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(Continued)

1.313

1.314
TABLE 1.67 Solubility of Gases in Water (Continued)

*Atmospheric nitrogen containing 98.815% N2 by volume + 1.185% inert gases.

TABLE 1.67 Solubility of Gases in Water

1.315

1.316
TABLE 1.68 Solubility of Inorganic Compounds and Metal Salts of Organic Acids in Water at Various Temperatures
Solubilities are expressed as the number of grams of substance of stated molecular formula which when dissolved in 100 g of water make a saturated solution
at the temperature stated (C).

(Continued)

1.317

1.318
TABLE 1.68 Solubility of Inorganic Compounds and Metal Salts of Organic Acids in Water at Various Temperatures (Continued)

(Continued)

1.319

1.320
TABLE 1.68 Solubility of Inorganic Compounds and Metal Salts of Organic Acids in Water at Various Temperatures (Continued)

(Continued)

1.321

1.322
TABLE 1.68 Solubility of Inorganic Compounds and Metal Salts of Organic Acids in Water at Various Temperatures (Continued)

(Continued)

1.323

1.324
TABLE 1.68 Solubility of Inorganic Compounds and Metal Salts of Organic Acids in Water at Various Temperatures (Continued)
Substance

(Continued)

1.325

1.326
TABLE 1.68 Solubility of Inorganic Compounds and Metal Salts of Organic Acids in Water at Various Temperatures (Continued)
Substance

(Continued)

1.327

1.328
TABLE 1.68 Solubility of Inorganic Compounds and Metal Salts of Organic Acids in Water at Various Temperatures (Continued)
Substance

*Properly called dihydrogen ethylenediaminetetraacetate (Na2H2 EDTA 2H2O).

1.329

1.330

SECTION ONE

TABLE 1.69 Dissociation Constants of Inorganic Acids


The dissociation constant of an acid Ka may conveniently be expressed in terms of
the pKa value where pKa = log10 (Ka/mol dm3). The values given in the following
table are for aqueous solutions at 298 K: the pK1, pK2, and pK3 values refer to the
first, second, and third ionizations respectively.
Name

Formula

Aluminium ion (hydrated)


Ammonium ion
Arsenic(III) acid
Arsenic(V) acid
Boric acid
Bromic(1) acid
Carbonic acid

[Al(H2O)6]3+
NH4+
H3AsO3
H3AsO4
H3BO3
HOBr
H2CO3

Chloric(I) acid
Chloric(III) acid
Chromium(III) ion (hydrated)
Hydrazinium ion
Hydrocyanic acid
Hydrofluoric acid
Hydrogen peroxide
Hydrogen sulphide

HOCl
HClO2
[Cr(H2O)6]3+
N2H5+
HCN
HF
H2O2
H2S
+

Hydroxyammonium ion
Iodic(I) acid
Iodic(V) acid
Iron(III) ion (hydrated)
Lead(II) ion (hydrated)
Nitrous acid
Phosphinic acid
Phosphoric(V) acid

NH3OH
HOI
HIO3
[Fe(H2O)6]3+
[Pb(H2O)n]2+
HNO2
H3PO2
H3PO4

Phosphonic acid

H3PO3

Silicic acid

H2SiO3

Sulphuric acid
Sulphurous acid

H2SO4
H2SO3

pKa
4.9 (pK1)
9.25
9.22 (pK1)
2.30 (pK1)
9.24 (pK1)
8.70
6.38a (pK1)
10.32 (pK2)
7.43
2.0
3.9 (pK1)
7.93
9.40
3.25
11.62 (pK1)
7.05 (pK1)
12.92 (pK2)
5.82
10.52
0.8
2.22 (pK1)
7.8 (pK1)
3.34
2.0
2.15 (pK1)
7.21 (pK2)
12.36 (pK3)
2.00 (pK1)
6.58 (pK2)
9.9 (pK1)
11.9 (pK2)
1.92 (pK2)
1.92 (pK1)
7.21 (pK2)

{
{
{

a
Some of the unionized acid exists as dissolved CO2 molecules rather than H2CO3: pK1 for
the molecular species H2CO3 is approximately 3.7.

1.331

INORGANIC CHEMISTRY

TABLE 1.70 Ionic Product Constant of Water


This table gives values of pKw on a modal scale, where Kw is the ionic activity product constant of water.
Values are from W. L. Marshall and E. U. Franck, J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data, 10:295 (1981).

TABLE 1.71 Solubility Product Constants


The data refer to various temperatures between 18 and 25C, and were complied from values cited by Bjerrum,
Schwarzenbach, and Sillen, Stability Constants of Metal Complexes, Part II, Chemical Society, London, 1958,
and values taken from publications of the IUPAC Solubility Data Project: Solubility Data Series, international
Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry, Pergamon Press, Oxford, 19791992; H. L. Clever, and F. J. Johnston,
J. Phys Chem. Ref. Data, 9:751 (1980); Y. Marcus, Ibid. 9:1307 (1980); H. L. Clever, S. A. Johnson, and M. E.
Derrick, Ibid. 14:631 (1985), and 21:941 (1992).
In the table, L is the abbreviation of the organic ligand.
Compound

Formula

pKsp

Ksp

(Continued)

1.332

SECTION ONE

TABLE 1.71 Solubility Product Constants (Continued)


Compound

Formula

pKsp

Ksp

INORGANIC CHEMISTRY

1.333

TABLE 1.71 Solubility Product Constants (Continued)


Compound

Formula

pKsp

Ksp

(Continued)

1.334

SECTION ONE

TABLE 1.71 Solubility Product Constants (Continued)


Compound

Formula

pKsp

Ksp

INORGANIC CHEMISTRY

1.335

TABLE 1.71 Solubility Product Constants (Continued)


Compound

Formula

pKsp

Ksp

(Continued)

1.336

SECTION ONE

TABLE 1.71 Solubility Product Constants (Continued)


Compound

Formula

pKsp

Ksp

INORGANIC CHEMISTRY

1.337

TABLE 1.71 Solubility Product Constants (Continued)


Compound

Formula

pKsp

Ksp

(Continued)

1.338

SECTION ONE

TABLE 1.71 Solubility Product Constants (Continued)


Compound

Formula

pKsp

Ksp

INORGANIC CHEMISTRY

1.339

TABLE 1.71 Solubility Product Constants (Continued)


Compound

Formula

pKsp

Ksp

(Continued)

1.340

SECTION ONE

TABLE 1.71 Solubility Product Constants (Continued)


Compound

Formula

pKsp

Ksp

INORGANIC CHEMISTRY

1.341

TABLE 1.71 Solubility Product Constants (Continued)


Compound

Formula

pKsp

Ksp

(Continued)

1.342

SECTION ONE

TABLE 1.71 Solubility Product Constants (Continued)


Compound

pKsp

Formula

Ksp

TABLE 1.72 Stability Constants of Complex Ions


The stability constant of a complex ion is a measure of its stability with respect to dissociation into its constituent
species at a given temperature, e.g. the formation of the tetra-amminecopper(II) ion may be represented by the
equation
Cu2+ + 4NH3 = [Cu(NH3)4]2+
and the stability constant is given by
Kstab =

[Cu( NH 3 )24+ ]
[Cu 2 + ][NH 3 ]4

The higher the stability constant the more stable the complex ion. v denotes the stoichiometric number of a
molecule, atom or ion, and is positive for a product and negative for a reactant.

Equilibrium
Ag+ + 2CN- = [Ag(CH)2]
Ag+ + NH3 = [Ag(NH3)]+
[Ag(NH3)]+ + NH3 = [Ag(NH3)2]+
Ag+ + 2NH3 = [Ag(NH3)2]+
Ag+ + 2S2O32 = [Ag(S2O3)2]3
Al3+ + 6F = [AlF6]3
Al(OH)3 + OH = [Al(OH)4]
Cd2+ + 4CN = [Cd(CN)4]2
Cd2+ + 4I = [CdI4]2
Cd2+ + 4NH3 = [Cd(NH3)4]2+
Co2+ + 6NH3 = [Co(NH3)6]2+
Co3+ + 6NH3 = [Co(NH3)6]3+
Cr(OH)3 + OH = [Cr(OH)4]
Cu+ + 4CN = [Cu(CN)4]3
Cu2+ + 4Cl = [CuCl4]2
Cu+ + 2NH3 = [Cu(NH3)2]+

Kstab
(mol dm 3 ) v
10 1021
25 103
63 103
17 107
10 1013
6 1019
40
71 1016
2 106
40 106
77 104
45 1033
1 102
20 1027
40 105
1 1011

Kstab
log10
3 v
(mol

dm
)

210
34
38
72
130
198
16
169
63
66
49
337
2
273
56
11

1.343

INORGANIC CHEMISTRY

TABLE 1.72 Stability Constants of Complex Ions (Continued)

Kstab
log10
3 v
(mol dm )

Kstab
(mol dm 3 ) v

Equilibrium

20 104 (K1)
42 103 (K2)
10 103 (K3)
17 102 (K4)
14 1013
(K = K1K2K3K4)
ca. 1024
ca. 1031
8 102
14 102
16
1
25 1041
17 1016
20 1030
71 102
48 107
50
5 103
5 1016
38 109
10

Cu2+ + NH3 = [Cu(NH3)]2+


[Cu(NH3)]2+ + NH3 = [Cu(NH3)2]2+
[Cu(NH3)2]2+ + NH3 = [Cu(NH3)3]2+
[Cu(NH3)3]2+ + NH3 = [Cu(NH3)4]2+
Cu2+ + 4NH3 = [Cu(NH3)4]2+
Fe2+ + 6CN = [Fe(CN)6]4
Fe3+ + 6CN = [Fe(CN)6]3
Fe3+ + 4Cl = [FeCl4]
Fe3+ + SCN = [Fe(SCN)]2+
[Fe(SCN)]2+ + SCN = [Fe(SCN)2]+
[Fe(SCN)2]+ + SCN = Fe(SCN)3
Hg2+ + 4CN = [Hg(CN)4]2
Hg2+ + 4Cl = [HgCl4]2
Hg2+ + 4I = [HgI4]2
I + I2 = I3
Ni2+ + 6NH3 = [Ni(NH3)6]2+
Pb(OH)2 + OH = [Pb(OH)3]
Sn(OH)4 + 2OH = [Sn(OH)6]2
Zn2+ + 4CN = [Zn(CN)4]2
Zn2+ + 4NH3 = [Zn(NH3)4]2+
Zn(OH)2 + 2OH = [Zn(OH)4]2

43
36
30
22
131
ca. 24
ca. 31
11
21
12
0
414
162
303
29
77
17
37
167
96
10

TABLE 1.73 Saturated Solutions


The following table provides the data for making saturated solutions of the substances listed at the temperature designated. Data are
provided for making saturated solutions by weight (g of substance per 100 g of saturated solution) and by volume (g of substance per
100 ml of saturated solution and the ml of water required to make such a solution).
To make one fluid ounce of a saturated solution: multiply the grams of substance per 100 ml of saturated solution by 4.55 to obtain
the number of grains required, by 0.01039 to obtain the number of avoirdupois ounces, by 0.00947 to obtain the number of apothecaries (Troy) ounces; also multiply the ml of water by 16.23 to obtain the number of minims, or divide by 100 to obtain the number
of fluid ounces.
To make one fluid dram: multiply the grams of substance per 100 ml of saturated solution by 0.5682 to obtain the number of
grains required; also multiply the ml of water by 0.60 to obtain the number of minims required.

Substance
acetanilide
p-acetophenetidin
p-acetotoluide
alanine
aluminum ammonium sulfate
aluminum chloride hydrated
aluminum fluoride
aluminum potassium sulfate
aluminum sulfate

Formula
C6H5NHCOCH3
C6H4(OC2H5)NHCH3CO
CH3CONHC6H4CH3
CH3CH(NH2)COOH
Al2(SO4)3(NH4)2SO4 24H2O
AlCl3 6H2O
Al2F6 5H2O
AlK(SO4)2
Al2(SO4)3 18H2O

Temp,
C
25
25
25
25
25
25
20
25
25

g/100 g
satd
soln
0.54
0.0766
0.12
14.1
12.4
55.5
0.499
6.62
48.8

g/100 ml
satd
soln
0.54
0.0766
0.12
14.7
13
75
0.5015
7.02
63

ml
water/
100 ml
satd
soln
99.2
99.92
99.7
89.5
92
60
100.0
99.1
66

Specific
gravity
0.997
1.00
0.9979
1.042
1.05
1.35
1.0051
1.061
1.29
(Continued)

1.344

SECTION ONE

TABLE 1.73 Saturated Solutions (Continued)

Substance
o-aminobenzoic acid
DL-a-amino-n-butyric acid
DL-a-aminoisobutyric acid
ammonium arsenate
ammonium benzoate
ammonium bromide
ammonium carbnonate
ammonium chloride
ammonium citrate, dibasic
ammonium dichromate
ammonium iodide
ammonium molybdate
ammonium nitrate
ammonium oxalate
ammonium perchlorate
ammonium periodate
ammonium persulfate
ammonium phosphate,
dibasic
ammonium phosphate,
monobasic
ammonium salicylate
ammonium silicofluoride
ammonium sulfate
ammonium sulfite
ammonium thiocyanate
amyl alcohol
aniline
aniline hydrochloride
aniline sulfate
L-asparagine
barium bromide
barium chlorate
barium chloride
barium iodide
barium nitrate
barium nitrite
barium perchlorate
benzamide
benzoic acid
beryllium sulfate
boric acid
n-butyl alcohol
cadmium bromide
cadmium chlorate
cadmium chloride
cadmium iodide
cadmium sulfate
calcium bromide

g/100 g
satd
soln

g/100 ml
satd
soln

ml
water/
100 ml
satd
soln

NH4Cl
(NH4)2HC6H5O7
(NH4)2Cr2O7
NH4I
(NH4)6Mo7O24 4H2O
NH4NO3
(NH4)2C2O4 H2O
NH4ClO4
NH4IO4
(NH4)2S2O8
(NH4)2 HPO4

25
25
25
20
25
15
25
15
25
25
25
25
25
25
25
16
25
14.5

0.52
17.8
13.3
32.7
18.6
41.7
20
26.3
48.7
27.9
64.5
30.6
68.3
4.95
21.1
2.63
42.7
56.2

0.519
18.6
13.7
40.2
19.4
53.8
22
28.3
60.5
33
106.2
39
90.2
5.06
23.7
2.68
53
75.5

99.4
86.2
89.5
83.0
84.7
75.2
88
79.3
61.5
85
58.3
88
41.8
97.0
88.7
99.2
71
58.8

0.999
1.046
1.031
1.228
1.040
1.290
1.10
1.075
1.22
1.18
1.646
1.27
1.320
1.019
1.123
1.018
1.24
1.343

NH4H2PO4

25

28.4

83

1.16

NH4C7H5O3
(NH4)2SiF6
(NH4)2SO4
(NH4)2SO3.H2O
NH4CNS
C5H11OH
C6H5NH2
C6H5NH2 HCl
(C6H5NH2)2 H2SO4
NH2COCH2CH(NH2)COOH
BaBr2
Ba(ClO3)2
BaCl2
BaI2 712 H2O
Ba(NO3)2
Ba(NO2)2
Ba(ClO4)2
C6H5CONH2
C7H6O2
BeSO4 4H2O
H3BO3
CH3(CH2)2CH2OH
CdBr2 4H2O
Cd(ClO3)2 12H2O
CdCl2 212 H2O
CdI2
3(CdSO4) 8H2O
CaBr2

25
17.5
20
25
25
25
22
25
25
25
20
25
20
25
25
17
25
25
25
25
25
25
25
18
25
20
25
20

50.8
15.7
42.6
39.3
62.2
2.61
3.61
49
5.88
2.44
51
28.5
26.3
68.8
9.4
40
75.3
1.33
0.367
28.7
4.99
79.7
52.9
76.4
54.7
45.9
43.4
58.8

56.4
92.3
71.7
73.2
43
96.9
96.2
56
96
98.2
83.8
92.6
93.8
71.1
97.9
89.4
47.8
98.6
99.63
93.0
97
17.1
83.9
54.0
80.8
86.3
91.8
75.0

1.145
1.095
1.248
1.204
1.14
0.995
0.998
1.10
1.02
1.007
1.710
1.294
1.27
2.277
1.080
1.490
1.936
0.999
1.00
1.301
1.02
0.845
1.775
2.284
1.778
1.590
1.619
1.82

Formula
C6H4NH2COOH
CH3CH2CH(NH2)COOH
(CH3)2C(NH2)COOH
NH4H2AsO4
NH4C7H5O2
NH4Br

Temp,
C

33
58.2
17.2
53.1
47.3
71
2.60
3.61
54
6
2.46
87.2
36.8
33.4
157.0
10.2
59.6
145.8
1.33
0.367
37.3
5.1
67.3
94.0
174.5
97.2
73.0
70.3
107.2

Specific
gravity

INORGANIC CHEMISTRY

1.345

TABLE 1.73 Saturated Solutions (Continued)

Substance
calcium chlorate
calcium chloride
calcium chromate
calcium ferrocyanide
calcium iodide
calcium lactate
calcium nitrite
calcium sulfate
camphoric acid
carbon disulfide
cerium nitrate
cesium bromide
cesium chloride
cesium iodide
cesium nitrate
cesium perchlorate
cesium periodate
cesium sulfate
chloral hydrate
chloroform
chromic oxide
chromium potassium sulfate
citric acid
cobalt chlorate
cobalt nitrate
cobalt perchlorate
cupric ammonium chloride
cupric ammonium sulfate
cupric bromide
cupric chlorate
cupric chloride
cupric nitrate
cupric selenate
cupric sulfate
dextrose
ether
ethyl acetate
ferric ammonium citrate
ferric ammonium oxalate
ferric ammonium sulfate
ferric chloride
ferric nitrate
ferric perchlorate
ferrous sulfate
gallic acid
D-glutamic acid
glycine
hydroquinone
m-hydroxybenzoic acid

Formula
Ca(ClO3)2 2H2O
CaCl2 6H2O
CaCrO4 2H2O
Ca2Fe(CN)6
CaI2
Ca(C3H5O3)2 5H2O
Ca(NO2)2 4H2O
CaSO4 2H2O
C8H14(COOH)2
CS2
Ce(NO3)3 6H2O
CsBr
CsCl
CsI
CsNO3
CsClO4
CsIO4
Cs2SO4
CCl3CHO H2O
CHCl3
CrO3
Cr2K2(SO4)4 24H2O
(CH2)2COH(COOH)3 H2O
Co(ClO3)2
Co(NO3)2
Co(ClO4)2
CuCl2 2NH4Cl 2H2O
CuSO4 (NH4)2SO4
CuBr2
Cu(ClO3)2
CuCl2 2H2O
Cu(NO3)2 6H2O
CuSeO4
CuSO4 5H2O
C6H12O6 H2O
(C2H5)2O
CH3COOC2H5
Fe(NH4)3(C2O4)3 3H2O
FeSO4 (NH4)2SO4
FeCl3
Fe(NO3)3
Fe(ClO4)3 10H2O
FeSO4 7H2O
C6H2(OH)3COOH H2O
C5H9O4N
NH2CH2COOH
C6H4(OH)2
C6H4OHCOOH

Temp,
C

g/100 g
satd
soln

g/100 ml
satd
soln

18
25
18
25
20
25
18
25
25
22
25
21.4
25
22.8
25
25
15
25
25
29.4
18
25
25
18
18
26
25
19
25
18
25
20
21.2
25
25
22
25
25
25
16.5
25
25
25
25
25
25
25
20
25

64.0
46.1
14.3
36.5
67.6
4.95
45.8
0.208
0.754
0.173
63.7
53.1
65.7
48.0
21.9
2.01
2.10
64.5
79.4
0.703
62.5
19.6
67.5
64.2
49.7
71.8
30.3
15.3
55.8
62.2
53.3
56.0
14.7
18.5
49.5
5.45
7.47
67.7
51.5
19.1
73.1
46.8
79.9
42.1
1.15
0.86
20.0
6.7
0.975

110.7
67.8
16.4
49.6
143.8
5
65.7
0.208
0.754
0.173
119.9
89.8
126.3
74.1
26.1
2.03
2.13
129.8
120
0.705
106.3
22
88.6
119.3
78.2
113.5
35.5
17.3
102.5
105.2
80
94.5
17.2
22.3
59
5.34
7.44
97
65
22.4
131.1
70.2
132.1
52.8
1.15
0.86
21.7
6.78
0.975

ml
water/
100 ml
satd
soln
62.3
79.2
98.7
86.2
69.0
96
77.8
99.70
99.246
99.63
68.2
79.5
65.9
80.5
92.9
99.0
99.5
71.7
31
99.57
64.0
90
42.7
66.5
79.1
44.7
82
96.0
81.2
64.1
70
74.3
99.4
98.7
60
93.0
92.1
46
61
94.3
48.3
79.8
33.2
72.7
99.05
99.15
86.8
94.4
99.03

Specific
gravity
1.729
1.47
1.149
1.357
2.125
1.01
1.427
0.999
1.00
0.998
1.880
1.693
1.923
1.545
1.187
1.010
1.017
2.013
1.51
1.0028
1.703
1.12
1.311
1.857
1.572
1.581
1.17
1.131
1.84
1.692
1.50
1.688
1.165
1.211
1.19
0.985
0.996
1.43
1.26
1.165
1.793
1.50
1.656
1.255
1.002
1.0002
1.083
1.012
1.000
(Continued)

1.346

SECTION ONE

TABLE 1.73 Saturated Solutions (Continued)

Substance
lactose
lead acetate
lead bromide
lead chlorate
lead chloride
lead iodide
lead nitrate
DL-leucine
L-leucine
lithium benzoate
lithium bromate
lithium carbonate
lithium chloride
lithium citrate
lithium dichromate
lithium fluoride
lithium formate
lithium iodate
lithium nitrate
lithium perchlorate
lithium salicylate
lithium sulfate
magnesium bromide
magnesium chlorate
magnesium chloride
magnesium chromate
magnesium dichromate
magnesium iodate
magnesium iodide
magnesium molybdate
magnesium nitrate
magnesium perchlorate
magnesium selenate
magnesium sulfate
manganese chloride
manganese nitrate
manganese silicofluoride
manganese sulfate
mercuric acetate
mercuric bromide
mercury bichloride
methylene blue
methyl salicylate
monochloracetic acid
b-naphthalenesulfonic acid
nickel ammonium sulfate
nickel chlorate
nickel chlorate
nickel nitrate

Formula
C12H22O11 H2O
Pb(C2H3O2)2
PbBr2
Pb(ClO3)2
PbCl2
PbI2
Pb(NO3)2
C6H13O2N
C6H13O2N
LiC7H5O2
LiBrO3
Li2CO3
LiCl H2O
Li3C6H5O7
Li2Cr2O7 H2O
LiF
LiCHO2
LiIO3
LiNO3
LiClO4 3H2O
LiC7H5O3
Li2SO4 H2O
MgBr2 6H2O
Mg(ClO3)2
MgCl2 6H2O
MgCr2O4 7H2O
MgCrO7 5H2O
Mg(IO3)2 4H2O
MgI2.8H2O
MgMoO4
Mg(NO3)2 6H2O
Mg(ClO4)2 6H2O
MgSeO4
MgSO4 7H2O
MnCl2
Mn(NO3)2 6H2O
MnSiF6
MnSO4
Hg(C2H3O2)2
HgBr2
HgCl2
C16H18N3ClS 3H2O
C6H4OHCOOCH3
CH2ClCOOH
C10H7SO3H
NiSO4(NH4)2SO4 6H2O
Ni(ClO3)2
Ni(ClO3)2 6H2O
Ni(NO3)2 6H2O

Temp,
C

g/100 g
satd
soln

g/100 ml
satd
soln

25
25
25
18
25
25
25
25
25
25
18
15
25
25
18
18
18
18
19
25
25
25
18
18
25
18
25
18
18
25
25
25
20
25
25
18
17.5
25
25
25
25
25
25
25
30
25
18
18
25

15.9
36.5
0.97
60.2
1.07
0.08
37.1
0.976
2.24
27.7
60.4
1.36
45.9
31.8
52.6
0.27
27.9
44.6
48.9
37.5
52.7
27.2
50.1
56.3
62.5
42.0
81.0
6.44
59.7
15.9
42.1
49.9
35.3
55.3
43.6
57.3
37.7
39.4
30.2
0.609
6.6
4.25
0.12
78.8
56.9
9.0
56.7
64.5
77

17
49.0
0.98
117.0
1.08
0.08
53.6
0.975
2.24
30.4
110.5
1.38
59.5
38.6
82.9
0.27
31.8
69.9
64.5
47.6
63.6
33
83.1
90.0
79
59.7
138.8
6.95
114.0
18.4
58.6
73.6
50.8
72
63.2
93.2
54.5
59.1
38
0.610
6.96
4.3
0.12
105
67.9
9.5
94.2
107.2
122

ml
water/
100 ml
satd
soln
90
85.1
99.6
77.3
99.6
99.7
91.0
98.9
97.85
79.6
72.5
100.0
70.2
82.8
74.8
99.9
80.4
86.8
67.5
79.5
57.1
88.5
82.8
69.7
47.5
82.5
32.6
100.8
77.1
97.4
80.5
73.9
93.0
58.5
82.0
69.2
90.1
90.8
88
99.6
98.5
97
99.88
28
51.4
96
72.0
59.1
36

Specific
gravity
1.07
1.340
1.006
1.944
1.007
0.998
1.445
0.999
1.0012
1.100
1.830
1.014
1.296
1.213
1.574
1.002
1.140
1.566
1.318
1.269
1.206
1.21
1.655
1.594
1.26
1.422
1.712
1.078
1.909
1.159
1.388
1.472
1.440
1.30
1.449
1.624
1.446
1.499
1.26
1.0023
1.054
1.01
1.00
1.33
1.193
1.05
1.658
1.661
1.58

INORGANIC CHEMISTRY

1.347

TABLE 1.73 Saturated Solutions (Continued)

Substance
nickel perchlorate
nickel perchlorate
nickel sulfate
DL-norleucine
oxalic acid
phenol
b-phenylalanine
m-phenylenediamine
p-phenylenediamine
phenyl salicylate
phenyl thiourea
phosphomolybdic acid
phosphotungstic acid
potassium acetate
potassium antimony tartrate
potassium bicarbonate
potassium bitartrate
potassium bromate
potassium bromide
potassium carbonate
potassium chlorate
potassium chloride
potassium chromate
potassium citrate
potassium dichromate
potassium ferricyanide
potassium ferrocyanide
potassium fluoride
potassium formate
potassium hydroxide
potassium iodate
potassium iodide
potassium meta-antimonate
potassium nitrate
potassium nitrite
potassium oxalate
potassium perchlorate
potassium periodate
potassium permanganate
potassium sodium tartrate
potassium stannate
potassium sulfate
quinine salicylate
resorcinol
rubidium bromate
rubidium bromide
rubidium chloride
rubidium iodate
rubidium iodide
rubidium nitrate

Formula

Temp,
C

Ni(ClO4)2
26
Ni(ClO4)2 9H2O
18
25
NiSO4 6H2O
C6H13NO2
25
H2C2O4 2H2O
25
20
C6H5OH
C6H5CH2CH(NH2)COOH
25
C6H8N2
20
20
C6H8N2
C6H4OHCOOC6H5
25
CS(NH2)NHC6H5
25
20MoO3 2H3PO4 48H2O
25
Approx. 20WO3 2H3PO4 25H2O
25
KC2H3O2
25
KSbOC4H4O6
25
KHCO3
25
KC4H5O6
25
KBrO3
25
KBr
25
K2CO3 112H2O
25
KClO3
25
KCl
25
K2CrO4
25
K3C6H5O7
25
K2Cr2O7
25
K3Fe(CN)6
22
K4Fe(CN)6
25
KF 2H2O
18
KCHO2
18
KOH
15
KIO3
25
KI
25
KSbO3
18
KNO3
25
KNO2
20
K2C2O4 H2O
25
KClO4
25
KIO4
13
KMnO4
25
KNaC4H4O6 4H2O
25
K2SnO3
15.5
K2SO4
25
C20H24N2O2 C6H4(OH)COOH.2H2O 25
C6H4(OH)2
25
RbBrO3
16
RbBr
25
RbCl
25
RbIO3
15.6
RbI
24.3
RbNO3
25

g/100 g
satd
soln

g/100 ml
satd
soln

ml
water/
100 ml
satd
soln

70.8
52.4
47.3
1.13
9.81
6.1
2.88
23.1
3.69
0.015
0.24
74.3
71.4
68.7
7.64
26.6
0.65
7.53
40.6
52.9
8.0
26.5
39.4
60.91
13.0
32.1
24.0
48.0
76.8
51.7
8.40
59.8
2.73
28.0
74.3
28.3
2.68
0.658
7.10
39.71
42.7
10.83
0.065
58.8
2.15
52.7
48.6
2.72
63.6
40.1

112.2
82.7
64
1.13
10.3
6.14
2.89
23.8
3.70
0.015
0.24
135
160
97.1
8.02
31.6
0.65
7.89
56.0
82.2
8.41
31.2
54.1
92.1
14.2
38.1
28.2
72.0
120.6
79.2
8.99
103.2
2.81
33.4
121.5
34
2.72
0.661
7.43
51.9
69.2
11.8
0.065
67.2
2.18
85.6
72.8
2.78
117.7
55.0

46.4
75.1
71
98.97
94.2
94.5
97.5
79.3
96.67
99.84
99.6
46
64
44.3
96.9
87.5
99.3
97.5
82.0
73.5
96.6
86.8
83.7
59.2
95.0
80.8
89.2
78.0
36.4
74.2
98.0
69.1
99.7
86.0
42.3
86
99.0
99.83
97.3
78.8
92.9
96.9
99.84
47.2
99.4
76.9
77.1
99.5
67.3
82.4

Specific
gravity
1.584
1.576
1.35
0.999
1.044
1.0057
1.0035
1.032
1.0038
0.999
0.998
1.81
2.24
1.413
1.049
1.188
0.999
1.054
1.380
1.559
1.051
1.178
1.381
1.514
1.092
1.187
1.173
1.500
1.571
1.536
1.071
1.721
1.025
1.193
1.649
1.20
1.014
1.005
1.046
1.308
1.620
1.086
0.999
1.142
1.016
1.625
1.050
1.022
1.850
1.375
(Continued)

1.348

SECTION ONE

TABLE 1.73 Saturated Solutions (Continued)

Substance
rubidium perchlorate
rubidium periodate
rubidium sulfate
silicotungstic acid
silver acetate
silver bromate
silver fluoride
silver nitrate
silver perchlorate
sodium acetate
sodium ammonium sulfate
sodium arsenate
sodium benzenesulfonate
sodium benzoate
sodium bicarbonate
sodium bisulfate
sodium bromide
sodium carbonate
sodium chlorate
sodium chloride
sodium chromate
sodium citrate
sodium dichromate
sodium ferrocyanide
sodium fluoride
sodium formate
sodium hydroxide
sodium hypophosphite
sodium iodate
sodium iodide
sodium molybdate
sodium nitrate
sodium nitrite
sodium oxalate
sodium paratungstate
sodium perchlorate
sodium periodate
sodium phenolsulfonate
sodium phosphate dibasic
sodium phosphate tribasic
sodium pyrophosphate
sodium salicylate
sodium selenate
sodium silicofluoride
sodium sulfate
sodium sulfate
sodium sulfide
sodium sulfite, anhydrous
sodium thiocyanate

Formula
RbClO4
RbIO4
Rb2SO4
H4SiW12O40
Ag(C2H3O2)
AgBrO3
AgF 2H2O
AgNO3
AgClO4 H2O
NaC2H3O2
NaNH4SO4
Na3AsO4 12H2O
NaC6H5SO3
NaC7H5O2
NaHCO3
NaHSO4 H2O
NaBr 2H2O
Na2CO3 10H2O
NaClO3
NaCl
Na2CrO4
Na3C6H5O7 5H2O
Na2Cr2O7
Na4Fe(CN)6
NaF
NaCHO2
NaOH
NaH2PO2
NaIO3 H2O
NaI
Na2MoO4
NaNO3
NaNO2
Na2(CO2)2
(Na2O)3(WO3)7 16H2O
NaClO4
NaIO4 3H2O
C6H4(OH)SO3Na
Na2HPO4
Na3PO4
Na2H2P2O7 6H2O
NaC7H5O3
Na2SeO4
NaSiF6
Na2SO4
Na2SO4 10H2O
Na2S 9H2O
Na2SO3
NaCNS

Temp,
C

g/100 g
satd
soln

25
16
25
18
25
25
15.8
25
25
25
15
17
25
25
15
25
25
25
25
25
18
25
18
25
25
18
25
16
25
25
18
25
20
25
0
25
25
25
17
14
25
25
18
20
25
25
25
25
25

1.88
0.645
33.8
90.6
1.10
0.204
64.5
71.5
84.5
33.6
25.2
21.1
16.4
36.0
8.28
59
48.6
22.6
51.7
26.5
40.1
48.1
63.9
17.1
3.98
44.7
50.8
52.1
8.57
64.8
39.4
47.9
45.8
3.48
26.7
67.8
12.6
16.1
4.2
9.5
13.0
53.6
29.0
0.773
21.8
27.7
52.3
23
62.9

g/100 ml
satd
soln
1.90
0.648
45.6
258
1.11
0.2037
168.4
164
237.1
40.5
29.6
23.5
17.6
41.5
8.80
87
75.0
28.1
74.3
31.7
57.4
61.2
111.4
19.4
4.14
58.9
77
72.4
9.21
124.3
56.6
66.7
62.3
3.58
35.2
114.1
13.9
17.4
4.4
10.5
14.4
67.0
38.1
0.737
26.4
33.3
63
28.5
87

ml
water/
100 ml
satd
soln
99.3
99.85
89.7
26.8
99.40
99.65
92.7
65.5
43.5
80.0
87.9
88.0
90.1
73.9
97.6
60
79.4
96.5
69.6
88.1
85.7
66.0
63.0
93.9
99.7
73.0
74
66.6
98.5
67.7
87.0
72.5
73.8
99.1
96.5
54.1
96.2
90.5
99.9
99.8
95.8
58.0
93.4
99.76
94.5
87.0
57
95.5
51

Specific
gravity
1.012
1.0052
1.354
2.843
1.0047
0.9985
2.61
2.29
2.806
1.205
1.174
1.119
1.076
1.152
1.061
1.47
1.542
1.242
1.440
1.198
1.430
1.272
1.743
1.131
1.038
1.316
1.51
1.386
1.075
1.919
1.435
1.391
1.359
1.025
1.316
1.683
1.103
1.079
1.043
1.103
1.104
1.248
1.313
1.0054
1.208
1.207
1.20
1.24
1.38

INORGANIC CHEMISTRY

1.349

TABLE 1.73 Saturated Solutions (Continued)

Substance
sodium thiosulfate
sodium tungstate
stannous chloride
strontium chlorate
strontium chloride
strontium iodide
strontium nitrate
strontium nitrite
strontium perchlorate
strontium salicylate
succinic acid
succinimide
sucrose
tartaric acid
tetraethyl ammonium iodide
tetramethyl ammonium
iodide
thallium chloride
thallium nitrate
thallium nitrite
thallium perchlorate
thallium sulfate
trichloroacetic acid
uranyl chloride
uranyl nitrate
urea
urea phosphate
urethan
D-valine
DL-valine
zinc acetate
zinc benzenesulfonate
zinc chlorate
zinc chloride
zinc iodide
zinc phenolsulfonate
zinc selenate
zinc silicofluoride
zinc sulfate
zinc valerate

ml
water/
100 ml
satd
soln

Temp,
C

g/100 g
satd
soln

g/100 ml
satd
soln

Na2S2O3 5H2O
Na2WO4 10H2O
SnCl2
Sr(ClO3)2
SrCl2 6H2O
SrI2 6H2O
Sr(NO3)2
Sr(NO2)2
Sr(ClO4)2
Sr(C7H5O3)2
(CH2)2(COOH)2
(CH2CO)2NH H2O
C12H22O11
C2H2(OH)2(COOH)2
N(C2H5)4I
N(CH3)4I

25
18
15
18
15
20
25
19
25
25
25
25
25
15
25
25

66.8
42.0
72.9
63.6
33.4
64.0
44.2
39.3
75.6
4.58
7.67
30.6
67.89
58.5
32.9
5.51

93
66.1
133.1
117.0
45.5
137.8
65.3
56.8
158.5
4.68
7.82
32.7
90.9
76.9
36.2
5.60

46
91.3
49.5
67.0
90.7
77.5
82.5
87.8
50.8
97.5
94.5
74.2
43.0
54.7
74.0
96.1

1.39
1.573
1.827
1.839
1.36
2.15
1.477
1.445
2.084
1.019
1.021
1.067
1.340
1.31
1.102
1.016

TlCl
TlNO3
TlNO2
TlClO4
Tl2SO4
CCl3COOH
UO2Cl2
UO2(NO3)2 6H2O
(NH2)2CO
CO(NH2)2 H3PO4
NH2CO2C2H5
(CH3)2CHCH(NH2)COOH
(CH3)2CHCH(NH2)COOH
Zn(C2H3O2)2
Zn(C6H5SO3)2
Zn(ClO3)2
ZnCl2
Znl2
(C6H5OSO3)2Zn 8H2O
ZnSeO4
ZnSiF6 6H2O
ZnSO4 7H2O
Zn(C5H9O2)2

25
25
25
25
25
25
18
25
25
24.5
25
25
25
25
25
18
25
18
25
22
20
25
25

0.40
10.4
32.1
13.5
5.48
92.3
76.2
68.9
53.8
52.4
82.8
8.14
6.61
25.7
29.5
65.0
67.5
81.2
39.8
37.8
32.9
36.7
1.27

0.40
11.4
43.7
15.2
5.74
149.6
208.5
120
62
66.1
88.8
8.26
6.68
30.0
34.9
124.4
128
221.3
47.3
58.9
47.2
54.6
1.27

99.6
98.0
92.5
97.1
99.0
12.41
65.2
54.5
53.5
60.1
18.5
93.3
94.5
86.5
83.4
67.0
61
51.2
71.5
97.0
96.3
94.7
98.8

1.0005
1.093
1.360
1.122
1.047
1.615
2.736
1.74
1.15
1.26
1.073
1.015
1.012
1.165
1.182
1.914
1.89
2.725
1.185
1.559
1.434
1.492
1.001

Formula

Specific
gravity

1.350

SECTION ONE

1.19 PROTON TRANSFER REACTIONS


A proton transfer reaction is a reaction in which the main feature is the intermolecular or intramolecular transfer of a proton from one binding site to another.
In the detailed description of proton transfer reactions, especially of rapid proton transfers
between electronegative atoms, it should always be specified whether the term is used to refer to the
overall process, including the more-or-less encounter-controlled formation of a hydrogen bonded
complex and the separation of the products or, alternatively, the proton transfer event (including solvent rearrangement) by itself.
For the general proton transfer reaction:
HB = H+ + B
the acidic dissociation constant is formulated as follows:
Ka =

[H + ][B]
[HB]

The most common charge types for the acid HB and its conjugate base B are
CH3COOH = H+ + CH3COO(acetic acid, acetate ion)
HSO4 = H+ + SO42 (hydrogen sulfate ion, sulfate ion)
NH4+ = H+ + NH3 (ammonium ion, ammonia)
Acids which have more than one acidic hydrogen ionize in steps, as shown for phosphoric acid:
H3PO4 = H+ + H2PO4
H2PO4 = H+ + HPO42
HPO42 = H+ + PO43

pK1 = 2.148
pK2 = 7.198
pK3 = 11.90

K1 = 7.11 103
K2 = 6.34 108
K3 = 1.26 1012

If the basic dissociation constant Kb for the equilibrium such as


NH3 + H2O = NH4 + OH
is required, pKb may be calculated from the relationship
pKb = pKw pKa
Ia general, for an organic acid, a useful estimate of its pKa value can sometimes be obtained by making
a comparison with recognizably similar compounds for which pKa values are known: (1) alkyl chains,
alicyclic rings, or saturated carbocyclic rings fused to aromatic or heterocyclic rings can be replaced by
methyl or ethyl groups; (2) acid-strengthening inductive and mesomeric effects of a nitro group
attached to an aromatic ring are very similar to those of a nitrogen atom located at the same position in
a heteroaromatic ring (e.g., 3-hydroxypyridine and 3-nitrophenol).

1.19.1 Calculation of the Approximate pH Value of Solutions


Strong acid:
Strong base:
Weak acid:
Weak base:

pH = log [acid]
pH = 14.00 + log [base]
pH = 1/2pKa 1/2 log [acid]
pH = 14.00 1/2pKb + 1/2 log [base]

INORGANIC CHEMISTRY

Salt formed by a weak acid and a strong base:


pH = 7.00 + 1/2pKa + 1/2 log[salt]
Acid salts of a dibasic acid:
pH = 1/2pK1 + 1/2pK2 1/2 log [salt] + 1/2 log(K1 + [salt])
Buffer solution consisting of a mixture of a weak acid and its salt:
[salt ] + [H 3O + ] [OH ]
pH = pKa + log

[acid ] + [H 3O + ] [OH ]

1.19.2 Calculation of Concentrations of Species Present at a Given pH

0 =

[H + ]n
[H A]
= n
+ n
+ n 1
+ n2
Cacid
[H ] + K1[H ] + K1K2 [H ] + L + K1K2 L Kn

1 =

K1[H + ]n1
[H n1A ]
=
Cacid
[H + ]n + K1[H + ]n1 + K1K2 [H + ]n2 + L + K1K2 L Kn

2 =

+ n

+ n 1

[H ] + K1[H ]

[H A 2 ]
K1K2 [H + ]n2
= n2
+ n2
+ K1K2 [H ] + L + K1K2 L Kn
Cacid
M

n =

+ n

+ n 1

[H ] + K1[H ]

[A n ]
K1K2 L Kn
=
+ n2
+ K1K2 [H ] + L + K1K2 L Kn
Cacid

1.351

1.352
TABLE 1.74 Proton Transfer Reactions of Inorganic Materials in Water at 25C
Substance

Formula or remarks

pK1

pK2

(Continued)

1.353

1.354
TABLE 1.74 Proton Transfer Reactions of Inorganic Materials in Water at 25C (Continued)
Substance

Formula or remarks

pK1

pK2

(Continued)

1.355

1.356
TABLE 1.74 Proton Transfer Reactions of Inorganic Materials in Water at 25C (Continued)
Substance

Formula or remarks

pK1

pK2

Source: J. J. Christensen, L. D. Hansen, and R. M. Izatt, Handbook of Proton Ionization Heats and Related Thermodynamic Quantities, Wiley-Interscience, New York, 1976; D. D. Perrin, Ionisation
Constants of Inorganic Acids and Bases in Aqueous Solution, 2d ed., Pergamon Press, 1982.

INORGANIC CHEMISTRY

1.357

1.20 FORMATION CONSTANTS


The formation constant of a metal complex is the equilibrium constant for the formation of a complex ion from its components in solution.
Each value listed is the logarithm of the overall formation constant for the cumulative binding of
a ligand L to the central metal cation M, viz.:
Comulative
formation constant
M + L = ML
M + 2L = ML2
......................
M + nL = MLn

Stepwise
stability constants

K1
K2

k1
k1k2

Kn

k1k2 kn

As an example, the entries in Table 1.75 for the zinc ammine complexes represent these equilibria:
Zn2+ + NH3 = Zn(NH3)2+

K1 =

[ Zn( NH 3 )2 + ]
[ Zn 2 + ][ NH 3 ]

Zn2+ + 2NH3 = Zn(NH3)22+

K2 =

[ Zn( NH 3 )22 + ]
[ Zn 2 + ][ NH 3 ]2

Zn2+ + 3NH3 = Zn(NH3)32+

K3 =

[ Zn( NH 3 )32 + ]
[ Zn 2 + ][ NH 3 ]3

Zn2+ + 4NH3 = Zn(NH3)42+

K4 =

[ Zn( NH 3 )24+ ]
[ Zn 2 + ][ NH 3 ]4

If the stepwise stability or formation constants of the reactions are desired, for the first step log K1 =
log k1 = 2.37. For the second and succeeding steps the equilibria and corresponding constants are as
follows:
Zn(NH3)2+ + NH3 = Zn(NH3)22+

log k2 = log k2 log k1 = 2.44

Zn(NH3)22+

+ NH3 =

Zn(NH3)32+

log k3 = log k2 log k1 = 3.50

Zn(NH3)32+

+ NH3 =

Zn(NH3)42+

log k4 = log k4 log k3 = 2.15

The reverse of the association or formation reactions would represent the dissociation or instability constant for the systems, i.e., log Kf = log Kinstab.
The data in the tables generally refer to temperatures of about 20 to 25C. Most of the values in
Table 1.75 refer to zero ionic strength, but those in Table 1.76 often refer to a finite ionic strength.

1.358

SECTION ONE

TABLE 1.75 Cumulative Formation Constants for Metal Complexes with Inorganic Ligands
log K1

log K2

log K3

log K4

log K5

log K6

INORGANIC CHEMISTRY

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TABLE 1.75 Cumulative Formation Constants for Metal Complexes with Inorganic Ligands (Continued)
log K1

log K2

log K3

log K4

log K5

log K6

(Continued)

1.360

SECTION ONE

TABLE 1.75 Cumulative Formation Constants for Metal Complexes with Inorganic Ligands (Continued)
log K1

log K2

log K3

log K4

log K5

log K6

INORGANIC CHEMISTRY

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TABLE 1.75 Cumulative Formation Constants for Metal Complexes with Inorganic Ligands (Continued)
log K1

log K2

log K3

log K4

log K5

log K6

(Continued)

1.362

SECTION ONE

TABLE 1.75 Cumulative Formation Constants for Metal Complexes with Inorganic Ligands (Continued)
log K1

log K2

log K3

log K4

log K5

log K6

INORGANIC CHEMISTRY

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TABLE 1.76 Cumulative Formation Constants for Metal Complexes with Organic Ligands
Temperature is 25C and ionic strengths are approaching zero unless indicated otherwise: (a) At 20C, (b) at
30C, (c) 0.1 M uni-univalent salt, (d) 1.0 M uni-univalent salt, (e) 2.0 M uni-univalent salt present.
log K1

log K2

log K3

log K4

(Continued)

1.364

SECTION ONE

TABLE 1.76 Cumulative Formation Constants for Metal Complexes with Organic Ligands (Continued)
log K1

log K2

log K3

log K4

INORGANIC CHEMISTRY

1.365

TABLE 1.76 Cumulative Formation Constants for Metal Complexes with Organic Ligands (Continued)

(Continued)

1.366

SECTION ONE

TABLE 1.76 Cumulative Formation Constants for Metal Complexes with Organic Ligands (Continued)

INORGANIC CHEMISTRY

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TABLE 1.76 Cumulative Formation Constants for Metal Complexes with Organic Ligands (Continued)

(Continued)

1.368

SECTION ONE

TABLE 1.76 Cumulative Formation Constants for Metal Complexes with Organic Ligands (Continued)

Next Page
INORGANIC CHEMISTRY

1.369

TABLE 1.76 Cumulative Formation Constants for Metal Complexes with Organic Ligands (Continued)

(Continued)