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BIOL 3411, Fall 2016

Review for Exam 3


*Pay attention to anything on the slides in colors or boxes. This includes the in-class questions asked
during the power point. You should memorize details, but more importantly you need to understand
underlying concepts and how to apply them.

Chapter 14 Functions of the renal system

Structure of a nephron

BIOL 3411, Fall 2016

Renal corpuscle

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JC cells (renin production)


Macula densa (chemoreceptors)

Glomerular filtration
Structure of glomerulus (including afferent vs. efferent arterioles bringing blood)

BIOL 3411, Fall 2016

Mechanisms of filtration (GHP, CsHP, BCOP)

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Calculation of net glomerular filtration pressure


Factors affecting GFR
Renal clearance (use of inulin to measure)

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Management of Na+ and H2O


Mechanisms of movement of both Na+ and H2O (active, passive, diffusion, osmosis, etc)

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Effect of ADH (vasopressin) on H2O reabsorption (where does it occur? How does it occur?)

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Use of the counter current exchange mechanism* for maintaining urine osmolarity (*Know
specific details of how the counter current exchange mechanism works)

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Renin-angiotensin system of BP management (effects of Na+ on the system)


Effects of aldosterone and ANP in response to changes in Na+ levels

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Mechanisms of action of major classes of diuretics

Chapter 15
Carbohydrate digestion
Classes of carbohydrates, corresponding enzymes

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Process of digestion (locations and mechanisms)

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Mechanisms of absorption in small intestine

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Protein digestion
Process of digestion (locations and mechanisms)
Specific enzymes (where are they produced, what is their function)

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Mechanisms of absorption in small intestine

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Lipid digestion
Process of digestion (locations and mechanisms; emulsification)

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Specific enzymes (where are they produced, what is their function)

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Mechanisms of absorption in small intestine

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Gastrointestinal hormones (CCK, gastrin, secretin, GIP, ghrelin)

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Where are they produced?

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What triggers their secretion?


How are they regulated and/or how do they regulate digestive processes?
Stomach
HCl production; major enzymes; purpose of mucus; pH levels

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Mechanisms and details about phases (cephalic, gastric, intestinal)

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Ulcers (NSAID medications)

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Pancreas: Major enzymes produced (table 15.6)

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Liver: Bile production, secretion, and recycling

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Chapter 17
*Pathways for androgen synthesis (progesterone, androstenedione, testosterone, and estradiol)

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Mechanisms of sex determination

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SRY gene; androgen production; effects of testosterone

Internal vs. external development


Specific conditions covered related to pathophysiologies of sex determination

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Spermatogenesis
Testicular control in males
Role of LH and FSH in males; testosterone production

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Effects of anabolic steroids

Oogenesis

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Similarities/differences from spermatogenesis

Spermatogenesis and Oogenesis


Meiosis, the process by which gametes are formed, can also be called gametogenesis, literally creation
of gametes. The specific type of meiosis that forms sperm is called spermatogenesis, while the formation
of egg cells, or ova, is called oogenesis. The most important thing you need to remember about both
processes is that they occur through meiosis, but there are a few specific distinctions between them.

Spermatogenesis

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The male testes have tiny tubules containing diploid cells called spermatogonium that mature to become
sperm. The basic function of spermatogenesis is to turn each one of the diploid spermatogonium into four
haploid sperm cells. This quadrupling is accomplished through the meiotic cell division detailed in the last
section. During interphase before meiosis I, the spermatogoniums 46 single chromosomes are replicated
to form 46 pairs of sister chromatids, which then exchange genetic material through synapsis before the
first meiotic division. In meiosis II, the two daughter cells go through a second division to yield four cells
containing a unique set of 23 single chromosomes that ultimately mature into four sperm cells. Starting at
puberty, a male will produce literally millions of sperm every single day for the rest of his life.

Oogenesis
Just like spermatogenesis, oogenesis involves the formation of haploid cells from an original diploid cell,
called a primary oocyte, through meiosis. The female ovaries contain the primary oocytes. There are two
major differences between the male and female production of gametes. First of all, oogenesis only leads to
the production of one final ovum, or egg cell, from each primary oocyte (in contrast to the four sperm that
are generated from every spermatogonium). Of the four daughter cells that are produced when the primary
oocyte divides meiotically, three come out much smaller than the fourth. These smaller cells, called polar
bodies, eventually disintegrate, leaving only the larger ovum as the final product of oogenesis. The
production of one egg cell via oogenesis normally occurs only once a month, from puberty to menopause.

Unique traits of oogenesis

BIOL 3411, Fall 2016

Polar bodies

When do oocytes complete meiosis II?


Female androgen production and control

Theca and granulosa cells

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Regulation and control of FSH, LH, estrogen


Production of progesterone (3 locations of production); regulation of progesterone
LH surge and ovulation

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Mechanisms of birth control


Progestin only (low dose vs. high dose)
Progestin/estrogen combo

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