr*ughs
Any zerc crossing

::i:*

I$ne tTltt

get these optlons:


Ioggle on the lVon-zero centric check box to

o
o
o
.
o
.

Local maximum
Local mtnimum
S-increasing
Z-decreasing
Local extrema
SIZ evolutlons.

Fj

Lrcal nrxtnrun'l

Ncn-zero centnc

L*r:at mininrunl

5-increasitrg

Zdecre*sinE
a

.ta
.-!*

s
lb

Lrcl extrenrunr
s1 e-volutlns

horizon interpretation is Peaks


The default for the tracking feature of a
,ui,,i'check box toggled off)' When you make
0r Troughs \Non-zero

the pick determtnes


the firsi autotracking pick, the amplitude at
feature setting changes
the
peaks 0r trughs are tracked and

*t rtf,.,

manually'
accordingly. You also can set Peaks or Troughs
Zero Crossing and Petrel
Similarly, y0u can setthe feature to Any
when you make the first
selects -crossing 0r Z-crosslng automatically
pick.

ili *
Petrel Geoph\/S cs

i. nt.,pr.tatio
I

n Preparati

0n'

253

The illustration shows what non-zero centric means. A time-based


SEG-Y plots along the time axis. A zero crossing for this represents a
local minimum or local maximum in the non-zero centric world. A peak

Lr--

in the zero-centric seismic represents an S-increasing feature while a


trough represents a Z-increasing feature.
lnpaderce

E-

lim*
L-_

L-_

T
r-

l-

J-

254. Seisr'c lrLerp e,otior

Preporarion

Z-Crossings

S-Crossings

Petrel Geophysrcs

L-

Ouality

--= Oualin'ooion on the Autotracking

:3i$

tab controls how stringently


pcinr
sse0
is checked before it is expanded.

=ti-ngr

fc:'Seismic ho.izon 1'

r=; i # *ir
AmplrtuCe&Prrmjty Nlon-lBr0

ualil,

[Entric

Peks

Qualifr.

Fehs

Vlidat*d

-1x3.

Vrlidtr=d 5.x5

Shoose one 0f these values for Ihe

Quality

0pt0n:

Basic 3x3: Checks the eight closest points against (only) the
seed p0int. This method will expand a seed p0intto its eight
closest neighbors, valrdating each against only the seed point.

The seed point expansion s d0ne using a 3 x 3 grid cell


validation to verify the eight neighbor traces of each seed
point. All eight neighbors 0f an accepted seed p0int must pass

the validation for that seed to be flagged expandable. The


tracking then expands in all directions. The cycle repeats as
each new accepted point (child) now becomes a potential
parent for all of its eight neighboring traces.
ln this technique, all eight neighbors are compared against
only the seed point to find a valid event. lf this phase fails, the
tracker stops, marking the seed point as non-expandable.
Validated 3x3: Checks the eght closest points against the seed
pornt and each p0int's neighbors. The first phase of this
method is the Basic 3x3 technique. lf the first phase is passed,
each event on the corner neighbor traces is validated against
its adjacent neighbors. lf all validations are successful, all
eight neighbor locations are accepted as potentral seeds and

the tracking expands in all directions. lf this phase fails, the


tracker will stop, marking the seed point as non-expandable.
Validated 5x5: Checks the 24 closest points against the seed
point and each point's neighbors.
Seisn'r c lnterpretati0n Preparation o 255

_t

L-

This advanced technique for tracking involves two phases that


g0 beyond the two phases described for the Validated 3x3.
These third and fourth phases expand 0ut to track/validate the
16 neighbortraces that enc0mpass the 3 x 3 grid cell area.

'

_l
_t
I--a

l--.

t****- - {

-_l

tr
*t
:.

**.'.*a{'*

--a
]

lE-J

-l
-_l
i--

,.--{
lE-

Validated 3x3

L,

Validated 3x3
Validated 3x3

f_-

Seed Point (black)


Potential child polnts (blue)
Accepted child picks from phase
1 and 2 (green)

-J

ll-

_l
i--a
_l
II

256 o

(e. riu

lt te p Ftat 0r Pr"patdt

ol

Petrel Geophysics

_t
-l
[-

Seed Gonfidence
-^,e Seed confidence option specifies the minimum value
for the
s: smic amplitude as a percentage of the seed point. The confidence

:,e determines how much slack the tracker will apply to the seed
,a ues when determinrng whether to accept or reject expansion points.
Picking an amplitude of 120 with a confidence level of 30%

will reject

amplitude values below 36. A high value makes the tracker strictet
, ielding fewer pornts, while a low value makes the tracker less
:iscriminate, yielding more points.
When you use this option with the 3D Track button, the confidence
level rs applied to each seed point, so a potential expansion point can
be reached from a seed pointwith a high value, but could be

unreachable from a seed point with a low value.

Value range

fhe Value range opfion allows you to specify a minimum andlor


maxrmum amplitude value seismic attribute to be tracked. Picks outside

of these amplitude limits are rejected. To quickly see y0ur amplrtude


range, press P on your keyboard and trackthe event. The amplrtude
values are displayed in the 0bject information area.

Doublet

Ihe Tracking rule oplion specifies which part of a doublet the tracker
follows. A doublet rs defined by a wavelet having four 0r more inflection
points and only two zero crossrngs. Set one of these values for the

Tracking rule.

.
.

Lower: Lower peak/through of the doublet.


Upper: Upper peak/through of the doublet.

The search window for the doublet feature is in samples and is linked
to the dip given on the Geometricaltab. By default, the search has a
minimum of four samples that it searches (even if the dip samples in
the Geometrical tab are smaller). However, if the dip samples on the
Geometrical tab are set to more than four samples, this search

window is used.

?errel Geophys cs

Selsm c lnterpretati0n

Preparatlon. 257

lr.-r

ffi

:l

Setrings for 'Seis.Ei. heron 1'

l*.-{

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t*-J

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--

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lL-J

:-.1
--J

:-.]
tk
ts
)

|--a
t-

l-.r
L

E
-

L-t-

Minrmum attributes

Maximum atttbutes

Amplitude/reflection strength
Accepted maximum event
Accepted minimum event

Legal event region

E
E

Z (time or depth)
258. Selsmic lnterpretati0n

Preparati0n

Petre Geophysics

E
E.

Dip

Ihe Dip option allows you to optimize the autotracking parameters for
dipping reflectors.

fhe Symmetrical

check boxes control if vertical posrtion changes in


the in-line and cross-lrne directions are allowed to be symmetrical
(toggled on) or asymmetrical (toggled off). Using these options
increases your ability to fine tune the autotracking.
You can enter a numeric value or use the scroll bar to input a value

between 0 and'10. The defaultvalue rs 2. The dragrams show


asymmetry of the cross-hairs in either or both drrections (image
representations showing three traces with the selected input).
Toggle on fhe Optintized Jbr Dipping Refiectors check box to
activate a guiding plane that goes thr0ugh the neighbors of the dipping
reflectors (as specified by expansion quality, that is 3X3 or 5X5 points)
and uses its trend when autotracking the event. Using thts option can
increase the accuracy in areas where reflectors are dipping steeply.

Wavelet
When the (Jse wayelet tracking check box is toggled on, the
autotracker tests potential expansron points using the correlation of a
seismrc trace wrndow. Choose between these correlation methods:

.
.

Seed trace. Cross-correlate with the waveform of the seed

trace.

Adjacent parent. Cross-correlate with the waveform of the


adjacent parent trace.

Selsmic Interpretatl0n Preparatl0n

259

Dip

lrline

Crossline

i*
r-3 t r*il
il
i.i

lMi
2.8

[$

i - ttt
--

2.0

l;

Fl

smple*ltrace

r--li

{{J

-J

2.*C

lm*ietrical
L

;---j Opmize fcr dipping reflectcrs

y'

Usewavelettracking

Conelaie wilh

eedtr*ce

Correlation quality.

i{]

&.5

yn.rnreirical windcws

Cross correlaen

Above. 12

samples{48 msJ

Below: 12

samplesi4S m=)

Length: t:4 I samples{m]

t-

L
l*,ant *d :'l* fraqir

E:r:sl

Correlation Ouality

Ihe Correlation quali1t opti0n sets the correlation threshold at which


tracking willfail. Identrcal neighboring traces give a value of 1.0. The

Seed trace method has a default value 0f 0.5 and a range from 0 to 1.0.

The Adjacent parent method has a default value 0f 0.95 and a range
from 0.75 to 1.0.
These methods account for the drift in the correlatng waveform
c0mpared to the waveform of the original seed trace, as the distance
between the waveform and the 0rginal seed trace increases. ln this
case, a correlation quality less than 0.5 rs considered uncorrelated and,
consequently, the lowest correlati0n quality value avarlable is 0"75.

260.

Seismic rterpretati0f Preparation

Petrei Geophysics

L.

-I=-*

r_-

f
ff
f
I--<

--.
-'-
I-I---

l_-

--=

;rricti',ritttlr.ttr.! chcck bx ccntrols rf the ivindow tracking


r; r ie 'eni ar\,e ad beiow the picked seed p0int. Toggling the
-S',

--.-:-.:

acx 0n means that the tracking is symmetrical;toggling it off


^^eans ihat the trackrng is asymmetrical.

can enterthe distance above and belowthe seed p0nt by enterrng


e Jmericalvalue or using the sllder bars. The values are gtven as the
r-l,r,ber of samples
"rcr.l

The

totalwindow length

is defrned in the grayed out area named

Length. This value also is given as the number 0f samples.


The Cross correlatr0n rmage shows the horizon, seismic, and pickrng
parameters in relation to each other.

Constraints Tab
The Constraints subtab on the Autotracking tab has optrons for

lateral limits, vertical limits, using co-volume, and seed/locking.

f
f

E--

I--

f
f
f
f
f
---

r---

----r-r--5

f
-.-5

I--

I-

Petrel Geophysics

Se sm c lnterpretatlcr Preparat

0n.261

f
)-J

:t

la--

_l

-J

lL-J
t--

:l
th-J

:t
--J

_l

-.l

lHr

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L

_l
_l
b-l

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laterial Limits
the Lateral limits area has these options:

.
.

-
L

Boundary polygon: Allows you to specify a closed polygon


beyond which the autotracking rs not permitted to expand.
Stop at visible faults: Allows y0u t0 use interpretation faults in

the fault model to stop the autotracktng.

t-.
Vertical Limits

Ihe Vertical limits area

.
262. Selsmic Interpretatl0n

Preparatlolr

has these options.

Upper. Horizon above which the autotracking is not permitted

*<

!"L-

to expand. You can apply an offset to the upper horizon.


Lower: Horizon below whrch the autotracking is not permitted
to expand" You can apply an offset to the lower horizon.
Vertical range. Controls the vertical interval for the autotracked
horizon in project units. For example, if you specify a vertical
range from -1750 to -1790 ms, the resulting autotracked
horizon is limited to this vertical interval.
Trend data. A surface or another interpreted object that Petrel
will try and match (in shape) when tracking. Using this option
is recommended when trying to interpret a dipping event. The
seed expansion will take place only where the trend is defined.

Use Co-volume
When you select the (Jse co-volume check box, the autotracking uses

two seismic inputs instead of one. This area has these options:

Signal feature: Controls the feature to be tracked for the


second volume. This volume can be either zero centric or

.
o

non-zero centric. This option functions the same as the signal


tracking feature of the primary volume.
Seismic co-volume. Specifies the second seismic volume to
USE,

Usage: Defines how to use the two volumes selected as input.

Track if co-volume is inside value range. Finds the best

pick on the primary volume and uses this pick if the value
of its location in the co-volume is inside the value range.

Track on best volume. Evaluates points on both volumes

Try seismic volume then co-volume. Tries to track on the

and chooses the best evaluation.


primary volume first. lf no acceptable candidate for the
pick is found, it will try to track on the co-volume.

Value range: Uses only values within the set range for the
co-vo lu me.

Seed/Locking
the Seed/Locking area t0 determine what to do with
the existing interpretation. Most settings apply to both 2D and 3D
seeded autotracking. The lock and override filters are valid only for 3D
interpretation data.
For 3D seeds, use

Petrel Geophysics

Seismic lnterpretatlon Preparat on

263

L-..
Er
-l

-)

This area has these options:

o
.
.
o
.
.

in the active window.

Lock/override selected points: Uses only selected interpreted


points (for example, if you use the bounding box selection) in
the active window. The selected points will be a subset of all

visible points.
Visrble points: Uses all of the visible points in the current
interpretation as seed points.
Selected points. Uses the selected points in the current
interpretation as seed points
Points satisfying filter: Uses an interpretation filter to
determine which seed points are used in auto tracking
Lock/override filter: Uses only the interpreted points that
match the selected filter. You select the filter by using the blue
arrow. The 3D interp inclusion filterfolder found under the
lnterpretation folder provides the list of fllters that you can
0verride check box: Allows you to change between overriding
and locking interpreted points.
The Max. vertical parameter: Controls how much the vertical

reflector). The default value is set t0 two vertical data units.


3D Snap:Allows you to search within the defined Max. vertical
delta window for pornts defined as 3D seeds and snaps these
points to the selected Signalfeature. This button is used only

.
264 o Seismic lnterpretati0n Preparation

b.L
L

L
lr-<
E
L-

L--

select.

The search window used is two times the Max. vertical delta
value (that is, Max. vertical delta above and below the

Lock/override visible points: Uses all vlsible interpreted points

position is allowed to change from one trace t0 the next when


autopicking along 2D lines. Picks jumping to a vertical position
above this vertical limit will be ignored dulng autotracking.

-J
Ll

on 3D seismrc data.

lnstant undo and track: Available after a 3D autotracking has


been performed. Automatically displays any changes to the
autotracking parameters in the active window. This feature
will instantly undo the last autotracking step and redo a 3D
autotracking based on the new parameter settings.
3D Track: Starts autotracking using the specified parameters in
the Settings dialog box. 0nly 3D tracking is available.

lr
L
lEL

-L

i:L
t
\
-L
L.

tr
l--

E
f
f
I.

.J

f
I-4

--.-,{

Paintbrush Autotracking in 3D Windows


click and hold the cr0pped-volume so that some seed pornts fallwtthtn
the area. Points are tracked outward from the seed points, limited by
the cursor box (cropped volume). Dragging the box enables you to track
horizons wherever the cropped volume goes wrthin the seismlc volume
This tool works in both 2D and 3D windows"

Procedure

Window

Performing Paintbrush Autotracking in a 3D

1. Crop a small volume around the seismic horizon'


-, i{r'
'i' m
L-1 F+.

& fr

@ ui

Activate and display it in a 3D window with a partly


interpreted

horizon.

J.

'etrel

lnline 571
Hlitre 447

ie.;.

rrr rn the process toolbar


Click Paintbrush autotracking
Drag the cropped volume from the top side around some
seedpoints to start the 3D paintbrush autotracking.

Geophysics

Seismic nterpretat 0n Preparation '265

5.

*
r-a

Ouality control the interpretati0n.

J.

Paintbrush Autotracking
Points are tracked outward from the seed pornts, limited by the active
box size. Dragging the cursor enables the autotracker to track a horizon

interpretation following the cursor path.

Active Box Autotracking


Drag a (rectangular)rubber band to capture seed points within its area.
Within the active box, the autotracker tracks the horizon outward from

the seed points, limited bythe active box size. This toolworks only in
the 2D window.

Autotrack lnside Polygon


Along a time slice, drawa polygon t0 capture seed points. When you
have finished drawing the polygon, double-click. The polygon area is
now tracked. This tool works in both 2D and 3D windows.
l-

\-_

\L--

{
\-

ttL
L266

'

Seismic lnterpretation Preparation

Petrel Geophysics

tL.

-L__

a'
-L_j

f
I-d

Procedure
Performing Box and Polygon Paintbrush
Autotracking
1 .
Activate a seismic v0lume in the lnput pane and display the

|:

i:i: -.

i lt#

i'i'

iti:i!{rlj

ri

partly interpreted horizon in a 2D wnrdow.

2.

Click Paintbrush
r

3.

autotracking ry

. Paint the horizon

nterpretation outwards.

Resize the parntbrush auto tracker by pressrng the + or

key.

Seismic nterpretat 0n Preparation. 267

-t

L_J

L-..

4.

Click

Active box autotracking

& . Drag an area around the

seeds.

_l

r-J
ii

't:i

al,:

:_l

:l

h.-

-_l

.-J

iEf

5.

Click

Autotrack inside polygon

double-click to track inside.

t#i

O,r*

a polygon and

i-.l
=-_l

--{
>
--/

)--i

E
E

Lesson 3
Horizon Editing and Manipulation
- --.s ,:sson, you lvill learn about editing horizons and changing the

r s3 3'( settings.

Seismic Horizon Display Styles

-r:
:

Settings dialog box for horzon interpretations changes, depending


ch disptay window is active.

^ ,', r

lnterpretation Window
''ou can display 2D and 3D interpretations as points or lines. You can
sel the colot type,and size/width and dtsplay crossing points as
s'r,mbols

(2D)or lines (3D).

Annotating a Horizon in an
Procedure
- Displaying and
lnterpretation Window
1. Display the horizon interpretation in the lnterpretation
window

Eeja *i$,S.*t
i
[

arl
470

Petre GeophVslcs

:s

470

57!
4?0

!
4l

E4!

5&1

l?

Seismlc lnterpretati0 Preparati0n

269

r.--J

2.

0pen the Settings dialog box for the horizon and click the

Style tab.

l--C

_l

-l
ih-J

l--{
Hf
Set the display style for 2Dl3D interpretation and crosstng

points.
..-..-.* : r.l
l-t;s

il aP

Symbal: .H

ne:

l-r

4.

30

Dia+*nat aless

-_J
l-

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)
lt
lL-

1&

LinenPe: --":'. Stileled


2
V{idth:
-

Choose the annotation to display on the seismic line.


A,nnotatrn

Nanre

Color:

Font

; E{3

t=

t-

E:
+

270

L.

Seisrnlc lnterpretation Preparation

r=

Procedure

1.

Displaying and Annotating a Horizon in a 3D

Display the horizon in a BD window.

ff

2 Set the display style for 3D interpretation


3. Manipulate the resolution slider bar.
ft

Setrngs for'Sesmic horizon

: _ Restrict mode

.l

2D interpretatioil
Clor:

,9.i

Lines

-':

EF*.ciiiEd

Lie tvpe
width:

,:-" Poinls sunbol:

olirl

-2
.;_ ln*.r,

ie

\li

ed
r-1. .

fti,n

Mex

&ry....] L::L...,'r ,;;rr"l

-i

Sersm c

lnterpretati0f Preparatio . Z7l

b-

lnterpretation

Displaying a Neighboring
Activate and display a horizon in the lnterpretation window'

Procedure

i-

272. Seismic lnterpretation Preparatlon

L_

2.

0n the Style tab, select Previous and Next to display


neighbor sections and set their style.

settiftgs tur'eirmi{ h0zsn 1'

ilitlim&.,;
2D nd 30 i*terpreiaon
Clr:

Neishbor sestins {:D only)

r, P',,,8,'i 1.rr
.,/ Nen
Color

'

ird

Lineirpe

widfi:

Navigate to the next lines

lnterpretation Editing
ln many cases, y0u might need to manually editthe interpretation to
clean up the picture before modeling the result further.
However, because an interpretation (and an instant quality c0ntrol 0f
the result in three dimensions)is quickto do in Petrel, deleting a larger
part of the interpretation and redoing it can potentially be just as
efficient.
The undo/red0 steps are limitless and are saved for each horizon. You

t3

Always check to see


which horizon or fault is
active (bold in the lnput
pane) before using undo/
redo.

can retrieve them by activatrng the horizon. Note, howevef that they
are removed when the project is closed or saved.

Petrel Geophysics

Seismic lnterpretation Preparatlon

273

J
)

*,-dl

_i
--

J
*

-,

F
:i--

H
Undo (Ctrl +

Z)/

z/
\*...
t-

Bedo (Ctrl + Y)

)
l--r
_L.

Select by polygon and Bounding box select

Selection Paintbrush
'!.

Parent-Child Editing
The autotracking uses a trace-to-trace meth0d of verifying and
expanding the seed point. When a point or a selection of points is
accepted, it becomes a parentto other potential child points that are
prcked from neighboring traces.

selecting parent p0nts enables you to investrgate the path that the
autotracker made to reach the selected point. Similarly, selecting child
points enables you to track subsequent points that originate from a

_-

}-

-.

t-

l-

mrsrnterpreted Prck.

274. Seismlc lterpretalion Preparati0n

Petre Geophysics

t-

Editing Parent and Ghild Points in an


Procedure
lnterpretation
1
Select the misinterpreted area and click on the Select single
point rcon from function bar.

N;i;l:':ii-i!

i,

This works only for

autotracked horlzons.

2.

Click Select parent pont l:Ll and click a misinterpreted


point. The path back to rts original seed pornt turns yellow

(; C ick on the Select


single point lcon from
function bar before selecting
parent points.

Click Select

child point

{:l and click the first wrongly

tracked point along the path. All points originating from lt turn
Vellow.

Fetre Geophvsics

s",,^

"op-o.io,

D"p".iorr275

:),.J
4

Delete the selection

X. fn. yellow ponts are deleted'

-l
-l

-J
LA

L-

L..J

-_l
lL.J
-rl

v
v

lnspector Tool
informatlon about
Using the lnspector tool is a quick way t0 access
changes interactively.
objeJts in your windows and visuallze setting
in a variety of
information
detailed
ThL lnspector window displays
tables'
and
forms, such as example histograms, charts,
You can move the

lnspector window and resize it'

You also can c0py

and paste all lnspector statistics.

of objects lf
Continuous mode: Displays a constant read-out
information
object
shows
this option is cleared, the lnspector
onlY when You click the object'
Auto resize: lnstantaneously fits the height of the lnspector

Transparency. Adjusts the background opacity of the


lnspector window. Move the slider from slde-to-side to
change from transParent to oPaque'

276. Sp

.m;c lrlPrplPtar 0''l Ptepatat

or

_1

L,
I
lEd

'

tool to the viewed content'

objectsinsidethelinkedwrndow.Tolinkawindow,activate
button
th window that you wish to link and click the Link
the lnsPector window'

L;-a

lnspector tool looks with these options'

.Windowlinking:Allowsyoutolinkthelnspectoft0aSpeCifiC
to
window. This means that the lnspector will react only

|-a
l-i

Settings
You can change how the

-L.

in

tr

tr
tr
lt-

0pens the

tool settings

Displays a constant read-out of selected objects

Adjusts the background transparency of the


Links the

lnspector tool to a specific window or all windows

(optional)

Petre Geophysics

Seisrnic nteipretation Preparation. 277

,-,J

_l

1.

-l
-.J

Using the lnspector Tool


From the View menu, open the lnspector tool.

Procedure

--J,

-_J

Fanes

--]

Tinr* player lasilgar


liiglhr!

:irulal*r'libr

L..J

2.

Click an object. The lnspector window updates to display the


settings for the type of object that you select.

:-l
t-.J

ll--J
-/

t--

--l
>-)
--l

3.

w
Manrpulate the object propertres in the lnspector window
and visualize the changes immediately.

tL-

I-

-L

i;.L.

E-

L,

L278. Selsmic lnterpretati0n Preparati0n

Petrel Geoohvs,::

i=

L-

Petrel Geophyslcs

Selsmlc

Lf

terpretatr0r Preparati0n . 279

Horizon Flattening in 2D
You can flatten individual lines on an interpreted horizon in the

lnterpretation and !ntersection windows. The interpreted horizon


does not have t0 be consistent over the entire line because petrel
allows for gaps in the interpretation, such as breaks over faults. These
gaps are interpolated linearly; you can interpret on the flattened
sections

-d

ir=.
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ii:

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s :is: iie.p.::il1n foj cr:fe su.rey i:j

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tL-280

Seismic Interpretation Preparation

l--

Procedure
-his

Flattening 3D Volumes

1,r,'._."1ii
:|::' :... .||

procedure shows you howto flatten 3D volumes on interpreted


"orizons There are two ways to flatten a seismic cube.

1.

2.

Usrng the

i]i

] ....

Make/edit surface process, convert the holzon

interpretation to a surface.
Flatten a seismic cube:

a.

Activate the seismic cube that you wish to flatten.


Right-click the surface and choose Flatten active
seismic volume. A vlrtual flattened seismic volume
named Flattened 1 ls created. Also, a new folder named
Flattening surfaces is created. Use this folder to track
the hrstory of flattening operations.
Right-click the seismic cube in the lnput pane and select
lnsert flattened volume. A virtual seismic volume, Flattened
2, is created (but not yet flattened).

3.

i.---1.1,?.,f,,$1,.,,

SI

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r..,,..,iir

rrrj,,

Seisnic

rr.:i,:::r,i:,:,.:jr:,riri*:ri:

ft

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& : f , Irrto, u tr*, nr* i,n tr! s
Fr vl lteryrebrion blde. 1
-4

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..
q ..: I ii"
fay )
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&

II

\c{Lse:ii.gs...
i. !:Nr1:c
1;iriere ilcil S:!Llic
:-.R. Lr:r !Pi.ii.il .
i{rai:...
a.f!:
irsiE f r!,cai sEicr :qd
q;eb;i..ilr
:di:
:abi.
End

r,ir!!iF!ql".
:ffirarcr;e

.,

fi.u::c:
aciiese iEcLrisiJl

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Dr. ic cajer:
c.:5y nr!

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trrrs . .

ET

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ioP.oe* tr
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.

a:ai !:fLr:u:: li+iLC(

{ie;is irqreirir rrl.rlc!!


Sur!J'

traaql=i,,,

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18..irEci.r,s5,! iiie! ..
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!nsei .i.ssilnE inierseciion
Geophysics 'dl
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P Seismic i * :ns+r 1ar sll.e itE'!e(iic
ffi vokrme at i{ex,rie.5*ii.:r alBre

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lvi Llake

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LriEii? ErJa: :.JaE 1,au:

Seismic nterpretat on Preparation

o 281

;-a

i..J
r. & l-e.l lntery surv*y indusiott llets
i. F j faterpretaticn older 1

. B i*

Seisrr,te

'#ivim
@ i-:

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lnline 635

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&

il

t@

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lnline 635

.]

--J

4.

ln the Settings dlalog box for the new volume, open the

tab and insert a Reference surface for flatteni

l--.d
L

eJtings lor"Flattened 1'

-r
--d

-/

-/

l-t
--l
Objecis iB conyeri iniatten sPace

h-

---
I-r
L.

l--

t-

ELb,
282. Seismlc lnterpretatiotr Preparati0n

L\-

Take one of these actions to actrvate interpretation objects:

o
o

ln the

lnput pane and click

.t'-i

to insert the objects into

the table.

Activate lhe lnterpretationfolder and click New fault


-:
-

interpretation

i&

New horizon interpretation

or New grid interpretaton

-,

Click Apply. The seismic volume is flattened on the reference


su

rfa ce.

Click Re-flatten, Un-flatten, and Flatten to flatten and


unflatten the objects in the list.

r,.j

Hr{"-"- ] i;;.6r"

@lfg--j

_,;
I

7lap.,

:ai

E*-."r--.r

This figure shows the unflattened surface (left) and the


flattened surface (right).

Se sm c

lnierpretatlo Preparatl0n . 293

-)>-.4
)

t-J

Flattened 0biects
You can convert existing interpretation objects ln the flattened space.
These objects can be fault, horizon, and grid interpretations (which are

sub-objects of the horizon interpretation associated with one seismic


survey only) and surfaces or p0nts.
You can create new lnterpretati0n objects (faults, horlzons, and grtd
interpretattons) and interpret them directly in the flattened space.

A history of the flattened ob.ects ls stored on the History tab in the

_l
--J
_l
--

Settings dialog box.

*-/
_

lnterpretation Filters
You can

filterthe interpretation 0n any one of many parameters

Use

the filters to display the rnterpretation and to define points as seeds for
autotracking and locking pornts, or to select them for reinterpretation.
You also Can USe the filters with the Bounding box select opton t0
delete specific parts of an interpretation.
Fllters related to interpretations are located ln the Sersmic main folder
0r y0u can find them under each horizon rnterpretation obiect in the
lnput pane. lnfhe lnterp survey inclusion filtersfolder, you can filter

cells belonging to the different surveys.

All interpretation folders contaln 3D interp inclusion fllters. Choose one

=-

y--r'
--/
l--a

b-

_-

,-./
L

_-,/

l-r
L

of these types of ftlters.

3D autotracked: Contains all seeded 3D autotracked

2D autotracked: Contalns all 2D autotracked rnterpretations

o
.

nterpretatr ons.

(seeded 2D and guided).


Manual: Contains all manual interpretations.

lmported/converted: Contains all interpretations imported from


OpenSpirit files or pre-Petrel 2007.1 (point data sets) files
converted to the current Petrel format.

tr
tr
t-

L--

k284.

Seism c lnterpretati0n Preparatl0n

Petrel Geocr

ii

3D inerp i*c/-sr': fi?es

6i t J aufcbetA'd
-. r !L] EttlrctkPd
" Qj ,rani/s

;.h"

+i

/rnsnfed.br: rerted

Seisrnic horizon I

$1 1; 3D Cube

ln the example drsplayed in the frgure, the 3D autotracked horizon

rnterpretatron filter is cleared.

Selsm

c iterpretatio

Preparatl0f

285

J
>-J

-J
-J
--a
t-J

lnterpretation OualitY Filter


The 0utput attrrbutes are created durlng 3D horizon autotracking

lnterpretation Ouality Filter

Using the
1. From the lnput pane, under the horizon interpretation' display

Procedure

the output attributes created during autotracking'


, t& ig"1 Seisric horizsn 1

ffi

iil

3tr Cube

HM

iJ

tI i*
lI
r4r

2.
'-;-';*'::i
';-*--"-

,-

[:
r

>,,,.

Filtering tab'

ch0ose 0ne attribute to filter. The histogram updates'

""",P

l,*:------ii,ili
ilililirir
illlr'
:

T1vr

{}

F..J
>

Autotracker: llnndence
Autotracker: AmPliiude
,qr*totracker: istance

ln the horrzon Settings dialog box on the

r ^.,**,* ,. "

"*

{i

_l

',

;:*'"::l:

o4T

,F*@ r mo*q 's


k * J k - L ; r

r bd

-._:::_.':.:ok

l'

l-.a

_\=

[:
1
rlffil
,&

.
,
\

&

FL,ffi,

'ffi

df f "i-w,mffii.

re**pffia

_.1

ffii
hi

<

l-

::

lri

'.,.gt

!t

Left-click an area of the histogram to filter it away from the

tr

T-

display.

tr
286.

Se -m,c

L.--

In.erpte,at;or Prepara'ror

E--4.-d

%
Horizon 0perations: Bulk Shift
Before you interpret a horizon, you can c0rrect problems, such as the
vertical mis-positionrng of seismic data or datuming problems, by
applying a bulk shift to the interpretation that was done previously. This
horizon operation shrfts the data into the correct position.

Procedure

1.

Bulk Shifting a Horizon


- lnput
pane, 0pen the Settings dialog box for the

ln the

horizon.

lf,,.[-.1*H-i.li..i.=.:.::.:r::=,i.:**....-.4,i
.1"1"1-Hi,,r,.r,:..,,,,,:
&! v elsmlt

",

iS
@
iF

L{:sss.s

I l*te.rpsrrr*y

n-/asrbn,fla-r

t{: xnterpretaiion folder I

mJ
|k i

j nle{p

rn,:luJon lles

Sersmic horion

$l iul

.' 2D
\'lr-iff.,i

Ij

fi; '--^

i.\j
.

s',",rs::lgs...

:"-::!':'irs
,:re sersm ;

Ac-

.
i

ffi
- sen,l: !':rrli
l*UJ 1:i

',

- C,-, 51

'.ts.-'.

freale:+ lncai r

0n the Operations tab, expand lhe Arithmetic folder and


selectZ=Z+Constant.

Se smic lnterpretatl0n Preparat

of .287

Define the c0nstant value and click Run. The horizon shlfts
vertrcally.

.E

L.

t-

L.

l.

l-

L
288. Selsmic Interpretation

Preparation

Petrel

Gecp-"-.,:

tr

-&-

Petrel Geophysics

Seismic lnterpretation Preparati0n

289

J
-J
.-J

:l-J
-J

Horizon 0perations: Smoothing


There are two smoothing methods available for horizon

nterpretation:

o
.

lir**.T'
il:

Gaussian: Use this method when you need t0 set the


number of iteratlons.
Median: Use this method when you need to set the number
of iterations as well as the radius.

Procedure

Smoothing a Horizon

- the Seismic operationstolder and select


1. Expand

-* ::i

il.i!l:;$

Gaussian or Median smooth'


l

lettings fr'3S selffilc'

:l*

Creete nte.prtotian attnbte

ru

llledin

iffi

L.J

-l
1
^_l
--J

-.-
b-J

r-J

:-l
*)
l--J

sath

>-r
Ll
)

L--.d

\.
i:l

#
ii f;

Converl FeitslFlyansu.faces
V--lmrty co*r'eeior

tIl

Dsmain

&i_t-

2.

cnteien

For Median smooth, set the number of lterations and


Badius.

.J
L
LI
)
l-

L.

l-

br

'<
I-<

Jb.

l-.-

5,
290. Se,smir IntPrprelat 01 Prepatat or

E=

tt

This figure shows results from the Gaussian


smooth method
(left) and the Mediam smooth
merhod (right).

Petrel GeophVsics
Seismic lnterpretation pr.parit,on

. Zgl

_lesson 4
Horizon lnterpretation Surface
Conversion and Surface Attrbutes Generation

,a-

ln this lesson, you will learn about generating a surface, using


the
smoothing process, and calculating surface attributes.

---

Make Surfaces Process


0ften seismic interpreters wantto generate a quick map to see the
trend of c0nt.urs and their interpretation. This map also helps them
to identify area of interest so thatthey can do a more detailed

interpretation. You can create qurck maps for surfaces and display
them in 2D,3D, and Map windows. you also can customize these
maps with user-defined color schemes and contour intervals.

,=,

fhe Make surface process under the t|titities f older offers


different algorithms for the different types of input data that you
can use for surface generation. Then you can use these surfaces to
calculate surface attributes and for other processes in petrel.
ln this lesson, you

will create a surface from a horizon


interpretation, but you also can create surfaces from points, well
tops, polygons, or images. Refer to the petrel Help for more
information about other types of input data and further details on

*-1

t,,--r

fhe Mqke surface process.

Procedure

.-

Generating a Surface
utilities foldet open the Make/

1.

ln the Processes pane,

2.

edit,surface process.
From Main input, drop in the interpreted horizon that you
wish to convert into a surface.

)
t--{
L-
-]
i-,]
L-
s-

-.-
l,4ain

input:

iq *

Seisnir i.orizor

fg ii l.lanie. ,;*,i;;
Run for all main inpr:t in
F:
' i I the
same {older
UgqedsstingsfffimirEut ?
292 o Seisr

c rlp

0'eTd

io, Prepar.,io.

Petre

GeophVS cs

_l
_l
L-

L-

l:l

Click Suggest settngs from input. Petrel suggests the


gridding algorithm based on the chosen input data.

Rmult
lilarn

tnDijt

:: Elsfrlt T.il;lr

-,

tsoundry. l=),
taufi cemr : ,
lnes.Jp(1[,gof s ::L

rurfam:

i;]
ii1
.,1 lt"t*,::!,,,::li
Run fr ali main inpL:t in
t*:'il rr
I-l the ramefalder
rlq8d dttngtsm inp{n

0n the Geometry tab, specify the grid outllne and


resol ution,

ris figure shows the origrnally interpreted horizon (left) and the

surface created from the horizon interpretation (right).

:l':

i:1,.'.S

CS

Selsnr c lnterpretatlon

Preparation. 293

I
_l
:l-l
4

,- :

Smoothing a Horizon
Procedure
ln the Surfac e operations foldet select Smooth'
1 .

-".

*l

lJ

lr

rtr:T*I-r

2.
3.

-,--J

Define lterations and Filter width parameters.


Click Run.

L-J

F+ertti+ns

>

^_l

*r,*,r.sl td{*ea

i
H

ff
m
r

ffi
y-_!f

ffi
ffi

F*

fr

ffi
ffi
F

'l

,-

&rgi*'furuti*r*
I i,rr';atr; r* ts*r*til;na
F*tis.;* *4t*t*

-J
-J
t-J

Eli*,i{*n**r*
Sudar*t

udsr,,* *,*sti$rs

$ir,*",hcxtiu, fun+ti*rrs

t*n+r*r

**rstie,r*

P*ints +r.erati*n'+

Sur{at* og*ratir:re
Hrt:t+ sric

tE

^,
r*

$r,"q*-'ih

b,.J

-)

-tJrilqJte

; 1L ErtruEe.luie'+ithi L*'+r'**,t'
: B Fsiiit.ist66t
, S inir,,+tt+
: S Eirsql*
E

E!

'ffi

L.--

-"1

E.\t'Br1{

rotr

. Sll F*fir*
, :tt R*s*n:pl*
; .dL Fiir

:
l-
-]

i;i--l
I

-:i"-:!

--a

_t

l.i

tue'; t{q;

f,e'r{.:

t--,
294

. Seisric 'tle.pretat

0't Preparat o'

*-J

This figure shows the origrnal surface for smoothing (left) and the

surface after the smoothing process (right).

Seisnrlc nterpretati0n Preparation' 295

J
-J
,r--J

>.J

l:: " *-+i:

iil - :!

ir 'q i
:I::==5

Greating an Attrbute Map Based on


Procedure
Surface 0perations

1.
2.

Display an unsmoothed surface in a 3D window.


Rlght-click the surface and select Greate/Update dip

angle and azmuth.

@i-iffi

tl!
m
g
m

:)*.J

Shcr

re,r195

erd f0 -tt-Jis

Rei.ifl'e ?ros stEdio

la Erurd,,.

atrl-E

fCii glslral .alof table

Delt .,

l!,

aal.LritJ"..

Ll:l aop,

:J

>.-J

at !uJ3d rttlibute

-_l

a{pir rsgulr rBri3c: idta rr,l}i

Reserrnte

-l

2t

3.

areat !udr.e 99gE

1ft5 riEs nitribL.te

lreiElugdate dip nglr nad ailth

Expand the surface rn the

lnput

:J

-l

frests r* lo{=l cal. leg*nc

,&

:l
1-.J

---J

pane t0 drsplay new

surface attrlbutes.

,.ffifilffi
tT {-l rrur

& {"* Brp ansle


& i-i mp ax*tt
This figure shows the unsm0othed surface (left) and the
new surface attributes (right).

LI
l-

-
t-a

E-r
--a

l-:
L-

----/

L'-

t-

E296

Seismic lnterpretati0n Preparati0n

k=

Surface Attrbutes
Ihe Surf'ace attributes process is comparable fo fhe Volurue
ctttrbute process ln the sense that attrlbutes are organized into
c Ia

,-l

You can use both

surfaces and horizon

sses.

interpretations ln the
c e attri bttte,t Pr0CeSS

You can calculate surface attributes based on a single horizon,


between two honzons, orfrom (time)depth to depth. You also can
capture specific parts of the signal ln a time window or an event.

Surfa

This sectlon offers a brlef dlscussion on the functionalrty and


procedure for generating surface attributes. Because lt ls beneficial
for your rnterpretations, you should explore the various options.
For

further details, see the Petrel Help.

Generating Surface Attrbutes

Procedure

1. 0pen-Surface attrlbutes in the Processes pane.


I

GeoPtry'tc*

sr-

lEg

Seismic interPretation

lrolume attnbutes

;@

l:ffi|

,J.
4.

Choose a surface attribute ln the library.


Choose the lnput seismic.
Choose from the optrons to create new, add, or append to

existing attrbute.

:$

Sur-face attnbr*tes

htke srrf=r:e

ttrib'ut

t_*_.*_***-

l,4ll

lnput selsmic.

liumber,:l negati\re zeto ffosslnu


llumb*r r,f Fositive Eeo Erosings
i l{umher,rf ?Erro crotsrgs

=16-,ia
Add to rurface

Standard deviation ,:f amplrtude

lr

rm

Add to nev+

surlac*

EMS Amplitude Surface

nf .nlitr-rf15----,-.----*Append to attribr"rte

:=:hislcs

Seismic lnterpretatl0n Preparat 0n

297

Define Window specification or specify from which


horizons to calculate the attrtbute.

Fepeated tndows

6.

298

Seismic lnterpretati0n Preparati0n

Expand the surface in the lnput pane t0 display the


attribute. (The image shows the BMS surface )

# ffi HilS Amplitude surtece


, tI l'nr
:lIffi HmsAmplitude

Petrel Geophysics

Exercises

---
IE-.

lnterpreting Horizons

"'ihese exercises, you will get hands-on experience with a simple


^r'izon interpretation workflow. These exercises show you the basic
s::ps that you will have to consider or perform whenever y0u are
.ierpreting horizons in Petrel.

)uring interpretation, any interpreter will use a combination of


1,1.i:'

autotracking or manual interpretation, depending on the type of


cata available, the subsurface geology, scope of work, and

Bight-click on the

lnput pane and select


Collapse all folders
(recursive) or Expand all
folders (recursive).

accuracy/details required. However, in this case you will be taken


ihrough each procedure one-by-one to make sure that the
differences in each are highlighted, enabling you to better use these
iechniques in your workflows.
fiefer to the Appendix for a list of seismic interpretation shortcut
(eys.

Using a Simple Horizon lnterpretation Workflow

1.

2.

0n the Processes pane, activate fhe Seismic


interpretatiotx proceSS.
From the

Window menu, insert a new lnterpretation

window.

3.
4.
5.

Expand the Sersmic main folder and the seismic survey

from which you wish to display the seismic line.


Display cross-line 470 in the lnterpretation window.
From the

:l

lnsert menu, select New interpretation folder.

Try opening an

Interpretation window by
right-clicking on a seismic
line (in-line/cross-line or a
2D line) and selecting 0pen

interpretation window.

This step is necessary only for this exercise to ensure that


you keep the work that you do separate and arranged. ln a

6
7

B.

routine workflow, this step might not be necessary.


Go to the Settings dialog box for the lnterpretation folder
that you created.
0n the lnfo tab, rename this folder S
Hori z on

imple

Workflow fofder.
Bight-click Simple Horizon Workflow folderand use the
menu to insert two new horizons.

Seismic lnterpretati0n Preparation

299

t-1J

Define Window specificati0n 0r specify from which

horizons to calculate the attrlbute.

-J
--J

E-J

--

t_l
-]
-"1

---,.
>

F.ryq-]

6.

Eqll]ry:e.]

Expand the surface in the Input pane to display the


attribute. (The image shows the RMS surface.)

I
E.

!.-

+
+

---=

l j Hl,,l Amplitude surlace


; tI * rtr'r
'flI HmsAmplitude
!--

r
\-

Exercises

f
f

I---

Ir--

---

Interpreting Horizons

ln these exercises, you

will get hands-on experience with a simple

horizon interpretation workflow. These exercises show you the basic


steps that you will have to consider or perform whenever y0u are
rnterpreting horizons in Petrel.
During interpretation, any interpreter will use a combination of
autotracking or manual interpretation, depending on the type of
data available, the subsurface geology, scope of work, and
accuracy/detarls required. However, in this case you will be taken
through each procedure one-by-one to make sure that the
differences rn each are hlghlighted, enabling you to better use these
techniques in your workflows.

,lll

{l

Right-click on the

lnput pane and select


Collapse all folders
(recursive) or Expand all
folders (recursive).

Befer to the Appendix for a list of seismic interpretation shortcut


keys.

Using a Simple Horizon lnterpretation Workflow

1. 0n the Processes pane, activate fhe Seismic

2.

interpretation
From the

Process.

Window menu, insert a new lnterpretation

:,,ii

window.

Try opening an

3.

Expand the Seismic maln folder and the setsmic survey


from which you wish to display the seismic line.

Interpretation window

Display cross-line 470 in the Interpretation window.


From the lnsert menu, select New interpretation folder.
This step is necessary only for this exercise to ensure that
you keep the work that you do separate and arranged. ln a

2D llne) and selecting OPen

bY

right-clicking on a seismic
line (in-line/cross-line or a

interpretation window.

routine workflow, this step might not be necessary.


Go to the Settings dialog box for the lnterpretation folder
7

that you created.


0n the lnfo tab, rename this folder

simple Hori

zon

Workflow folder.
Bight-click Simple Horizon Workflow folderand use the
menu to insert two new horizons.

Seismlc lnterpretation Preparation

299

.-

From the Seismic interpretation toolbat insert two more

.'

horizons. These horizons also wlll appear tn your new


folder if that folder was active/bold when you inserted the

Always ensure that


the correct process, wlndow,
and folder is activated.

new horizons.
Rename the new horizons based on the horizon

10

3D autotracked horizon
2D autotracked horrzon

>

Guided autoLracked horizon


ManualIy int.erPreted horizon'

You also can change the name 0f the horizons on the


tab in the Settings dialog box.

-d

interpretation techniques:

.
.
o
o

:i

:I

lnfo

*kr,i* lTs*dtsrfdds
t' fu ill .Is*xesp,**dx*r#*s
& i.-i :* *x*'lt***** nuttu*

# de

q'

20 aocited hotctl

'rii:

i-: *ueca**la*eltotl*n

M*x.*Jesp{Etid

>

>

hrin
I

ffi

>

*tti*gn *r'3D autotr*ckd heriz*n'

iS
I

t*.

j:::i!

ffii

,t=*",

>

Clor:

rIL

Type:
Domain:

tJ

b-l

tdet

Elerati+ntine

Er

,i:;;,:'.

+
11

ri;'

(3

You can switch

between drfferent techniques


on the same horizon at anY
time.

0n the Functi0n t00lbar, click !nterpret grid horizon (H)


iB, tn.n click one of these four icons, depending 0n h0w
you wish to interpret y0ur h0rz0n 0r at what point you wish

to combine these technrques..--

.
.
.
o

3D seeded autotracking

2D seeded autotracking i"S

Guided autotracking i.{,,.-

Manual interpretation i*Y*.


12. Go to cross-line 470 and interpret different events using
different methods based on their contlnuity and quality. To
meth
300. Seismic lnterpretati0n Preparatlon

---

h=

hon
Petrel Geophysics

\=

13. At the intersection of cross-line 470 and in-line

590,

interpret these events:

o
.
.
.

035 ms (peak)
Manually interpreted horizon at -1330 ms (peak)

3D autotracked horrzon at

-1

Make sure the

horizon you want to interpret


is bold in the lnput pane.

-1 870 ms (peak)
Guided autotracked horizon -2015 ms (peak).

2D autotracked horizon at

this exercise, use default parameters for autotracking.


You wrll work with prior specificatlons of the autotracking
parameters later in the exercises. The manual
rnterpretation allows you to virtually draw over the horizon
ln the general intersection player toolbar, enter 25 for the
increment and work across the cube to pick your horizons.
For

#*#e&#&ici;;
Press N or double-click to break your pick across the fault.

Display the faults that you have interpreted.


Use a seismic ghost curve to help you pick the same event
across the fault. To erase any pick, click the Eraser icon.

Petre (jeophVS cs

Selsm

nterpretati0n Preparatl0 .301

J--

_l
_l
\-{
_l
-,.-1

19.

the setsmic events, swltch between


different seismic templates from the Selsmic interpretation

To help you pick

toolbar.

20.
21

Change the color by sliding the color table bars.


*.,'.,;:-. l!IS*isr'i (deiaul:i

r, ilGj

Change the display scale. Press Ctrl+ Shit, hold down the
left mouse button, and drag the mouse over the area that

you wish to display.

')) View the interpretation by inserting 3D and 2D windows


from the Window menu and linking them to a visual
group, as discussed in Module 2.
Durrng horlzon picking, make composite lines in the

lnterpretation window using the icons in the


toolbal as discussed in Module

>-

the automated horizon interpretation. These parameter are


important because they are key to good results for automated
horizons. Setting and changing parameters are vitalfor allforms of
autotracking including Seeded 3D, Seeded 2D, and Guided
utotracki ng.

1.

2.
iFi:.
il

ll

i-,"""-

--.,: The

3.
Autotracking

tab has been modified for

_l

>,.-

>-a

-l

-Ll

--/

Activate lhe Seismic interpretatio? process from the

Processes pane.
lnsert a new horizon and name it

hori z on-

tracking_parameters.
Bight-click on the horizon-tracking-parameters horizon and
select Settings.

4.

r-J
-]

Function

2.

Setting up Horizon Tracking Parameters


ln this exercise, you will learn how to set tracking parameters for

b-

-)
,--

0n the Settings dialog box, open the Autotracking tab.

Petrel 2013.1

-=r
ts

!.'

302. Seismic nterpretati0n Preparation

Petrel Geophysics

L-

a-E:*

I--

eurey

*sic

&l

F's* e tesh

t_{l

se*es*xm:

,?*

il]'fh6wr9e:

.1

ri

r;

l!

,,i

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By default, the active seismic v0lume is selected. you


can
change the seismic volume by making the seismic
cube
bold in the !nput pane and dropping it onto the

Autotracking tab.

5. Select values or priori4t, euality, and Signal feature.


6. 0n the Parameters subtab, specfy the Seid confidence
f

percent, depending 0n how strong the


amplitude is of the
seismic event that you wsh to autotrack as your
horizon.

Petrei Geophystcs

Seismic lnterpretation p,epit

on.

30e

.I
>--

value is 100' by
implying that any
selecting 30% seed confidence, you are
in the
amplitu;e value below 30 should not be considered

For example, rf your average amplitude

autotracking.
View your amplitude value range'

a.
b.
c.

is acttve
Make sure that the lnterp.retation window
Click Select/Pick mode i h
that you wish to
Drag the curs0r over the seismic event
and time/
autotrack. lnformation such as the amplitude

0biect
depth of the event is displayed 0n the

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information bar.

v_-l
--

>-
b

lL

B. Further limit your autotracklng by specifying

9.
10

the amplitude

value range for better autotracking c0ntrol"


is a dipping
lf the seismic event that Y0u are autotracking
refiectors
'lhis
reflector, select Optimize for dippittg
optron helps to fine tune the autotracking'

Click APPIY

(Ctrl+C and Ctrl+V)'


Make opy of your horizon
pane and keep
12. Leave the copied horlzon in the lnput
to make it bold
working on the original horizon Remember
parameters
13. For betier results, further limit the autotracking

11

h<

a. Select t/se waYelet ffacking'


b. Select a value for the Correlate with field from the

c.

droP-down list.
quality'
Use the slrder to set the Correlation

Petrel GeoPh'!

rf'
I.

14.

aff-

Use different options for constraints 0n the Constraints


subtab to Iimit y0ur autotracking.

'15.

to the lnterpretaton or 3D window and display the


seismc section where you wsh to gve y0u first seed point
for autotracking.
Go

-.i

6.

Click lnterpret grid horizon (H) e, then select rhe


autotracking type.
17. lf you are dorng Seeded 3D autotracking, pick (using
manual, guided or 2D autotracking method) some cross_
1

-.-

Ir-_/1

lt is always useful to
keep a copy of your original
horizon with the initral
parameters because it can
help you compare the results

between d fferent options.


Then, you can keep the
closest match to your model
and discard the others.

lines and in-lines with a co,arse- glid over the cube, then
BD rnck
click the 3D Track button
in the Settings

i*

dialog box" This step ensures that your picks are honored
as seed points and can Iimit the time that you spend quality
checking the autotracked horizon.
18. lnsert a new horizon and name it horrzorr

autotrackinq parameters

19

20

2.

Use other parameters and autotrack the same event that


you tracked previously in this exercise.
Compare the results.

Editing Horizon lnterpretations Manually and


Automatically
When attempting t0 constrain the tracking parameters to the
extreme, the automatic interpretation often will not be performed"
Sometimes, a pragmatc approach is better when deciding
how
much effort t0 use 0n automatic interpretation vs. results
editing.
This exercise shows you howto do manualediting as wellas
a
more efficient automatic editing
Use Ctrl + C and Ctrl + V t0 copy and paste a seeded
3D
autotracked horizon from your project.

1.

2
3

5
o.

Rename the copy Hori zon edrt.


Display the horizon in a 2D window and an lnterpretation

window.
Tile the two windows and link them to the same visual
group. Do not forget to activate the cursor tracking
for both
windows.
Make Horizon_edit active.
Activate the 2D window

Per,e Geophysics
Seismic Interpretatlon Preparat

0n.

305

7.

Us-e-

--

ifi or Select by polygon

select

Bounding box

ii to Oraw a rectangular boundary around an area that


you wrsh to edrt.

B.

Delete the points by clicking

9.

Use the interactive Eraser (Shift+X)

Delete

"

iB" to delete a part


of your interpretation. You can change the eraser size by
pressrng the plus (+) and minus (-) keys"

and Redo (Gtrl+Y)


10. Use Undo (Gtrl+Z)
1
Activate or lnsert a new 3D

window.

12.

'

Display Horizon-edit ad use Bounding box

i;:ri
select 'l-h,

Select by polygon ii.th, o, Selection paintbrush

:,:E

:to

select multiple interpreted points.

Delete

the process actions bar to delete points

13

Use

14

d" to reinsert the deleted points.


Click Undo

rn

L-_

L.
L

L.-

L.
I

the autotracked horizon and rename it


Hori z on_Parent/Chi f d.
16 View the interpretation horizontally from east 0r west.
Check for areas of misinterpretation.

15. Make a copy of

17. ActivateSelectsingle

t3

r'*l

Parent/child ecliting
works only for autotracked

18.

horizons

li

Clct on the Select

single point

Patent Points 'sil

icon from the

function bar before selecting


parent points..

point

and clickSelect

ln the 3D window, select a point within the area where the

interpretatron is incorrect. All of the points on the tracking


path between the selected point and the seed point are
activated (marked yel low).
19. 0uality control the highlighted path of the interpretation
against the seismrc section to check exactly where the
autotracking process failedto follow the right reflector.

20. Click Select child points {rl and click the failure point.
All interpreted points inherited from the failed point are

L-

L,-

5r-

E
L

bL

IL
-t

activated.

21. Delete the selected points. Again y0u can undo the
22.

Saue your project.

/"-

-b

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l"5306.

Seismic lnlerpretatl0n Preparati0

Fetre Geira'

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Horizon 0perations: Bulk Shifting a Horizon


lnterpretation
There are more than 75 different operations that you can do on
lonzon interpretations in Petrel. This exercise gives some
:xa

ples.

1. ln the lnput pane, copy and paste 3D autotracked

2.
3.
4.

horizon

to create a copy of it.


Hename the copy Horizon
Expand Horizon_A_shifted and open the Settings dialog
box for the 3D seismic object.
0n the Operations tab, expand fhe Arithmetic

A shifted.

0perations folder and selecfZ=Z+ Constant.


Enter 5 0 in the Constant field and click Run. The horizon
interpretation is shifted 50 ms upward.

<

E.

I.

L=-

--*

rL__<

ion:tart

Frr all ilueB r the ahjal , appi,l

" Z r snstEt

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r-,__.4

Experiment with some of the other operatons.


Seismlc nterpretat 0n Prepafai 0n.307

F
Horizon 0perations: Smoothing a Horizon lnterpretation
1

Make a copy 0f Horizon_A_shifted and rename it

Hori zon_A_smoothed.
2

Expand Horizon_A_sm00thed and open the Settings


dialog box for the 3D seismic object.
0n the Operations tab, under the Seismic operatilns

foldel select Gaussian smooth.

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4. Use the default parameters and click Run.


5. Display Horizon_A_smoothed in a 3D window.
6. Try Median smooth with the default parameters.
7. lf you are not satisfied with the result, click Undo, change
the parameters, and run it agarn (there is one undo step
ava ila b le).

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308. Seismic lnterpretati0n preparation

Petrel Geophys cs

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--_-{

Displaying and Annotating Horizons: Modifying the


Seismic Horizon Display
You can change the display style of the horizon interpretation easily

to surt your preferences.

1
2.

Open an
From the

lnterpretation window.
lnterpretation foldet display a seismlc

horizon.

For example, display

the 3D seeded autotracking horizon


that you interpreted in the previous exercise.

* .$f ,q: inrpl*fl*rir+rl

WprkffoyfrHer

, &,y, sf*r**d.esi!,"#iss

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t&

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,'

f,i}i i- t

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lo1s'""rv

x:lerpr*tcd *r*rir*n

0pen the Settings dialog box"

Seismic nterpretation Preparation

309

J
V
L-

tr

0n the Style tab in the 2D and 3D interpretation area,


selecf Points and experimentwith Pointtype and Slze.
Click Apply for each new selecton and observe the effects
in your

6.
l.

-"

B.

lnterpretation wlndow.

Select lizes and experiment with Line type and Width.


Click Apply and observe the effects.
ln fhe Neighbor sections area, select fhe Previous and
y'y'exl check boxes. This functionality is another aid when

interpreting a horizon in an lnterpretation window. lt


displays the tnterpretation from the incremental
neighborrng seismic lines (controlled from the General
intersection toolbar r

9.

lfl

f"-J

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}--
h--

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+l

Select color and slze for the display and review t in the

lnterpretation

-l

wi ndow.

2D

3D

10.

ln the Crossing points area, make sure the

11.

check boxes are selected.


ln the Annotation area, select the l'{ame check box to

and

display the horizon name in the Interpretation window.


12. Click Apply and see the difference.

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310. Seismic lnterpretat 0n Preparat

0n

Petre Geophys cs

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'13

ln the

lnterpretation window, find and select

a cr0ssing

2D line.
14

0bserve how the 3D interpretatron is projected 0nto the 2D


line.

15

Use Guided autotrackrng and interpret along the line.

Double-click when you are satisfred with the result.


17. ln the lnput pane, find and expand y0ur active horizon.

16

There are n0w two interpretation survey filters, one for the
3D volume and one for 2D lines.
1B

Clear the 3D seismic filter and 0bserve that the projected


3D interpretation is gone.

19. Select the

3D seismic filter again


Se smic

ifterpretat on Preparat

31

20

21

Display a 3D in-line or cross-lrne agarn. Make sure the


newly interpreted 2D line crosses it. The crossing 2D
interpretatron is marked with a symbol.
ln the Settings dialog box on the Style tab, activate a 3D
window. The Settings dialog box changes to reflect the
new window type.

Re*n*mode

2D

iftedisn
tir

'g;

Lircs
PonLs

Line !e:
vdidthr

Sclid

t.n'bol

i:
]D

iemetr "

Sl.,le:

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tBlLs

Cell

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bli

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lensFerency:

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lft ltemA*e

il

::"_. .. .

..

Uilftr

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.;

Display a seismic horizon from the !nput pane.


LJ. Zoom in on the interpretation.
22

0n the Style tab, under 3D, change Style to Points and


click Apply. The rnterpretation is shown as ponts.
25 Change Style to Triangle surface and click Apply
?6 Botate the 3D view and zoom in if needed.
21 Change Style to Cell box. Zoom in until separate cell boxes
24

are identified.

28. Change Cell height to 20.


312. Selsmic Interpretatl0n

Preparatl0n

Petre Geophysics

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Flattening a Horizon and Generating Flattened 3D


Volumes
l this exercise, y0u will learn how to flatten the horizon whlle
nterpreting it. Horizon flattening is very important during structural
or stratrgraphic interpretatr0n. lt also can help you quality check
vour picks.
ln this exercrse, y0u

1.

-.-

Er-<

a flattened 3D seismic volume.

Activate an lnterpretation window from the Windows


pane 0r lnsert a new lnterpretation window from the

2.
3.

I---

will create

Window

menu.

Display cross-ltne 544.


From your acliue

lnterpretatiln folder, display a horizon

that you want to flatten.


Right-click the horizon in the lnput pane and select Flatten

horizon.
. Srsle tbri:ffi ltnrldl+u
B /, ll.ni.B sr!"ir l.?.rs
iiij I 3[ aut'.tr-rked I'rai:tn

folder

::.'-:

I .:

, I ..
r::

:--

?tr alfttnike,J hsdnfi


Guided autaimcked hnrian
:+i.ns+#s=+qi:4iiEsE+]-s5-+

E'-' .l-:. "iiili+:-a:di:;ns it,


f,;
r

L'

l=

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l!3

L=j

&

,r:,

iil:i a:iarii. !^,iri:rf liil

ar,lj:

aii:ri ir ilai'i!

---r

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lr,it]1 1'.irii:nf,'!LlE:E i:,fu

,td

iiIr!

ffi

1*C L'i!r :ifL:llfl

iriL1!la

a Itiipr:iiiir,
l

ili Eli,rl:
.

lii: : r:: ,l':::1:i:,_ f:' l:.. : i' : ll ,:i:"_ '


fiiii hfi:rf;

i!

1r,::q:i

l'\

0bserve the flattened horlzon. You can hide the pick by


toggling off the horizon in the Input pane so that you can
see the event clearly and decide whether or not you want
to refine your pick. You can reftne your pick whtle your
horlzon rs still flattened.
Unflatten the horzon by right-clicking it and cleartng

Flatten horizon

rn

the menu.
Seismlc nterpretat 0n Preparati0n '313

--l
L.J

Generating Flattened 3D Volumes

ln this exercise, you willgenerate a flattened 3D volume. You must


have a surface created from a seismic horlzon. Because you will

learn howt0 create a surface later ln this training, you can use a
surface that is already available in your project.

1.

2.

lnput pane, right-cllck the seismic cube mig [Crop]


[Realized] 1 and select lnsert flattened volume. A virtual
ln the

L-J

--J,
r..J

seismic volume named Flattened 1 is created.


ln the lnput pane, expand fhe Surfaces folder that you
imported using the Reference proiecttool in Module

3.

-
-+

and choose CARACAS.


ln the Settings dralog box for the virtual volume, go t0 the
Flattening tab and insert CARACAS using the blue arrow
in the Beference surface field.

4.

Click Apply. The seismic volume ls flattened on the

reference surface and a new folder named Flattening


surfaces is created and stored in the lnput pane.

, f- l:

ffi i*l ARAilAs+I&?

5.

Flaitening turfaces

Display the original and the flattened seismlc cubes in a 3D

window.

6.
1.

Create and activate a new lnterpretationfolder.


0n the Flattening tab rn the Settings dialog box of the
Flattened 'l volume, click lnsert interpretation horizon in

=L

active folder Lrye n new horizon is created that you can

B.

interpret directly in the flattened space.


Actrvate fhe Seismic interpretation process and interpret
the horizon at a level below CARACAS.
While interpreting, switch between un-flattened and
flattened spaces by clicking Un-flatten and FIatten. This
will convertthe objects in the table and help to c0ntrolthe
i

rc

314. Selsmic Interpretatlon

Preparatl0n

1.

fh
+

nterpretation.

10. Highlight other existing interpretations

.+

in the

lnput

pane

and click letr] rn the dialog box to add them to the table.
Click Flatten to visualize them in the flattened space.

Petre Geophysics

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'Efffine

surtEcB

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I

Creating 2D Grid Surfaces with the Make/Edit Surface


Process
Ihe Make/edit surface process is commonly used as a quck way
to create surfaces (2D grlds) that you can use to quality check the
nterpretation, perform surface operations, and extract information
from the seismic data.

1.

2.

Display one of your interpreted horizons ln a 3D


wrndow.
ln the Processes pane, under Utilities, open the

Make/edit surface

process.

Se sm c lnterpretati0n Preparati0f

.315

J
-J
,-ra

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l-J

bb

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y-/
y-.

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---

,_-a

L-a
_-!

Lr
+
a

J.

4.

Make your selected horizon bold and drop it into the


Main input field.
Toggle on fhe Name check box and enter a name f 0r
your output surface. For this exercise, enter

Sur
5.

316

Seismlc lnterpretation Preparati0n

face_hori

on 1.

CIrck,Suggest settingsfrom input and select


Seismic tines (high density) option. A method
based on the rnput type is suggested, but you can

select other methods.


0pen the Geometry tab.

Selecl Autontatic (from input data/boundary).


Petrel Geophys c:

lk

tr
L-

tr
t-r
-.

o
o.

Set a suitable grid increment (for example, 100 x 100).


Toggle on Mqke boundary.fi'om ruain input and
extend it with I J nodes and enter 1 (one grid cell

outsrde the data limit).


Click 0K to create the surface.
11. Display Surface_horizonl ln the 2D or 3D window and
compare it with the interpreted data.
4a
IL Go to the Style tab in the Settings dialog box to
10

select annotation properties for the surface display.

d; &: bdd levek

. i:t

;.:e baric

*
ii;::':*iJ

Fant:

:5

Stad:

l*ryvai;

3S{S

rai

The next step is t0 produce another surface based on


the same input, while lrmiting the output inside a
closed polygon.

13. Be-open he Make/edit surface process.


14. Click in the Besult surface fleld and press Delete.
15. Click No ln the confirmatlon dialog box.
16. 0n the Geometry tab in the Boundary section, toggle
off Make boundaryt.from main input and extend t
with []J nodes.
Petre GeophVsics

Se smic

lfterpretatlon Preparatl0n. 317

.I

a
-J
l-,

tab' drop a closed polygon


17. 0n the Make surface
the Boundary field.
\nfhe Make/edit polygons
1B il;;k. . new polygon
t

9.

Process
'Change

(use a 2D wrndow)'
the name of the polygon t0

tn

a--,

:l_J

Limited-

..r

surface'
20

Click APPIY

>--l

the 3D window'
21. Display Limited-surface in

:-l

Smoothing Surfaces

1.

2.

1
v

ox for Surface-hot)zonl
0pen the Settngs diafog
exerclse'
that you created in the prevtous
the Surface
expand
0n the 0perations tab'

oPerations folder'

3.SLlectSmoothandkeepthedefaultparameters,

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tr
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Click L$ to create a new object.


Click Run
Display Surface_horizonl: Smooth in a 3D or 2D

window

Modify the surface by changing the parameters, then


run the operation again"

I.

..;.

Petrel Geophys cs

JL-

*--

Se smic lnterpretat

0f Preparai 0n.319

-F
fr-

Review 0uestions

1. Mention four methods to digitize horizons in petrel. What

2.
3.

are their importance?


can you flatten 3D seismic cubes and horizons in petrer?
rf
yes, how?

L--

What are the available signal tracking feature options


in
horizon autotracking mode?
Does the Seed Confidence option in horizon
autotracking
specify the minimum value for the seismic amplitude
as a

L-L.-

percentage of the seed point?

L--

Summary
ln this module, you learned about:

L.-

accessing and using the horizon interpretation function

toolbar
a
a
a

a
a

changing horizon settings and parameters


opening and using the lnterpretation manager
rnterpretrng horizons using different techniqus
using these interpretation tools
Seeded 3D autotracking

.
.
.

l.l

rL-r

Seeded 2D autotracking
Guided autotrackrng

performing manua I interpretations


editing horizons and parent/child relationships

o
o

filteringinterpretations

o
o

shifting and smoorhing)


flattening horizons
annotating horizons.

l--

"=

correcting horizon problems using horizon operations (bulk

_d

!=.
i

L.

I
I

_)

'.-J

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L.

322. Seismic lterpretatlon preparati0n


Petrel Geophysics

_l

f_

^l

Module 5
Seismic
Restoration 2D

this module, you will learn about seismic restoration in petreland


how to build restoration models.
Irr

Learning 0bjectives
After completing this module, you will know how to:

.
.
.

f
f
f

explain why seismic restoration is useful for interpreters


use the restoration workflow
set restoration attributes.

-.<

r----..
t--

L--

Petrei Geophysics

Selsmrc Festoratton 2D

.323

J
Lr

_J
L--
Lesson 1

Seismic Restoration for 2D Horizons

--l

L-r

lnPetrel,youcanuseac0mplexfaultnetwOrkt0doseismicbalanctng

You can select and


use more than one horizon al

(one of several) t0 a
and reconstruct 0r restore seismic horizons
engine' enabling
,p..ii.O flat level. This process uses a geomechanical
interpretation from a geologically valid

b-

point of view.

L--

ylu to vatrOate the structural

the same time.

tuning' A single
The process requires very little user interacttgn,and
is
modelthat pre-populated with
click allows you to creat a restoration
rn the lnterpretaton
,tt ot rt . interpretation objects that are visible
during the process'
select
thatyou
window. You can flatten the horizons

=
!-L-Ll-

l--

tr

ir-

rL
tr

I
-

I
324. Seismlc Restoration

2D

I
,l

---_-

rl-L=_<

-,

I.

L.

f
Lf
-.

---

fhe Restoration model process automatically builds a restoraton


model that uses all objects in the scene to define the fault structural
networks and the different zones The model ls stored in a global

I.

-.

Restoration Model

Restoration models folder in the Models pane.


Restored seismic sections allow you to visualize

o
.
.
.
o
.

well tops
surfaces

virtual attnbutes
polygons
points
3D grid properties.

Restoration Workflow
The Restoration workflow ls an iterative process.

Analr/e

the
seismic

section

.;,i;'itl:!

...:

Se smic Hestoral on 2D

.325

.t

a
>.-.{

Procedure

Restoring a Seismic Section

display
opn an lnterpretation window and
1. For Restoration,

random line' or a 2D line)in


seismic sectron (inline, crossline'
time or dePth domarn'

ig tsrel2013,1(64'bib# le""t"nu1Yl

nn5l

i$1-l ' Msk rc#rdid

.H

_J
Lr

_l

-l

t--J

ddl1

l-ra

v
_-]
l.3

Lr

q! !

iriEiprE!fui

6t V!!He 4$!u1eE

uHeri tillrr1q!
'+
ii,i turr,ret: tu[ *rilo
l{ ME[erEor eder

}''f.

EibBYliie'Prattei

& 6& aE6daiE'*l


s{{lnrqt ita6Yarb
Cwar Po,.t dddg
'

PFPEd,

hodalt9

r,5(kt rBr

modErhC

l."

Wel 8ngre!{t

A MdEel!dlFlr!n
4 Mdksedilruhre
ffi frih". lE ':l
i' lr4lh EEilmdlr! mr<l

th

r-i*t'
I

. ..1 lt is important that


the horizons are ananged tn
inreasinn oeolooical aqe in

to be used by the
Display the fault and horizon(s) interpretation
restoration process'

E
D

the lnput pane.

5
Petrel GeoPhYsit:

326

Seismic Bestoration 2D

l"-

L
a

r-=-

L'
f
I_.
a-

3.

From the lnput pane, highlight the horizon(s) and select FIailen
horizon(s) using currently visible objects.

I.

---

--

--=.

Petrel Geophysics

Seismlc Bestoration 2D. 327

*)
*-Lil
h

Add or interpret new horizons in the restored space

=t

L--

-E

L.

tr-r
-=
L<

L.}.
)r
-E

Lr

_L

L'L
l-<

,-L

L-L
fr--a

L
=E

lH
__b.

1_L

328. Seismic Bestoration

2D

Petrel Geophysics

f
L'
L'
f
L'
L'
f
t_f
f
f
1_f
U
f
--_

-.-_--

I.

-.--

r--

I-{

View the Restored Seismic


.,lse

lE bl

in the

Seismic interpretation toolbar to turn on/off the

iestored seismic view

:c

I -,e ,9.....& .- Se,isr:ric Tire 1

-l# E E

reconstructed space. lf the active restoration model is not cached, this


acti0n als0 causes the model computation to be triggered.

Refresh the restoration model: Refreshes the model. This action is


used afteryou update parts of the model(e.9., horizons and faults, or
model settings)"

Active restoration 2d model: Allows selection of active restoration


model from the nterpretation tool bar.
.-

:::

:::i::ari:.i::i:-

:::::i:ir:i,::l::l::

'ffitcGt**#

r: i:=:::1:;

Ettr

::r':

i:r:i-j::; : :::

et

::'r'r..

i:j:;-il:.ii:

r:.ri:.:_:

'':..'.-:''
:
r.&

---

----

II-<

-I-_i

tesicriicn rcdel

Toggle on/off restoration mode: Moves the view from normal to

-.

--"

BE

i!l

nEsH uulu
colortable
rdults
j pj
LY] Resd
! j futve prope*l,template
|

i?l Totule $iqsle

i
i

l
l

q:

Togqle opacitf :n ll visihle reismic planer


and bitmap

fufive tautt,,terin inlrFretation


Cr*ut" ne'r.fault."honn

i i{-l Tqqle on,.'off all interpretatinn obje*ts


j

i.{i

Selected,rrrrtage

iJ

fuph. setected 'rintage to dsible seismir planes

Toggle on,,'aff restumtinn mode

lfr

Rdresh restration if needed

i{

Amive rexoraiun Id model

is

.*

-r

IEJ

rI-_-

f-.-

Se smlc Eestoraiion

2D.329

>--J
BI

lnterpretation Ouality Check in the Restored Section


The restoration prOcess enables you to work in a structurally-free and
interpretation{riendly environment. ln this environment, y0u can
remove the influence of the fault network gradually by un-faulting the
selsmic section and restoring the display to what resembles a

L.d

L,i

chronostratigraphic disPlaY.
You can spot an incorrect interpretation more easily in a restored space

than in a traditional interpretation framework.

OC

L--

-l

the lnterpretation in Restored Section

1.

You cn quickly spot a mrs-picked horizon in the restored

L.-

secti on.

\,b_L.

lE
-L

lr-L.

-L

t-

330

Seismic Restoratron 2D

Petrel Geophysit

Correct your interpretation and refresh the restoration t0 view


the corrected restored section.

b--

:J

Restoration Attributes
During the restorati0n process, different attributes of the model are
generated to be used for quality c0ntrol. These attributes enable the
user t0 immediately figure out if the model that has been build is

l
!

I
I

defined as expected.

.
o
.
o
.

Triangle mesh

_-l
l--

Zones

lmplicit Function

L-r

Dilation
Shearing

Triangle Mesh
The Triangle mesh attribute displays the triangle mesh that is used in

the restoration Process.


You can use this information to quality checkthe mesh triangles t0

ensure that they are reliable acc0rding to the input data and will not
introduce artifacts into the restorati0n process.

tlr

ts
Y

The Mesh resolUti0n parameter allows you to control the performance


and resolution of the model.

_L

(left)
The ftgure shows Triangle Mesh displayed in an unrestored section
and Trrangle Mesh dlsplayed in a restored section (right).

-L

}.-l"-

-.r

-L.E.
L-

.-

--.L

L332. Seismic Restoration

2D

Zones
The Zone attribute displays how all fault-fault and horzon-fault
connections are build automatically and allows you to quality check the
modelrng step.
The frgure shows Zones displayed in an unrestored section (left)and
Zones displayed in a restored section (rrght)"

Seism c Bestoration 2D

.333

l,--J

:J

-l
r--J

lmplicit Function
The lmplicit functron attribute provides a stratigraphic view of the sectlon
that summarizes the geological relationships in the model. Any point in this
2D space has a specrfic relationship with lts nerghbors (younget oldel or of
the same age).
The figure shows Implicit Function displayed in an unrestored section (left)

and lmplicit Function displayed in a restored section (right).

5--J

_l

L-J

-_J
L--J

_l
I-J

:t
}i-d

__l
l-J
-)
L-d
.}1

Lda

-.

_.J

ts
f

.r

[.

334. Seismic Restoration

2D

Petrel

Geophvs.:

_<
L--.L

fl

fI_aI_aaf
L.
LE

I-*l

r.-_J

Dilation
The Dilation attribute characterizes the relative change in area (in 2D)
for each triangle. This attribute helps you to determine which zones are
compressed and which are stretched to complete the restoration
pr0cess.
The figure shows Dilatation displayed in an unrestored section (left)and
Dr

atation displayed in a restored section (right).

--_-

I-J

-.

lE-

-.--l

E
--J

I,_==

--J

E
I._--

Seismic ,aesloration 7ll

.335

a
-_l
V

Shearing
The Shearing attribute indlcates how the angles of the mesh triangles
vary between the un-restored and restored stages. This attribute shows
the local strain generated by the reconstruction process.
The figure shows Shearing displayed in an unrestored section (left) and
Shearing displayed in a restored section (right).

gi

?:

,)

L-

:l
L..J

_l
_l

.-

Ll

L,.J

-_l
L.J

:l

E-a
=)

'l
--/
Fr
--

!'<l
li-

t336. Seismic Bestoratron

2D

Peirel Geophysics

r=

-3

f
aE

I--

--_

Restoration Model Settings


forthe model in the Settings dialog box. 0n
the Model tab rn the Modeling settings area, you can set these
options for the restoration model.
You change settings

Mesh resolution: Controls the total number of triangles


used to drscretize the 2D space. Choose between four

levels of resolution. The finer the resolution, the larger the


am0unt of time required for the computation. At a finer
mesh resolution, the chance of having bad triangles is
reduced.

Homogeneous mesh: Uses larger triangles in areas away


from the deformation and discontinuities. Smaller triangles
are used in nearby areas. This option allows a c0nstant
number of triangles to have an optimal space discretizatlon.
lmplicit function smoothness: Changes the way the
implicit function follows the trend given by the input data.
A smoother implicit function wlll honor the input data to a
lesser degree. This depends 0n your confidence in the
horizon picking (for example, when working with noisy
seismic data or low amplitude/ low frequency seismic
events).

Seismlc Festoration 2D

337

1.

f-J
H

Update the model in the Model settings dialog box or via

the Seismic restoration process dialog box.

Settl*4s lor'Restoraton

tnodl'

I-

,' .l.1'".,1,tt . '-'..,.

_l

fT
------

MdetlirssditEs
Flom4enw*s

a:=

i=

Nsmal

Itrlsh.*dulim

rch

I'l
-r

-,-ry: l@- -:1a9".*a]


2.

l--J
r
-J

Bight-click on the Restoration model ln Models pane and


go to the Settings dialog box.

L-

:
.r

Set*ngs for "R*toratin model'

--J
L-l
bl

.'
Er

JL

<

}-a
/

kMitilEF*il
338. Seismic Restoration

2D

Petrel Geophysics

F
tr

-.

Exercise
n

a Seismic Section
- youRestoring
will learn how t0 restore your seismic sectlon

ihis exercrse,

and interpret the horizon in the flattened space. Restoratlon enables


:ne interpreter to restore horizons to a specified flat level, quality

:ontrol the interpretation, and restore the chronostratigraphy to


better understand the sub-surface geology.
For

the sake of simplicity and time constraints, you will build

simple restoration model to demonstrate how fhe Seismic

Re.storation process is used in Petrel.

You are encouraged to

build models with more data.

1. 0pen an lnterpretation window and activate Ihe Seismic

2.
3.

interpretation

process rn Processes pane.


Display a crossline (for example, 470) from the seismic

volume mig [Bealized] 1.


Display 3D autotracked horizon or any other interpreted
seismic horizon and your interpreted faults.
NOTE: lt is important that the horizons you wish to restore

4.
5.

are in chronological order.


Display a few interpreted faults.
Right-click on 3D autotracked horizon rn the lnput pane and
select Flatten horizon(s) using currently visible
obiects. The Restoration model is created in the Models
pane.

/k
kJ

ll

ru
},il
!.ri.

ril

0bserve the structure and contents of the Restoration


model in the Models pane.
::'e

Geophysics

Se sm c Restoration 2D

339

}-

b-z

B.
l"

9.

Expand Ihe

l-r
-

Attributes folder and display different

attri b ute s.
When you have analyzed the model and its attributes,
nsert a new horizon from the lnterpretation tool bar and
name it

shallow marker.

Pick the

shallow-mlker holzon (with the trough at

L-
ts
L-

approximately -700 to -725 ms)"


10. Go to the Models pane, right-click on the restoration
model, and select Populate model with visible objects

L.<
h

in active interpretation window.


'1

1. Modify

your horizon picks lf required and click Refresh

restoration k,ton

the Seismic interpretation toolbar if

needed.

12. 0n the Seismic interpretation toolbar, click Toggle on


restoration

L
E

,F

to activate or Toggle off restoration


to deactivate the restoration in the lnterpretation
window.
13. Move t0 the next selsmic section. The restoratron model is
run for that section. Next time you display that section, it
will be run from cache.
1 4. Go to the Settings dralog box for the Zones attribute and
change the transparency for displaying it on the seismic

l,-

-/

l.a
l-

I--r

L-

section.

15.

IVlanrpulate the color display for the


Dr

Implicit

function,

lation, and Shearing attributes.

Refer to the

Petrel Help for more information about the restoration

Lt

Review 0uestions

f-.-

What are the benefits of seismic restoration?


How many restoration attributes does a restoration model
contain?

\
L-

Summary
ln thrs module, you learned about seismic restoration in Petreland
how to create a restoration model.

2D

l._

pr0cess.

o
o

340. Selsmic Bestoration

f--

Petrel Geophysics

t-

faI--tr

--l
E--

f
f-

Module 6
Depth
Conversion

--{

-.-

--Jr
l_-

r_--J
rEJ

Lf
f=
!=
f=
f
!=
r---l
--

elocity modeling and depth conversion are integral steps in seismic


rterpretati0n. ln this module, you will learn about basic velocity
,odeling and depth conversion in Petrel.
,

ln-depth toprcs are discussed in the advanced level petrel c0urse

Velocity Modeling.

Learning 0biectives

; --.***

ilq"*,'*'

After completing this module, you will know how to:

.
.
.
.
.
.
o
.
.

create a velocity model and perform domain conversion


quality check time/depth relationships for wells
define velocity model intervals
create an uncorrected velocity model using well data
create a final corrected velocity model using well data
create a velocity model with uncertainty
perform a depth conversion on a 3D grid
perform a depth conversion usrng the active velocity model
perform a general depth conversion"

I-.---J

l_I--

Petrel Geophysics

Depth Cofversion.34l

h-r

Lesson 1

Basic Velocity Modeling

lb.Domain Gonversion Workflow


The domarn conversion workflow in Petrelis a two-step process. Frrst,
y0u must defrne a velocity model, then you use the velocity modelto

Li

l.-r

perform a domarn conversion on data objects.

L-:-

Complete these steps to define a velocity model:

1.

Define velocity intervals (zones, usually between time

2.

interpretation surfaces).
Define velocity functions (automatically calculated 0r user-

3.

--

defined).

Define output (for example, velocity cubes, V0, or k for quality


control purposes).

Use one of these four methods to perform a domain conversion on data

objects.

Bight-click an object and select Domain convert by active

velocity module. This method

.
.

L-EL

uses the currently active

velocity model.
Use ihe

General depth conversion process for multiple

l-i

objects.
Use a 3D grid conversion.

Perform a seismic data domain conversion.

L--

ri_
L
.-

2.

Neoth Convers on

Petre Geophvs

cs

rL..

-=
-

The velocrty model bridges the gap between Time and Depth domatns.

domain

The

Domain Conversion

process is described in the workflow

- "'! ',il-.i
2. Surface ; .i ' ..:, ::
1. COnstant

rr I

1. Constant i;-:- "

2. SurTace
3.

fl

-t;,

Horizon*

'd

4, WellTops
5. Or none
1. Calculated; Conection (Vo)

Daturn__

-_,--

rs
\\\\/^+
\ \ \vy

Vo_----t-'-Vo + k(z-20)

2. LIser defined; Constani or


3. Velocity SEGY (average)
4. 3D velocity ProPertY (
5. Horizon tied velocitY Poinis

1. Velocity

surfaces

2. Well data

points

3. Time & veloclty

logs

4.
5.
6.

based on TDR (Vo & kr


input

points
Functions
t sheet

J
:

l---J

Velocity Modeling Examples


The examples described in this module are based on time/depth
relationships in the wells that are used to build linear velocity models.
A minimum err0r estimation of the K value is obtained and used to
derive a V0 surface. Any correction built into the velocity model is
reflected in the V0 surface.
By selecting one of the velocity models, you can perform a domaln
conversion on a wide range of objects in accordance with that model.
For sensitivity purposes, you can use different velocity models to

convert the same object.

LinVel model

:l

}--a

:t
-l
:t
:t
:t
--J

--a

--
Minimum enor

estimation

vo

r-fr- I

F%
/'R

rt

lr
I

ii

F}
'"f

ffi

-r

:l
-_l
--a

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:
l--.
I{i asEd b} ai* rlsailj rodel

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tr

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-l

I,-

--a

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I
^-l
L.

rat

aI--l

-E{

-.)

lnput Data Ouality Gontrol


Crossplotting the time/depth relationship data for one or allwells is an
efficient and timesaving method for finding and handling spurious data
po

nts.

ln addition to eliminating outliers and other errors in the cloud of points,


crossplotting is a good tool for identifying changes in the velocity field

that would be natural interval separators in the velocity model.


Remember that any change to a time-depth pair will influence the
calculated velocity values down to the next time-depth parr. Be sure t0
quality check every edit in the check-shot data. Check-shot data
consists of hard data points and should betrusted if there is no obvious
reason why it should not be.

Procedure

Creating a Crossplot of Well TDR Data


1. Open-a new Function window.

i:it--"*,it

irl

.,:..:.

:i!

ir.j iii.l
iirl..rr+::.

,r,ri"a"*ffiffiF
ffi

;F t,ir.1oir

H:ingEft *iE+!!

f=l
E

llt.rpretiisr' .,idi"l

E-n

rf lrieff ECi3. ;'.,ir.Cst

Find and expand the check-shot object under Global

well

logs.

. ]! mctea<*ors_m
, I!':il .ry*.*

3.

'-ll

Crossplot lnterval velocity against TWT picked (in the

Att ri b ute s
Perre GeophVsics

subf

lder).
Depth Conversion.345

r'=t

4.

Rght-click the check-shot oblect and open the Spreadsheet


:-i

mL]"
(*f

:r

*f

f,s

ill

dr
m

&
E

.f

..q

!q

[!

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- - -
d)

f:

r-j (!

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ci

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,-i

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t'; ""i
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flu1

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Depth Convers on

r! r:
u_j f

r.l

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ra

(!

r1 , r'1
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t:: {-j
r r-:l E:
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i=, ua

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ts
r"ri

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ffii

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f,J

r:r I'r

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Lf

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na

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ffi"i
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nl
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ui

in

.,

f.'-

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di

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ii:,

-f

l=r
l-l
l=}

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t\

Click Select/prck mode r h. or Select using freehancldraw

tlE

to capture one or more data pornts.

E\

I_fEt

----.1

Edit or remove the highlighted points in the spreadsheet


Arerag

:::':

Geophvs cs

rl*{ity

Interval vekcity

!4nl{ trrn

Ifrt.
vel

16ric

Depth Conversion.34T

a
..J
).,a

ModelWell Data Method


This method uses the established time/depth relationship in the
differentwells to derive V0 and K p0ints forthe specific intervals (each
a TDR gives V0/K values for each interval). These points are
gridded 0r averaged to create surfaces 0r constant values for the

wellwith

intervals that are used to create the velocity model.

-
-J
-J
)'1

t-^l
l

:l

..J

H
LI

)
Y

--l

l-r

^_l
-

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-r

_b-

F
-l

E{

lsert

stm poirr

dt SRD if nt csved

I-r
!
t

348

Depth Conversion

Petrel Geophysics

--/
ts

f-

-.

I_--{

f-r-4

The quality of the velocity model depends on the quality of the


source for the TDR.
The LinVel method (V=V0+K"Z)in Petrel can derlve V0 and

values using the Well TDR.


]rlllel]: Diernonil-14

Checkshot: AllCheckhots
-rl.E

-6
rl.

&

*s

TvD
[Diamon- I 4]

{nr=) f
inrsl

l,inees
Drift
TLhITC

\,q.,DRD

1:J

'll

inrsJ *

13

5rl[

Hsd.el
S=V#+lfE

$*:

l,fe,ll

TR - Surfe e

K l,riell TBF. - enste*t

Depth Converslo

349

J
:

L-J

Velocity lntervals
You can perform domain conversion from time to depth and depth to

time as wellas time to time and depth to depth (correctlon).


You choose datum based on the reference of your project. lf you use the

Time datum option, you can select Seismic Heference Datum

(SBD),

or a user-defined datum, if it is created in the Templates pane under

-l

t-<
l--J
-]

-l

the Dafums folder.

-d

SBD is offset from Mean Sea Level (MSL) in depth units for onshore

data. This offset is zero for offshore data rmplying that SRD = MSLfor
marine surveys.
Using the

L<r

Ihe Saved searches option ensures that only a selectlon of wells


that have been quality checked are used. Saved searches are defined
and stored rn subfolders under the Wellsf older.
Filters can consist of user-defined well lists, allwells that contain given
attributes, logs, and welltops, or objects thatfallwithin a boundtng
polygon. Both the estlmation and correction are affected by the filter.

Procedure

,1:11,:,;,,.r,..,

L-r

-t

:r

f\<

v S X

E--

-1
-d
1

Geneml depth conuersion

ffi * ba*f

irrt

eryretaiion

[r 5ei*mi*'*,ell tie

&
Depth Conversion

L-rd

ln the Processes pane, open the Make velocity model found

iP
Geo'Ftry*ic*
ffi Sesmi* interpretatirn
ffi l'olrme attritrutes
. Errface attribLtes

--.d

.r

Defining Velocity lntervals

under Geophysics.

350

Other option activates a user-deflned rnput selection for the

datum. You must enter a c0nstant or surface as the reference in the


from and to domains.

f,Iake rEstnratinn 2D madel

Petre Geophyslcs

--<
b_

L.
L

--

E--r

||||||tr

2.
3.

Choose the approprrate datum fg the project.


Click Append

item in table l.fjto add all the input objects.

!\

*latee

uel+ris madel

il , tlrete nr,,r,. UElacit5 m,:del

__

tdit Edstin:

Dtum

Time:

Isnn -

lZ

t..t tt'er

Depth Conversion o 351

Change the Base interval to the desired type, select it from

lnput or Models pane, click its nama and drop it into the
dialog box using the drop-in arrow [.4,_J
Specify the Correction of the velocity model.

Convert

frum: T1'.rT

r t:

ts
.-d

r-r
rr
L

\Lr
L-LJ
fL.lL.-

E
!

E-L.,
\r

,.J
}.J
I
-

l-J
,.J

352

Deoth Conversion

Petre Geophysics

))
L"-r

.b"

Velocity Modeling Using Well Data


^ trs method, the time-depth relationshrp (TDB)is used to derive V0
rntervals A llnear
a1d K p0ints for the various wells in each of the
'-rgression is used (the LinVel method) in the velocrtyidepth space'
the veloclty model'
,', ere V0 is referenced to the datum of
inputs:
Ailernatively, you can derive the velocity field from these
are
Average velocrty cube (imported SEG-Y or data that

converted to the average velocity cube with fhe Volume

attribute

.
.
.

Process)

Average velocitY ProPertY

lnterval velocity
velocity interval
Lrnear velocity ivO referenced to the top of the

with the AdLinvel method)


Horizon-tred velocity point data.

already derived' you


lf the interval velocity or linear veloclty inputs are
can enter them manuallY.

Procedure-UsingWellDatatoGreateaVelocityModel
l

Choose

tL. typ. of velocity model for each interval' When

usingtheLinvelfunctionformodeling,C0nstants/surfaces,

2.
3.

Well TDR, or corrections can be used as input'


Set V0 to Well TDR - Surface/Constant'
Set K to Well TDR - Surface/Constant'

!e:.+:i-*

E rer.r.*

SFi

==ll4r.eri,:."
&*

.
r1:ltli"

e ::'"1*'1lr

; itd&:

-.j

c"!&$

Depth Converslon

'

353

:-*,/
-

Correction and 0utput from Velocity Modeling


When you create velocity models, you can output the results in different
formats to quality check the model. 0n the Correction and output tab
in the Make

velocity model window, you can deflne the outputs to

--

generate and how they are generated.


These outputs can be defined for the entire velocity model.

Thickness: Allows you to specify depth and time tolerance.


Depth tolerance: Minimum thlckness of a zone (in

.
o

project depth units). lf the mintmum thickness falls below


this numbel the zone is not used for calculating V0 or k.
This option ensures that extreme values in thin parts of
the zone do not affect the rest of the model.
Time tolerance: Simllar to Depth tolerance, but in project

Lr

trme units.

Surfaces: Uses the specified gridding algorrthm t0 create all


l-=--.

surfaces during the VelociQ modeling process.


For better control over this gridding (for example, if you use
different methods for different zones), create the output as
points, grid them using

)-

ff,eMake/edit surface process, and

input the resulting surfaces instead of the TDB.


Gorrection: Determines how well ties are handled if

correction is used with well tops as input"


Output: Allows you to quality check outputs in the form of well

I,

v'

pornts data, logs, and functions. Ihe Make well report


optron generates a spreadsheet that summarizes the well tops

-r
L

correction.

LL

E_
L,
Lts
.-

L-

-L
354.

---3

Depth Converslon

Petre Geop

.:

ll
-L-

ra--

r----

a_

--

Creating 0utput to Ouality Gheck the


Procedure
Velocity Model

1.
2.
3.

{Effiffi

to see the controlling parameters.


Specify tolerance, gridding algorithm, and correction.
Choose outputs for the velocity model (full model 0C outputs).

Clrf

1;drMM

:. i (fl#:

fl

et('rdit: 1\'
tum
+

fn,

cr*
?a

tpfuY.

--..

. 9.!7wrl*

:t

::i
:1

ln the figure, Well points are shown on the left (from Step 2) and the

Velocity function is shown on the right (from Step 3).


.ffi)

-zry

1W

Z',lt.ne1tdual {Tn

Petrel Geophysics

ry

d*a sotrltsl

ffi

tafirtd-i 4 lTfr.1. v--+8.. "l=5M7 4027

F26F".

v:-0 7 44424'r,

Depth Conversion.3S5

t-4

L---,

Well TDR Estimation Parameters


These settings specify how the TDB estimation for the well ls derived
You enter these settrngs on the Well TDR estimation tab ln the Make

velocity modelwindow.
Based on the method that you choose for defining the velocity function

in any given interval, the lnterval velocity and Linear


subtabs are activated.

velocity

lnterval and Linear velocity parameters are the same except for two
I

rnear velocity-spectfic parameters.

Methods: Minimizes the error on elther depth or velocity


residuals. The option

Min number of TDR samples sefs a

lower limit for each well and each zone to be included ln the
estlmation.
The options

estimation o/K

for

both Linear velocity-speclfic selections.


Robust estimation: Attempts to generate good fits by

i,-,.---"1 For additional


inf ormation about these
settings, refer to the Petrel

TDH must exist for it to apply) or data wrth large reslduals.

you specify how to treat the


and the base of the
trajectory
the
well
rntersection between
zone. Select Estimae and adiust to base when the base

Base

-1
lra

t-

l!-

well intersection: Allows

estimation is used to derive the two unknown coefficients

Hel p..

Lr

(honors the rate of lncrease of velocity) are

down-weighting large residuals. Down-weighting can be


performed on wells (where a minimum number of wells with

L-.

Minimum'% of zone sampled by TDR

(percentage of zone filled with input data) and Optimize

'l
il

(V0 and K)

0utput: Allows you to quality check outputs

L-

r--

,L-

in the form of

logs, functions, and data pornts for each modeled veloctty


interval. lt rs important not to confuse these outputs wlth the
output for the entire velocity model specrfied on the

li-

-,-

Correction and outPut tab.


l

-L-

356.

Depth Converslon

-lL

L'
E

a-\

E.
El

IL
J

Procedure

Estimating Well TDB

1. Open-the Well TDR estmaton subtab.


2. Depending on the TDH estimation meth0d y0u ch0ose, click

3.

either the lnterval velocty or Linear velocity subtab.


Choose methods and estimation parameters for the

4.

selected rntervals.
Specify outputs for the modeled velocity intervals.

r' .ii

r::

$ 1r rmetoss i;'le.drloss
l- jt hen#h iil !1..q
3l E*,

Thls is an example of an error function


-1

t
I
:l

L-E

IJJ

I
I
I

legend

Allwells {TDRJ e=e{k}

Depth Conversion.35T

Velocity Modeling with Uncertainty


I

lncorporating uncertainty into the velocity model enables you t0

stochastically handle the variance in velocities. The workflow for


including structural uncertainty in Petrel has three parts:

1.

ldentify the possible error representing one standard


deviation.

2.

Multiply that error with a stochastic surface with values


around zero.

3. Add the error to the base case surface.


ln other words:

Sr=Sbc+U1s"Usgs
where

.
.
.
.

Sr is the surface realization


Sbc is the base case surface
U1s is the surface or constant representing one standard
deviation error
Usgs is the stochastic error surface (using Sequential
Gaussian Simulation).

L.

The standard deviation built into the velocity model can be


expressed either as a constant number or a surface.

i{f+
lire$
t::_fif=:i

Procedure

1.

2.

lk
L.

Inserting

a Standard Deviation Surface


- Velocity modeling
dialog box, toggle 0N the check

ln the

Dev. column.
Select the surface from the lnput pane and drop it in using
box to the left in the Std

the blue arrow.

L'L.

L.-

&_

l-

-,L,

t358

Depth Conversion

Petrel Geophysics

5-

L'

l-

-.

aE\

E-

-J

Procedure
Model

Using Uncertainty to Greate a Velocity

Create a new velocity model wth Well tops correcti0n

1.

Activate uncertanty page [e'?]to insert a ^S/d


Dev column and t0 actvate the Uncertainty tab.

Fill in appropriate standard deviation numbers.

Click

--_L

${

Mate velocity model

rl

rl

Create

ne*:

\'elocib/ i+1':del Llncertaini

[nnved fmm:
atum

{,

'*"---*--'----.Tim*:

-: ther:
roi.:::-

+ll',Ell#ilHll[:r!,*
l.Ell#l
Ease

ffil
w
&

s$risss i;+lt6trq.s
q)
xrlffi
3 HUST
urfase
ffi r*se
d: llffi FAHIS
Sur{are

lt

Applyfilter:

C,Effe{tbr*
r"Htiom l{+lm'tsE,$ .':l
\tJell iops

&

l"tjell tess

W KilEE

Hl tess

&PAEI5

sti

1*i
1i

HflUET
{

Dev.

J3

-)s-

--J

.-

4.
5. Toggle 0N the lconize uncertainty error surface
Fill in appropriate Variogram parameters'

_J
,-

checkbox.

t-rA
-)

,-
4

l--

-
}.
L-i

Lr
L

)--

generated contalnlng
Click Apply. A velocity model rs

velocity iurfaces with uncertainty built into them'

"

l';1

itudel thmt.*nitl

i*l \Hacil,

& l.l .rlrcns


r IV i L/ebeses
, Iv" lti .1,14s-?rFJ

l.

l,

r_.

Iv"

i:

lvo

tr
tr

.-: ,rt

.n

Hlf"gryFredi

Ea5 I -- -;r, .-i


!
r@

-lr.*m

Ik ili
I""

il

cc'scqsa?s.i
tt?051liirT'q-i

Ik

i,-:

.$sn:.'b' 'Tgs.l

=
L,

:' Iv- i- i trTti


TL . frETlTtFl
.',

tr

lv-';I PiFisrftF,i
Ik 1-,, -s,ar

;. ll:,1 ec,:aa

Petrel

360

Depth Conversion

Gec:-

.J
L.

I'
f---\

f--tt

f-

Check uncertainty statistics and display the corresponding

deterministic and stochastic V0-surfaces'

\i'r

Settinqs

I-\

f*r'

Llr*eertainrY*

1*38$.ffi 1'S1*7ffi.ffi

''l?sl&*.ffi

1:1*.ffi
14ffi*.*

-re?":s E4A,*57*

533.3435

-'r&**.ffi

A Determrnistic Vo-surface is shown on the left and a stochastic


V0-surface is shown on the right

:: -:

Seophystcs

)'lr-./
Lesson 2
You use Ihe

Domain Conversion
Domain convert by active velociQ model

process to perform a domain conversion for a single object. For


example, you can use this process t0 convert your interpretation
(horizon, surface) from time to depth.

Procedure
Performing a Domain Conversion by
Active Velocity Model
1

Make sure the correct Velocity model is actlve.

g-)

4-
|-/

!+
-
tH

From the lnput pane, right-click the object to be depth

converted and select Domain convert by active velocity


model.

i-w
$S
,, ,t l.-1

f,

ffi

v +x
rietrs
Ftelt

HDUStor'I a

ffi i. xosE ;
.*d
lb4l

I rnrJ
ffi I SALT

t--

Shf;. !E+tr'e!
5&C

li

tL-,1i1

tr'! Str,lii
Er:prd..
i:; arr3l E{ lqrl iilr lri!nj
$t E{lit 3lhl arlerlblr
l\cl/

Ftr?,ia

:l

;*

l<

BElEtr...

i;;
t&

a3lrlstrr

lrgi

Era

l'i3

i:"pi'

ii.

:,:

r"

..

alrl-E

.-

E-

rriltrte

3s aurtu.E

j--.ll,1ra'/Er,

Ei:tliad : rEt!:r!

nitfibLtt

N--'

i!.

|"."

a.

t362

rmpoted tmrDHilroh

,&l-.tffi,.

L-J
L

fope j

i--"1 Sesmic

,/:r.. 1-:: CultuEl dEla

'

H -

Depth Conversion

:lrd

ts

f--t.

in front 0f the depth-converted object to show


Click the
the available tlme and depth domains for the object.

'

1--

f--

---\
rE

I_*

,ffi
tJ {-} rt'r
ZI il nsat I {Ydodtv lrodd Wdl

ffi i-l
ffi i:
ffi

HoB
PHts

srr

The Time-depth settings can be changed in the top toolbar


Alternate between TWT and TVD while observing the

effect in a 3D window.

P3trel Geophysics

Depth Conversion

363

-'

)
.rl'*1

General Depth Gonversion

Domain convert by active velocity model process and


lhe General depth conversion process produce the same
domain convertecl result. However,fhe General depth
conversion process can perform a domain conversion on several
Ihe

data objects simultaneouslY.

^l

jt'
-

Performing a Domain Conversion of


Procedure
Several 0biects SimultaneouslY

1.

To domain c0nvert several objects simultaneously, open the

General depth conversion process dialog box.

*.3,Tffi.---,,,

ks{"n

rdigrWtf
{ig*g**is

ffi
ffi

Sesr'n* xterp;etat*

Vei.,rne Stbr**

.'."$ Surfa*e attrxae

'.:i

*,rt*na-'"

tu*

ssdredi**

iV1 l'*ev*i*#ym*de

&xffi

ffi

C***aw$rds*

e;u:ucv+ell

&
2

V-1

ti*

$i&ks r*sc,ia*n ?B l*d*l

Choose the correct velocity model from the drop-down

Lr
["
L-r
L
trt!

menu.

EL
\!

f-

E
f.

364

Depth Coversion

i:\

,.

r-r---

L-

3.

pane and clicking Append selected tem

r,

L"
-

Drop in the objects by clicking their names in the lnput

Process dialog

ffi

er:*r*l **pttr

EJ

in the

box.

<uu***o

-e,$ cr,. efi

--

; l

I=
-r\

tr*lc*lly ri-:**ei:,'l*li -i

Bemi

3J

a=
--_f

Ohiadt

ffirg

[F.*ehzed]

i_I

linte

{i**:pr

!,1

Time

:IrT
4.

si*raic

F***ard

l*

*-*ard

HosE

Fa.tard

3 *ei*nie

Tine

Tim*

B,irctroff
1

ji

Fuli rrterpreiilc,.

Forxa;d

F*r*"ar.d

The Time-depth settings can be changed in the top toolbar

Alternate between TWT and TVD while observing the


effect in a 3D window and the lnput pane.

Deoth Conversio .365

*./

_-/
-+

Seismic Data Domain Conversion


Performing a domain conversion on seismic data can be timeconsuming. The 3D volumes consist of large amounts of data and
the entire volume must be read, handled, and included when
calculating the new domain version of the cube. The process also
Includes value scanning and realizing the seismic data.
Using the Volume attributes process allows you t0 create a
virtual (or realized) domain converted seismic cube and gives you
the option t0 use a lower interpolation quality of the result.

...*-

irl *

ir:
l=.ri
i.;i

Performing a Domain Gonversion on


Procedure
Seismic Data
1. 0pen the Volume attributes process under Geophysics
in the Processes Pane.

5
lr,L

L-

L
Under Category, choose Depth conversion. Under
Attribute, choose General depth conversion.

lt

F
l!-

366

Depth Conversion

Petrel Geophys cs

ll-

L
L
L
Ir

Toggle 0N
OFF

Realize to create

a Virtual volume (or toggle it

if this is not what you wish to do).

I----__J

II

I---J

l_

D*ptlr

csflr,ersior ;

Generai ciepth crsl*n

II

r*

ilil
,t
i

--___..--

Ir

lilry1-l_ *-*---l

1_

I lnpuuo':gut

lnput:

F-_i

L
f_
f
f
l__
f
f,

flup{t:

E]

r,

II

f_
E

l-is lnealedl l

rt

r,--I

l.'{@-l

rt

r-J

rf

4.

ll,!T,i i.!'-41

For rnput, choose the seismic cube to be depth converted.

0ptionally, specify the 0utput name.


0n the Parameters tab, specify the velocity model to use
for domain conversion as well as the interpolation quality.

-----I

rr-J

1_
-J

O.pth Conr.oiot

. mZ


Depth Gonversion for 3D Grids
To perform a depth conversion on a 3D grid, you must activate it in
the Models pane.
You select the velocity model in the Depth convert 3D

grid dialog

box. You can choose how the faulted and non-faulted pillar

geometries are treated when stretching the grid between the two
domai ns.

Procedure
Grid
1

Performing a Depth Gonversion on a 3D

Verify that the correct 3D model is active.

F
Lir

5T'#on

l:.

;ts
i.

ffi
ffi

--
l.-
L

.tr*f+
?ers

t'str
a"si

.--/
l'-/
r-I

ffiu .Ior'e.#e.
l;

L-r
L-I

l1

@$

ffi
tiic
l:

,#ss,rd,ix"r*

4t* .ftt*#er

ir

lffi tn

egltresdr$er

__t

From the Processes


select Depth

!-r
L.

EJ
L

H/

]--/

:l
L-
3.
368

Depth Conversion

k-i

Choose the appropriate Velocity model.


Petrel

Gecp.,,. :

-J

l*<

t_.1

ffi

vdtrdy nde{

rerre

Geophysics

,'r ,lti}, aE"l

Depth Conversion

.369

Y
4.

Alternatively, change the pillar geometry types for faulted


and nonfaulted pillars.
A new 3D grid displays in the Models pane wlth the name
of the input and velocity model extension.

!-

t
L-r

-.rJ

>.-d

t_l

rffiffi

: ffi;-l

ffi'

r ffi

&;:
:'
i{*

ffi

il

r, g gl

I ft $

,srr**n"
Fas

&siffi
ec**

|L<t
-r

***,sl*
serr,tu-

)-r

,r**me
*nei*r
fHtr

F
-]

_l

-a
5l

LJ

_)

)r-a

_r
'_l
LJ

370

Depth Coversion

Petre GeophVsics

-TI

L.
LL"
r--{

r,- t

r--

L'

Il_a-.

ln

Modeling

VelocitY
these exercises, you wlll perform basic velocity modeling

Exercises

in

Petrel.

Exercise Workflow

1. Ouality controltime-depth relationships for wells'


?. Define velocity model intervals.
3. Create an uncorrected velocity model using well data'
4. Create a corrected velocity model using well data'
5. Create a velocity model with uncertainty'

0uality Checking Time-Depth Relationships for Wells

---l

ts_r

lnput pane, right-click the Wel/sfolder and select


lmport (on selection).
fin'd tne NlCheckShots.cs file under Data import > Well
ln the

input data > Check Shots.


r)
J

Select CheckShots format (ASCll) as Files of type'


0pen the file and click 0K in the lmport dialog boxes' The
data in this file was exported from Petrel, so all
parameters are set correctlY.

Navigate

fo Wells> Globalwell logs>

cs > Attr i b ute s.


R i ght-c ick Al t C h e c kS h ofs. cs and se ect Spreadsheet'
From the Window menu, select the option to insert a new

Al I C h e c kS h ofs.
6
1

Function window.

Depth Conversion.3Tl

,-,/
?J,

>-.
picked
ln the Function window, create a crosspl0t of the

B.

IWT against the lnterval vel0clty attributes of


AllCheckShots.cs.

.)

::J

--_:-.1:-.,-,.-"-':.-----..--

,:rr

:.i

tl

;:
i

i.;
.j

.F
j.

H
L--

--

'lt

l-F

h , identify any outlying point'


Click Select/pick mode
and cllck it. The corresponding row in the check-shots
spreadsheet is now highlighted. You can edit the row or
delete it.

10. Click

,..,-...,: Editing or deleting


any check shot loint will
influence the calculated
velocitLes down to the next
check-shot pair. Make sure
that the resulting interval
,J

*
tr
i'

velocity is still within the

11

Select using freehand draw'@'

L.
unO

draw

polygon ln the Function window that captures some


outlying points. All points that fall lnside the polygon are
now highlighted rn the spreadsheet You can move the
polygon or edit any of the polygon nodes.
Click Gancel in the spreadsheet so that you do not change

the orrginal check-shot data.


and go
12 Open te Settings dralog box for the Wellsfolder
to the Time tab.

normal range of values. The


changes you make in the

372

Depth Conversio

L.
L.
[-

-3

L.

spreadsheet do not take


effect until you click APPIY
or 0K.

L-

!.

Petrel Ge:c

L-

13

AllCheckShos.cs check box and move it


to the top 0f the ltst. Make sure that it ls the only entry in
Toggle 0N fhe

the list that rs selected. This setting determines whlch


time-depth relationship is used when calculating V0 and
in fhe

Make velociQ model

process.

Clrck Run, then click 0K.


*$ Settieg:for'Yfell:'

.-., Fmm shaed cieekshat

lt,

From vElocft/

t:

fitiB

,--,.
,Ll
I

'J

itl *tt*t-siG*
lr: l

At

BT

Al

Scfl._

UH

l
l

ll *,,,:l tr$-:i iJrl


IMP0RTANTT All remaining steps in this exercise are optional

Depth Convers on

373

15.

ln the Well Tops I > Attributes folder, make TWT Auto


the active attribute.
16. ln the Stratigraphy folder of Well Tops l, right-cllck
CARACAS and select Convert the active afiribute to

points.

17. Click No

in the dialog box that displays. The new point

data appears at the bottom of the lnput pane and is named


CARACAS (TWT Auto).

18. 0pen the Settings dialog box for the point data.
19. 0n the Operations tab, expand lhe Arithmetic
operations tolder.
20

UseZ=Z-Surface(x,y)

21

ln the !nput pane, find fhe Surtacesfolder and click the

blue arrow to drop CARACAS into it.

ffi

ro
Click Create new obiects in the same folder
that you do not to overwrite the original point data.
23 Click Run t0 create time difference points between the
well tops and the time-interpreted surface. (lf there was a
perfect match between the surface and well tops, all point
values would be 0, but this is not the case.)
22

24

Click 0K

25. Under Utilities, open the Make/edit surface process.


26. Delete the object from Besult surface, if there is one, and
27

Lr

click YES in the dialog box that opens"


Drop rn the newest pornt data set (f rom the bottom of the

lnput

_\-

pane) as Main rnput.

28. 0n the Algorithm tab, selectMoving averagefor


Method.
29. 0n the Geometry tab, select,4 utomatic (from input
data/boundary).
30

CIick 0K.

J1.

a1

Open a new 3D window.

JL,

Toggle on the surface in the lnput pane and observe the

,}

-_

surface against the point data.


aa

.).1

ln the same 3D window, display the surface CARACAS and

Well Tops 1 filtered on CAHACAS. Make sure the display


setting for the 3D window is TWT. Try to determine which
well does not fit the time-interpreted surface.
n a new
374.

Depth Conversion

Well

t-

window
Petrel Geophysics

.-

E
fE\

-J

-._f
-

Select wells Fluorite-A7, Jade-A4, and Mica-A3.


Jb. Display Well Tops 1.
JJ.

3l

Under Globalwell logs, click

3B

Expand Al I Ch e c kS h ots. cs > Attri b ute s.

39

Display the lnterval velocity check-shot attribute in the well


section. There is no obvious deviating velocity trend in
Fluorite-A7 compared to the other two wells. At this point,

DT.

there is n0 reas0n to not trust the time-depth relationship


for this well.
&! ,i1

Depth Convers on

375

5.-.

, Defining Velocity Model lntervals


between time
ln most cases, veloclty model intervals are defined
Petrel because
in
prerequisite
a
interpretation surfaces. This is not
to define
,un use horizons (from the 3D grid) and c0nstants

-/

fo,

interval boundaries as well.


from 3D grids You
ln this exercise, intervals are based on hortzons

will define several velocity models from these intervals'

1.

open the
ln the Processes pane under Geophysics'

-L-

M a ke vel oc i tY mode I Process'

2.
3.
4.
5.

Click Append item in the


Change

6.

table:'dj'

.L

type t0 Horizon and leave

Correction set to None'


Set the Model tYPe to V=V0+K"Z'

{sretii}l
-*'rli*l
1

ih. But. interval

lists:
Make these selections from the drop-down
V0: Well TDB - Surface

'
'

K:

Well TDB

>

Constant'

Hdel

x'r*" I r r'erl rnR - l*"t**'


four more
Click Append item in the table ffi to insert
vo.e*r

entres.

u'*tt rnR--

ihis action dupllcates the previous setup for the

it manually'
remaining intervals, so you do not have to do
new
0n the Make velocity model tab, select Greate
and name the new model

vell'tod

well

data

L.

.L,

uncorrected.
.

t0 Z'
lnhe Convert from drop-down llst, select TWT
the
from
SBD
select
then
lnhe Datumara, select Time,

drop-down list.
(found under
10. ln the Models pane, expand 3D Grid model
New modell and its horlzons.

>

t-L-

L
376

Petrel GeoPhYsics
Depth Converston

f=
L'
LLU
L_
1f
U
---t
a---t

.:=

3 :< Multiple drop in the table iii an c ic< 're c r


tc slru laneolsly drop ali horizons ln the first
,',r',',

--

---_\
Ei.

--

TC\\'.

.q \li!i !.I.div Fr+dei


'':-: i :::. _::a
ltf:s
: e

r" r

Tim:

i-

E
r=
f

r_

-{

,:n

v lo'

'

SFlt

C{}-rar:

4jre
Nce

Hfl?et:

Harz*

]
;?:l

Hsri:r

a-

Vell-1.rd ',"iell Elala l-"ln'qretd

ft,-

l:.

r-^

--{

ne'i'r

ttr_ Frl

E_-\

-.

aet

illJll,ill

i=V3+lfi

KCBE

N+re

F;Fl

l*.e

5nL

Ha?of,

Vjlt*;

l.lcne

.J-i-rl

V0, \,,/*tl

T8

it"qe

!.iell TOR - Sufale


J0 r.'..re]i fSF. - Sudx:

tJ:

r'1lll TDR'tror
K: l',.;l TF' - Llsmti
K: !'Jell

f=V*lt"!

\"=\,t+lf!

K 'v.!lTD

r,r:

lellTE'

rfre

lr.:

TDH - ln:tr,1

\{el1 TDF -

Cei:tarl

you will use these intervals for the remalning vel0city modeling
function definitions'
exercises, changing 0nly the different velocity

Well
Creating an Uncorrected Velocity Model using
Data
Thetime-depthrelationshipsalreadyestablishedareusedt0Create
a velocity model with n0 correct0n'

1.

ln the

Make velocity model dialog box' click

iY@
2

(if the settings are

n.t already shown) A

box
set of subtabs displays in the lower part of the dialog
Correction
sure
make
tab,
0n the Gorrection and output
is set to None. Use the default settings for the remaining

parameters.
'0n

the Well TDR estimation tab, observe that only the


Linear velocity subtab is available because a linear
function is selected for all intervals' Leave these

velocity
settlngs as they are and click 0K t0 generate the velocity
model.

Depth Conversion o 377

,*Al

L--4

-l
)

L-

4.
5.
6.
1

B.

Perform a quality check of the velocrty model. lf a


spreadsheet rs opened, it will have no entries because no
correction has been done at this stage.
Close or iconlze the spreadsheet.
Go to the Models pane and expand Velocity models>
ln a 3D window, display CARACAS against Well Tgps

ldD

it-

L--J

.l,ln

the

toolbar drop-down list. 0bserve the mismatch between the


well tops and holzons in depth. This is what you willtry to
eliminate in a corrected velocrty model.
The welltop for Fluorlte-A7 is high above the horlzon in
depth. The time and depth pick of this marker is too high for
both models, which you can test by displaying the data in
TWT and TVD. However, the trme-depth relatronshtp is
good, as demonstrated by ihe check shots in a Well
section window. lt is the initial depth pick that needs

lE-J

L--
L--a

!.

L--

-/

correction"
ln the next exercise, you

will clear thls well top before

correctrng the velocity model to the well tops.

--d

L--r
f
--r
!
t"-

L-

,-

l+
f

E
378

Depth Conversion

-/

VelMod well data uncorrected> Horizon.


Change the time-depth settings to TVD

-_l

Petre Geophvslcs

ln the

lnput pane, right-click WellTops I and open the

spreadsheet.

i0

Find the CARACAS well top for Fluorite-A7 and clear it in

fhe Used by dep.cony column. (you can use the Well

filter in the dialog box to find it.)


11

f=

ta-.^

-E{f

fafL=
-

h-

Click 0K

Creating a Gorrected Velocity Model Using Well Data


1. Open the Make velocity model process.
2. Set well tops in lhe Correction columnfor all five

3.
4.

5.

entries
ln the lnput pane, expand Welt Tops / and drop the
correct well tops into the Stratigraphysubfolder.

Select Create new, name the new

well data corrected,

modelvelMod

and leave the intervals as

defined.

0n the Correction and output tab, take these actions:


ln he Correcfion section, select Adiust and Use

a.

influence radius and enter an influence radius of

b.

1000 feet.
lnthe Aueuf section, select the Time logs and
Velocie /ogs check boxes and make sure the Make
well report and Reset sheetfirst check boxes are
selected.

F--I

af
a!r-{

l---

-L-f

--
Depth Conversion

379

,
-)
E-{

-)
l il.!. ldaei* $de|

'

ar

E-,

:J

*s&:

,--
*)
L-J

-J
_l

L-.J
t6','c.:ilii;lesr,i. *iT-t:!!-'1..il
Oi

**

tso,c,

tl -rre:&:#':

*
tr

Ct.\.refr

liu*H*d:

r::-#bs
if*.s*

fr;'r*iq5

tr:

:": lm.r,

fi.&of f@s

*i: ,*'a**:*m
*. ': , arr" & e es
j-:

ri

J-
>
/

:&i

Le*fr#*r
6k:
' ,*,:{,,1:

qd

+l

ll
.ia

d 'ei
i,, ,!, aels*t

at. i!, sE

*sl&:::
r3#i

ust

-a
L

>
b.

0n the Well TDR estimation tab, Linear velocty


(This selecton
*U,un, click 0ptimize for estimation of K
the
gives a best esiimate of V0 and K, while still honoring
rate of increase of velocitY).
wlll downSelect Use data weights. This command

weight data points with large residuals'


1.

l*!.

E
E

Select these outputs:


Time-depth

.
.
.
o

]L

L.

Velocity
Error

Data Ponts.

E
L-

380

Petr

Depth Converslon

el GeophYsic:

FL

Clrck 0K t0 generate the veloctty model.

luEU tuuS

l,,linimum depth
h4inimum

relac

lclin

TDE samples:

oi one sampled

iJi
TDR

ptm* fnr eetimatin l K

--''-'

Robust rs'timtinn

;,,1 Use well ','*eiglrt*

r]l

fi'lin numberu{

lvlin numher

cf ivells

Use data,leillts

Ease rwell irtersetir,n:

l+rrecti.n

r-r

TF int+rs+ti*1,'

ft,lat number,l iterations:

I'ffi

Trleran*e:

:,,fi

--i

Estimet and adjust tn ba*e

'lutE,ut
'"'elacitl loqs
$ Tin e l':gs
ll .r Time.Jepth i \,Eli'chl
,pto

9.

,.d

hl in,::

Enrr

l.iumber uf smFle:

lat

Data noints

After the modelrng process is finished, check the well


report and focus on CARACAS. Fluorite-A7 has not been
c0rrected as spectfied ln the Well tops spreadsheet and
descnbed rn the previous exerclse.

10.

Close 0r icontze the well report.

1'1. Perform quality c0ntrol on the horizons and focus on


CARACAS

12

13

Under Velocity mldels in the Models pane, expand


VelMod well data corrected> Horizons.
Display CARACAS in a 3D wrndow and expand it in the

Models

pane.

Change time-depth setttngs for the wlndow to TVD ustng.


Compare the horizon in depth wlth the corresponding well

tops.

IB

0pen a new Function window.


ln the Models pane, expand VelMod well data
corrected> ac data.
0bserve the content infhe Zone: Datum - CARACAS
folder.

19

Plot any of the functions in the Depth/velocity functions


folder.
Depth Conversion.3Sl

=
20

Open the Settings dialog box for the velocity model

21

VelMod well data corrected and click the 0perations tab


Expand the Velocity conversion folder and observe the
available operations.

22

SelecI

"5.

=-

Averctge velocie cube (inc)and leave the

default parameters

23.

Ensure fhaf Use input domain type is selected. Thrs


option creates the volume in the time domain.

?4

Click Run. The realized velocity volume VelMod well data


corrected [Realized] appears in a new survey folder at the

bottom of the Sersm ic main folder in the Input pane.


Display the default in-line and cross-line from the velocity
cube in a 3D window.
26 Change the time-depth settings for the window to TWT.
21. lf necessary, update the colors for the seismic velocity

25

cube.

Greating a Velocity ModelWith Uncertainty

lrl

So far, you have defined interval velocities in a deterministic way

within the Velocie modeling process. The next step is to do


stochastic velocity modeling; that is, to incorporate uncertainty into
the process.

1. 0pen the Make velocity model process.


2. Use the same setup for this velocity model as you did for
3"

the last velocity model that you created.


Click Create new and name the new modelvelMod

uncertaint.y.

4.

Click

Activate uncertainty page

ff,,

Std Dev.

coiumn and the Uncertainty tab are activated.


Enter the standard deviation as constant values for each of
the velocity model intervals.
6

0n the Uncertainty tab:

a.
b.

I
382

Depth Conversion

Change Variogram type to Spherical and assume


isotropy. (Keep the default ranges and azimuth).

Toggle 0N the
check box.

lconize uncertainty error surface

L
L--
1-

L]

LI

tsl

-l
\-J

---l

L.

_l

L--{

_-l

L,

Click 0K
Petre Geophys cs

-J

-Lr

rL-

L-

r-\

l4;*&iiy'i*'
+<!,rlrtrt-r$

!*!a

L'
L'
I-I

|.

-.-

':_..---:l:::.

..:::*rtq{t*n- .1;..f_lf rl+,.,

r:,?

'

f...':rif'

':

-t
"l

1,*:,'tt $1,"r!,
gr
:.

t1&: &*
3

qr#r i6fr
f,F*
'{.t*!{lea*ekl

l: n-$.ee*$arss',v-.
f: r:,'r,t { taE{

When the process is flnished, close the spreadsheet and


qualrty check the velocity model by displaying some of the
res

lts:

a. ln a 3D window, view the V0 surface for CAHACAS in


b.

the Models pane (Velocities folder > VelMod


uncertainty modelt.
Compare rt with the V0 (Corrected) surface for
CARACAS. Right-click the V0 (Corrected) attribute
under CARACAS velocity surface and select Use as

visual vertical position for this velocity model.


Display the uncertainty surface:

a.

Fight click the Uncertarnty attribute under CARACAS


velocity surface and select Use as visual vertical

position for this velocity model.

b.

0pen the Settings dialog box.


0n the Statistics tab, find the mlnimum and maximum
uncertainty values.

2-

Exercises
Gonversion

Performing a Domain

ln these exercises, you

will learn the fundamentals of domain

convers ion.

Depth Gonverting a 3D Grid


After establishing a preferred velocity model, or several models for
sensitivity purpOses, you can c0nvert 3D grids and other standalone
objects between domains.

1. lnthe Models pane underthe

New modelfoldet activate

3D Grid.
2

ln the Processes pane under Corner

point gridding,
Depth convert 3D grid process.
From the Velocity model drop-down list, select the
VelMod well data correctedvelocrty model.
open the

0ptionally, reduce pillar geometry complexity by clicking off


geometries for both faulted and non faulted pillars.
This step is not recommended but, in this exercise, the 3D
grid has simple geometries, so this step will have limited or
no effect.

5.

Click 0K. A new model named 3D Grid (VelMod well data


corrected) is displayed in the Models pane.

6. View and check the model in a 3D window. This 3D grid is


in the depth domain, as indicated by a blue icon in front of
its name;3D grids in the time domain have an orange icon,

L*

General Depth Conversion


You use lhe

General depth conversion process to perform

domain conversion 0n many objects that have been imported into or


created in Petrel. 0bjects n0t penetrated by wells will still have

well control if welltop c0rrection is incorporated into the Make

velociQ model

process.

lf more than one velocity model exists in the project, y0u can use
the sensitivity of the depth conversion method for the same object.
There are two ways to perform a depth conversion on the cropped
and realized seismic volume used throughout this course.
384

Depth Conversion

b*

Petrel Geophysics

!.

E=

E
r-'
E-.

I'L'
L-,_lr

EI

ff=
---r

Bight-click on a seismic cube (for example,


mig [Crop]
[Realized] 1) in the lnput pane and select Volume

attributes.

The Volume

attribute dialog box opens.

2. Under Category, selectDepth conversion.


3. Under Attribute, selectGeneral depth conversion.

,.o1,:"i.:.
fttgory

rlkr

D*pi (nl,eI1t

ti

ti

-.

r.-.r

Using the Domain Convert by Active


Velocity Model
Command

tnlut'trS{r

l;;ltiJi

ffi g

ni $rop) r l{rli:*d: r

I'
aL.'
I

-.

-.-l

a-I

-r-{

E
r_---|l

Depth Conversron

385

:-J
4.

model to use
0n the Parameters tab, specify the velocity

.L

(for example, VelMod well data corrected) and click 0K'


mig
The new seismic volume in depth appears under
mig lGrop] 1
lCropl tllRealizedl and is named

iRealizedl

I (VelMod well

data corrected)'

L-

>

L
lk
L

=
E.

C
L.
tr

6.

created
Display an inlrne and crossline from the newly
seismlc volume.
the window are set
Enqq!'g that the time-depth settings for

to

--jt :

ll-

tL.

t.386

Petrel GeoPhYstcs
Depth Conversion

Er-

f
f
f

E----
It"

Using the General Depth Conversion Process


1. ln the lnput pane under Geophysics, open the General
d epth co nv er sion Process.

2.

Seiect the preferred velocity model from the drop-down


I

J.

ist.

Highlight mig lCrop] 1 [Realized] 1 and drop it into the list

ial

by clicking Append

selected item to the list l**ll

Click 0K and observe the new volume in a 3D window'

-rr

f
f

-r
Fq

E
f

aF-I

F-{

Converting More than 0ne Obiect


You can use another approach to perform domain conversion on

other objects, such as horizon interpretations, fault interpretations,


surfaces, and point data.

1.

0pen the

General depth conversion process (if it

ts

not alreadY oPen).


ln the Input pane, select one of your horizon
interpretations, one interpreted fault, a surface, and if
available, a point data set.
Append them one-by-one into lhe

General depth

conversion process list and click 0K.

!,,e]ct

!"11

i3

csrlld

E
a
I_
--{

Open a new 3D window and display all oblects that you


selected rn the previous steP.
Depth Conversion

387

,)
Window menu, select Change time/depth
settings to change between TWT and TVD Observe the
ln the

differences.
Notice that these objects now have an Attributes
subfolder available.
see the
Expand one of the depth-converted objects to
I

nf

ormati on

spl

ayed in rhe Attri

ufes subf o lder'

Review 0uestions

.
.

well data in a depth


Can seismic data in a time domarn and
lf
be viewed together rn Petrel? yes' how?
domain
What inputs are required in Petrel to define a velocity
model?
can
When you have made a velocity model' what objects
l7ou use to convert the domain?
time domain A
in yow data set, all seismic data is in a
to the
new setsmic cube in a depth domain pertaining
you
use the
you
Can
adloining area becomes available t0
Domain conversion process to convert this seismic

t--

cube into a time domain?

L.

SummarY
a velocity model and
ln this module, you learned about creating

performing domain conversion'

.-

L-

388

PetreL GeoPhYs cs

Depth Conversion

Appendix A
Shortcut
for Seismic lnterpretationKeys

.-

-'-

SelectanyvsbleF
I e tnttne'

,ri""rr,l, i'l
,A/rnrlnrncl or .^):^r redispiay
verticai

,yll*y:)
rnterpretation

Shift +

crossline, qeneral
d lrne (Base map
",r*#;Xolun so

r,rrrJ

window).

Selecllniinelrlffiuw/
map

and 3D winoows)

setect oithos;;;',

,;;;,:'(Base
u,"'oL' ciick
,ffiand
,,J,:i:fl
drag
torlontarvtn
rn+-+^ -^
to rorate

il;;

*fl,;:;1,,v

CreateArbitrar}/
lntersection
wrndows).
Shift +

CreateseismicAF
l'0lyiine Intersection

uno so

E
E
I_-

-I
E-,.r

I_-

Shift + X

H/t)

(Base

*irl*i.''""'

Actiuate erase,
mode (il

,,

,up rno

gO

rg*. ,rp

w,ndo

Movether1uuffiacllve
section

lAil

windows).

'

by a given

incremil

t'tf'?t.trrritrrtlorr,z

!1,tt inturprutrt,*

(R

iTFrrftr,i.k/ffi
rr,.,p,.

Shift + A

1.,',::r

Sut 3p r.uouo

rriil.kio
sno,tcut t<eys torGsm,c.

tnterpffin -ras

J/

-l
L-r

fl

Set 2D seeded autotracking mode.

Set 2D guided autotracking mode.

Set manual drawing mode

Set paintbrush autotracking mode (2D window only).

Shift + 0

Set active box autotracking mode (2D window only).

Ctrl + 0

Set active box autotracking mode (2D and 3D window)

Del

Delete selection.

Activate the Select/Pick Mode.

Z-

Zoom (lnterpretation window).

Shit + Z

Unmagnify (only if magnifier has been used in the

:]
-}.1

L--/

-l
)
L--/
L]

lnterpretation window).

L--

(+)/ (-)

Zoom inlout (lnterpretation window).

Ctrl +Z

Undo the last editing action.

l--

Ctrl + Y

Redo the last editing acton.

Select parent points (Base map and 3D window).

Shift +
(+)i

Select child points (Base map and 3D window)

Zoom inlout (lnterpretation window).

{-)

Select Composite selection (Base map and 3D windows)

_-

>-ia

)--/
-

0r c0mpose wrth intersecting line lnterpretation

L.-r

window).

,L

Draw arbitrary composite intersections (Base map and


3D windows).

..

Draw alrgned composite sections (Base map and 3D

Shift + W

.E

windows).
Compose w th inline (lnterpretatron window)

Shift +

Compose w th crossline (lnterpretatron window).

Clip and extend composite (lnterpretation window).

Restrict active horizon

Shift +

Shift + Up I Previous vintage


t

/ fault (3D window).

Restrict visible horizons / faults (3D window).

Nrrrrx

L-

a-

-L.

E
E
L'=
----

LI-

Q-i;
D

rrow
Ciri + Up

E.

Arrow

ts-r

Down

hr

Nen,",iniage

l',','n

Ctrl +

Previous interpretation.

Next interpretation

Arrow

--.t

Sh0rtcut Keys f0r Seisri.

lrt.,[.tutio* fSt

rLL-_

LL-L'
lli

--

Appendix B
Attributes

Surface

L,-tt

E-

--I

surface attributes provide you with additional information and


understanding of the seismic data. The followinq surface attributes
are
available in Petrel:

Arc length

Measures reflection heterogeneity and may


be used to quantify Iateral changes in
reflection patterns. lt is a stratigraphic
sequence indicator.

Average duration
of negative loops

Gives the average duration of all negative


loops rn a given interval. lt is undefined if

Ea

I.-'
a-'
fl\

-.

I-

there is no loop that requires two zero

L-

E
a:
E
a--E4

E
a-

cross i ngs.

Average duration
of positive loops

Gives the average duration of positive loops


in a given interval. lt is undefined if there is

no loop that requires twO zero crossings with


positive amplitudes.

Average energy

The squared RMS Amplitude. This attrrbute


a measure of reflectivity within a time or

depth window and may be used to map direct


hydrocarbon indicators in a zone.

Average loop
duration

Defined as the average duration of all loops.


It is undefined if there is no loop (requires

two zero crossings). lts reciprocal (for


example, 500/Dav if the sample rate is 4 ms)
gives an approximate average frequency of

the seismic data within the extraction


window.

ts-rl

I---

Appendlx B

Surface

Attributes. 393

_l|

Average magntude

Measures the reflectivity within a time 0r


depth window, but is less sensitive to large
numbers than RMS Amplitude.
This attribute may be used as a hydrocarbon
indicatot or to isolate geologrc features that
express themselves as anomalous amplitudes

__Lb

relative to backqround values.

Average negative

amplitude

Gives the average of all negatrve amplrtude


values within the analysis window. The

amplitude range t0 include rn the calculation


can be controlled with the parameter
selector. The data range to include can be
within the defined interval or outside the
defined interval. The default is to use all data

_b

va Iues.

Average negative
trough value

Measures the negative reflectivity within a


time or depth window. 0nly trough values

which are negative are included in the


average. This allows discnmination of Iocal
minima in the posrtive lobes of the seismic
waveform.

Average peak

The average of all peak values in a window.

value

These peak values can be local maximums, in

which case negative peaks are also averaged


in. This attribute can be a measure of the
positrve reflectivity withrn a time-depth
window.
Large or small values may be used as a direct

L-

-L
L.

hydrocarbon indicator.
_-=!

Average peak

Similar to the Average peak value attribute,

value between zero but instead of takrng all peak values, only the
largest peak between each pair of zero
crossings
-L

crossings is taken.
The output may provide a better measure of

reflectivity when tracking a single event.

}
394 o Appendix B

Surface Attributes

Petre Geoflhysics

\-

Average positive

Glves the average of all positive amplitude

amplitude

values within the analysis window


The amplitude range to include in the
calculation can be controlled with the
parameter selector. The data range t0 include
can be within the defined interval or outside
the defined interval. The default is to use all
data values.

Average positive
peak value

Similar to the Average peak value attrlbute,


but instead of taking all peak values, only the
peaks in the positive lobe of the seismic

waveform are taken.

Average trough
value

Measures the average of negative reflectivtty


wlthin a time or depth window. lts uses are
similar to those of the Average peak value

attribute.
Similar t0 the Average peak value attribute,
Average trough
only the
I value between zero but instead of taking all peak values,

j crosslngs

largest negative peak between each pair of


zero crossings is taken.
This attribute may give a better measure of

reflectivity when trackrng a single evenl

Cipher attribute

Horizon local attributes measuring the


characteristic of one of the three peaks or
three troughs above and below the reference
horizon. The measured characteristics include
time of the peaks/troughs below or above the
reference horizon, amplitude of the peaks/
troughs, the isochron between the peaks/
troughs and the reference horlzon, and the
number of peaks or troughs below or above
the reference horizon withln the specified

window. There are forty attribute variants.


For further details, see the Petrel Help.

Appeno r

Slrid.e AtL rnLte)

'

395

-!r

_5

Extract value

Extracts the input seismrc value relative to

single horizon or an existing interpretation.


This allows you to produce Surface attrbute

-L

maps in two ways

1.

2.

from seismic volumes created as


Volume attributes with methods not
avarlable directly as Surface
attr b utes

-L

from volumes created with Seismic

calculator options.

Geometric mean

Gives ihe geometric mean of a data set as

given by the n-root of the multiplication of


the data points, where n is the number of

data points.

Half energy

Computes the time or depth requrred for the


energy within a window to reach one half of

the total energy wrthin the enttre wlndow.


Half energy may indicate asymmetrtc changes
in lithology or porosrty within a specified
z0

Harmonic mean

ne.

H of the positive real numbers

al, a2,

.., and

rs defined as

ff

where n is the number of data points used


the mean. The harmonic mean is typically
used with the averaging of rates (rates of

in

change).

lnterval average

Provides users with the same interval


averagrng options available prior to Petrel
2001 .1. The Average methods

lsochron thickness

Suface Attrlbutes

available are

Defined as the time difference between two


horzons. Measured rn the unrts of the input
horizons (millrseconds in Time domain, feet or
meters in Depth domain).

396. Appendix

_L-

Loop asymmetry

Measures the asymmetry of the loop that


straddles the horizon. lt is undefined if there

that requires two zer0 crossings.


The upper and lower parts 0f the loop are
separated by either the peak or trough ot in
the case of a doublet, the saddle (indentation)
between the local peaks or troughs.
rs no loop

Loop kurtosis

Measures the peaked-ness of a statistical


distribution (here the loop is considered as a

distribution). Thrs representation treats time


as the variant of rnterest and amplitude as
probability. The trapezord approximation is
the series of lines that connect sample
points.

Lower loop area

Sum of the areas of the trapezoids defined by

the amplitudes in the lower Ioop. The tail


triangles are also in the sum when the zero
crossings are defined by interpolation. The
amplitude and time values are not scaled.
The resulting area has units of amplttude
multiplied by milliseconds. Negatrve loops
have negative areas. lt is undefined if there ls
no lower loop (requires 0ne zer0 crossing
below the upper loop) or if there is no upper
loop.

Lower loop
duration

Time separation between upper and lower


zero crossings for the loop below the loop

that straddles the horizon. The upper zero


crossing for lower loop duration is the same
point as the lower zero crosstng for upper
loop duration. Loop duration is undefined if
there is no Iower loop (requires 0ne zer0
crossrng below the upper loop) or if there ls
no upper Ioop.

Make offset
horizon

Creates a surface at each of the search


windows specifred in the Surface attributes
dialog. The offset horizons are created as
new objects in the Petrel lnput pane.
Appendlx B

Surface

Attrlbutes. 397

Maximum
amplitude

Measures reflectivrty within a time or depth


window. Returns the maxrmum positive
number in the defined window. This attribute
is used to detect positive direct hydrocarbon
indicators such as bright spots.

Maximum loop
duration

The maximum duration (longest half-cycle) of


all loops, both positive and negative, in the
extraction window. lt is undefined if there is
no loop (requires two zer0 crossrngs).

Maximum
magnitude

Mean amplitude

Measures reflectivity within a time or depth


window. Returns the maximum positlve
number in the defined window. This attribute
is used to detect positive direct hydrocarbon
indicators such as bright spots.
The arithmetic mean of the amplitude and a
measure of trace bias. lf the seismic trace
has general bias (perhaps from the data
processing), this can be removed from the
seismic volume using the Graphic equalizer
attribute and removing the zero hertz
c0mp0nent.

.l-

Positive or negatrve bias may indicate the


presence of bright spots.

Median

The Median of the analysis window can be

[.

found by arrangrng all the values from lowest


to highest value and picking the middle one

(that is, 50% of the values in the window are


below the median value). The Median is less
sensitive t0 extreme values (outlrers) than the
computation of the Mean.

Minimum
amplitude

-La

Measures the reflectivity within a time or


depth window. This is the maximum negative
number in the defined window.
It is used to detect negative direct

.L,

hydrocarbon indicators such as bright spots.

398.

Appeno

'

Surlr e

Ali ibrle'

Petre Geopvsics

L.

Minimum looP
duration

The mintmum duration (shortest half-cycle) of


all loops, both positive and negative in the
extraction window. lt ls undefined if there is
no loop (requires two zero crossings).

Most of

Captures the most commonly occurring data


value within the analysrs window. A
histogram is computed from the input
window, and the value from the bin with the
highest count is output for each trace
location.

Number of negative
zero crossings

Besults in a value representing a counter for


the number of zero crossings encountered
within the analysis window that match the
criteria of the sample values going from
negative values to Positive.
Changes In the number of zero crossings can
be related to the comPlexitY of the
stratigraphy. A high number of zero crossings

generally indicates a greater degree of


vertical lithologic comPlexity.

Number of positive
zero crossings

Results in a value representing a counter for


the number of zero crossings encountered
within the analysis window that match the
criteria of the sample values going from
positive values to negatlve.
Changes in the number of zero crossings can
be related to the comPlexitY of the
stratrgraphy. A high number of zero crossings

generally indicates a greater degree of


vertical lithologic comPlexitY.
I Number of zero

cr0sslngs

Results in a value representing a counter for


the number of zero crossings encountered
within the analysis window that match the

criteria of the sample values going both from


positive values t0 negative ranges and from
negative to Positrve

range-

Appendix B

Surlace Attrlbuies' 39{l

Sum of negative

amplitudes

Arithmetic mean of the negative amplitudes,


multiplied by the number of samples rn the
window. Thrs operation provides a measure
of brightness multiplied by the formation
thickness (time or depth) and may be
regarded as a measure of brightness volume.
A large value may indicate a high net sand
ratro.

Sum of positive

amplitudes

Arithmetic mean of the positive amplitudes,


multiplied by the number of samples in the
window. This operation provides a measure
of brightness multiplied by the formatton
thickness (trme or depth) and may be
regarded as a measure of brightness volume.

A large value may indicate a high net sand


ratio.

Threshold value

Computes the percentage of samples inside


vertical window, that are greater than, less

than, or equal to a user-deflned amplitude


threshold value. Amplitudes in the selsmic
data can be analyzed using user-defined
threshold values. This might infer porosity or

fluid changes when amplitude driven.

Time at maximum

Results in a z-value (time or depth) as the

amplitude

output attribute, where the z-value


corresponds to the vertrcal position of the
maximum amplitude withrn the analysis
window.

Time at minimum

Hesults rn a z-value (time or depth) as the


output attribute, where the z-value
corresponds to the vertical positron of the

amplitude

minimum amplitude within the analysis

window

Appendix B

Suface Attrrbutes

401

t
Upper !oop area

Sum of the areas 0f Ihe trapezoids defined by

the amplitudes in the upper 100p. The tail


triangles are als0 in the sum when the zero
crossings are defined by interpolati0n. The

ampltude and trme values are n0t scaled.


The resulting area has units 0f amplitude

multiplied by milliseconds. Negative loops


have negative areas. lt is undefined if there is

n0 upper loop that requires two zero


crossings within the extracti0n window: 0ne
zer0 crossrng at or below the local horizon

rnterpretation and one zero crossing above

the local horizon.

Upper loop

Trme separation between upper and lower

duration

zero crosstngs for the loop that straddles the

l
E.

horizon. lt is undefined if there is no upper


loop which requires two zero crossings within

Upper Ioop

skewness

the extractron window: one zero crossing at


or below the local horizon interpretation and
0ne zero crossing above the local horizon.

L.

Measures the symmetry of a statistical


distrrbution (here the loop is considered as a

distribution). Skewness is zero for


symmetrical Ioops; it is positive for loops that
are top loaded and negative for those that
are bottom loaded.

Window length

t!

The output from this operation indicates bed


travel time thickness above tuning when
using peak above and trough below (or the
reverse). Tapering does not affect this

operatron, because the tapers are centered at


the start and end points of the window.

Window Length is computed in milliseconds


in the time domain, and in feet or meters in

the depth domain.

-L-

402. Appendix

Suface Attributes

Petrel Geophysics