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A-to-Z Guide to Thermodynamics,


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CRYSTALLIZERS
Hallas, N.J.
DOI: 10.1615/AtoZ.c.crystallizers

There is a wide variety of equipment used to carry out the crystallization process, called crys
equipment can be classified into four broad types:

1. Bulk solution crystallizers. Crystals are suspended in solution for a significant time while nucleati
occurs.

2. Precipitation vessels. Feed streams entering the vessel generate high supersaturation levels (by che
drowning or salting out), very rapidly forming large numbers of small crystals.

3. Melt crystallizers forming multiple crystals. The bulk (typically > 90%) of the solution or melt forms

in suspension or on a cooled surface. Impurities remain in the small amount of uncrystallized mothe

4. Melt crystallizers forming large high-purity single crystals. Crystals form very slowly from high

yielding large, pure and defect-free crystals. These are typically used for semiconductor manufactur
All these type of equipment have aspects in common:
A region where supersaturation is generated to drive the crystallization.

A region where crystals are in contact with supersaturated solution for crystal growth. In some cas
present throughout the vessel, suspended by some form of agitation; in other cases, the crystals oc
of the vessel, typically as a fluidized bed.