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DipoleAntenna

Dr.PrasantKumarPattnaik
AssistantProfessor
DepartmentofElectricalEngineering
BITSPilaniHyderabadCampus

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ProceduretofindAntennaRadiation

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HertzianDipole
InfinitesimalcurrentelementIdl

Itsnotrealbutservesasbuildingblocktostudypracticalantenna

HertziandipolecarryingcurrentI=I0cos(t)
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HertzianDipole
TheretardedmagneticvectorpotentialatafarfieldpointP

where[I]istheretardedcurrentgivenby

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HertzianDipole
CurrentisretardedatPsincethereispropagationtimedelay
ofr/uorphasedelayr
Hence,thevectorpotentialcanbewrittenas

ChangingAtosphericalcoordinates

where,
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HertzianDipole

TakingcurlofA,weobtainHas

TofindE,use

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HertzianDipole
ThecomponentsofEcanthusbeobtainedas

where,

Istheintrinsicimpedanceofthemedium

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HertzianDipole
Therearethreetermsvaryingwith1/r3,1/r2and1/r
1/r3:Electrostaticfieldterm,fieldvariationduetoelectricdipole
ThisdominatesinregionveryclosetotheHertziandipole

1/r2:Inductivefieldtem,predictablefromBiotSavartsLaw
Thisisimportantonlyatthenearfieldanddistancescloseto
theHertziandipole

1/r:Farfieldradiationfield,thisistheonlytermremainatthefar
fieldi.e.pointsfarawayfromtheHertziandipole
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Farfieldcondition
Forfarfieldradiationzone,
neglectingthe1/r2and1/r3variations,onlyremain

andorthogonal
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Farfieldandnearfield
Thenearfieldandfarfieldarebasedoncondition

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HertzianDipole:Powerradiation

Substitutingfor

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HertzianDipole:Powerradiation
But

Hence,thepowerradiatedbecomes
Usingforfreespace

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HertzianDipole:Radiationresistance
Thispowerisequivalenttopowerdissipatedinafictitiousresistance
RradbycurrentI=I0cos(t)
or

RradiscalledtheradiationresistanceoftheHertziandipole

LargerRradforantenna,greateristhepowerdeliveredtothespace
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HertzianDipole
i.e.

Forexample,

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HertzianDipole

Ourassumptionwasthatdipolehasuniformcurrent,i.e.
currentisnonzeroattheendpointsofthedipole.

Thisispracticallyimpossiblesincethesurroundingmediumis
nonconducting

Forstillthisapproximationwillbevalid

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Halfwavedipole

Lengthl=/2

Halfwavedipole
e.g.twowiretransmissionline
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Halfwavedipole

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Halfwavedipole

Forr>>l

Fornumerator,sincerandraredifferent,replace

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Halfwavedipole
Hence,

Usingformula

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Halfwavedipole

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Halfwavedipole
Using

and
terms)

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Halfwavedipole:Powerradiation

forfreespacepropagation
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Halfwavedipole:Powerradiation
Since,

using

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Halfwavedipole:Powerradiation

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Halfwavedipole:Powerradiation

Integratingtermbyterm

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Halfwavedipole:Radiationresistance
Henceradiationresistanceofhalfwavedipole

RadiationresistanceofhalfwavedipoleismuchgreaterthanHertziandipole
Andthuscapableofdeliveringmorepowertothespace

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Halfwavedipole:Radiationresistance

Hence,

Theinductivereactancedroptozerowhenlengthisslightlyreduced

Hence,standardcoaxialcableof75impedanceischosen

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QuarterwaveMonopole
Onehalfofhalfwavedipoleantennalocatedaboveaconductinggroundplane

Quarterwavemonopoleantenna

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QuarterwaveMonopole
Analysiscanbecarriedusingmethodofimages

Thefieldproducedabovethegroundplaneissameasthatof
halfwavedipole.

Thepreviousequationsarevalidbutlimitofintegrationisonly
abovethegroundplanei.e.
Hence,monopoleradiateshalfthepowerasthatofthedipole
withsamecurrent
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QuarterwaveMonopole

or

Theinputimpedanceforquarterwavemonopoleis

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