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LUGAR GEOMTRICO DE

RACES

Luis Snchez

Contents
Introduction
Root-locus equation
Rules to draw regular
loci .(Continuacin)

root

Afinando el trazo
6. Puntos entrada y salida del eje
real
7. Cruces con el eje j.
8. ngulos de salida y llegada
9. Localizacin
de
puntos
especficos

6 Puntos de entrada y salida del eje real


Breakaway points on the RL
Ejemplo. Bosqueje el lugar
geomtrico de las races de un
sistema de control cuya
funcin de trasferencia en lazo
abierto viene dado por:

KG( s ) H ( s )

K ( s 3)( s 5)
( s 1)( s 2)

6 Puntos de entrada y salida del eje real


Breakaway points on the RL
Breakaway
point

point where
the
locus
leaves
the
real axis.

Break-in
point

point where
the
locus
returns to
the real axis.

6 Puntos Silla y salida del eje real


Breakaway points on the RL
j
p3

[s]

Puntos Silla

p2

p1
0

p4

KG( s) H ( s) 1

set s = (on the real axis)

1
K
G ( s) H ( s)
1
K
G ( ) H ( )

Breakaway
point

Break-in
point

Ejemplo
K ( s 3)( s 5)
KG( s ) H ( s )
( s 1)( s 2)

Encuentre los puntos de entrada


salida en eje real

K ( s 2 8s 15)
KG( s ) H ( s ) 1
( s 2 3s 2 )

Condition of poles

( s 2 3s 2)
K 2
( s 8s 15)
dK 11s 2 26 s 61

0
2
ds
s 8s 15

then solve for s

s = -1.45, 3.82 is breakaway and break-in points

Otra alternativa,
sin derivadas

n
1
1
1 s z 1 s p
i
i

Los puntos silla de salida y entrada satisfacen la relacin


anterior, donde zi y pi son el negativo de los valores de
cero y de polo, respectivamente de G(s)H(s)

1
1
1
1

s 3 s 5 s 1 s 2
11s 2 26s 61 0
s 1.45, 3.82

The poles and zeros of G(s)H(s) are shown in the


Example
following figure, determine its root loci.
j

Rule 1, 2, 3
-3

-2

-1

RL have three branchesstarting from


poles 0,2,3, ending at on finite zero
1 and two infinite zeros. The RL are
symmetrical with respect to the real
axis.

Rule 4The intersections [-1,0] and[-3,-2] on the real axis are RL.
Rule 5The RL have two asymptotes (nm2)
(2i 1)180
90, 270
nm
i 0,1

p z

a i 1

i 1

nm

0 (2) (3) (1)


2
2

Rule 6The RL have breakaway points on the real axis (within[-3,-2])


1
1
1
1

b1 b 0 b2 b3

b 2.47

K
G ( s) H ( s)
s ( s 4)( s 2 4 s 20)

Example

-4

-2

j4

-j4
n

Rule 1, 2, 3, 4 n=4, m=0


the RL are symmetrical with respect to
the real axis;
the RL have four branches which start
from poles 0,-4 and -2j4 ;
the RL end at infinite zeros;
the intersection [-4,0] on the real-axis
is RL
Rule 5
The RL have four asymptotes.
(2l 1)180
a
(l 0,1, 2,3)
nm
45
135, 225315
m

p z

i 1

i 1

nm

0 (4) (2)(2)

2
4

K
G ( s) H ( s)
s ( s 4)( s 2 4 s 20)

Example

Rule 6 the breakaway point of the


RL.

j4

K
1 G( s) H ( s) 1
0
2
s ( s 4)( s 4s 20)

-4

-2

-j4

K s ( s 4)( s 2 4s 20)
( s 4 8s 3 36s 2 80s)
dK
(4s 3 24s 2 72s 80) 0
ds

b1 2
b 2, 3 2 j 2.45

7 Intersection of the RL with the Imaginary Axis


Intersection of the RL with
Im-axis?

The characteristic equation have


roots on the Im-axis and the
system is marginally stable.

Method 1 Use Rouths criterion to obtain the value of K


when the system is marginally stable, the get from K.
Method 2
s j 1 G ( s ) H ( s ) 0
Re1 G ( j ) H ( j ) 0

Im1 G ( j ) H ( j ) 0

1 G ( j ) H ( j ) 0

Example Consider the following loop transfer function


G( s) H ( s)

K
s( s 1)( s 2)

Determine the intersection of the RL with Im-axis.

Method 1

s( s 1)( s 2) K s 3 3s 2 2s K 0

Closed-loop CE:
Rouths Tabulation:

s3

s2

s
s

6K
3
K

Marginally stable:
K =6
Auxiliary equation:

3s 6 0

Intersection point:

sj 2

Example Consider the following loop transfer function


G( s) H ( s)

K
s( s 1)( s 2)

Determine the intersection of the RL with Im-axis.

Method 2
3
2
s
(
s

1)(
s

2)

3
s
2s K 0
Closed-loop CE:

s j

Closed-loop CE 1 G( j) H ( j) 0

( j )3 3( j )2 2( j ) K ( K 3 2 ) j(2 3 ) 0

Real par t : K 3 20

Imaginary part: 2 30

2 K 6

8 Angles of departure and angles of arrival of the RL


The angle of departure or arrival of a root locus at a pole or zero,
respectively, of G(s)H(s) denotes the angle of the tangent to the
locus near the point.
Fact: root locus starts at open loop poles and ends at open loop zeros

KG( s) H ( s) (2k 1)180


zero angles pole angles
Assume a point on the root locus close to a complex Pole, the sum of angles to this
point is an odd multiple of 180.

Angel of departure (pole)


1 2 3 4 5 6 (2k 1)180

Angel of arrival (zero)


2 1 3 4 5 6 (2k 1)180

Ejemplo

sketch root locus and find angel of departure


of complex poles

x
x
-3

o
-2

-1
x

1 2 3 4
1
1 1
1 90 tan ( ) tan ( ) 180
1
2
1 251 .57 108 .43

Example

Consider the following loop transfer function


G( s) H ( s)

Determine its RL.

Ks

s 1 s 1
2

3 poles P1,2=-1(repeated poles) P3=11 zero Z1=0n-m=2


3 branches 2 asymptotes
n

P Z
i 1

i 1

nm

1 1 1 0
0.5
3 1

(2l 1) 3
a
,
nm
2 2

-1

Angle of departure:

pl (2l 1)

3
,

2 2

-0.5

Summary of General Rules for Constructing Root


Loci
R(S)

First, obtain the


characteristic equation (CE)

1 G( s) H ( s) 0

G(s)

C(s)

H(s)

Then, rearrange the equation so that the parameters of


interest appear as the multiplying factor in the form

K ( s z1 )( s z2 ) ( s zm )
1
0
( s p1 )( s p2 ) ( s pn )
We sketch the Root Loci when K>0 varies from 0 to .

Step 1: Locate the poles and zeros of G(s)H(s) on the s-plane. The
RL start from poles of G(s)H(s) and terminate at zeros (finite zeros
or zeros at infinity)
Step 2: Determine the RL on the real-axis. Choose a test point on
the real-axis, if the total number of real poles and real zeros to the
right of the test is odd, then the test point is on the RL.
Step 3: Determine the asymptotes of RL.
The angles between the asymptotes and
the real axis arei= 012 ,n-m1
The asymptotes intersect the realaxis at

(2i 1)180
a
nm
n

p z

a i 1

i 1

nm

Step 4: Determine the breakaway and break-in points.


The breakaway and break-in points can be determined by
finding the roots of

dK
0 or
ds

dG ( s ) H ( s )
0
ds

Step 5: Determine the angle of departure (angle of arrival) of the


RL from a complex pole (at a complex zero)
Angle of departure from a complex pole pj=

180
o

( p

i 1,i j

p i ) ( p j z i )
i 1

Angle of arrival at a complex zero zk=


n

180 ( zk p i )
o

i 1

( z

i 1,i k

zi )

Step 6: Find the points where the RL may cross the


imaginary-axis.
Method 1 Use Rouths criterion to obtain the value of
K when the system is marginally stable, the get
from K.
Method 2
s j 1 G( s) H ( s) 0 1 G( j ) H ( j ) 0
Re1 G ( j ) H ( j ) 0

Im1 G ( j ) H ( j ) 0

Example Consider a unity feedback system with the open-loop


transfer function as:
K
G( s)
s( s 3)( s 2 2 s 2)

Sketch RL of the closed-loop system when K varies from 0 to .

Solution.
loop TF:

K
G( s) H ( s)
s( s 3)( s 2 2 s 2)

Step 1: Locate the poles and zeros of G(s)H(s) on the splane.

loop poles: p1=0, p2=-3, p3,4=-1j, n=4;


no loop zeros: m=0;

K
G( s) H ( s)
s( s 3)( s 2 2 s 2)

Step 2: Determine the RL on the


real-axis. The section [0,-3] of
the real axis are RL.

1.5

Step 3: Determine the


asymptotes of RL

1
0.5

The angles between the


asymptotes and the real
axis arei= 01
2 ,n-m-1

-3

-2.5

-2

-1.5

(2i 1)180
nm
45 ,135 , 225 ,315

The asymptotes intersect the


real-axis at

p z
i 1

i 1

nm

1.25

-1

-0.5

G( s) H ( s)

Step 4: Determine the


breakaway and break-in
points.

K
s( s 3)( s 2 2 s 2)
1.5

1
0, i.e.,

i 1 d Pi

1
0.5

1
1
1
1

0
d d 3 d 1 j d 1 j
-3

d 2.3

-2.5

-2

-1.5

-1

-0.5

K
Step 5: Determine the angle of G ( s ) H ( s )
2
s
(
s

3)(
s
2 s 2)
departure (angle of arrival) of
the RL from a complex pole (at
a complex zero)
1.5

p3

p 3 180 ( p3 zi )

i 1

0.5

( p3 pi )
i 1
i 3

Using measurement to estimate

p 3 71.6

-3

-2.5

-2

-1.5

-1

-0.5

K
G( s) H ( s)
s( s 3)( s 2 2 s 2)

Step 6: Find the points


where the RL may cross the
imaginary-axis.

The characteristic equation:

1.5

p3

D( s) s 4 5s 3 8s 2 6s K 0
Substituting S=jw into the
above equation yields:
4
2

K 0

6 0

1.1

K 8.16

1
0.5

-3

-2.5

-2

-1.5

-1

-0.5

K
G( s) H ( s)
s( s 3)( s 2 2 s 2)

The complete RL:


K

1.5

K0

p3

1K8.16
0.5

K0
-3

K0
-2.5

-2

-1.5

-1

-0.5

K8.16

K0

RL Demo 1
j

j
0

j
j

RL Demo 2
j

j j

jj

0
0

j
0

0 0