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2.

2 Electron configuration
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Electromagnetic spectrum shows all forms of radiation of differing energy, it


includes the visible light, which is the only part of the spectrum that we can see.
It ranges from the low energy radio waves to the high energy gamma rays, all of
the waves travel at the same speed, but are distinguishable by their wavelengths.
Different colours will have different wavelengths. Red has a higher wavelength
than violet light.
The EMS increases wavelength and frequency and decreases energy.
White light is a mixture of light waves of differing wavelengths or colours,
o This is seen when light passes through a prism and produces the different
colours. Producing a continuous spectrum.
When EM radiation passes through atoms they may absorb some of it, this will
excite their electrons from a lower energy level to a higher.
o This basically means that they jump from a lower energy level to a higher
one. Electrons cannot live within energy levels, so they simply appear.
(complicated quantum chemistry)
o When this happens they are said to be in an excited state, however this is
unstable and therefore the electron will soon fall back to the lowest level,
called the ground state.
o When this happens it gives out energy in the form of a packet known as a
photon, its energy is proportional to the frequency of the radiation it
absorbed.
o The energy of an emitted photon is equal to the energy change in an
atom.
An absorption light spectrum has all colours but some are missing (like dashes
are missing). This is produced when light passes through something like
hydrogen gas.
However, when energy is added (in the form of heat, electricity etc.), an emission
spectrum is produced. It only shows certain frequencies. They should be the
same that are missing from the absorption spectra.
o Full spectrum Absorption spectrum = emission spectrum
Different elements have different spectra; they may be used as barcodes to
identify each element. They also give us valuable info about their configuration.
Case study: HYDROGEN
o It produces visible light when an electron falls to n=2, when the electron
falls to n=1 it produces UV, it produces IR when it falls to n=3+.

o A big jump will give out lots of energy.


o Energy levels in an atom converge at high energies, because they get
closer together at higher energy.
o An electron at n= infinity ionises the atom, the energy needed to remove
one mole of gaseous atoms is called IONISATION ENERGY.
Uncertainty principle: we cant know for certain where an electron is at any given
moment, but we have a probability picture of where it might be.
o These regions are called ORBITALS, they are around an atomic nucleus
and theres a 90% probability of finding an electron there. When an
electron is in an orbital of higher energy it will have a higher probability of
being found further from the nucleus.
S orbital: sphere
P orbital: dumbbell3