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accept (v.)
accept a present /an invitation/
an offer
accept in deposit
accept sb
accept office/ a post
accept a report/ an account
accept equipment

1) / /
/ /

( )
/ /

2) / /

accept sb's views

accept sth at its face value
accept the fact

3) ,

acceptable (adj.)

/ , /

unacceptable (adj.) (ant.)

unaccepted (adj.)

/ (-.)/

acceptance (n.)
acceptance of invitation
speech of acceptance

1) /


2) /
/ /
3) / (.)

general/ full, total acceptance

find/ gain acceptance
agree (v.)

1) / /


agree to do sth
We agreed to go there together.
agree with sb

-. / / /

agree in sth
agree on /as to, about sth

/ - .,
( ) -.

agree to sth
be agreed (on)
Are we all agreed on that?

( -.)/ (

Agreed!!! (col.)

!!! !!! (.)

2) / /

The children can never agree.

They agree well.

the figures do not agree

3) /
/ /

She wondered whether the climate would agree

with her.
Smoking doesn't agree with me.

4) , (
O ,

agree with facts/ statements/ the original

to agree like dog(s) and cat(s)


agreement (n.)
collective agreement
gentlemen's agreement
cultural exchange agreement
disarmament agreement

1) /

come to an agreement on/ about sth with sb

-. -.

reach an agreement
make an agreement with sb about sth


, , /

by mutual agreement
agreement of opinion
in agreement with sth
be in agreement with sb
That seemed to be in excellent agreement with
his calculations.
agreeable (adj.)
an agreeable person/ voice
a most agreeable woman
agreeable to the taste/ to the touch
make oneself agreeable to sb

1) /
/ -.
2) / /

mutually agreeable
agreeable to the standards
agreeable to the order of the day
disagreeable (adj.) (ant.)
disagreeable weather
a disagreeable person

/ /


amaze (v.)
amaze sb by/ with sth
be amazed at sth
be speechlessly amazed

/ /
-. -.
-./ -.

amazed (adj.)
amazed look



amazement (n.)
look/ stare at sth in/ with amazement

-. /


express amazement
amazement at sth
filled with amazement
amazing (adj.)
an amazing event/ transformation
an amazing story

1) /

2) , (.-.)

My wife is an amazing woman.

The new car has amazing speed.
amazingly (adv.)
anxious (adj.)

1) / /
, -.
/ /

be anxious about sb's health/ future/ wealth

an anxious moment

2) ,

anxious for success/ safety/ peace

They are anxious to learn the results.

3) ( -.)/
/ /

anxiously (adv.)

/ /

cherish (v.)
cherish hopes
cherish an idea
cherish illusions


cherish a hatred/ resentment

/ /

cherish the memory of sb/ sth

3) ( )
-./ -.
4) ,

He was a man who cherished his friends.

She cherishes her children.
cherishingly (adv.)

/ /

doubt (v.)

/ . /

doubt sb's honesty

I doubt very much whether/ if we can change it



doubt (n.)

// /

./ .

( -.)

No doubt./ No doubt about it.

without a doubt
be in doubt (about sth)
doubtable (adj.)

doubtful (adj.)
be doubtful of/ about sth


doubtless (adj.)
doubtless (adv.)

1) / /

, , .
2) ,

I shall doubtless see you tomorrow.

dread (v.)
dread the coming winter
dread dying
I dread to think what it will cost.
dread (n.)
have a dread of sth/ doing sth
be/ live in dread of sth

/ /

, .
() ;
/ -.

dreadful (adj.)
a dreadful monster/ disaster
dreadfully (adv.)

/ /
/ / /

maintain (v.)
maintain contact
maintain peace
maintain friendly relations

1) /

maintain an open mind

maintain silence
maintain correspondence
maintain prices
maintain an army
maintain the common cause
Law and order must be maintained.
maintain hold of sth
He maintains his car himself.


(, ..);

. /

( / / )

maintenance (n.)
the maintenance of friendly relations with all

1) /

(syn. maintenance money)

provide for sb's maintenance

2) ;

He pays 15 per week maintenance.

3) / ()/

the aircraft maintenance crew

offence (n.)

1) (-.)/

offence against good manners



offence against the law

commit an offence

2) ()
/ / -.

cause/ give offence to sb

take offence at sb/ sth
She didn't mean any offence.
- No offence meant.
- No offence taken.
without offence

-./ -.
O .
- H .
- .

offend (v.)
be offended at/ by sb's words/ remarks/

1) /
- /
2) / /

3) -./ (
/ /
?/ ?

offend the eye/ the ear

offend against custom/ the law/ good manners
In what have I offended?
offending (adj.)

offended (adj.)

reveal (v.)
His conduct reveals great intelligence.

1) /

2) /

The painting reveals the painter.

reveal a secret
reveal one's soul to sb

value (n.)
the value of accuracy/
fresh water/ exercise

/ /

of value
of no value
It is nothing of any value to me.

1) , (

commercial value
value (v.)
value a house at $20,000
value work done

1) /
20.000 .

2) /
/ /
/ .

value honor/ health/ one's life

I value your friendship/ sincerity.
valuable (adj.)
a valuable diamond

1) /

2) /


valuable friendship
valuable advice
valued (adj.)
a valued friend

/ /

valueless (adj.)

/ /

Vocabulary Exercises
2.1. Match the words to their definitions




a. keep alive (hope, ambition, etc.) in one's heart


feeling of uncertainty
agree, recognize, regard with favour or approval
very probably
feeling troubled
feel that something bad might happen
surprise someone very much, especially by being very impressive
very unpleasant or causing disaster
very surprising
keep up, retain, continue
pleasing, giving pleasure
crime, sin, breaking of a rule, consent
worth of sth in terms of money
say 'yes', consent

2.2. 'ACCEPT' and its derivatives. Translate the following sentences.


I accept that the changes will take some time.

The proposal gained general acceptance.
We must accept the fact that there is a great deal we cannot know.
The astronaut accepts danger as being part of the job.


, .
. .
- .
, .

2.3. 'AGREE' and its derivatives. Translate the following sentences.


Your story agrees with what I have already heard.

How agreeable it was to have her in the office.
Agreements on nuclear weapons have not always worked.
We all agreed on the terms.


, , .
. ().
, .

2.4. 'AMAZE' and its derivatives. Translate the following sentence into English.


2.5. 'ANXIOUS' and its derivatives. Translate the following sentences into English.

, .
. .

2.6. 'CHERISH' and its derivatives. Translate the following sentences.

1. I cherish a hope that one day the family will be reunited.
2. Don't cherish the illusion that your father will always pay your debts.
3. One of the most cherished privileges is the right of free speech.

, .
, .

2.7. 'DOUBT' and its derivates. Translate the following sentences.

1. Some of our members doubt the value of demonstrations.
2. He had the courage to doubt where all the others blindly believed.
3. He was doubtful that he could ever manage it.

4. This is no doubt true enough within certain limits but we cannot accept it wholeheartedly.

. .
, ?

2.8. 'DREAD' and its derivates. Translate the following sentences.

1. Everything you dread doing you must do straight away.
2. She was most dreadfully sick all day.
3. He spoke of his growing dread of getting old.

, .
, .

2.9. 'MAINTAIN' and its derivates. Translate the following sentences.

1. For 25 years they had failed to maintain law and order.
2. Who's responsible for the maintenance and care of the buildings?
3. The Party maintains a constant output of pamphlets.
4. .
5. , - .
6. .
2.10. 'OFFEND' and its derivates. Translate the following sentences.

They took care never to offend their visitors.

This would offend against the principle of fairness.
They were arrested for drug offences.
No offence, but there is a terrible smell in here.


, .
. .

2.11. 'REVEAL' and its derivates. Translate the following sentences.

1. His worn jacket revealed his elbows.
2. They were not ready to reveal any details of the arrest.
3. She drew the curtains aside to reveal beautiful gardens.
4. (talent for fixing) .
5. .
6. , .
2.12. 'VALUE' and its derivates. Translate the following sentences.
1. As soon as the information is of no more value I forget it.
2. A campaign, however inspired, is valueless without the backing of an organization.
3. Which do you value most wealth or health?
4. 20% .
5. .

6. , .
2.13. Fill in the blanks with prepositions if necessary.

By the 1960s, it was becoming more acceptable women to work in management.

If something agrees you, it doesn't make you feel ill.
I'm not surprised she took offence his remarks.
I dread the day she finds out the truth.
These papers are no valuea thief.
They were shaking their heads amazement.
We are still ... doubt the future of the company.
We were all anxious peace.
The maintenance international peace and security is very important.
We have agreed their request for a full investigation.
The President-elect was expected to make his speech acceptance that very day.
Are we all agreed this?
You must not reveal my secret anyone.
He was perfectly agreeable the idea.
We are becoming very anxious the prospects of development.
Frances was amazed her sudden strength.

2.14. Fill in the blanks with the correct form of the following words agree (2), agreeable, amazement,
anxious (2), cherish, doubt, doubtful, dread, dreadful, maintain, maintenance (2), offence, offend, reveal
(2), value.
1. She stopped mid-sentence not to him.
2. At first, a newly independent country relies heavily on the of existing links with the colonial
3. He expressed at being left out of the project.
4. He was obsessed with his model airplanes, seeing them as things to be and loved.
5. The company has just its plans for the coming year.
6. The delays only make him more.
7. We tried to work out a mutually solution.
8. Proper will add to the resale of your PC.
9. His failure to appear raises serious about his reliability.
10. Motorists may be fined on the spot for driving such as speeding.
11. Do you with me that the scheme won't work?
12. A slight trembling of his hands his growing excitement.
13. After her shoplifting spree, she lived in mortal of being found out.
14. Even if we could go, which is highly, John wouldn't be able to come with us.
15. I couldn't more with what you have just said.
16. I feel really about letting you down.
17. Our engineers were sent to Japan to learn how to the new machine.
2.15. Translate the following sentences from Russian into English using the active vocabulary of the

(proved) .
, .
(in the style), ,
, .
? , ?


- .
, .
(against him).
, .

2.16. Fill in the blanks using the right form of the phrasal verbs from the list.
1. Sarah has been a bit depressed lately so we have bought her some
flowers to her .
2. It can't be true. I'm sure he the whole story .
3. The real choice is whether I can afford to the money Bob is
4. If he us again, we will have to find someone else to do the work.
5. All this bad news really me .
6. Their marriage after five years.
7. You must smoking. It's ruining your health.
8. She spends hours herself every morning.
9. All these misfortunes have him .
10. He with a few exercises before the big match.
11. Now that the worst was behind, he felt he could a little.
12. We are walking too fast; let's a bit.
13. She hoped that he would at once about his visit, but he didn't say
a word.

get down 2
wind up
break down
do up
cut down
break up
let down 2
turn down
give up 2
loosen up
make up
put down

2.17. Translate the following sentences from Russian into English using the phrasal verbs from the
above exercise.

. !
, , , .
(Doing the same thing every day) ().
, , .
Moods and Feelings adjectives and useful phrases.

2.18. Make up questions to match the following responses, as in sentence 1.

1. A: How do you feel when you have to speak in public?
B: I get butterflies in my stomach.
2. A: __________________________________________________________?
B: My heart starts pounding.
3. A: __________________________________________________________?
B: It gives me a rush of adrenaline.
4. A: __________________________________________________________?
B: I begin to drum my fingers on the table.
5. A.: __________________________________________________________?
B.: My face turns red.
6. A.: __________________________________________________________?
B.: I raise my eyebrows.
7. A.: __________________________________________________________?
B.: I lick my lips.
8. A.: __________________________________________________________?


B: My stomach starts rumbling.

9. A.: __________________________________________________________?
B.: My palms become sweaty.
2.19. Translate the following sentences using phrases from the above exercise.
1. , , - ,
2. , .
3. , , .
4. , .
5. (When in) , (steering
6. .
2.20. Choose the most suitable word or phrase.

Jack always pays for everyone when we go out. He's so enjoyable/ generous/ overjoyed.
Mary was talking non-stop in class and made our teacher frustrating/ dull/ cross.
Helen never does her homework. She is rather boring/ lazy/ miserable.
I didn't talk to anyone at the party because I felt appalling/ lonely/ shy.
I don't like people who are noisy and aggressive/ relaxing/ cheerful.
Thanks for bringing us a present. It was very optimistic/ delighted/ thoughtful of you.
Nursing is a very stressful/ stressed/ tense occupation.
He's been feeling really excited/ depressed/ depressing since he lost his job.
The job is terrifying/ unhappy/ tiring but well paid.
We walked all the way from the station and felt absolutely tired/ angry/ exhausted.
Due to the medication he was taking, he tended to feel irritable/ annoyed/ offended.

2.21. a) Match the adjectives with their antonyms.



b) In pairs, act out exchanges, as in the example (No 1).

1. A: Is John stressed about tomorrow's exam?
B: No, in fact he's quite relaxed about it.
2. A: Is Mary depressed about failing her driving test?
B: ________________________________________________
3. A: Jack's dog is particularly aggressive!
B: ________________________________________________
4. A: I thought it was a really funny book!
B: ________________________________________________
5. A: I hear you went to the Natural History Museum. Were you bored?
B: ________________________________________________
6. A: I'm afraid, Tim feels really frustrated at the lack of progress in his research.
B: ________________________________________________
7. A: Isn't he rather mean when it comes to spending money on his girlfriends.
B: ________________________________________________


2.22. Read the text below and replace the underlined words with appropriate extreme adjectives to
improve the style.
Joy was feeling 1) tired. She had spent all afternoon making a 2) tasty pie. She had just taken it out of the
oven and was really 3) pleased with the results. She put it on the windowsill to cool and went off to have
a short nap. Suddenly, there was a loud crash in the kitchen. She felt really 4) scared. When she tiptoed
into the kitchen, she was shocked to see a 5) big, 6) dirty dog eating her pie. She was really 7) angry!
'This is 8) bad,' she thought. The extremely good thing was that this was her neighbour's dog, who had
been lost for over a week. She knew her neighbour was 9) upset about the whole incident, so when she
phoned him to give him the news, he was, of course, 10) happy.
Grammar Exercises
Talking about the Present
2.23. Explain the use of Present Simple or Present Continuous in the sentences in column A. You
might use the phrases in column B.
1. She works in a supermarket.
2. The sun rises in the east.
3. She is spending the holiday with her boyfriend.
4. It is getting colder and colder.
5. He always gets up at 7 o'clock.
6. She is always complaining.
7. Bill serves the ball but Nick misses it.
8. There goes the train!
9. When the curtain rises, Juliet is alone in her
room. Suddenly the window opens and a masked
man enters.
10. The wind is blowing.

a. an expression of annoyance or criticism about a
repeated action
b. a temporary situation
c. a review or dramatic narrative
d. an action happening at or around the moment of
e. a changing or developing situation
f. a sports commentary
g. a permanent situation or state
h. a repeated/ habitual action
i. a permanent truth or a law of nature
j. in exclamatory sentences

2.24. Which of the following time expressions are used with Present Simple and which ones with
Present Continuous: always, as usual, at the moment, at present, every day, every month, forever, never,
now, nowadays, often, rarely, usually, sometimes, still? Add some more time expressions to the lists.
Present Simple

Present Continuous

2.25. Explain the use of Present Simple or Present Continuous in the following sentences.
I see them coming towards us./ She is seeing her doctor today.
He is listening to a tape, but he's wearing earphones so nobody else hears it./ The court is hearing the
evidence today.
The soup tastes delicious./ She is tasting the soup.
He is a naughty boy./ You are being naughty.
I think you're right./ Tom is thinking about emigrating.
What other verbs are not normally used in the continuous form?
2.26. Decide whether to use Present Simple or Present Continuous in these sentences.
1. You (look) very worried. What you (think) about?


2. Thank goodness! Barbara (take) more exercise these days! She (seem) much fitter, you (not/ think)?
3. When water (boil), it (give off) steam.
4. Alex never (break) a promise or (let down) a friend.
5. He (always/ spill) coffee on his shirt! It (make) me furious.
6. - I (see) there is a great film on at the cinema tonight. Would you like to go?
- No, I (see) the dentist about my toothache.
7. - How (you/ like) your stay in Budapest?
- I (really/ enjoy) myself. I particularly (like) Hungarian food.
8. - Why (you/ feel) the radiator, Dad?
- I don't think it is working; it (feel) very cold in here.
9. - Tom (be) usually a very quiet boy.
- Yes, but he (be) very noisy today.
10. - I (think) about going on a picnic this afternoon.
- I would not bother. I (think) it is going to rain.
11. Ann and Sally (be) flat mates. They sometimes (argue) because Sally (always/ make) a mess in the
kitchen. 'Why (you/ always/ make) such a mess?' Ann exclaims on these occasions.
12. - Look over there! It's John.
- Oh, yes! But he (look) so different! I (think) he (wear) a wig.
13. After the accident Susan (be) is afraid to drive. Next week she (see) a psychologist who (specialize) in
that sort of problems.
14. -What a great match! Johnson (pass) passes the ball to Green, who (shoot) and (score)!
2.27. Open the brackets using a present tense form.
Dear Aunt Jean,
I (1) __________________ (just/ write) to tell you how much I (2) __________________
(appreciate) the money you sent me, and to tell you how I (3) __________________ (get on) in my first
term at university. Actually, I (4) __________________ (really/ enjoy) myself! I (5) _________________
(study) quite hard as well, but at the moment I (6) __________________ (spend) a lot of time just making
friends. I (7) __________________ (still/ stay) with my friend Sue, and I (8) __________________ (look
for) somewhere of my own to live. Only a few of the first-year students (9) __________________ (live)
in college here, and I (10) __________________ (seem) to be spending a lot of time travelling backwards
and forwards. I (11) __________________ (go) to lectures every morning, and most afternoons I (12)
__________________ (study) in the library. In fact, I (13) ________________ (write) this letter instead
of an essay on Hamlet.
As I (14) __________________ (have) all the books I need now, I (15) ____________ (think) I'll
buy some new clothes with the money you sent. Everything (16) __________________ (cost) a lot here,
and I (17) __________________ (save) to buy a winter coat. It (18) __________________ (get) really
cold here. I now (19) __________________ (know) some other students and generally speaking we (20)
__________________ (have) quite a good time socially! I (21) __________________ (also learn) to
See you soon.
2.28. Translate from Russian into English using Present Forms.

- .
. .
. , . .
, .


Talking about the Future

2.29. Explain the use of different present and future forms in the sentences in column A. You might
use the phrases in column B.
1. The concert begins at 8 o'clock this evening.
2. She is moving to a new house this weekend.
3. I am not going to give up.
4. Their marriage is going to break up soon.
5. Autumn will come soon.
6. I am tired; I'll have a rest.
7. I believe he will accept our invitation.
8. Perhaps, he'll agree to it.
9. This time next year, they will be enjoying their
10. I'll be playing polo next Sunday.
11. Will you be going shopping at the supermarket
today? Can you buy me some milk?
12. They will have accepted the goods by Monday.
13. He won't have arrived until tonight.
14. By his sixtieth birthday, he will have been
teaching for 35 years.

a. a decision taken at the moment of speaking

b. a timetable or programme
c. fixed arrangement in the near future
d. intention
e. duration of an action up to a certain time in the
f. an action in progress at a stated future time
g. an action finished before a stated future time
h. a future action which is part of the routine
i. an action not done before a stated future time
j. a prediction
k. there's evidence now that something will
definitely happen in the near future
l. an action we can't control
m. used when we ask politely about people's
n. an opinion about the future

2.30. Which of the following time expressions are used with Present Continuous, Future Simple or 'be
going to', which ones with Future Perfect and which ones with Future Perfect Continuous: before, by, by
for, by then, by the time, in three days, next month, next week, not until, soon, the day after tomorrow,
tomorrow, tonight? Add some more time expressions to the lists.
Present Continuous, Future Simple or 'be going to'

Future Perfect

Future Perf. Cont.

2.31. Charles Dearborn is the managing director of Ramplus Computers, an international company
with its main offices in London. Mr Dearborn has a busy life. Describe his schedule for next week. For
the times of arrival and departure, use the simple present form. To describe the other arrangements use
the present continuous form of these verbs: speak, visit, open, meet, have, go.
Example: On Monday he leaves London at 9.30 and arrives in Madrid at 12.40. He is speaking at an
international conference.

London 9.30 Madrid 12.40 International conference

Madrid 7.40 Athens 13.55 Ramplus offices
Athens 8.15' Milan 12.35 New Ramplus factory
Milan 10.10 Strasbourg 11.15 President of the Common Market
Strasbourg 10.45 The Hague 11.40 Discussions with the Dutch Minister of Technology
The Hague 9.30 Stockholm 12.25 Computer show

Activity: Imagine you are the head of a big international company. You have just met your partner at a
party, and you are telling him/ her about a three-day business trip you are making next week. Think of
some interesting places and important things to do and tell your partner about them.
2.32. Sue and Kate are discussing their holiday plans. Complete their conversation. (Usually there is
more than one correct answer.)
Sue Where ... you and Ben (go) for your holidays, Kate?
Kate Morocco. We (spend) ten days in Agadir.


Sue Oh, that (be) nice. When ... you (go)?

Kate On Friday night. Our plane (leave) at seven, and we (arrive) at four in the morning.
Sue You (need) a holiday after that.
Kate Oh, I don't mind night flights. Anyway, we (enjoy) the sunshine this time next week.
Sue ... you (stay) in a hotel?
Kate Yes, a big hotel not far from the beach.
Sue Our holiday (not be) until next month. Jerry and I (tour) Scotland in the car. We (do) some walking,
too. The weather (not be) like Agadir, of course.
Kate How long ... you (go) for?
Sue Two weeks. We haven't been to Scotland before, so it (be) something different.
Kate ... you (take) your caravan?
Sue No, we don't want to take the caravan. We (have to) find hotels to stay in as we go.
Kate Well, we (be) back from Morocco before you go.
Sue Have a nice time, Kate.
Activity: Discuss your holiday plans with other students in your class.
2.33. Put the verbs in brackets into the correct Future Forms.
Technology has made such dramatic advances in the past decade that by the year 2010 who knows what
changes 1) (take) place. It's quite likely that by 2010 we 2) (use up) most of the Earth's natural resources
and so we 3) (rely) on wind power and hydropower for our energy needs. As a result of this shortage of
energy, it is quite probable that scientists 4) (find) a way for us to live outside the Earth. By the next
century it's possible that people 5) (live) in cities on the Moon or perhaps in cities on the seabed. It is to
be hoped that scientists 6) (discover) cures for fatal diseases such as AIDS and, due to the advancement of
genetic engineering, hereditary diseases passed down from generation to generation 7) (exist) no longer. It
is quite possible that by 2010 life expectancy 8) (increase) to 100 and that we 9) (be able to) enjoy a
healthier existence than is now possible.
Another area likely to have been further affected by technology in the year 2010 is education. In schools,
computers 10) (replace) teachers and many students 11) (stay) at home to complete their education. We
12) (see) changes in the workplace too. The two main areas of employment 13) (be) the so called creative
and caring professions, and the disappearance of jobs in manufacturing 14) (result) in massive
2.34. Fill in the correct Present or Future Forms.
Note: We never use future forms after: as long as, as soon as, after, before, by the time, if (conditional),
unless, in case, until/ till, when (time conjunction), whenever, while, once, suppose/ supposing, on
condition that, etc.,e.g. Take an umbrella in case it rains.
When you 1) (take) a holiday with Activity Wales, you 2) (have) the time of your life. As soon as you 3)
(arrive), you 4) (feel) as if you 5) (be) in a different world. While you 6) (stay) with us, we 7) (do) our
best to insure that your holiday 8) (run) smoothly and you 9) (not/ get) bored. Activity Wales 10) (have)
something to offer to all ages and tastes. If you 11) (want) to play golf, ride, sail or fish, our staff 12) (be)
happy to make the necessary arrangements, or if you simply 13) (want) to relax and enjoy the
breathtaking scenery we 14) (be) delighted to organize some guided walks. Before your holiday 15) (be)
over, you 16) (already/ plan) your next visit.
2.35. Translate from Russian into English using Future Forms.
1. , .
2. , , , 7 .
, .
3. , - .
4. , , .



. - .
(a solicitor).
, .
, .
, , .
Talking about the Past

2.36. Explain the use of different tense forms in the sentences in column A. You might use the phrases
in column B.
1. She arrived last week.
2. He has been to three football matches this month.
3. I smoked for three months.
4. He has bought a car.
5. Shakespeare wrote at least 36 plays.
6. This time last week, I was enjoying my holiday in
7. I was listening to the radio when Tim came in.
8. She has been living here for five years.
9. They have been arguing.
10. She felt much safer when she had locked all the
11. By his second day at camp, he had made several
12. She had been saving for a whole year before she
bought a ticket to Australia.
13. He had been shouting so loudly that he had a sore

a. an action in the middle of happening at a stated
past time
b. a complete action or event which happened at
a stated time
c. actions happening in an incomplete period
d. a past habit or state
e. past action in progress interrupted by another
past action
f. a past action of certain duration having visible
results or effects in the present
g. an action continuing over a period up to a
specific time in the past
h. a complete past action which had visible
results in the past
i. a past action of certain duration which had
visible results in the past
j. an action started in the past and continuing up
to the present
k. a complete past action connected to the present
l. an action completed in a period in the past
m. a past action which occurred before another
action or before a stated past time

2.37. Which of the following time expressions are used with Past Simple and which ones with Present
Perfect: always, ago, already, during the night, ever, for, from 1999 to 2001, how long, in 2005, in the last
two years, just, just now, last week, lately, never, on Sunday, recently, since, so far, then, today, when,
yesterday, yet? Add some more time expressions to the lists.
Past Simple

Present Perfect

2.38. Use Present Perfect or Past Simple in the following sentences.

1. - Is Paul there, please?
- Sorry, he (leave) about ten minutes ago. I think he (go) to the library.
2. - I (live) in Lisbon for two years now.
- Really? What a coincidence! I (live) there for a year before moving to America.
3. - I need a holiday. I (only/ have) two days off this year.
- Yes, but last year you (go) on holiday four times!


4. - My farther once (see) Elvis Presley in Las Vegas.

- Well, I (see) his daughter, Lisa, many times. She lives near me.
5. - The chairman (decide) to retire.
- Yes, actually he (inform) the managing director this morning.
2.39. Put the verbs in brackets into the correct Past Forms.
Last year, Nick and Helen 1) (decide) to buy a house. They 2) (save up) for ages, and by the end of May
they 3) (put by) enough for the deposit on a house. They 4) (live) in a tiny flat at the time and Helen 5)
(insist) that she 6) (want) a house with a big garden. They 7) (search) for only a few days when they
found exactly what they 8) (look for) - a two-bedroomed house in nearly an acre of garden. Unfortunately
the owner 9) (ask) much more than they 10) (be) willing to pay, and when they 11) (look) more closely at
the interior, they 12) (see) that whoever 13) (live) there before, 14) (make) an absolute mess of the walls
and floors. Still, Helen 15) (like) the garden and the location so much that she 16) (manage) to convince
Nick that, despite the price, it 17) (be) a perfect house for them.
2.40 a) Explain the use of different forms in the sentences in column A. You might use the phrases in
column B.
1. He used to live in Brasil.
2. When I was a child, I would go to the cinema every
3. Little children are used to going to bed early in the
4. He was going to buy a house but he lost all his
money at the racetrack.

a. expresses past repeated actions and routines not states
b. expresses actions one intended to do but didn't
c. expresses past habitual actions and permanent
d. means 'be accustomed to', 'be in the habit of'

b) Complete the sentences using the words in bold. Use two to five words.
1. Sally went to ballet classes three times a week.
Sally to ballet classes three times a week.
2. It was my intention to phone you last night, but I forgot.
going I you last night, but I forgot.
3. Lying on the beach all day is an unusual experience for me.
used I on the beach all day.
4. When I was young, I used to visit my grandmother every day after school.
would When I was young, every day after school.
2.41. Translate from Russian into English.

, .
, .
, , .
, .
, .
, 7 , .
- ? - . .

2.42. Put the verbs in brackets into the correct forms.

1. Bill (paint) his front door when the telephone (start) ringing. He (answer) the phone and (speak) to his
friend. Later he (notice) that he (leave) red fingerprints all over the phone.
2 - (Tony/ ring) you last night?
- Yes. He (wait) for days for you to phone him but since you (not/ phone) he (sell) his motorbike to
someone else.


3. - Your hair (look) different last night.

- I know. I (want) to dye it red, but I (not/ pay) attention when I (buy) the dye and I (not/ realize) that I
(buy) the wrong colour until it (be) too late.
4. One day my sister (call) me. She (not/ know) what to cook for a dinner party she (give) that evening
and she (want) some advice. I (give) her some simple recipes but I (be) surprised that she (not/ contact)
our mother. When I (ask) why, she (reply), 'She is one of the guests.'
5. Last Friday I (walk) when I (see) and old friend I (not/ see) for a long time. I (throw) my arms around
him. He (stare) at me with an open mouth. To my horror, I (realize) I (mistake) a stranger for my friend.
6. Alan (fly) to Barcelona tonight. He (already/ pack) his suitcase but he (not/ call) a taxi yet. His plane
(leave) at 8.00 p.m.
7. - What on earth (you/ do)? Your clothes are all dirty!
- Well, I (work) in the garden all day. Look! I (already/ plant) a lot of flowers. I (plan) to cut the grass
8. Sarah (look) for a decent job since she (leave) school two years ago. She (hope) to find work as a
secretary but as she (never/ do) a secretarial course, I think she (have) difficulty in finding such a job.
9. Peter (drive) to work yesterday when a dog (run) into the middle of the road. Peter (manage) to stop in
time but the car which (follow) him (crash) into the back of his car. Then the two cars (collide) with a
police car which (travel) in the opposite direction.
10. Some thieves (break into) my house yesterday. Apparently, I (leave) the window open. This is the first
time anything like this (happen) to me. The thieves (get in) through the window and (steal) all my
jewellery. The neighbours (say) they (not/ see) anything happen.
11.-'What (you do) tonight?' 'I (study) for my exams.'
- 'What time (you finish) studying?'
- 'I (finish) by 8 o'clock, I hope.'
- 'Good. Let's go to the cinema then. The film (start) at 8.30.'
12.- '(You see) ''The Cure'' concert last night?'
- 'No, but I (see) them before. I (go) to one of their concerts five years ago.'
- 'They (improve) a lot since then.' '(They still make) records?'
- 'Oh, yes, they (just/ release) a new one.
13. This time next week I (be) on my honeymoon and (forget) about my problems at work. My husband
and I (relax) by the pool and we (look forward) to spending romantic evenings together.
14. When (you/ think) you (finish) the project?
15. If there (be) any problems, I (phone) you.
16. I hate it that she (always/ complain) and (find) fault with everybody.
2.43. Make the right choice.
1. I can't come tonight. ... my mother-in-law.
a) I visit b) I visited c) I'm visiting d) I will visit
2. Next month, the National Theatre ... a new production of Hamlet.
a) is putting on b) shall put on c) puts on d) will be putting on
3...... a successful author one day.
a) I'm being b) I'm going to be c) I go to be d) I will be
4. According to the programme, the show ... at 9 o'clock.
a) is started b) will start c) starts d) is starting
5. By next August, I ... my exams and I'll be ready for a holiday.
a) will be being finishing b) am finishing c) will be finishing d) will have finished
6. - What are your holiday plans?
- I ... stay with my friends.
a) will b) am going to c) would d) will be
7. I'm going to a party tonight. What.....?
a) will I wear b) shall I wear c) do I wear d) am I wearing


8. Don't worry ! When the phone ..., I'll call you.

a) rings b) will ring c) is going to ring d) ring
9. Nobody knows when it last ... in Sri Lanka.
a) has snowed b) snowed c) is snowing d) will snow
10. She ..... in the sun too long and got burnt.
a) has laid b) has been lying c) is lying d) lay
11. Let's have a snack. I had breakfast early in the morning and ... anything since then.
a) didn't have b) haven't had c) hadn't had d) wasn't having
12. It's still raining. I wish it would stop. It ... all day long.
a) has rained b) is raining c) has been raining d) has been rained
13. Two weeks ... since I started my letter to you.
a) had gone b) have gone c) went d) gone
14. Jane wrote them a letter when she ... from her business trip to South America.
a) returned b) has returned c) had returned d) returns
15. It ... in the night, but now there is sunshine.
a) has rained b) had rained c) is raining d) has been raining
16. We ..................... Switzerland four times during the 1970s.
a) used to visit b) would visit c) visited d) were visiting
The Passive Voice
2.44. Rewrite the following sentences using the passive of an active form, e.g.
They planted this tree five years ago. This tree was planted five years ago.
Someone should answer the fax at once. The fax should be answered at once.
What did we have to do to make sentences passive?

They speak German there.

Someone broke the window.
Someone will tell you soon.
They are repairing the bridge.
I felt as if someone was watching me.


No one has invited him yet.

I knew why they had chosen me.
We'll have done everything by Tuesday.
You must do the work at once.
Someone had to mend the broken window.

2.45. Study the Note and use passive constructions instead of active ones in the following sentences.
Give two variants wherever possible.
Note: With such verbs as give, lend, offer, pay, promise, refuse, send, show, tell, which can be followed by
two objects, two passive structures are possible, e.g.
Somebody showed the police his photo. A. The police were shown his photo. (more common)
B. His photo was shown to the police.
Such verbs as carry, describe, donate, explain, push, suggest, are used only in structure B, e.g.
An anonymous sponsor donated a large sum of money to the museum. A large sum of money was
donated to the museum (by an anonymous sponsor). (The museum was donated a large sum of money.)

They've just sent me the whole lot of information.

The Embassy refused a visa to him because he had been in prison.
I pushed the plate to Ann.
The parents are explaining the problem to the children.
He'll suggest a suitable meeting place to us.
Nobody ever tells us the whole truth.
He was describing the situation to them in graphic detail.


2.46. Rewrite the text using the passive where possible. Make sure the words underlined do not appear.
Paraphrase sentences of the type People consider/ know/ believe/ think that he is like this: It is
considered/ known/ believed/ thought that he is
Nobody knows exactly when someone invented gunpowder. People know for a fact that the Chinese made
rockets and fireworks long before people used gunpowder in Europe, which occurred at about the
beginning of the thirteenth century. We generally believe that gunpowder brought to an end the 'Age of
Chivalry', since anyone with a firearm could bring down a mounted knight. In fact, people did not
develop efficient firearms until the sixteenth century. They used gunpowder mainly in siege cannon when
people first introduced it. Later they used it in engineering work and in mining, but they found that it was
extremely dangerous. Modern explosives have now replaced gunpowder, but we still use it for making
fireworks, just as the Chinese did.
2.47. Compare the two sentences and explain the use of preposition by in one of them and preposition
with in the other.
The picture was painted by my brother. - The room was filled with smoke.
Now use these and other prepositions in passive constructions made from active ones in the following
sentences. Note that in passive structures, the preposition remains immediately after the verb, e.g.
Your child can play with my cats quite safely. My cats can be played with quite safely.

We must write to him.

What makes these holes?
Paint covered the lock.
When will you throw away the old magazines?
You shouldn't talk to him in that tone of voice.


No one looks after the children properly.

His mother caused all the trouble.
Nobody listens to me.
The policeman shot him with a rifle.
Somebody has paid for your dinner.

2.48. Below is a short article about computers. Put the verbs in brackets into the passive voice.
Computers then and now
The world's first electronic computer (build) at the University of Pennsylvania in 1946, although
computer-like machines (build) in the 19th century. Computers (sell) commercially for the first time in
the 1950s, and a lot of progress (make) since then. Computers are now much smaller and more powerful,
and they (can/ buy) much more cheaply.
Computers (use) in many fields in business, science, medicine and education, for example. They (can/
use) to forecast the weather or to control robots which make cars. The computer's memory is the place
where information (keep) and calculations (do).
A computer cannot think for itself it (must/ tell) exactly what to do. A lot of difficult calculations (can/
do) very quickly on a computer.
Besides, computers don't make mistakes. Stories (hear) sometimes about computers paying people too
much money or sending them bills for things they didn't buy. These mistakes (make) by the programmers
the people who give the computer its instructions. Some years ago, a computer-controlled rocket
belonging to the USA went out of control and (have to/ destroy). The accident (cause) by a small mistake
in one line of the programme. This mistake cost the USA $18 million.
Criminals have found out that 'computer crimes' are often a lot easier than robbing banks. Hundreds of
millions of dollars (steal) from American businesses every year by people changing the information in
Large numbers of home computers (sell) recently, especially in the USA and Britain. People know more
about computers than they used to, and computers are playing a bigger part in our lives. Progress (make)
all the time. Many people believe we can look forward to the day when even our household jobs like
cleaning (do) by computer-controlled robots.
Activity: Write a short paragraph about any one of these things. Use the passive in some of your
- the pocket calculator
- the video recorder
- the aeroplane


2.49. The sentences below are from an article about the money paid to famous sports people. Rewrite
each sentence beginning with the phrase in bold type.
They paid the racing driver Bobby Kraft 200,000 when he won the Grand Prix. - 200,000 was paid to
the racing driver Bobby Kraft when he won the Grand Prix.
Their club have promised the AC Milan team a new house each if they win the European Cup. The AC
Milan team have been promised a new house each if they win the European Cup.
1 They gave the tennis player Kathy Duprey 50,000 for winning a competition.
2 A company has paid the skier Anne Stolberg 40,000 to advertise ski trousers.
3 A TV company gave the ice hockey team Phoenix Flyers $20,000 each to play in front of the cameras.
4 His club pays the footballer Wayne Simmonds 250 for every goal he scores.
5 A company offered the cyclist Luigi Delgado 25,000 to advertise a soft drink.
6 Henry Lane will pay the boxer Howard Duke $3 million for his next fight.
7 They've promised the London Wonders basketball team a holiday in the West Indies if they win the
Activity: Talk about jobs and money. Which people are paid a lot of money? Which are paid very little?
Which people are given extra things in addition to their pay?
2.50. Translate the following sentences from Russian into English using the Passive Voice wherever

" , . ."
, .
500 .
, .
The Sequence of Tenses

2.51. In A complete some rules of the Sequence of Tenses; in B choose the correct answer:
The general rule is that we move the reported clauses 'one tense _________'.
Present Simple and Present Continuous become _____________________and____________________ .
Past Simple and Present Perfect become _______________________________________ .
'will' becomes _________________________________ .
The sequence of tenses is observed/ is not observed if the object clause expresses a general truth or
something is represented as habitual, customary or characteristic.
Galileo proved that the Earth moves/ moved round the Sun.
He asked what time the train starts/ started.
The Past Simple after 'since' remains unchanged/ is replaced by past perfect:
She said, 'I have been cleaning since I came.' - She said she had been cleaning since she had come/ came.
2.52. Stanley Arnold, the multi-millionaire businessman and head of Arnold Motors, has just died. He
wasn't a very popular man. Below are some examples of what the press said about him during his
lifetime. Write down what they said.
'Arnold is not a very nice person.' - Today Magazine Today Magazine said that Arnold was not a very
nice person.
1. 'Arnold Motors has never paid any tax.' - News Extra



'Arnold spends the company's money at a Las Vegas casino.' - Newsday Magazine
'When he dies, he will probably leave more than $500 million.' - International News
'His son has been working for Arnold since he finished school.'
'Stanley Arnold never speaks to his younger children.' -Modem World
'He is planning to leave his money to a dogs' home.' - The Daily Free Press
'Arnold has friends in the Mafia.' - World Magazine
'The police ought to ask Stanley Arnold some questions.' - The Saturday Reporter
'No one will be sorry when he's gone' - The Daily Talk

Activity: Complete the sentences by reporting what people might say in these situations.
1. After winning a million pounds in a competition, Mrs Grout of Birmingham said ...
2. A plane crashed into the sea, and fifty people were killed. There was one survivor. He told reporters
afterwards that...
3. On the day he became Prime Minister, Mr Wright said ...
2.53. One day a woman stopped Adam on his way out of Brisco supermarket and asked some
questions. The questions and Adam's answers are on the form below. Later Adam told his friend Don
about it. Give Adam's words. Begin like this: She asked me , and I told her/ said .

Brisco Supermarkets Customer Questionnaire

How often do you shop at Brisco? - Twice a week.
Are you happy to shop here? - Yes.
Why do you shop here? Because it's cheap.
Can you get everything you want at Brisco? - No, can't get good bread.
How long have you been shopping here? Since you opened.
How did you learn about us? My friend Don told me.
Have you come here by car? No, on foot.
How much have you spent today? About 15 pounds.
Will you come to Brisco again? - Yes.

Activity A: Has anyone ever stopped you in the street or knocked on your door to ask you questions?
Have you ever had an interview for a job? Has a reporter or a police officer ever asked you questions?
Report the interview to the class.
Activity B: Imagine that one student in your class has won a TV quiz contest. The student tells the class
how he/ she answered the questions, e.g. 'I said it was Sofia.' You say what the student was asked, e.g.
'Oh, so you were asked what the capital of Bulgaria was.'
Practise the game with a group of other students. Take it in turns to think of an answer to a quiz question.
2.54. The Anglian bus company wants to stop its service between Milchester and Little Wittering
village. An Anglian manager, Mr Budge, is at a meeting in the village. Report what is said.
The service is losing money.' - Mr Budge explained that the service was losing money.
'Please try to understand our position.' - He asked the villagers to try to understand the company's

'Lots of people have been using the buses since they settled here.' Mr Crane said that...
'How can we get to town?' Mrs Mansion asked ...
'Most people in the village have got a car.' Mr Budge replied that...
'You must keep quiet and listen, everyone!' The chairman told everyone ...
'What's going to happen to the school bus?' Mrs Davis asked...
'It will continue to run.' Mr Budge answered that...
'The village needs a bus service.' Mr Rice said that...
'Can you start your own service?' Mr Budge wondered ...
'Can everyone please protest to the government?' Mr Hepplestone asked everyone ...

Activity: Can you remember the last phone call you made? Tell the other students what was said
during the call.


2.55. Translate from Russian into English.


, , .
, .
O , - .
, , ,
, , .
, , .
, , .
, .
, , .

2.56. Decide which answer (A, B, C or D) best fits each space.

The stolen bike
One morning last week I realised that my bike (1) .................. from my garden. I phoned the police and
(2) .. called at my house the next day. I told (3)..................... I had been out that evening,
and (4) anything suspicious when I came home. 'It (5) hard too;
so I couldn't ride my bike,' I added. The officers told me that lots of bikes (6) ..................... lately. 'The
thieves (7) ..................... a van for transporting the bikes,' said one of the officers.
'Unfortunately, I (8)..................... about that,' I said. 'I saw a black van that evening. In fact, it
(9)..................... opposite my house. 'The officers asked me what the van's number (10)....................., but I
couldn't remember. 'If you (11)..................... the van again, (12)..................... you recognise it?' one of
them asked. 'I noticed only that it (13) ..................... a fresh coat of blue paint,' I replied.
However, there was a happy ending to this story. After the officers had left, I (14) ..................... by a
friend of mine. 'By the way', she said, 'If you want your bike, (15) it back this afternoon. I
borrowed it a couple of days ago.'
1 A had stolen
B had disappeared C had had stolen
2 A it
B its
C they
3 A them
B it
C its
4 A didn't notice B wasn't noticed
C hadn't noticed
5 A rained
B was raining
C has rained
6 A had stolen
B were stolen
C were stealing
7 A have
B are having
C have had
8 A hadnt warned B had warned
C hadn't been warned
9 A was parked
B had parking
C is parked
10 A is
B was
C had
)) A see
B are seeing
C was seen
) A could
B couldn't
C will
)13 A gave
B had been given
C was given
) A called up
B was phoned
C had a phone call
)15 A I bring
B I'm bringing
C I'll bring
2.57. Read the story and retell it indirect speech.

D had been disappeared

D it's
D they
D hadn't been noticed
D has been raining
D had been stolen
D have been having
D wasn't warned
D has parked
D wrote
D is seen
D wouldn't
D has been given
D heard some news
D I'll be bringing

The TV Blackout*
by Art Buchwald
A week ago Sunday, New York city had a blackout and all nine television stations in the area went out for several
hours. This created tremendous crises in families all over New York and proved that TV plays a much greater role in
people's lives than anyone can imagine.
For example, when the TV went off in the Bufkinses' house, panic set in. First, Bufkins thought it was his set in
the living-room, so he rushed into his bedroom and turned on that set. Nothing. The phone rang, and Mrs. Bufkins
heard her sister in Manhattan tell her that there was a blackout.
She hung up and said to her husband, 'It isn't your set. Something's happened to the top of the Empire State


Bufkins looked at her and said, 'Who are you?'

'I'm your wife, Edith.'
'Oh,' Bufkins said. 'Then I suppose those kids in there are mine.'
'That's right,' Mrs. Bufkins said. 'If you ever got out of that armchair in front of the TV set you'd know who we
'Oh! They've really grown,' Bufkins said, looking at his son and daughter. 'How old are they now?'
'Thirteen and fourteen,' Mrs. Bufkins replied.
'Hi, kids.'
'Who's he?' Bufkins's son, Henry, asked.
'It's your father,' Mrs. Bufkins said.
'I'm pleased to meet you,' Bufkins's daughter, Mary, said shyly.
There was silence all around.
'Look,' said Bufkins finally. 'I know I haven't been a good father but now that the TV's out, I'd like to know you
'How?' asked Henry.
'Well, let's just talk,' Bufkins said. 'That's the best way to get to know each other.'
'What do you want to talk about?' Mary asked.
'Well, to begin with, what school do you go to?'
'We go to 'High School,' Henry said.
'So you're both in high school!' There was a dead silence.
'What do you do?' Mary asked.
'I'm an accountant,' Bufkins said.
'I thought you were a car salesman,' Mrs. Bufkins said in surprise.
'That was two years ago. Didn't I tell you I changed jobs?' Bufkins said.
'No, you didn't. You haven't told me anything for two years.'
'I'm doing quite well, too,' Bufkins said.
'Then why am I working in a department store?' Mrs. Bufkins demanded.
'Oh, are you still working in a department store? If I had known that, I would have told you to quit last year. You
should have mentioned it,' Bufkins said.
There was more dead silence.
Finally, Henry said, 'Hey, you want to hear me play the guitar?'
'You know how to play the guitar? Say, didn't I have a daughter who played the guitar?'
'That was Susie,' Mrs. Bufkins said.
'Where is she?'
'She got married a year ago, just about the time you were watching the baseball World Series.'
'You know,' Bufkins said, very pleased, 'I hope they don't fix the antenna for another couple hours. There's
nothing better than a blackout for a man who really wants to know his family.'
*blackout a period of complete darkness due to the power failure

Reading Exercises
2.58. Read an extract from the following speech on controlling rage and stress and be ready to discuss it.
Rage is all the rage these days
Has anybody here ever been stuck in traffic for a frustratingly long time? Put up your hand if you have.
Oooh! Don't you just hate that? And some people don't mind showing us how much they hate it. We call it "road
Has anybody ever waited in a ticket lineup or a checkout lineup for a frustratingly long time? Let me see
those hands. Believe it or not, some people don't like that either. We call it "lineup rage".
Has anybody ever been stuck waiting in a doctor's office for a frustratingly long time? Let me see those
hands. And then you see somebody suddenly jump up and tear his hair out and scream, "Let me out. I've been here
three hours. Three days. Three months!" Well, I really should apologize. I didn't mean to scare you. I was just
demonstrating "waiting room rage".
Let me tell you a story about the Lwungwa River Valley - that's in Africa, you know. The dry season there
gets very dry. My throat is getting dry just thinking about it. The Lwungwa River stops rushing. It slows to a trickle.
Finally, it stops flowing. And all that are left are pools of water, here and there. One by one, the animals head to
higher ground. To forest cover. To other water holes. Anywhere they can find food or drink. Just like we will all do
later. Did I say all the animals? Not all. Not the hippos.
The hippos stay in their river as it slows to a stream. They stay in the stream as it turns into pools. They stay
in the pools as they shrink into puddles. As the puddles shrink, the hippos get more crowded. As the hippos get more


crowded, they get disagreeable. Annoyed. Angry. They gnash their teeth. They poke at each other. They pick fights.
It's river rage!
Has anyone ever come face to face with a raging hippopotamus? Don't be shy. Go ahead, put up your
hands. Sure, when we're young - I'm sure you all remember this as I do - we're taught that hippos are slow, cute, and
nice. They might even be pink or purple and do those happy little dances in tutus like in Fantasia. But in the real
world, hippos have teeth the size of your head. They can run faster than anyone in this room. And they weigh
upwards of 5,000 pounds. I mean, they are HUGE! If you're ever at a cocktail party and a hippopotamus starts, you
know, flirting with you, whatever you do, do not let him sit on your lap.
Rage is all the rage these days. Road rage. Lineup rage. Waiting-room rage. Even river rage. You may also have
heard of parking lot rage, elevator rage and airplane rage. What's happening? Is the world getting angrier or just
more crowded?
Both. It's a fact that as our space and time grow increasingly crowded, our stress levels rise. When it comes
to space, we are cramming more people into more crowded cities, elevators, airplanes, stores. Our patience
diminishes. Our good will diminishes. Our tolerance diminishes. Has anyone noticed how they place the chairs at
conferences - you noticed! - so close together that even skinny people get to know each other well. My theory is that
the hotels are trying to develop their own niche rage market: conference seating rage.
Let's look at our schedules. What are we trying to do? We're trying to see how many items we can squeeze
onto our "to do" list, and how many activities we can cram into a day. And the stress, where does it go? Right up
there, exactly.
I want to share this one little thought with you. We are in the process of moving, so we actually have two
homes. Stress that builds in my stacked concrete box apartment they call a condo*, I can't get rid of. It sticks. I can't
shake it off. It won't go. It sticks. When I'm at my farm house just a few miles south of here, surrounded by grass
and trees, it's amazing how quickly I can get rid of the stress.
OK. What have we learned today? Three lessons, so please take note.
Number one, don't let your space get too crowded.
Number two, don't let your schedule get too crowded.
Number three, and this is the most important of all, don't ever, ever let a hippopotamus sit on your lap.
NOTE: This speech was adapted from Chapter 10 of the motivational self-help book Climb your Stairway to
Heaven: the 9 habits of maximum happiness.
*condo = condominium
Talking points:
1. Recall some situations from your life proving (or disproving) the author's statements.
2. Give your recipes for fighting down a rage or getting rid of stress.
3. Explain Number three lesson.
2.59. Here are some quotations about happiness. Read them and decide which of them you fully agree with,
which sound cynical, which are ironic. Which quotations express the same idea in different words? Find some
quotations that contradict one another and express your point of view in the matter.
Happiness Quotations
Abd Er-Rahman III of Spain: I have now reigned about 50 years in victory or peace, beloved by my subjects,
dreaded by my enemies, and respected by my allies. Riches and honors, power and pleasure, have waited on my
call, nor does any earthly blessing appear to have been wanting to my felicity. In this situation, I have diligently
numbered the days of pure and genuine happiness which have fallen to my lot. They amount to fourteen. (960 C.E.)
Albert Camus: You will never be happy if you continue to search for what happiness consists of. You will never
live if you are looking for the meaning of life.
Albert Schweitzer: Success is not the key to happiness. Happiness is the key to success. If you love what you are
doing, you will be successful.
Albert Schweitzer: Happiness is nothing more than good health and a bad memory.
Allan K. Chalmers: The Grand essentials of happiness are: something to do, something to love, and something to
hope for.
Benjamin Disraeli: Action may not always bring happiness, but there is no happiness without action.
Buddha: Happiness comes when your work and words are of benefit to yourself and others.


Carl Jung: There are as many nights as days, and the one is just as long as the other in the year's course. Even a
happy life cannot be without a measure of darkness, and the word 'happy' would lose its meaning if it were not
balanced by sadness.
Edith Wharton: If only we'd stop trying to be happy we'd have a pretty good time.
Edward de Bono: Unhappiness is best defined as the difference between our talents and our expectations.
George Burns: Happiness is having a large, loving, caring, close-knit family in another city.
George Sand: There is only one happiness in life, to love and be loved.
HH the Dalai Lama: If you want others to be happy, practice compassion. If you want to be happy, practice
HH the Dalai Lama: Consider the following. We humans are social beings. We come into the world as the result of
others' actions. We survive here in dependence on others. Whether we like it or not, there is hardly a moment of our
lives when we do not benefit from others' activities. For this reason, it is hardly surprising that most of our happiness
arises in the context of our relationships with others.
Helen Keller: When one door of happiness closes, another opens; but often we look so long at the closed door that
we do not see the one which has been opened for us.
James Oppenheim: The foolish man seeks happiness in the distance, the wise grows it under his feet.
John Barrymore: Happiness often sneaks in through a door you didn't know you left open.
John Milton: The mind is its own place, and in itself, can make heaven of Hell, and a hell of Heaven.
Ludwig Wittgenstein: I don't know why we are here, but I'm pretty sure that it is not in order to enjoy ourselves.
Margaret Bonnano: It is only possible to live happily ever after on a day to day basis.
Mark Twain: Sanity and happiness are an impossible combination.
Mohandas K. Gandhi: Happiness is when what you think, what you say, and what you do are in harmony.
Norman MacEwan: Happiness is not so much in having as sharing. We make a living by what we get, but we make
a life by what we give.
Ralph Waldo Emerson: To fill the hour -- that is happiness.
Robert Heinlein: Love is a condition in which the happiness of another person is essential to your own.
Robert Louis Stevenson: There is no duty we so underrate as the duty of being happy. By being happy, we sow
anonymous benefits upon the world.
Sophocles: Wisdom is the supreme part of happiness.
Susan B. Anthony: Independence is happiness.
Theodor Fontane: Happiness, it seems to me, consists of two things: first, in being where you belong, and second and best - in comfortably going through everyday life, that is, having had a good night's sleep and not being hurt by
new shoes.
Thomas Jefferson: The happiest moments of my life have been the few which I have passed at home in the bosom
of my family.
From Wisdom Quotes: Quotations to inspire and challenge - by Jone Johnson Lewis
2.60. All people have dreams when they sleep. Do you ever remember yours? What emotions do you experience in
your dreams most often? Some people believe that our dreams are meaningful do you agree? Read the article
and comment on it.
Dream Themes


Fear and anxiety are the most commonly expressed emotions in dreams. Anger ranks next. Fear, anger, and sadness
occur twice as often as pleasant emotions. It is important to note that the feelings we experience in dreams are not
symbols of something else but are reflections of our real feelings. Such feelings may not have been repressed during
the day and as a result are coming out in your dreams.
Anger: To dream that you are feeling much anger, forewarns that you will be involved in a terrible and tense
situation. Your loved ones will let your down and disappoint you. It also forewarns that once solid ties will be
broken. Being angry in your dream may have been carried over from your waking life. In your dream, you may have
a safe outlet to express such emotions. You may have some suppressed anger and aggression that you have not
consciously acknowledged.
To dream that others are angry with you signifies your struggle to regain their lasting favor and friendships.
Anxiety: To dream that you are experiencing some anxiety in some affair, is a reflection of what you may be feeling
during your waking life. You may have repressed thoughts, unexpressed emotions, resentment, and hostility that are
triggering your anxiety dream. This dream also denotes that you are disastrous mixing business with pleasure.
Confusion: To dream that you are confused, may reflect your true confused state of mind. Isolate the single element
in your dream that is confusing to you and analyze the meaning of that particular symbol. Alternatively, dreams of
confusion signify that you are being pulled in opposite directions or do not know which viewpoint is right.
Delight: To dream that you are experiencing delight, signifies a favorable and positive turn of events and much
Fear: To dream that you feel fear, signifies that your achievements will not be as successful as you had anticipated.
You are having anxieties in certain circumstances of your life. However, your worries will be temporary and shortlived.
Frustration: To dream that you feel frustrated, represents your difficulty in coping with a situation in your daily
life. It may reflect your anxieties that your life is not going in the direction you want.
Guilt: To dream that you feel guilty about something, relates to how you are handling your successes and failures or
competence and incompetence. You may feel undeserving of your achievements or on the other hand, you may feel
that you have let others down. Alternatively, it is also symbolic of repressed and negative feelings that you may have
about yourself.
Happiness: To dream that you are happy, may be a compensatory dream and is often a dream of the contrary. You
may be trying to compensate for the sadness or stress in your waking life.
Hunger: To dream that you feel hunger, signifies a feeling of unfulfilment. You may be starving for recognition or
longing to achieve something that you have desired for a while.
Joy: To dream that you are joyful, denotes harmony amongst friends and loved ones.
Love: To dream of love or being in love, suggests intense feelings carried over from a waking relationship. It
implies happiness and contentment with what you have and where you are in life. On the other hand, you may not be
getting enough love in your daily life. We naturally long for the sense to belong and to be accepted.
Pride: To dream that you have pride, denotes that you will have to stand up and fight against attacks to your
integrity. You will be challenged.
To dream that others are displaying pride, signifies that you will soon be invited to be part of a project or accepted
into a group.
Rage: To dream that you are in rage, signifies that your bad temper and negative outbursts may lead to loss of