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We have already studied about the newton's laws of motion and about their application

problems like collision of two objects,motion of the molecules of the gas,rocket

propulsion system etc

Thus a further study of newton's law is required to find some theorem or principles which

are direct consequences of Newton's law

energy.Here in this chapter we will define momentum and learn about the principle of

conservation of momentum .

Thus we begin this chapter with the concept of impluse and momentum which like work

and energy are developed from Newton's law of motion

To explain the terms impulse and momentum consider a particle of mass m is moving

along x-axis under the action of constant force F as shown below in the figure

If at time t=0 ,velocity of the particle is v0 then at any time t velocity of particle is given

by the equation

v = v0 + at

where a = F/m

can be determined from the newton's second law of motion .Putting value of acceleration

in above equation\

we get

mv = mv0 + Ft

or

Ft = mv - mv0

-(1)

right side of the equation Ft, is the product of force and the time during which the force

acts and is known as the impluse

Thus

Impulse= Ft

If a constant force acts on a body during a time from t1 and t2,then impulse of the force is

I = F(t2-t1)

-(2)

Thus impulse recieved during an impact is defined as the product of the force and time

interval during which it acts

Again consider left hand side of the equation (1) which is the difference of the product of

mass and velocity of the particle at two different times t=0 and t=t

This product of mass and velocity is known as linear momentum and is represented by

the symbol p. Mathematically

p = mv

--(3)

physically equation (1) states that the impulse of force from time t=0 to t=t is equal to the

change in linear momentum during

If at time t1 velocity of the particle is v1 and at time t2 velocity of the particle is v2,then

F(t2-t1)=mv2-mv1

-(4)

so far we have considered the case of the particle moving in a straight line i.e along xaxis and quantities involved F,v, and a were all scalars

If we call these quantities as components of the vectors F,v and a along x-axis and

generalize the definations of momentum and impulse so that the motion now is not

constrained along one -direction ,Thus we got

Impulse=I=F(t2-t1)

-(5)

Linear momentum=p=mv

-(6)

where

I=Ixi+Iyj+Izk

F=Fxi+Fyj+Fzk

p=pxi+pyj+pzk

v=vxi+vyj+vzk

are expressed in terms of their components along x,y and z axis and also in terms of unit

vectors

On generalizing equation (4) using respective vectors quantities we get the equation

F(t2-t1) =mv2-mv1

-(7)

So far while discussing Impulse and momentum we have considered force acting on

particle is constant in direction and maagnitude

In general ,the magnitude of the force may vary with time or both the direction and

magnitude may vary with time

the varying resultant force F. Now from newtons second law of motion we know that

F=m(dv/dt)

or Fdt=mdv

If at time t1 velocity of the particle is v1 and at time t2 velocity of the particle is v2,then

from above equation we have

Integral on the left hand side of the equation (8) is the impulse of the force F in the time

interval (t2-t1) and is a vector quantity,Thus

Above integral can be calculated easily if the Force F is some known function of time t

i.e.,

F=F(t)

Integral on the right side is when evaluated gives the product of the mass of the particle

and change in the velocity of the partcile

using equation (9) and (10) to rewrite the equation (8) we get

Thus we conclude that impulse of force F during the time interval t2-t1 is equal to the

change in the linear momentum of the body on which its acts

consequence of Newton's third law of motion in combination with the second

law of motion

Consider two particles of mass m1 and m2 interacting with each other and

forces acting on these particles are only the ones they exert on each other.

Let F12 be the force exerted by the particle 2 on particle 1 having mass m 1

and velocity v1 and F21=-F12 be the force exerted by the particle 1 on particle

2 having mass m2 and velocity v2

F12=m1(dv1/dt)

and F21=m2(dv2/dt)

F21=-F12

or m1(dv1/dt) + m2(dv2/dt)=0

Since mass of the particles are not varying with time so we can write

(d/dt)(m1v1 +m2v2)=0

or m1v1 +m2v2=constant

--(13)

Thus we conclude that when two particles are subjected only to their mutual

interactions ,the sum of the momentums of the bodies remains constant in

time or we can say the total momentum of the two particles does not change

becuase of the any mutual interactions between them

For any kind of force between two particles then sum of the momentum ,both

before and after the action of force should be equal i.e total momentum

remains constant

momentum

" when no resultant external force acts on system ,the total momentum of the

system remains constant in magnitude and direction"

conservation of linear momentum can be expressed as

m1v1 +m2v2+m3v3+m4v4+...=constant

important principle of mechanics

This principle also holds true even if the forces between the interacting

particles is not conservative

interacting particles is constant if they are isolated

from outside influences (or no resultant external forces is acting on the

particles)

In the begining when bullet is not fired both the gun and bullet are at rest.So

the momentum of the before firing is zero

pi=0

Now when the bullet is fired ,it moves in the forward direction and gun recoil

back in the opposite direction

Let mb be the mass and vb of velocity of the bullet And mg and vg be the

velcoity of the gun after the firing

pf=mbvb +mgvg

since no external force are acting on the system,we can apply the law of

conservation of linear momentum to the system

Therfore

pf=pi

or mbvb +mgvg=0

or vg=-(mbvb/mg)

The negative sign in above equation shows that velocity of the recoil of gun is

opposite to the velocity of the bullet

Since mass of the gun is very large as compared to the mass of the bullet,the

velocity of the recoil is very small as compared to the velocity of the bullet

Uptill now while studying classical mechanics we have always considered the

particle under consideration to have constant mas

which mass is varying and motion of the rocket is one such examples

In a rocket fuel is burned and the exhaust gas is expelled out from the rear of

the rocket

The force exerted by the exhaust gas on the rocket is equal and opposite to

the force exerted by the rocket to expell it

This force exerted by the exhaust gas on the rocket propels the rocket

forwards

The more gass is ejected from the rocket ,the mass of the rcoket decreases

direction and we neglect the resistance offered by the air to the motion of the

rocket and variation in the value of the acceleration due to gravity with

height

Figure above shows a rocket of mass m at a time t after its take off moving

with velocity v.Thus at time t momentum of the rocket is equal to mv.THus

pi=mv

Now after a short interval of time dt,gas of total mass dm is ejected from the

rocket

If vg represents the downward speed of the gas relative to the rocket then

velocity of the gas relative to earth is

vge=v-vg

And its momentum equal to

dmvge=dm(v-vg)

At time t+dt,the rocket and unburned fuel has mass m-dm and its moves with

the speed v+dv.Thus momentum of thee rocket is

=(m-dm)(v+dv)

pf=dm(v-vg)+(m-dm)(v+dv)

Here system constitute the ejected gas and rocket at the time t+dt

system is equal to the product of the resultant external force acting on the

system and the time interval during which the force acts

Here external force on the rocket is weight -mg of the rocket ( the upward

direction is taken as positive)

Now

Impulse=change in momentum

Fextdt=pf-pi

or

-mgdt=dm(v-vg)+(m-dm)(v+dv) - mv

or

-mgdt=mdv-vgdm-dmdv

term dmdv can be dropped as this product is neglibigle in comparison of

other two terms

Thus we have

In equation (14) dv/dt represent the acceleration of the rocket ,so mdv/dt

=resulant force on the rocket

Therefore

Resultant Force on rocket=Upthrust on the rocket - weight of the rocket

where upthrust on rocket=vg (dm/dt)

ejected gas and the mass of the gas ejected per unit time (dm/dt)

As rocket goes higher and higher ,value of the acceleration due to gravity g

decreases continously .The values of vg and dm/dt parctically remains

constant while fuel is being consumed but remaining mass m decreases

continously .This result in continous increase in acceleration of rocket untill all

the fuel is burned up

Now we will find the relation between the velocity at any time t and

remaining mass.Again from equation (15) we have

dv=vg (dm/m) -gdt

mass of the rocket in time dt is -dm.So while calculating total mass change in

rocket,we must change the sign of the term containing dm

--(16)

Initially at time t=0 if the mass and velocity of the rocket are m 0 and v0

respectively.After time t if m and v are mass and velocity of the rocket then

integrating equation (16) within these limits

v-v0=-vg(ln m- ln m0)-g(t-0)

or v=v0+vgln(m0/m) -gt

(17)

speed and ration of initial amd final masses at any time t

The speed acquired by the rocket when the whole of the fuel is burned out is

called burn-out speed of the rocket

Solved examples

Question 1 .A 1 kg ball moving at 12 m/s collides head on with 2 kg ball moving

with 24 m/s in opposite direction.What are the velocities after collision if e=2/3?

a. v1=-28 m/s,v2=-4 m/s

b. v1=-4 m/s,v2=-28 m/s

c. v1=28 m/s,v2=4 m/s

d. v1=4 m/s,v2=28 m/s

Solution 1

Let v1 and v2 be the final velocities of the mass

Since the linear momentum is conserved in the collision

Momentum before =Momentum after

1*12+2*-24=1*v1+2*v2

Which becomes

-36=v1+2v2 ----1

Now

e=(v2 -v1)/(u1 -u2)

or 2/3= (v2 -v1)/[12-(-24)]

or

v2 -v1=24 ----2

Solving 1 and 2

v2=-4

v1=-28

Hence a is correct

Question 2.A moving bullet hits a solid target resting on a frictionless surface and

get embeded in it.What is conserved in it?

a. Momentum Alone

b KE alone

c. Both Momentum and KE

d. Neither KE nor momentum

Solution 2 Since no external force is present,Momentum is conserved in the

collision

Since the collison is in elastic ,KE is not conserved

the pieces fly off at right angles to each other with the velocities 2i m/s and 3j m/s.If

the explosion takes place in 10-3 sec.find out the average force action on the third

piece in N

a.(-2i-3j)103

b. (2i+3j)103

c (2i-3j)10-3

d. none of these

Solution 3.

Net momentum before explosion zero

Since momentum is conserved in explosion

Net momentum after collosion is zero

Momentum of first part after explosion=2i

Momentum of second part after explosion=3j

So momentum of third part after explosion=-(2i+3j) as net momentum is zero

Now Net change is momentum of this part =-(2i+3j)

Now we know that

Average force X time =Net change in momentum

hence a is correct

block of Mass M suspended from a support and get embeded into it.The KE of th

wooden + block system after the collisson

a.m2u2/2(M+m)

b.mu2/2

c. (m+M)u2/2

d. mMu2/2(M+m)

b>Solution 4.

Intial velocity of bullet=u

Intial velocity of block=0

So net momentum before collison=mu

Let v be the velocity after collision

Then Net momentum after collision=(M+m)v

Now linear momentum is conserved in this collision

so

mu=(M+m)v

or v=mu/(M+m)

So kinetic energy after collision

=(1/2)m2u2/2(M+m)

Hence a is correct

horizontal surface.If it is stopped in distance s.Find the value of coefficient of friction

a.p2/2M2gs

b. p/2Mgs

c. p2/2Mgs

d. p/2M2gs

Solution 5.

Deceleration due to friction=g

Intial velocity=P/M

Now v2=u2 -2as

as v=0

P2/M2=2gs

or =P2/2gsM2

Hence a is correct

a. Linear momentum

b.mass

c.energy

d. angular momentum

Solution 6. A rocket works on the principle of linear momentum.

Question 7.A flat car of weight W roll without resistance along on a horizontal track

.Intially the car together with weight w is moving to the right with speed v.What

invcrement of the velocity car will obtain if man runs with speed u reltaive to the

floor of the car and jumps of at the left?

a.wu/w+W

b. Wu/W+w

c. (W+w)u/w

d. none of the above

Solution 7 Considering velocities to the right as positive

The intial momentum of the system is

=[(W+w)/g]v

Let v be the increment in velocity then

Final momentun of the car is

(W/g)(v+v)

While that of man is

(w/g)(v+v-v)

gives then

[(W+w)/g]v=(W/g)(v+v)+(w/g)(v+v-v

or v=wu/(W+w)

STATEMENT 1 Linear momentum of a system of particles is zero.

STATEMENT 2 Kinetic energy of system of particles is zero.

(A) A does not imply B and B does not imply A.

(B) A implies B but B does not imply A

(C) A does not imply B but b implies A

(D) A implies B and B implies A.

Solution 8

Net momentum=m1v1+m2v2

Net Kinectic Energy=(1/2)m1v12+(1/2)m2v22

Let v1=v ,v2=-v and m1=m2=m

Then Net momentum=0 but Net Kinectic Energy is not equal to zero

Now lets v1= v2=0

Then Net Kinectic Energy=0 and Net momentum=0

Hence (c) is correct

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