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ARTIFICIAL LIFT METHODS COMPARISON TABLE

AL Methods Comparison Table


Characteristic
Production
rate

Specific
Less than
1000 B/D

Gas Lift
The full range of production
rates can be handled. An AOF
production rate cannot be
achieved with gas lift because
as much drawdown as for an
ESP cannot be achieved.

1000 to 10,000 B/D

Well depth

Greater than
10,000 B/D
Less than 2500 ft

Not restricted by well depth.


The benefit of gas lift will be
larger with greater depth, as
there is more fluid to lighten
to enable increased well
productivity.

ESP
The full range of production
rates can be handled. When
unconstrained an ESP can be
designed to produce the full
well potential to the surface
(AOF), thus achieving higher
flow rates than with gas lift.

Not restricted by well depth.


The benefit of ESP will be
larger with greater depth as
there is more fluid head to
overcome to enable increased
well productivity.

2500 to 7500 ft
Greater than 7500 ft

Casing size

4 in.

Production tubing restricted to


2-3/8 tubing when installing
side pocket mandrels. Packoff
mandrels internal to the tubing
can allow larger tubing size.

ESP restricted to a maximum


diameter of 3.75 with a
maximum flow rate of 2000
BPD (320 m3 /D).

-1 -

PCP

Rod Pump

Jet Pump

Rate is dependent on setting


depth, the deeper the setting
depth the lesser rates. Generally
PCP is suitable for low rate
wells.

Rate is dependent on setting


depth. Feasible for low rates
(<100 B/D) and low GOR
(<250). Typically are used with
1.5-in nominal tubing.

Up to 4000 b/d at 3000 feet

Not available.

Up to 2000 b/d at 4000 feet.


Restricted to shallow depths
using large plungers. In general,
due to efficiency, rod pump is
not recommended as a lift
mechanism of choice on high
producing wells.
Not available.

The full range of production


rates can be handled. Less
than 50 B/D up to 15000 B/D
with adequate flowing bottom
hole pressure, tubular size,
and horsepower. Guideline as
below:

Pump must be landed below


dynamic fluid level. Optimal to
have intake below perforations,
which will allow natural gas
separation and vent to annulus.
Depth is tied to dynamic fluid
level.

Pump must be landed below


dynamic fluid level. Optimal to
have intake below perforations,
which will allow natural gas
separation and vent to annulus.
Depth is tied to dynamic fluid
level.

Maximum 8000 feet.

Maximum 14,000 ft TVD. Due


to excessive polished rod load,
depth is limited. Rods or
structure may limit rate at depth.
H2 S limits depth at which a large
volume pump can be set.
Effectively, about 500 B/D at
7,500 ft TVD and 150 B/D at
14,000 ft TVD.
Problems only if high-rate wells
requiring large plunger pumps.
Small casing sizes (4.5 in and
5.5 in) may limit free gas
separation. There is a limitation
of downhole pump design in

Most slim hole models with


OD= 3.75 can fit in this size.
Up to approx. 3000 b/d at 3000
feet.

Piston Hydraulic lift:


50 to 4000 BFPD.
Jet Hydraulic lift: >15,000
BFPD of total fluid.
AOF production rate cannot
be achieved.

Not restricted by well depth.


However, limited by powerfluid pressure or horsepower
as depth increases. A
practical depth of 20,000 ft is
possible. Guideline as below:
Piston Hydraulic lift: up to
17,000 ft TVD.
Jet Hydraulic lift: up to
20,000 ft TVD.

Small casing size often limits


producing rate owing to high
friction losses. Coiled Tubing
Jet can be run inside 1-1/4
Coiled Tubing and, therefore,
small casing size.

ARTIFICIAL LIFT METHODS COMPARISON TABLE

Characteristic

Specific
5 in.

7 in.

9 5/8 in. and larger

Well
inclination

Vertical

Deviated

Horizontal

Dogleg
severity

Less than 3 per 100


3 to 10 per 100

Gas Lift

ESP

PCP

Production tubing restricted to


2-7/8 tubing when installing
side pocket mandrels. Packoff
mandrels internal to the tubing
can allow larger tubing size.
Production tubing restricted to
4 t ubing when installing side
pocket mandrels. Packoff
mandrels internal to the tubing
can allow larger tubing size.
Production tubing restricted to
5-1/2 tubing when installing
side pocket mandrels. 7 side
pocket mandrels are available
for large casing.
Well suited to vertical wells.
Retrieval of gas lift valves from
side pocket mandrels is
straightforward.
Well suited to deviated wells.
Retrieval of gas lift valves from
side pocket mandrels can be
difficult when the deviation
angle > 65 degrees.

ESP restricted to a maximum


diameter of 4.56 with a
maximum flow rate of 5200
BPD (830 m3 /D).

The majority of pumps will fit


into this casing with OD=4.5.
Up to 4000 b/d at 3000 feet.

ESP restricted to a maximum


diameter of 5.40 with a
maximum flow rate of 12000
BPD (1900 m 3 /D).

No detriment to performance
with pump inside larger casing.
Some larger models available
with OD=5 -3/8. Up to 3200 b/d
at 5000 feet.
All pumps will fit this casing.

Well suited to horizontal wells


unless the tubing is large
preventing produced fluid
mixing with lift gas. Retrieval
of gas lift valves from side
pocket mandrels can be
difficult when the deviation
angle > 65 degrees.
Gas lift causes no constraint.

Well suited to horizontal wells,


however size and running of
ESP limited by well trajectory.
A straight section of casing is
required at ESP depth.

ESP restricted by horsepower


to a maximum flow rate of
90,000 BPD (14,400 m 3 /D).

Rod Pump

Jet Pump

of downhole pump design in


small diameter casing.

Well suited to vertical wells.

No constraint typical
installation with top drive and
rods.

Well suited to vertical wells.

Well suited for vertical


completions.

Well suited to deviated wells,


however size and running of
ESP limited by well trajectory.
A straight section of casing is
required at ESP depth.

Can deal with deviation however


rod wear is a reliability
constraint. Rod guides are used
to reduce friction on rods.
REDA PC has application where
the well is deviated and the
reduced risk of failure due to
rods is required.
Pumps have been installed in
horizontal section but same
remarks for deviated well are
applicable.

Not highly recommended.


Slanted and crooked wells
present a friction problem.
There are increased load and
wear problems in high angle
deviated holes (>70 o).

Well suited for deviated


completions.

Not recommended.

Could suit for horizontal


completions. However, due
to well trajectory, slickline
work to pull nozzle could be a
problem.

No constraint

No constraint.

No constraint.

Pump length dependent. Typical


pump length = 35 feet which is
relatively short and easy to
deploy through doglegs.

No big constraint. Centralizer


could be utilized.

No contraint.

ESP can be deployed without


problem.
ESP system may be limited as
ideal system cannot be readily
deployed through this dogleg.

-2 -

ARTIFICIAL LIFT METHODS COMPARISON TABLE

Characteristic

Specific

Gas Lift

Greater than 10 per


100

Temperature

PCP

Rod Pump
o

Jet Pump

Not recommended.

Same as above

Zero to 90 landed pump. Some


success is accomplished in
pumping 15 o /100 ft using rod
guides.

Recommended for all


temperatures

Standard ESP design will


handle this temperature.

Can lift high temperature and


viscous oils.

Above current limit

Operating temperature range


from 0 to 550 o F.

Temperature limitation is
excellent. It is possible to
operate from 0 to 500+o F.

Barriers

3 barriers can be achieved

Medium range equipment


required.
Higher temperatures require
specialised ESP designed
equipment, which have been
shown to operate at 550 F.
Note that the motor
temperature is significantly
higher than the bottom hole
temperature. Extremely high
temperatures will cause a short
run life.
3 barriers can be achieved

Standard PCP design with


suitable elastomers will handle
this temperature.
Above current limit

Restricted by rod strings.


Surface wellhead valve one
barrier.

3 barriers can be achieved.

Hydrocarbon
inventory

Gas lift entails a large inventory


of hydrocarbon gas in the
annulus or tubing that upon
catastrophic failure of wellhead
will be vented to the
atmosphere. Solution can be to
install an annular SSV to limit
the inventory.

Restricted by rod strings.


Surface wellhead valve one
barrier. Use of REDA PC would
allow deployment of SCSSV.
No hydrocarbon inventory and
the extra facility of shutting off
produced fluid flow by stopping
the pump.

No hydrocarbon inventory and


the extra facility of shutting off
produced fluid flow by stopping
the pump.

During operation, large


amount of crude is being
stored in vessels and surface
lines. If rupture takes place
and create a major
catastrophic at surface, the
well needs be shut-in to bleed
off.

Less than 250F


250 to 350F
Greater than 350F

Safety

ESP

No hydrocarbon inventory and


the extra facility of shutting off
produced fluid flow by
stopping the pump.

-3 -

Applicable for slanted and


crooked wells. Short jet
pumps can pass through
doglegs up to 24-deg/100 ft in
2 in. nominal tubing. Zero to
90 Degrees pump placement.
Guideline as below:
Piston Hydraulic lift:
<15o /100 ft build angle.
Jet Hydraulic lift: <24o /100 ft
build angle.

ARTIFICIAL LIFT METHODS COMPARISON TABLE

Characteristic

Specific

Gas Lift

ESP

Intervention frequency

For gas lift, intervention


frequency is low, > 5 years, and
is principally slick line, hence
safety risk is low.

Full workovers could be


required every two years
(industry average) hence safety
risk is higher than gas lift.

Full workovers could be


required every 1 to 1-1/2 years
typically. Slickline deployed
pump can reduce safety risk.

Process

More risk of blow out and gas


fire with high-pressure gas lines
required.
Recommended.
Historically wells are
successfully completed as
multi-string with gas lift.
The efficiency of the gas lift
determines the achievable
FBHP. A gas lifted well
normally works with a FBHP in
this range.
Gas lift can work in the upper
end of this range for low
reservoir pressure and
productivity wells, however
there needs to be enough
reservoir energy to deliver the
produced fluids to the surface.
Cannot deliver fluids to surface.

Electrical fire risk is increased.

Electrical fire risk is increased.


Risk of gas fire if using a gas
driven motor.
Recommended
Not recommended.

Achievable drawdown is
limited by ability to lighten
head of fluid above gas lift
point. AOF can never be
achieved.
Gas lift can be effective in
producing a well that cones gas.

Any drawdown can be


achieved with a given ESP
design, however well and
reservoir constraints limit final
drawdown.
Not recommended.

Gas lift can be effective in

ESP can be effective in

Completion

Simple
Dual or multiple zones

Flowing
bottom hole
pressure

Greater than 1000 psi

100 to 1000 psi

Less than 100 psi

Drawdown

Gas coning

Water coning

PCP

Recommended
Can be achieved with ESP
technology but a complicated
system is required.
Achieving any FBHP is not a
constraint with ESP. AOF can
be achieved if the well and
reservoir properties do not
constrain the ESP design.

The pump depth and the


dynamic head restrict achieving
a low FBHP.

Rod Pump

Jet Pump

Workovers to change out rod


string could be required every 11/2 year. If it is a highly
deviated well, frequent
workovers could be required to
fix broken rod string. As
frequent as once every 6-8
months.
Low in electrical fire risk.

As frequent as the nozzle gets


plugged up with sand,
asphaltene, etc or simply
just wear and tear of the
nozzle. This is a big draw
back since intervention
frequency could be as regular
as once every month.
More risk of injection and
production lines rupture.

Recommended.
Not recommended.

Recommended.
Not recommended.

The pump depth and the


dynamic head restrict achieving
a low FBHP.

Small dynamic head will allow


low FBHP to be achieved.

-4 -

The pump depth and the


dynamic head limit achievable
drawdown.

Can be used if free gas < 40%


by volume. This limit is
imposed, as at least 60% liquid
is required for cooling of the
elastomer.
PCP can be effective in

The excellent result can obtain at


intake pressure less than 25 psig
providing adequate displacement
and gas venting, typically about
50 to 100 psig.
The pump depth and the
dynamic head limit achievable
drawdown.

Typical design target is a


minimum of 100 psi per 1000
feet of lift.
Intake pressure should be >
350 psig to 5,000 ft with low
GLR. Typical design target is
25% submergence.
Cannot deliver fluids to
surface.

Good drawdown but cannot


completely deplete a well.

For gassy reservoir. Rod pump


handling is fair to good.

Not recommended. Cavitation


in jet pump likely.

Rod pump can be effective in

Jet pump can be effective in

ARTIFICIAL LIFT METHODS COMPARISON TABLE

Characteristic

Specific

Reservoir
access

Primary
Secondary waterflood

Tertiary

Pressure
support

ESP

producing a well that cones


water.
Gas lift results in simple
completions that allow ready
access to the reservoir for
surveillance and remedial work.

producing a well that cones


water.
Downhole ESP equipment
restricts access. A logging
bypass can be installed but this
complicates the equipment and
downsizes the ESP. Remedial
work requires a full workover.
Coil Tubing deployed ESP can
solve some reservoir access
problems, but pulling the ESP
would still be required.
Not recommended for unstable
flow.

Gas lift is able to handle all


types of flow regimes be they
stable or unstable.

Flow Stability

Recovery

Gas Lift

Yes

No

PCP

Recommended
Recommended, however high
water cut reduces the ability to
move large fluid volumes.
Can be used with tertiary
recovery methods.

Recommended
Recommended

Well suited, however


increasing water cut reduces the
ability to move large fluid
volumes.
Recommended as the flexibility
of gas lift allows one
installation to deal with falling
pressure and production rates.

Recommended as an ESP is
able to move the same fluid
volume no matter what water
cut.
Not recommended when there
is significant pressure drop
the range of production rates
that a particular ESP design
can handle is limited. Hence
the reservoir condition rate of
change would define the ESP
change out frequency rather
than ESP mechanical run life.
Variable frequency drives
(VFD) allow some operational
flexibility on matching the
production rate to the ESP
design.

Can be used with tertiary


recovery methods.

-5 -

Rod Pump

Jet Pump

producing a well that cones


water.
No reservoir access.

producing a well that cones


water.
No reservoir access. Cannot run
any type of surveillance log.

producing a well that cones


water.
Good. If set in a sliding
sleeve, the jet pump can be
retrieved by wire line
allowing access to reservoir.

Not recommended. Need


continuous fluid through pump.
Use of downhole monitoring to
control surface VFD could be
used.
Recommended
Recommended

Not recommended for unstable


flow.

Continuous and smooth flow


of produced fluids.

Recommended
Recommended

Recommended
Recommended

Steam flood will cause a


problem, as temperature will be
increased.
Recommended

Not recommended when there is


significant pressure drop the
range of production rates that a
particular PCP design can handle
is limited. Hence the reservoir
condition rate of change would
define the PCP change out
frequency rather than PCP
mechanical run life. Variable
frequency drives (VFD) allow
some operational flexibility on
matching the production rate to
the PCP design.

Can be used with tertiary


recovery methods.
Recommended

If there is no pressure support


from the reservoir, production
rate will decline and the well
will be pumped-off.

Recommended, as jet pump


system is independent of
water cut percentage
producing from a well.
Not recommended when there
is significant pressure drop in
the reservoir the range of
production rates that a
particular jet pump design can
handle is limited. A new jet
pump design needs to be in
placed to get optimum lift for
the well.

ARTIFICIAL LIFT METHODS COMPARISON TABLE

Characteristic

Specific

Low

Recommended.

Recommended for the full


range of water cut. The ESP is
largely insensitive to increasing
water cut.

Moderate

Reduced efficiency due to


heavier column of fluid to
lighten.
Reduced efficiency due to
heavier column of fluid to
lighten. May not be able to lift
well if reservoir pressure is
low.
Recommended

Less than 100 cp gas


free viscosity at
reservoir temperature
100 to 500 cp gas free
viscosity at reservoir
temperature
Greater than 500 cp
gas free viscosity at
reservoir temperature

Corrosive
fluid

PCP

No limitat ions. Preferable > 12


o
API.

High

Fluid viscosity

ESP

No limitations. Preferable > 15


o
API.

Oil Gravity

Water Cut

Gas Lift

Rod Pump
o

Jet Pump
o

Not used for oil with gravity


greater than 40 degrees API due
to high aromatic content (C6 to
C9 should be under 20%) that
will deteriorate elastomers.
Preferable < 30 o API.
Recommended

> 8 API.

> 8 to 45 API.

Recommended

Recommended

Recommended

Recommended

Recommended

Recommended

Recommended

Recommended
Up to 100%

Recommended

Recommended

Recommended

Recommended

Recommended

Efficiency of ESP will be


reduced.

Recommended. Pump efficiency


will increase as viscosity
increases.

Recommended

Has been used with success up


to 1000 cp but little case history
for very high viscosity.

Not recommended. Pump


efficiency is reduced, motors
cool poorly in the high viscous
fluid, more power is required
to pump high viscous fluid and
emulsions form. A mixture of
ESP and progressive cavity
pump technology is a potential
alternative.

Recommended for all high


viscosity crude. Up to 80,000
cp.

Good for < 200 cp fluids and


low rate. Rod fall problem for
high rates. Higher rates may
require diluents to lower
viscosity.
Not recommended, as pump
efficiency will reduce.

Recommended. Compatibility
of metallurgy and elastomers
with the total completion is
only required.

Run life will be shortened in a


more aggressive environment.
Special metallurgy and
elastomers will be required
leading to more costly
equipment.

Run life will be shortened in a


more aggressive environment.
Design with rotor in stainless
steel and matched elastomers.
Rod string and tubing is at risk
as typically not special

-6 -

Using corrosion-resistant
materials in the construction of
subsurface pumps.

Mixture of power and


producing fluid is not a major
issue in Jet pump. The
system is capable of handling
high-viscosity fluid.
Production with up to 800 cp
possible. Oil power fluid in
the range of >24 oAPI and <50
cp could be used. If
waterpower fluid is used, it
will reduce friction losses.
Using special metallurgy
and/or chemical treatment.
Chemicals in the power fluid
can treat the tubular for
corrosion.

ARTIFICIAL LIFT METHODS COMPARISON TABLE

Characteristic

Gas/oil ratio

Bubble point

Specific

Gas Lift

Less than 500 scf/STB

Recommended

500 to 2000 scf/STB

Recommended

Greater than 2000


scf/STB

Recommended. Gas lift would


be only expected to be of
benefit at higher GOR.

High

Recommended for all bubble


points. Gas lift is not dependent
on the bubble point pressure
hence is suitable for any range.

Low

Sand &
abrasives

Less than 10 ppm

Recommended for all wells


producing sand. Sand has little
effect on ability to a gas lift
well.

ESP

PCP

Recommended. Problems with


gas breakout in the pump will
be minimised.
The achievable pump rate will
be limited by the amount of gas
breaking out of solution in the
area of the pump. An ESP can
be designed to a free gas
volume handling criteria.
Downhole gas handling
equipment may be incorporated
into the completion
FBHP will need to stay above
the bubble point pressure to
avoid gas cavitation in the
pump. Downhole gas handling
equipment may be incorporated
into the completion.

Not recommended, as the high


bubble point will limit the
maximum drawdown in the
well due to the detrimental
effects of free gas in the pump.
Recommended. The bubble
point pressure is low hence the
FBHP can be low allowing
more production without the
affects of free gas in the pump
region.
Sand at this concentration is
normal wear and tear for an
ESP.

-7 -

metallurgy. Up to 6% H2S can


be handled by elastomer design
but H2S causes hardening.
Similarly the constraint is 30%
CO2 content.
Recommended.
The achievable pump rate will
be limited by the amount of gas
breaking out of solution in the
area of the pump. A maximum
40% free gas by volume limit is
imposed to allow cooling of
elastomers with liquid flow.
Not recommended.

Rod Pump

Jet Pump

Feasible for low rate and low


GOR

Recommended.

Gassy wells usually have lower


volumetric efficiency. Gas
handling ability is rather poor if
one has to pump > 50% free gas.
If the gas anchor or natural
separation is used and free gas is
venting, the volumetric
efficiency can be significantly
improved.
Not recommended

Target design is less than


1000 GLR.

Not recommended, as the high


bubble point will limit the
maximum drawdown in the well
due to the detrimental effects of
free gas in the pump.
Recommended. The bubble
point pressure is low hence the
FBHP can be low allowing more
production without the affects of
free gas in the pump region.

Not highly recommended.

Not recommended. Gas above


2000 SCF/STB substantially
reduces efficiency but helps
lift. Vent free gas if possible.
The producing of free gas
through the pump causes
reduction in ability to handle
liquids.
Not recommended.

Recommended.

Recommended.

Recommended. PCP handles


solids easily.

High solids and sand production


is troublesome for low oil
viscosity (<10 cp). Improved
performance can obtain for high viscosity (>200 cp) cases. May
be able to handle up to 0.1%
sand with special pumps.

Solids/sand handling ability is


fair to poor. Jet pumps are
operating with 3% sand in
produced fluid. Power fluid
to jet pump can tolerate 200
ppm of 25 particle size.
Fresh water treatment for salt

ARTIFICIAL LIFT METHODS COMPARISON TABLE

Characteristic

Specific

Gas Lift

10 to 100 ppm

Scale

Scale can form close to the


operating gas lift valve due to
the pressure drop at that
location. This may lead to
blockage of the gas lift valves
and an inability to be able to
retrieve them.

Paraffin

Paraffin may deposit near an


operating gas lift valve due to
temperature and pressure drop.
This may lead to blockage of
the gas lift valves and an
inability to be able to retrieve
them
Introduction of lift gas into the
produced fluid stream may
increase the risk of asphaltene
deposits. Production chemistry
analysis for individual fields
will determine whether this is
likely to occur.
Recommended when any
treatment is required. These
treatments have little to no
effect on a gas lifted system.

Asphaltene

Treatment

Scale inhibitor

PCP

ESP may be operated under


these conditions but harder
surface coatings are required.
Not recommended due to
friction and wear on ESP
equipment.

Greater than 100 ppm

Contaminants

ESP

If the well is prone to scale,


paraffin or asphaltenes deposit
then it is likely to occur in the
pump area (large pressure
drop). This will lead to pump
inefficiency, increased wear &
tear and eventually failure.
Chemical treatment is required
to prevent formation of these
contaminants.

Materials design will need to


be modified to ensure
continued service of the ESP
after treatment.

Corrosion inhibitor

Rod Pump

Recommended.

build-up possible.

Recommended. Typically can


handle up to 7-8% by volume.
Design of elastomers for
abrasion is required.
Typically not a constraint but
may need to be reviewed if well
has a high scaling tendency.

Scale could build up at intake


and nozzle over time but can
be treated.

Not a problem due to the nature


of PCP however efficiency will
be reduced.

Susceptible to paraffin problems.


Hot water/oil treating and/or
uses of scrapers possible, but
they increase operating problems
and costs.

Does not increase deposition and


will produce asphaltene to
surface as a solid.

Can be treated.

Elastomer compatibility is a
constraint so needs to be
reviewed in detail for design.

Corrosion and scale treatments


easy to perform. Good batch
treating inhibitor down annulus
used frequently for both
corrosion and scale control.
Corrosion handling good to
excellent.

Solvent

-8 -

Jet Pump

Can be treated. Paraffin handling capability is


good/excellent. Circulate heat
to downhole pump to
minimize build up.
Mechanical cutting and
inhibition possible.
Difficult to control.

Corrosion/scale ability is
good and sometimes
excellent. Inhibitor with
power fluid mixes with
produced fluid at entry of jet
pump throat. Batch treat
down annulus feasible.
Corrosion handling good to
excellent. Can be surfaced at
a predetermined schedule.

ARTIFICIAL LIFT METHODS COMPARISON TABLE

Characteristic

Specific

Gas Lift

ESP

PCP

Acid
Location

Ensure cleanout of well prior to


re-installation.
Recommended

Rod Pump

Onshore

Recommended

Recommended

Offshore platform

Excellent and recommended.

Excellent and recommended.

Good and recommended. Safety


barriers may be a const raint.

Poor and not recommended.


Must design for unit size,
weight, and pulling unit space.

Subsea

Delivery of fluids under a gas


lift scenario through a long sub
sea delivery system will be
significantly reduced. The
gravity and friction of lengthy
pipelines cannot be fully
overcome by a gas lifted
system. As the step out from
the tie in delivery point is
increased the efficiency of gas
lift decreases.
Running a gas lift system will
include a flaring system, hence
affecting the environment when
the compressor is blown
down.

Recommended. The ESP can


be designed to overcome the
head produced by the subsea
delivery system. As step out
from the tie in delivery point
increases, ESP efficiency
decreases, however an ESP is
able to handle larger step outs
than gas lift before zero flow
occurs.

Not recommended except as


REDA PC. Rate will not achieve
benefits.

Not Recommended.

Recommended. The ESP when


running has little potential
impact on the environment.

Recommended. Leakage from


stuffing box for rod only
constraint polished rod
through wellhead.

Stuffing box leakage may be


messy and a potential hazard.
(Anti-pollution stuffing boxes
are available.)

Sensitive environment

Recommended.

Fair in term of noise level.


Moderately high for urban areas.

Number of
Wells

Single

1 to 20

Typically cost of providing


compression for a single well
gas lift development is too high
to be able to justify.
As the number of wells
increases the cost of the
compression facilities becomes
more economic on a well-bywell basis.

Recommended. ESP can be


installed for a single well with
standalone power generation
and control.
Recommended. Costs of power
equipment will be reduced and
rationalised as the number of
wells completed increases.

-9 -

Recommended.

Recommended.

Recommended.

Recommended.

Jet Pump

Onshore applications are


common.
Good to excellent. Offshore
applications are common.
Produced water or seawater
may be used as power fluid
with well site type system or
power fluid separation before
production treating system.
Not recommended due to
intervention requirments and
power fluid pump to remote
location.

Power water (fresh, produced,


or sea water) is acceptable.
However, there is concern in
sensitive areas if oil is used as
power fluid , because of the
high-pressure injection lines.
Low in noise level. Well-site
power-fluid units can be
sound proofed. Due to
surface size, operations are
drawbacks in populated areas.
Single wells are the most
common.
Multiple wells operating from
one single surface hydraulic
package greatly reduces lift
cost.

ARTIFICIAL LIFT METHODS COMPARISON TABLE

Characteristic

Specific
Greater than 20

Electrical
Power

Gas source

Yes

No

Facilities
footprint

Start up

Well
intervention

Gas Lift
Recommended. Cost benefit for
this number of wells justifies
high costs for installation of
compression.
Not required.

Recommended. If a gas source


is readily available either from
produced gas, import gas or a
gas well then gas lift is a viable
artificial lift method.
Not recommended, as the cost
of obtaining a gas source will
be large.
Large amount of space is
required to install a
compression system. For areas
where space is at a premium
this can be a costly issue.

Gas lift is not recommended if


after a shut down gas is not
easily available. Gas can be
sourced from:

Produced gas from


naturally flowing well or
artificially lifted by non
gas lift method

A flowing gas well

Importing gas from an


external source e.g.
Pipeline
For gas lift valve changeouts
slick line intervention > 5
years. For subsea wells may not
be required for life of well. For

ESP

PCP

Rod Pump

Jet Pump

Recommended.

Recommended.

Recommended.

A source of electric power is


needed. This can be a tie in to
an existing facility, a tie in to a
power grid or independent
power generation.
Does not impact ESP solution.

Gas motor can be used. Less


voltage required than ESP hence
lower operating cost.

Can use electricity as power


source. Prime mover flexibility
is good: either engines or motors
can be used easily (motors more
reliable and flexible).
Gas engines could be used in
locations with no electricity.

Prime mover can be an


electric motor. A diesel or
gas engine can be used where
electricity is not available.

Does not impact ESP solution.

Does not impact PCP solution.

Does not impact RP solution.

Does not impact JP solution.

Facilities often have power


generation already installed
hence the addition of power for
ESP does not have as large an
impact as for gas compression.

Small footprint. Facilities often


have power generation already
installed hence the addition of
power for PCP does not have as
large an impact as for gas
compression.

Small footprint on surface.


Facilities often have power
generation already installed;
hence the addition of power for a
rod pump unit does not have as
large an impact as for gas
compression.

Once power is available to the


facility ESP systems will be
able to be run.

Once power is available to the


facility PCP systems will be able
to be run.

Once power is available to the


facility, rod pump systems will
be able to be run.

Large amount of surface


spacing is required. Surface
unit can be mounted on one
skid or two skids for a dualvessel power fluid cleaning
unit. Two skids for a 200 HP
unit with engine prime mover
may have a footprint of
approximately 8 feet by 18
feet each.
Requires some fluid (water or
oil) to fill the vessels as
power fluid prior to start up.

Run life of ESP determines


intervention frequency. Change
out of total completion
required for ESP failure.

Run life of PCP determines


intervention frequency. Change
out of total completion required
for ESP failure. Average run life

Workover or pulling rig. Run


time efficiency is greater than
90% if good operating practices
are followed and if corrosion,

Hydraulically removed or
wirelined. A free jet pump
can be circulated to the
surface without pulling the

Does not impact PCP solution.

- 10 -

Produced gas from the well


can be used to power a gas
engine prime mover.

ARTIFICIAL LIFT METHODS COMPARISON TABLE

Characteristic

Specific

Gas Lift

ESP

PCP

remedial well work as required


with the ability to perform
through tubing workovers.

Average run life approximately


two years. Remedial work will
require completion to be
removed

wax, asphaltenes, solids, etc


are controlled.

tubing or it can be retrieved


by wire line. Must avoid
operating in cavitation range
of jet pumps throat; related to
pump intake pressure.

CAPEX

High for compression and gas


distribution system

High for power generation and


cabling

approximately one to one and a


half years. Remedial work will
require completion to be
removed. Total change out can
be avoided by using wireline
retrievable with REDA PC or
put rotor and stator on rod string
so doesnt have to pull tubing.
Moderate cost for facilities and
down hole equipment.

Capital costs are low to


moderate. Cost increase with
depth and larger surface units.

OPEX

Low. Gas lift systems have a


very low OPEX due to the
downhole reliability.

Moderate to high. Costly


interventions are required to
change out conventional ESP
completions, but productivity
and improved run life can
offset these costs.

Moderate cost for equipment but


high intervention frequency.

Operating costs are very low for


shallow to medium depth (<
7500 ft) and low production (<
400 BFPD). Units easily
changed to other wells (i.e. reuse) with minimum cost.

Capital costs are competitive


with sucker-rod pumps. Cost
increases with higher
horsepower. Wellhead
equipment has low profile.
Requires surface treating and
high pressure pumping
equipment.
High power cost owing to
horsepower requirement to
pump power fluid. Typical jet
pump efficiency is 30% thus
power fluid at 2-3 times the
produced fluid rate is
required. No moving parts in
pump; simple repair
procedures. Low pump
maintenance cost typical with
properly sized throat and
nozzle.

- 11 -

Rod Pump

Jet Pump