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TABLE OF CONTENTS

CONTROL SYSTEM
Outline .......................................................................................................................................3-3-3-1-1
Engine Control ..........................................................................................................................3-3-3-1-2

ELECTRICAL SYSTEM
Outline .......................................................................................................................................3-3-3-2-1
Power Source Circuit ................................................................................................................3-3-3-2-2
Bulb Check Circuit (From Machine Serial No. 1001 to 1045) ...................................................3-3-3-2-3
Bulb Check Circuit (From Machine Serial No. 1046 and After).................................................3-3-3-2-4
Engine Start Circuit (From Machine Serial No. 1001 to 1045)..................................................3-3-3-2-6
Engine Start Circuit (From Machine Serial No. 1046 and After) ...............................................3-3-3-2-8
Charging Circuit (Key Switch: ON) (From Machine Serial No. 1001 to 1045) ........................3-3-3-2-12
Charging Circuit (Key Switch: ON) (From Machine Serial No. 1046 and After)......................3-3-3-2-14
Accessory Circuit ....................................................................................................................3-3-3-2-16
Surge Voltage Prevention Circuit ............................................................................................3-3-3-2-18

SYSTEM / Control System


OUTLINE
Main controllers (A and B) with built-in microcomputers
and ECM (Engine Control Module) are used for machine control. The main controllers (A and B) and ECM
process signals from the engine control dial, engine
speed sensors (1 and 2) and various switches, actuating the solenoid valves and electronic governor, and
controlling the engine and pumps.
Engine Control
Engine Speed Control
Fuel Restriction Control
Quick-Idle Control
Auto-Idle Control
Low Temperature Start Control
ECM Diagnosing Control
Engine Protection Control
Pump Control
SP Mode Control
E Mode Control
Pump Flow Rate Control at Slow Engine Speed
Pump Flow Rate Control at Middle Engine Speed
Power Decrease Control to Prevent Engine
Overheating
Power Decrease Control Abnormal Engine Oil
Pressure
Power Decrease Control Low Coolant Level
Valve Control
Travel Mode Control
Heavy Lift Control
Boom Mode Selection Control
Oil Cooler Fan Motor Control
Auto-Lubrication Control

3-3-3-1-1

SYSTEM / Control System


ENGINE CONTROL
Engine Speed Control
Purpose: Controls engine speed and output torque
in response to engine control dial setting
and engine loads.
Operation: The engine control dial sends signals to
the ECM in proportion to the dial setting.
Then, the ECM drives the governor in response to the delivered signals to control
engine speed. At the same time the ECM
receives signals from engine speed sensor 2 and governor angle sensor provided
on the governor. Based on these signals,
the ECM judges how the engine loading
condition is and operates the governor to
the best position. In other engine control
operations, the ECM is always monitoring
the governor position by the signals from
the governor angle sensor.

Key Switch
Engine Speed Sensor 2
Governor Angle Sensor
Governor

Engine Control
Dial

T183-02-01-002

3-3-3-1-2

SYSTEM / Control System


Fuel Restriction Control
Purpose: Prevents the engine from being overloaded and exhausting black smoke by
increasing the fuel injection as engine
loads increases. The ECM controls the
fuel injection by the engine speed control
function (refer to T2-1-2). Then, corresponding to engine speed and boost
pressure, the maximum fuel injection is
set by the ECM.
Operation: The ECM receives signals from the engine speed sensor 2 and the boost pressure sensor. Then, the ECM controls the
governor so that the fuel is not injected
more than the pre-set volume.

Boost Pressure Sensor


Engine Speed
Sensor 2

Governor

3-3-3-1-3

T146-02-01-014

SYSTEM / Control System


Quick-Idle Control
Purpose: Reduces fuel consumption by quickly decreasing engine speed. This function will
be effective when the machine waits for a
period of time as when waiting for a dump
truck to be set in a loading position.
Operation: When the quick-idle switch on the right
control lever is turned ON, signals from
the relay drive circuit in the monitor controller are delivered to the ECM. Then, the
ECM drives the governor to reduce en-1
gine speed down to 850 min . When the
quick-idle switch is turned OFF, engine
speed resumes to the speed set by the
engine control dial.

Quick-Idle
Switch

Monitor Controller
Relay Drive Circuit

Governor
T183-02-01-006

3-3-3-1-4

SYSTEM / Control System


Auto-Idle Control
Purpose: Reduces engine speed, fuels consumption and noise when all control levers are
neutral and the engine is running at a
speed faster than the auto-idle set speed
with the auto-idle switch ON.
NOTE: All pilot system pressure is routed to the
swing brake release shuttle valve.
Operation: When all control levers are in the neutral
position, the pressure sensor in the swing
brake release shuttle valve detects the
pilot pressure. Then, approx. 3 second
after main controller A is notified with the
auto-idle switch ON that pilot pressure at
2
the pressure sensor is 0.4 MPa (4 kgf/cm ,
57 psi) or lower, main controller sends out
a signal to the ECM, by which the ECM
-1
reduces engine speed down to 1400 min .
At the same time, main controller sends
out signals to power decrease solenoid
valves (SA and SB). Then, power decrease solenoid valves (SA and SB) are
shifted by the delivered signals so that pilot pressure oil is routed to regulator ports
PG of main pumps (1, 2, and 3). Consequently, the pump swash angle is reduced,
causing the pump to reduce the flow rate.
Swing Brake
Release Shuttle
Valve

When a control lever is operated and the pressure


2
sensor detects 0.7 MPa (7kgf/cm , 100psi) pressure,
main controller stops sending out signals the ECM.
Thereby, engine speed is increased up to the speed
set by the engine control dial. Main controller A receives signal from engine speed sensor 1. Therefore,
-1
when engine speed increases more than 1500 min ,
main controller A stops sending out signals to power
decrease solenoid valves (SA and SB) so that the
pump swash angle is increased, causing the pump
flow rate to increase.
(Refer to the Regulator in the COMPONENT
OPERATION / Pump Device group for regulator operation.)

Auto-Idle
Switch

Power Decrease Solenoid Valve

Pressure Sensor
P
Main
Controller A

SA

SB

Pilot Pump

Engine Speed
Sensor

PG
PG
ECM

Main Pump 3

Main Pump 2

Main Pump 1

3-3-3-1-5

T183-02-01-001

SYSTEM / Control System


Low Temperature Start Control (From machine
serial no. 1001 to 1045)
Purpose: Heats the intake air when the atmospheric temperature is low (-5C (23F) or
lower) by depressing the preheat switch
in the cab to make the engine start more
easily.
Operation:
1. When the key switch is turned to the ACC position, current from key switch terminal ACC magnetizes the ECM relay via fuse box (ECM) terminal #4.
2. When the ECM relay is magnetized, battery current is routed to ECM (#J1-23) via fusible link 1,
fuse box (ECM) fuse #1, ECM relay, and to the
preheat switch via fuse box (ECM) fuse #2.
3. When the preheat switch is pressed at this time,
battery current is routed to ECM (#J2-5) via the
preheat switch. Then, the ECM recognizes that
the preheat switch has been pressed.
4. Thereby, the ECM judges that low temperature
start operation is required so that the ECM drives
the governor to the low temperature start position.
This state is maintained until the engine starts or
the key switch is turned OFF.
5. When the ECM judges that low temperature start
operation is required, the ECM magnetizes preheat relay 1 and preheat relay 3 at the same time.
6. When preheat relay 1 is magnetized, current from
the ECM relay magnetizes preheat relay 2 via
fuse box (ECM) fuse #3 and preheat relay 1.
7. When preheat relay 2 is magnetized, battery current activates air heater 1 via preheat relay 2 and
fusible link 7.
8. At the same time, current from preheat relay 2
magnetizes the preheat indicator relay.
9. Then, current flows through the preheat indicator
in the monitor controller, turning the preheat indicator ON.
10. When preheat relay 3 is magnetized, battery current activates air heater 2 via preheat relay 3 and
fusible link 8.

NOTE: Even if the preheat switch is turned ON,


the ECM will not magnetize preheat relay
1and preheat relay 3 under the conditions
below.

When the key switch is in the ON position.


When the ECM receives signals from engine
speed sensor 2 (ECM).

When preheat relay 1 is kept magnetized for


more than 60 seconds.
(However, preheat relay 1 will be re-magnetized 60
seconds after preheat switch is turned OFF.)
When preheat relay 3 is kept magnetized for
more than 15 seconds.
(However, preheat relay 3 will be re-magnetized 15
seconds after preheat switch is turned OFF.)

3-3-3-1-6

SYSTEM / Control System

Air Heater 2
Key Switch

Preheat
Relay 3

Fusible
Link 8

From Battery

Fuse Box
(ECM) Fuse #4
Fusible
Link 1

ECM
Relay

Fuse Box
(ECM) Fuse #1

Fuse Box
(ECM) Fuse #2

Battery
Air Heater 1

Fuse Box
(ECM)
Fuse #3

Fusible
Link 7
Preheat
Relay 2

Preheat Switch
Engine Stop
Relay

Preheat
Relay 1

Power
Transistor
J2-9
J1-23

Preheat
Indicator

J2-5 J2-11
J2-12

Main
Controller A

Preheat
Indicator
Relay
Monitor Controller

Engine Speed
Sensor 2
Governor

T183-02-01-007

3-3-3-1-7

SYSTEM / Control System


Low Temperature Start Control (From machine
serial no. 1046 and after)
Purpose: Heats the intake air when the atmospheric temperature is low (-5C (23F) or
lower) by depressing the preheat switch
in the cab to make the engine start more
easily.
Operation:
1. When the key switch is turned to the ACC position, current from key switch terminal ACC magnetizes the ECM relay via fuse box (ECM) terminal #4.
2. When the ECM relay is magnetized, battery current is routed to ECM (#J1-23) via fusible link 1,
fuse box (ECM) fuse #1, ECM relay, and to the
preheat switch via fuse box (ECM) fuse #2.
3. When the preheat switch is pressed at this time,
battery current is routed to ECM (#J2-5) via the
preheat switch. Then, the ECM recognizes that
the preheat switch has been pressed.
4. Thereby, the ECM judges that low temperature
start operation is required so that the ECM drives
the governor to the low temperature start position.
This state is maintained until the engine starts or
the key switch is turned OFF.
5. When the ECM judges that low temperature start
operation is required, the ECM magnetizes preheat relay 1 and preheat relay 3 at the same time.
6. When preheat relay 1 is magnetized, current from
the ECM relay magnetizes preheat relay 2 via
fuse box (ECM) fuse #3 and preheat relay 1.
7. When preheat relay 2 is magnetized, battery current activates air heater 1 via preheat relay 2 and
fusible link 8.
8. At the same time, current from preheat relay 2
magnetizes the preheat indicator relay.
9. Then, current flows through the preheat indicator
in the monitor controller, turning the preheat indicator ON.
10. When preheat relay 3 is magnetized, battery current activates air heater 2 via preheat relay 3 and
fusible link 7.

NOTE: Even if the preheat switch is turned ON,


the ECM will not magnetize preheat relay
1and preheat relay 3 under the conditions
below.

When the key switch is in the ON position.


When the ECM receives signals from engine
speed sensor 2 (ECM).

When preheat relay 1 is kept magnetized for


more than 60 seconds.
(However, preheat relay 1 will be re-magnetized 60
seconds after preheat switch is turned OFF.)
When preheat relay 3 is kept magnetized for
more than 15 seconds.
(However, preheat relay 3 will be re-magnetized 15
seconds after preheat switch is turned OFF.)

3-3-3-1-8

SYSTEM / Control System

Air Heater 2
Key Switch

Preheat
Relay 3

Fusible
Link 7

From Battery

Fuse Box
(ECM) Fuse #4
Fusible
Link 1

ECM
Relay

Fuse Box
(ECM) Fuse #1

Fuse Box
(ECM) Fuse #2

Battery
Air Heater 1

Fuse Box
(ECM)
Fuse #3

Fusible
Link 8
Preheat
Relay 2

Preheat Switch
Engine Stop
Relay

Preheat
Relay 1

Power
Transistor
J2-9
J1-23

Preheat
Indicator

J2-5 J2-11
J2-12

Main
Controller A

Preheat
Indicator
Relay
Monitor Controller

Engine Speed
Sensor 2
Governor

T183-02-01-007

3-3-3-1-9

SYSTEM / Control System


ECM Diagnosing Control
Purpose: Detects engine failure status according to
signals delivered from various sensors
connected to the ECM and controls engine
speed, fuel injection, and can stop the engine. Also, displays failure status with the
diagnosing mode indicator.
Operation:
1. Electrical signals from the various sensors are
input to the ECM. Then, if any input signals outside the specified range arrive in the ECM, the
ECM judges that the engine fails.
2. If the ECM judges that the engine fails, the ECM,
depending on the location of the failure, lets the
-1
governor reduce the engine speed to 1000 min ;
turns the engine stop indicator ON by sending
signal to the engine stop indicator relay; makes
the engine warning indicator flash by sending signal to the engine warning indicator relay; or sends
the engine stop signal to the governor.

3. When an engine stop signal is delivered to the


governor from the ECM, the governor moves to
its lowest position, shutting the fuel supply off.
Then, the engine is stopped.
4. When the diagnostic switch located in the cab is
turned ON, the ECM indicates the failure mode in
response to the failure location by flashing the
engine warning indicator.

Monitor
Engine Warning
Indicator Relay
Engine Stop
Indicator
Engine Warning
Indicator
Engine Stop Indicator Relay

Governor Angle
Sensor
Diagnostic Switch
Engine Speed
Sensor 2

Boost
Pressure
Sensor

Governor

T183-02-01-008

3-3-3-1-10

SYSTEM / Control System

Trouble
Abnormal Engine Control
Dial Signal
Abnormal Turbo Boost
Pressure Sensor Signal

Abnormal Engine Speed


Sensor 2 Signal
Abnormal Governor (Actuator Driver) Electric
Power
Abnormal Governor Angle Sensor Signal (Actuator Position)
Abnormal Sensor (Turbo
Boost Pressure Sensor
and/ or Engine Control
Dial) Electric Power

Abnormal Signal
Range

Failure
Indication (Indicator ON)

Less than 0.25V,


or 4.75 V or
higher
Less than 0.25V,
or 4.75 V or
higher
-1

100 min or less,


1.5 V or less effective value
Short-circuited
governor electric
power line
Less than 0.05V,
or 4.95 V or
higher
Less than 4.75
V, or 5.25 V or
more sensor
supply voltage

Failure Indication
(Numbers of
Flashing)
Engine Warning
Indicator (2-5)*
Engine Warning
Indicator (2-3)*

Corrective Measure
to betaken by ECM
Holding engine speed
-1
at 1000 min
Deactivating fuel restriction control by
turbo boost air pressure
Stopping engine

Engine Stop
Indicator

Engine Warning
Indicator (2-1)*

Engine
Stop Indicator

Engine Warning
Indicator (4-1)*

Stopping engine

Engine
Stop Indicator

Engine Warning
Indicator (4-5)*

Stopping engine

Engine Warning
Indicator (4-3)*

None

*: (2-5) means that the warning indicator flashes twice


and then five times with a short pause between them
and then repeats after a long pause.
Diagnostic
Switch

M183-01-008

3-3-3-1-11

SYSTEM / Control System


Engine Protection Control
Purpose: Monitors engine operating condition according to input signals delivered from
the overheat switch, engine oil pressure
switches (high and low pressure), and
coolant level switch, and reduces engine
loads by decreasing pump drive power or
stops the engine in case any engine
trouble is detected.
Operation: Main controller A performs as described
below to protect the engine from being
damaged.

Overheating
1. When coolant temperature increases over 101 C
(214 F), the overheat switch is turned ON, sending a signal to main controller A.
2. Upon receiving the signal, main controller A instructs power increase solenoid valve ST so that
power increase control is deactivated and only
power decrease control by power decrease solenoid valves (SA and SB) are activated. (Refer to
the Pump Control description pages.)
3. Then, pump drive torque is minimized, reducing
the engine loads.
4. At the same time, main controller turns the overheat indicator ON and closes the ground line of
power transistor 2.
5. Then, power transistor 2 magnetizes the engine
protection relay and sends the torque decrease
signal to the ECM.
6. Thereby, the ECM drives the governor so that engine speed and output torque are reduced.

Abnormal Engine Oil Pressure


1. When the engine oil pressure switch (high or low)
is turned ON, the signal from the switch is input to
main controller A.
NOTE: When engine speed is more than 1500
-1
min , main controller A processes the signal from the engine oil pressure switch
(High pressure).
-1
When engine speed is 1500 min or less,
main controller A processes the signal from
the engine oil pressure switch (Low Pressure).
2. Then, main controller A instructs power increase
solenoid valve ST so that power increase control
is deactivated and only power decrease control by
power decrease solenoid valves (SA and SB) are
activated. (Refer to the Pump Control description
pages.)
3. Then, pump drive torque is minimized, reducing
the engine loads.
4. At the same time, main controller turns the engine
oil pressure indicator ON and closes the ground
line of power transistor 2.
5. Then, power transistor 2 magnetizes the engine
protection relay and sends the torque decrease
signal to the ECM.
6. The ECM drives the governor in such a manner
-1
as to reduce the engine speed to 1655 min
-1
when the engine speed is over 1655 min , and
keep the engine speed unchanged when the en-1
gine speed is 1655 min or lower.
7. If reduction in engine oil pressure continues for
10 seconds or more, main controller A connects
the line from power transistor 1 to ground.
8. Power transistor 1 activates the engine stop relay
so that the engine is stopped by the engine stop
solenoid relay and engine stop solenoid.

3-3-3-1-12

SYSTEM / Control System

Engine Oil Pressure Indicator


Overheat Indicator

From Battery

Power
Transistor 2
Engine Oil Pressure Switch
(High Pressure)

Engine Oil Pressure Switch


(Low Pressure)

Main
Controller

Overheat
Switch

Engine Protection Relay

Coolant Level
Switch

Power
Transistor 1

Engine Stop Relay


From Key
Switch

From Battery

Engine Stop Solenoid


Fuse Box 2
Fuse #14

Engine Stop Solenoid Relay

Power Increase
Solenoid Valve ST

Power Decrease
Solenoid Valve
SA

Power Decrease
Solenoid Valve SB
T183-02-01-005

3-3-3-1-13

SYSTEM / Control System


Low Coolant Level
1. When the coolant level switch is turned ON, a
signal from the switch is input to main controller
A.
2. If the signal is input continuously for 10 seconds
or more, main controller A instructs power increase solenoid valve ST so that power increase
control is deactivated and only power decrease
control by power decrease solenoid valves (SA
and SB) are activated. (Refer to the Pump Control description pages.)
3. Then, pump drive torque is minimized, reducing
the engine load.
4. At the same time, main controller A closes the
ground line of power transistor 2.
5. Then, power transistor 2 magnetizes the engine
protection relay and sends the torque decrease
signal to the ECM.
6. Thereby, the ECM drives the governor so that engine output torque is reduced. (without decreasing engine speed)
7. If lower coolant level status continues for 120
seconds or more, main controller A closes the
ground line of power transistor 1.
8. Power transistor 1 magnetizes the engine stop
relay so that the engine is stopped by the engine
stop solenoid relay and engine stop solenoid.

3-3-3-1-14

SYSTEM / Control System

Engine Oil Pressure Indicator


Overheat Indicator

From Battery

Power
Transistor 2
Engine Oil Pressure Switch
(High Pressure)

Engine Oil Pressure Switch


(Low Pressure)

Main
Controller

Overheat
Switch

Engine Protection Relay

Coolant Level
Switch

Power
Transistor
1
Engine Stop Relay
From Key
Switch

From Battery

Engine Stop Solenoid


Fuse Box 2
Fuse #14
Engine Stop Solenoid Relay

Power Increase
Solenoid Valve ST

Power Decrease
Solenoid Valve
SA

Power Decrease
Solenoid Valve SB
T183-02-01-005

3-3-3-1-15

SYSTEM / Electrical System


OUTLINE
The electrical system roughly falls into three sections
such as the main circuit, the control circuit, and the
monitor circuits.

Main Circuit
Engine and accessory circuit

Control Circuit
Engine and pump control circuits consisting of actuators such as solenoid valves, main controller A
and B, ECM (Engine Control Module), sensors,
pressure switches, etc.

Monitor Circuit
Machine operation status indication circuit consisting of sensors, switches, etc.
Outline of the major functions and construction of the
main circuit are explained hereafter.

Power Source Circuit


Supplies electric power to all electrical systems on
the machine.

Bulb Check Circuit


Checks for burned monitor warning lights and indicator bulbs.

Engine Start Circuit


Rotates the starter to start the engine.

Charging Circuit
Recharges the batteries and supplies current to all
the electrical components from the alternator.

Accessory Circuit
Operates when the key switch is in the ACC position.

Surge Voltage Prevention Circuit


Protects the electrical equipment such as the controller from surge voltage developed when stopping
the engine.

3-3-3-2-1

SYSTEM / Electrical System


POWER SOURCE CIRCUIT
Negative terminal of the battery is connected to the
vehicle frame. When the key switch is OFF, battery
current is supplied to the monitor and the main controller B only as backup power.

Key Switch

Fuse Box

Fusible Link
Preheat
Relay 2

Battery
Relay 2
Fuse Box
(ECM)

Load Damp
Relay

Battery
Relay 1
Battery

ECM
Relay
Monitor Controller

Main
Controller B

ECM

T183-02-03-001

3-3-3-2-2

SYSTEM / Electrical System


BULB CHECK CIRCUIT
(From machine serial no. 1001 to 1045)
When the key switch is turned ON, terminal B is connected to terminals ACC and M in the key switch. The
current from terminal M magnetizes battery relay 1 so
that battery current is routed to the monitor controller
via battery relay 1, the junction box, and the fuse box,
turning all warning lights and indicators on the monitor
panel ON.
Any warning light and/or indicator which doesnt come
ON at this time may have burned out.

Fuse Box

Key Switch

Fusible Link
Preheat Relay
Junction
Box
Battery
Relay 2
Engine
Stop
Relay
Starter Relay 1
Battery
Relay 1
Battery

Monitor Controller

T183-02-03-002

3-3-3-2-3

SYSTEM / Electrical System


BULB CHECK CIRCUIT
(From machine serial no. 1046 and after)
When the key switch is turned ON, terminal B is connected to terminals ACC and M in the key switch. The
current from terminal M magnetizes battery relay 2 so
that battery current is routed to the monitor controller
via battery relay 2, the 1 pole junction, and the fuse
box, turning all warning lights and indicators on the
monitor panel ON.
Any warning light and/or indicator which doesnt come
ON at this time may have burned out.

Fuse Box

Key Switch

Fusible Link
Preheat Relay
1 Pole
Junction
Battery
Relay 2
Engine
Stop
Relay
Starter Relay 1
Battery
Relay 1
Battery

Monitor
Controller

T183-02-03-010

3-3-3-2-4

SYSTEM / Electrical System


(Blank)

3-3-3-2-5

SYSTEM / Electrical System


ENGINE START CIRCUIT
(From machine serial no. 1001 to 1045)
1. When the key switch is turned ON, current from
key switch terminal M magnetizes battery relays 1
and 2 via fuse #10 in fuse box.
2. When battery relays 1 and 2 are magnetized,
battery current is routed to starter motor (2 used)
terminals B via battery relays 1 and 2.
3. Current from key switch terminal M also magnetizes the engine stop solenoid relay via the engine
stop relay.
4. Therefore, the engine stop solenoid relay is
turned ON so that the engine stop solenoid is activated by current from the junction box. Then, the
fuel injection pump rack connected to the engine
stop solenoid with a link is moved from the engine
stop position. Consequently, the fuel injection
pump can be controlled by the governor, allowing
the engine to start.
5. When the key switch is turned to the START position, current from key switch terminal G2 magnetizes starter relay 1 via fuse #19 in fuse box,
start repeating relay, and starter relay 2.
6. When starter relay 1 is magnetized, battery current is routed to starter motor terminal C.
7. When current is routed to starter motor terminal C,
the coil in the starter motor is magnetized, drawing main contactor so that the contact point is
closed. At the same time, the pinion gear is extended to engage with the engine ring gear.
8. When the main contactor contact point is closed,
battery current is routed to the motor from starter
motor terminal B, rotating the motor.
9. Once the engine starts, the alternator begins to
generate electricity and supplies current from alternator terminals B, L, and R.

10. Current from the alternator terminal L is applied to


starter relay 2 terminal R to demagnetize starter
relay 2.
11. Consequently, starter relay 2 is turned OFF so
that starter relay 1 magnetizing current is cut off,
turning starter relay 1 OFF.
12. When magnetizing current routed to starter terminal C from the starter relay 1 is cut off, the main
contactor is turned OFF, causing the pinion gear
in the starter to retract.
13. At the same time, battery current is cut off so that
starter motor stops rotating.
14. While the engine is rotating (when the alternator
is generating), no current is routed to starter terminal C. Therefore, even if the key switch is
turned to the START position, the starter will not
rotate.
NOTE: The start repeating relay is provided to always start the engine with two starter motors.

3-3-3-2-6

(Refer to T2-3-10 for start repeating relay


operation.)

SYSTEM / Electrical System

Key Switch
Fuse
Box

Fuse
Box
Engine Stop
Solenoid
Junction Box
Engine Stop Solenoid Relay
Battery
Relay 2

Engine Stop
Relay

Fusible Link
(100A)

Starter Relay 1

Battery
Relay 1

Starter Relay 2

Battery

Start Repeating Relay


B
L

Alternator
R
Starter Motor

Motor

T183-02-03-003

Coil

3-3-3-2-7

Main Contactor

SYSTEM / Electrical System


ENGINE START CIRCUIT
(From machine serial no. 1046 and after)
1. When the key switch is turned ON, current from
key switch terminal M magnetizes battery relays 1
and 2 via fuse #10 in fuse box.
2. When battery relays 1 and 2 are magnetized,
battery current is routed to starter motor (2 used)
terminals B via battery relays 1 and 2.
3. Current from key switch terminal M also magnetizes the engine stop solenoid relay via the engine
stop relay.
4. Therefore, the engine stop solenoid relay is
turned ON so that the engine stop solenoid is activated by current from the 1 pole junction. Then,
the fuel injection pump rack connected to the engine stop solenoid with a link is moved from the
engine stop position. Consequently, the fuel injection pump can be controlled by the governor, allowing the engine to start.
5. When the key switch is set to the START position,
current from key switch terminal G2 is applied
through fuse #19 in fuse box and auto engagement relay in order to magnetize safety replay
and starter relay.
6. When starter relay 1 is magnetized, battery current is routed to starter motor terminal C.
7. When current is routed to starter motor terminal C,
the coil in the starter motor is magnetized, drawing main contactor so that the contact point is
closed. At the same time, the pinion gear is extended to engage with the engine ring gear.
8. When the main contactor contact point is closed,
battery current is routed to the motor from starter
motor terminal B, rotating the motor.
9. Once the engine starts, the alternator begins to
generate electricity and supplies current from alternator terminals B, L, and R.

10. Current from the alternator terminal L is applied to


starter relay 2 terminal R to demagnetize starter
relay 2.
11. Consequently, starter relay 2 is turned OFF so
that starter relay 1 magnetizing current is cut off,
turning starter relay 1 OFF.
12. When magnetizing current routed to starter terminal C from the starter relay 1 is cut off, the main
contactor is turned OFF, causing the pinion gear
in the starter to retract.
13. At the same time, battery current is cut off so that
starter motor stops rotating.
14. While the engine is rotating (when the alternator
is generating), no current is routed to starter terminal C. Therefore, even if the key switch is
turned to the START position, the starter will not
rotate.
NOTE: The start repeating relay is provided to always start the engine with two starter motors.

3-3-3-2-8

(Refer to T2-3-10 for start repeating relay


operation.)

SYSTEM / Electrical System

Key Switch
Fuse
Box

Fuse
Box
Engine Stop
Solenoid

1 Pole
Junction

Engine Stop Solenoid Relay


Battery
Relay 2

Engine Stop
Relay

Fusible Link
(100A)

Starter Relay 1

Starter Relay 2

Battery
Relay 1

Battery

Start Repeating Relay


B
L

Alternator
R
Starter Motor

Motor

T183-02-03-012

Coil

3-3-3-2-9

Main Contactor

SYSTEM / Electrical System


Start Repeating Relay Operation
When both starter pinion gears are normally extended:
1. When the starter pinion gear is extended, the
starter motor main contact is closed. Therefore,
current from the battery relay is routed to starter
motor terminal M so that the voltage between
terminals M on the starter and the start repeating
relay increases.
2. Then, transistor TR cannot operate, preventing
current from flowing through coil C3 and holding
contact P1 closed.
3. Current routed to start repeating relay terminal SS
magnetizes coil C1 via contact P1.
4. As coil C1 is magnetized, contact P2 is closed,
allowing current routed to terminal SS to flow to
starter relay 2 terminal B.

When the pinion gear is not completely extended:


1. In case the starter pinion gear is not extended,
the starter motor main contact is kept open.
Therefore, no current is routed to terminal M from
the battery relay. Then, the voltage between terminals M on the starter and the start repeating
relay decreases.
2. When voltage at start repeating relay terminal M
decreases, the voltage between both sides of diode D2 increases.
3. Current from terminal SS is routed to condenser
C via contact P1, resistances R1 and R2, and diode D1, charging condenser C.
4. As soon as condenser C is charged, current is
routed to the base of transistor TR via variable
resistance T.
5. Then, the circuit from the emitter to collector of
transistor TR is closed.
6. When the voltage at the rear side of diode is low,
current from terminal SS is routed to starter motor
terminal M via contact P1, coil C3, transistor TR,
resistance R4, and diode D2.

7. At the same time, current accumulated in condenser C is also routed to starter motor terminal
M via transistor TR, resistance R4, and diode D2.
8. Then, current routed to starter motor terminal M
flows to the vehicle frame via the holding coil and
the pull-in coil. However, winding direction of both
coils are opposite each other so that both coil
magnetic forces are canceled, causing the main
contactor to be held open.
9. Coil C3 is magnetized so that contact P1 is
opened.
10. Then, coil C1 is demagnetized, opening contact
P2. Therefore current from terminal SS is not
routed to starter relay 2 terminal B.
11. Consequently, starter relay 1 is demagnetized,
interrupting current to starter motor terminal C.
12. After discharging the specified voltage condenser
C in the start repeating relay is recharged.
13. When recharging of condenser C is started, current from diode D1 is used to charge condenser C
so that no current is routed to base B of transistor
TR, disconnecting circuit between emitter E and
collector C.
14. Then, coil C3 is also demagnetized.
15. When coil C3 is demagnetized, contact P1 is
closed so that current from terminal SS magnetizes coil C1.
16. When coil C1 is magnetized, contact P2 is closed,
allowing current from terminal SS to flow to starter
relay 2 terminal B.
17. The start repeating relay repeats steps 1 to 16 until the pinion gears in both starters are completely
extended to mesh with the ring gear.

3-3-3-2-10

SYSTEM / Electrical System


When both starter pinion gears are normally extended:
C1

P1

Start Repeating Relay

C3

P2
SW

R1

SS

TR

C
E B
R4

D1

R2

High Voltage

D2
M

Alternator

Fuse Box
Fuse #19

Starter Relay 2
Starter Relay 1
Key Switch
Starter Motor
Pull-In Coil

Battery Relay

T183-02-03-008

Holding Coil

Main Contact

When the pinion gear is not completely extended:

Start Repeating Relay

C1

P1

C3

P2
SW

SS

R1
C TR
E

D1 R2

B
C

R4
Low Voltage

D2
M

Fuse Box
Fuse #19

Starter Relay 2
Starter Relay 1
Key Switch
Starter Motor
Pull-In Coil

Battery Relay

Holding Coil

Main Contact

3-3-3-2-11

T183-02-03-009

SYSTEM / Electrical System


CHARGING CIRCUIT (KEY SWITCH: ON)
(From machine serial no. 1001 to 1045)

#6

Current from alternator terminal B is routed to the batteries via fusible link #6 (100 A) and the battery relay,
recharging the batteries. At the same time, current
from alternator terminal B flows to all electrical circuits
via the junction box, fusible link, fuse boxes, and fuse
box (ECM). Current from alternator terminal L is
routed to the monitor controller via the charge relay
(self-magnetizing type), turning the alternator indicator
OFF.
Connected to:
Remarks
Monitor (Backup)
Main Power
Main Controller B
Main Power
ECM Relay
Power
Work Light Relays 1 and 2
Power
Washer Relay, Wiper Relay (L, H1, H2), Power
Wiper Motor
Air Conditioner
Power
Auto-Lubrication Solenoid Valve Relay, Flow Power
Rate Decrease Solenoid Valve Relay, Power
Transistors 1 and 2, Auto-Idle Relay
DC-DC Converter
Power
Main Controllers A and B
Solenoid
Power
Travel Alarm
Power

#7

Monitor (Input Power), Main Controller A

#8

Entrance Light Relay

#9

Air Conditioner

Power

Engine Stop Solenoid Relay

Power

Starter Relay 1

Power

Alternator, Starters 1 and 2

Power

Air Heater 1

Power

Air Heater 2

Power

When the key switch is released after the engine


starts, the key switch returns to the ON position. In the
ON position, key switch terminal B is connected to
terminals ACC and M in the key switch. After the engine starts, the alternator is rotated, starting generation.

Fusible Link
#1
(45 A)
#2
(75 A)

Connecting Fuse Box


Fuse Box
#1
#2
Fuse Box (ECM)
#1
Fuse Box
#11
#12
#13
#14

#3
(75 A)

#4
(45 A)
#5
(250 A)
#6
(100 A)
#7
(350 A)
#8
(200 A)

Fuse Box

#4
#5

3-3-3-2-12

Main Power

SYSTEM / Electrical System


Fuse Box
(ECM)

Fuse Box

Key Switch

Fusible Link #1

Fusible Link #7

Preheat Relay 2

Fusible
Link #2
Fuse Box

Fusible
Link #3

Junction
Box

Battery Relay 2

Engine Stop
Fusible
Solenoid Relay Link #4
Fusible Link #5

Battery Relay 1
Battery

Starter Relay 1
Fusible Link #6
100 A (Alternator)
Charge Relay

Monitor
Controller

Alternator

T183-02-03-005

3-3-3-2-13

SYSTEM / Electrical System


CHARGING CIRCUIT (KEY SWITCH: ON)
(From machine serial no. 1046 and after)

#6

Current from alternator terminal B is routed to the batteries via fusible link #6 (100 A) and the battery relay,
recharging the batteries. At the same time, current
from alternator terminal B flows to all electrical circuits
via the 1 pole junction, fusible link, fuse boxes, and
fuse box (ECM). Current from alternator terminal L is
routed to the monitor controller via the charge relay
(self-magnetizing type), turning the alternator indicator
OFF.
Connected to:
Remarks
Monitor (Backup)
Main Power
Main Controller B
Main Power
ECM Relay
Power
Work Light Relays 1 and 2
Power
Washer Relay, Wiper Relay (L, H1, H2), Power
Wiper Motor
Air Conditioner
Power
Auto-Lubrication Solenoid Valve Relay, Flow Power
Rate Decrease Solenoid Valve Relay, Power
Transistors 1 and 2, Auto-Idle Relay
DC-DC Converter
Power
Main Controllers A and B
Solenoid
Power
Travel Alarm
Power

#7

Monitor (Input Power), Main Controller A

#8

Entrance Light Relay

#9

Air Conditioner

Power

Engine Stop Solenoid Relay

Power

Starter Relay 1

Power

Alternator, Starters 1 and 2

Power

Air Heater 2

Power

Air Heater 1

Power

When the key switch is released after the engine


starts, the key switch returns to the ON position. In the
ON position, key switch terminal B is connected to
terminals ACC and M in the key switch. After the engine starts, the alternator is rotated, starting generation.

Fusible Link
#1
(45 A)
#2
(75 A)

Connecting Fuse Box


Fuse Box
#1
#2
Fuse Box (ECM)
#1
Fuse Box
#11
#12
#13
#14

#3
(75 A)

#4
(45 A)
#5
(250 A)
#6
(100 A)
#7
(250 A)
#8
(300 A)

Fuse Box

#4
#5

3-3-3-2-14

Main Power

SYSTEM / Electrical System


Fuse Box
(ECM)

Fuse Box

Key Switch

Fusible Link #1

Fusible Link #8

Preheat Relay 2

Fusible
Link #2
Fuse Box

Fusible
Link #3

1 Pole
Junction

Battery Relay 2

Engine Stop
Fusible
Solenoid Relay Link #4
Fusible Link #5

Battery Relay 1
Battery

Starter Relay 1
Fusible Link #6
100 A (Alternator)

Fusible Link #7

Preheat Relay 3

Charge Relay

Monitor
Controller

Alternator

T183-02-03-011

3-3-3-2-15

SYSTEM / Electrical System


ACCESSORY CIRCUIT
When the key switch is turned to the ACC position,
terminal B is connected to terminal ACC in the key
switch. Current from terminal ACC is routed to the radio, cigar lighter, cab light, and horn via fuses #15, #16,
#17, and #18.

Fuse
Box
Radio
Cigar
Lighter
Cab
Light

Key Switch
Fusible
Link #1

Preheat Relay 2

Horn

Battery Relay 2

Battery Relay 1

Battery
T183-02-03-006

3-3-3-2-16

SYSTEM / Electrical System


(Blank)

3-3-3-2-17

SYSTEM / Electrical System


SURGE VOLTAGE PREVENTION CIRCUIT
The surge voltage prevention circuit prevents the occurrence of surge voltage developed when the engine
is stopped to protect electronic components such as
the main controller from being damaged by this surge
voltage. When the key switch is turned OFF while the
engine is running, current from key switch terminal M
to the battery relay is interrupted, deactivating the battery relay.
The engine, however, will continue running for a while
due to its inertia soon after the key switch is turned
OFF. Consequently, if the battery relay is turned OFF
at this time, current from alternator terminal B cannot
flow to the batteries, casing surge voltage to develop
in the circuit. Battery current is constantly routed to
main controller B. To keep the battery relay ON while
the engine is running, the main controller B built in
timer allows the ground circuit of power transistor 3 to
close for 15 seconds after the key switch is turned
OFF. Therefore, the load damp relay is kept ON for 15
seconds so that current to magnetize the battery relay
is kept supplied. Consequently, current from alternator
terminal B is routed to the batteries via the battery relay, preventing the occurrence of surge voltage.

3-3-3-2-18

SYSTEM / Electrical System


NOTE: The drawing shown in the below is from
machine serial no. 1001 to 1045.
Key Switch

Fuse
Box

Fusible link
Preheat Relay
Stop Solenoid Relay
Load
Damp
Relay

Junction
Box

Power
Transistor 3

Battery Relay

Engine
Stop
Relay
Battery
Main
Controller B

ECM

Alternator

Charge
Relay

Starter Relay 2

Monitor
Con-trol
ler

T183-02-03-007

3-3-3-2-19