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ECE EEE F 311

Modern Communication Technologies

Topic # 12 : Spread Spectrum Techniques:


T1. B.P. Lathi,
Modern Digital and Analog
Communication Systems, 3rd Edition, Oxford University
Press, 1998: OR 4th Edition 2010 Chapter 11
R1. DIGITAL COMMUNICATIONS Fundamentals and
Applications: Bernard Sklar and Pabitra Kumar Ray;
Pearson Education 2009, 2/e. Chapter 12
Nov 21, 2016
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Spread Spectrum
Traditional Digital Communication
We focus on spectral efficiency &
narrowest possible BW usage.

Narrow
band
Power

What are the issues?

Spread
Spectrum

Probability of intercept is high


Frequency

Susceptible to Jamming
Solution:
If transmission signal is made to occupy
a BW much higher than the required,
Energy Density Reduction is achieved
and Probability of intercept is reduced.
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Further, narrowband jammers can


affect only partial frequency band of
the spreaded spectrum and hence
Susceptibility to Jamming is reduced

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Benefits of Spread Spectrum


Low probability of intercept (LPI)
Low probability of exploitation (LPE) (Anti jam capability)

Intentional / Unintentional Interference Suppression


Self-interference (multipath protection)

Standard modulation schemes such as FM and the coding techniques


such as Block codes or convolutional codes etc, also spread the
spectrum of an information signal.

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Where in the SS done in Tx / Rx Chain?

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Spread Spectrum Techniques


Spreading is accomplished by means of a spreading signal called a
code signal, which is independent of the data.
Frequency Hopping (FH) - A carrier frequency is shifted in discrete
increments in a pattern dictated by a code sequence.
Direct Sequence (DS) - A carrier is modulated by a digital code sequence
in which bit rate is much higher than the information signal bandwidth.
Time Hopping (TH) - Bursts of the carrier signal are initiated at times
dictated by a code sequence.
Hybrid Systems - Use of combination of the above.

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Frequency Hopping Spread Spectrum


A carrier frequency is shifted in discrete increments in a pattern dictated by
a code sequence.
A number of channels are allocated for the FH signal

Signal is broadcast over


seemingly random series of
radio frequencies

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Frequency Hopping Spread Spectrum


System (Transmitter)

Signal hops from frequency


to frequency at fixed intervals
Transmitter operates in one
channel at a time
Bits are transmitted using
some encoding scheme
At each successive interval,
a new carrier frequency is
selected
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Frequency Hopping SS
Hopping Sequence
Channel sequence dictated by spreading code
Pseudorandom number serves as an index into a table of frequencies

Chip Period
Time spent on each channel
FCC regulation maximum dwell time of 400 ms
IEEE 802.11 standard 300 ms

Chipping rate
Hopping rate

Advantages
Eavesdroppers hear only unintelligible blips
Attempts to jam signal on one frequency succeed only at knocking out
a few bits
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Slow Frequency Hop Spread Spectrum


Using MFSK (M=4, k=2)
Duration of signal element is Ts seconds
Frequency shifted every Tc seconds

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Slow FHSS has Tc Ts

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Fast Frequency Hop Spread Spectrum


Using MFSK (M=4, k=2)
Duration of signal element is Ts seconds

Fast FHSS has Tc < Ts

Frequency shifted every Tc seconds

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Frequency Hopping Spread Spectrum


System (Receiver)

Receiver, hopping between


frequencies in synchronization
with transmitter, picks up
message

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FHSS Performance Considerations


Large number of frequencies are used
Results in a system that is quite
resistant to jamming
Jamming signal must jam all frequencies
With fixed power, this reduces the jamming
power in any one frequency band

Processing Gain : Unique property of spread


spectrum waveforms , Used to measure the
performance advantage of spread spectrum
against narrowband forms

Bss
Bss
Processing Gain N
10log10

B
B
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CDMA in FHSS : M users

Figure 11.4 CDMA in FHSS in which each of the


M users is assigned a unique PN code.
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Direct Sequence SS (DS /SS)


Each bit in original signal is represented by multiple bits in the transmitted signal

Spreading code spreads signal across a wider frequency band

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Example: DS/SS Using QAM

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DS/SS with PSK


Transmitter

Spread spectrum
Signal y(t)=m(t)c(t)

Bipolar, NRZ
m(t)

transmit
signal

PN
sequence, c(t)

sqrt(2) cos (wct + q)

Receiver
received
signal
x(t)

z(t)
X

w(t)
LPF

integrator

data
decision

sqrt(2)cos (wct + q) c(t)


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PN Sequence Generation
Codes are periodic and generated by a shift register and XOR

Maximum-length (ML) shift register sequences,


m-stage shift register, length: n = 2m 1 bits
Take m=2

Stages connected to
modulo-2 adder

1,2

1,3

1,4

1,4

1,6

1,5,6,7

=> L=3

cn=[1,1,0,1,1,0, . . .],
usually written as bipolar
cn=[1,1,-1,1,1,-1, . . .]
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DSS & Narrowband Interference Rejection

Multiplication once by the


spreading code spreads the
signal bandwidth

Multiplication twice by the spreading


code followed by filtering, recovers
the original data signal

The desired signal gets multiplied twice, but the


interference gets multiplied only once
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Optimum Detection of DS/SS PSK


Recall, bipolar signaling (PSK) and white noise
give the optimum error probability

2 Eb
Pb Q

Not effected by spreading


Wideband noise not affected by spreading
Narrowband noise reduced by spreading
Pseudonoise (PN) codes : Spread signal at the transmitter & Despread
signal at the receiver

Ideal PN sequences should be : Orthogonal (no interference) :


Random (security) : Autocorrelation similar to white noise
(high at t = 0 and low for t not equal 0)
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CDMA in a DSSS Environment

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Use of SS
In the 1980s FCC implemented a set of rules making Spread Spectrum
available to the public.

Cordless Telephones, Global Positioning Systems (GPS), Cell


Phones, Personal Communication Systems, Wireless video cameras

Local Area Networks


Wireless Local Area Networks (WLAN) , Wireless Personal Area
Network (WPAN) , Wireless Metropolitan Area Network (WMAN),
Wireless Wide Area Network (WWAN)

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