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Digboi Refinery - INSTRUMENTATION

Virtual Session on

Basic Instrumentation for


Process Plants
Date : 26/11/2015
By
Abhijit Barman
SITE
Digboi Refinery : Serving and Caring over a century

Virtual Session: Basic instrumentation for Process

Control System: Automated measurement and control


A Control System is a device or means by which any quantity of interest ( in a machine,
mechanism, process or other equipment ) is maintained or controlled or altered in
accordance with desired manner.

The first step, naturally, is measurement. If we to have control something, first we have to measure that
something.
This something usually takes one of the following forms in industry specially in a Refinery :
# Fluid pressure #Level of vessel
#Fluid flow rate #The temperature of an object
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Digboi Refinery.Serving & Caring...Over a


Century

Virtual Session: Basic instrumentation for Process

Once we measure the quantity we are interested in, we usually transmit a signal representing this quantity to
an indicating or computing device where either human or automated action then takes place.
If the controlling action is automated, the computer sends a signal to a final controlling device which then
influences the quantity being measured.
This final control device usually takes one of the following forms:
#Control valve #Electric motor #Electric heater
Both the measurement device and the final control device connect to some physical system which we call
the process.
26/11/2015

Digboi Refinery.Serving & Caring...Over a Century

Virtual Session: Basic instrumentation for Process

Control Loop Components

Sensor / Transmitter
Controller
Control Valve

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Virtual Session: Basic instrumentation for Process

SENSORS

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Digboi Refinery.Serving & Caring...Over a Century

Virtual Session: Basic instrumentation for Process

Continuous pressure measurement : Manometers


Gauge pressure

A manometer is fundamentally an instrument of differential pressure


measurement, indicating the difference between two pressures by a
shift in liquid column height.

Absolute pressure
Atmosphere pressure

Vacuum

Absolute Zero

A fluid-filled tube where an applied gas pressure causes the fluid


height to shift proportionately. Pressure is often measured in units of
liquid height (e.g. MM of water, MM of mercury).
Advantages Of Manometer
Used to measure very low pressures
Cheaper in cost and simple in construction.
High sensitivity and good repeatability.
Good accuracy.
Disadvantages of bourdon tubes are:
Prone to shock vibration and shock resistance.
Not applicable for high pressure range

26/11/2015

Digboi Refinery.Serving & Caring...Over a


Century

Virtual Session: Basic instrumentation for Process

Continuous pressure measurement : Pressure Gauge


Most pressure gauges use a bourdon tube as their pressure-sensing element.
Bourdon tubes are made of spring-like metal alloys bent into a circular shape. Under the influence of internal
pressure, a bourdon tube tries to straighten out into its original shape before being bent at the time of
manufacture
Bourdon Tube Pressure Gauges are: Cheaper in cost and simple in construction, Availability over wide range of
pressure, High sensitivity and good repeatability. But, prone to shock vibration and shock resistance. , Low
spring gradient limiting their use for precision measurements up to a pressure

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Digboi Refinery.Serving & Caring...Over a


Century

Virtual Session: Basic instrumentation for Process

Continuous pressure measurement : Diaphragm /Remote seal pressure gauge


The thin metal isolating diaphragm keeping process fluid from entering the gauge mechanism. Only inert fill fluid
occupies the space between this diaphragm and the gauges bourdon tube.
The only difference between this chemical-seal gauge and a remote-seal gauge is the small diameter capillary
tubing used to connect the gauge to a remote diaphragm.
Advantages Of Diaphragm /Remote seal pressure gauge over normal pressure gauge : Applicable for harsh
process fluid, elimination of impulse tube clogging problems

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Digboi Refinery.Serving & Caring...Over a


Century

Virtual Session: Basic instrumentation for Process

Continuous pressure measurement : Differential pressure transmitters


One of the most common, and most useful, pressure measuring instruments industry is the differential pressure
transmitter.
This device senses the difference in pressure between two ports and outputs a signal representing that pressure
in relation to a calibrated range.
Differential pressure transmitter can used for pressure measurement, differential pressure measurement, level
measurement & flow measurement

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Digboi Refinery.Serving & Caring...Over a


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Virtual Session: Basic instrumentation for Process

Continuous pressure measurement : Differential pressure transmitters

PRESSURE = P1 + * H * g

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Virtual Session: Basic instrumentation for Process

Discrete pressure measurement : Pressure Switch


A pressure switch is one detecting the presence of fluid pressure. Pressure switches often use diaphragms or
bellows as the pressure-sensing element, the motion of which actuates one or more switch contacts.
This switch balances the force generated by a pressure-sensing element against a mechanical spring. Tension on
the spring may be adjusted by a technician, which means the trip point of this switch is adjustable.
The PSH (pressure switch, high) activates when the air pressure inside the vessel reaches its high control
point. The PSL (pressure switch, low) activates when the air pressure inside the vessel drops down to its low
control point. Both switches feed discrete (on/off) electrical signals to a logic control device which then
controls the starting and stopping of the electric motor-driven air compressor.

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Virtual Session: Basic instrumentation for Process

Continuous Level measurement : Hydrostatic pressure


A vertical column of fluid exerts a pressure due to the columns weight. The relationship between column height
and fluid pressure at the bottom of the column is constant for any particular fluid (density) regardless of vessel
width or shape
The mathematical relationship between liquid column height and pressure is as follows:
P = gh. Where, P = Hydrostatic pressure = Mass density of fluid g = Acceleration of gravity
Differential pressure transmitter functions as a gauge pressure transmitter, responding to hydrostatic pressure
exceeding ambient (atmospheric) pressure. As liquid level increases, the hydrostatic pressure applied to the
high side of the differential pressure transmitter also increases, driving the transmitters output signal higher

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Virtual Session: Basic instrumentation for Process

Continuous Level measurement : Differential Pressure


Any gas or vapor pressure accumulation in an enclosed
vessel will add to the hydrostatic pressure at the bottom,
causing any pressure-sensing instrument to falsely register a
high level.
A differential pressure transmitter make this a simple task.
All we need to do is connect a second impulse line (called a
compensating leg), from the Low port of the transmitter
to the top of the vessel, so the Low side of the transmitter
experiences nothing but the gas pressure enclosed by the
vessel, while the High side experiences the sum of gas
and hydrostatic pressures.
We may ensure a constant density of Low side leg liquid by
intentionally filling that leg with a liquid known to be
denser than the densest condensed vapor inside the vessel.
We could also use a differential pressure transmitter with
remote seals and capillary tubes filled with liquid of known
density.
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Virtual Session: Basic instrumentation for Process

Continuous Level measurement : Bubbler systems


A purge gas is slowly introduced into a dip tube submerged in the process liquid. Gas pressure inside all
points of the tubing system will (very nearly) equal the hydrostatic pressure of the liquid at the tubes
submerged end.

Any pressure-measuring device tapped anywhere along the length of this tubing system will sense this pressure
and be able to infer the depth of the liquid in the process vessel without having to directly contact the process
liquid.
This eliminates the need for direct contact of the process liquid against the pressure-sensing element, which can
be advantageous if the process liquid is corrosive.

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Virtual Session: Basic instrumentation for Process

Continuous Level measurement : Displacer type


Displacer level instruments exploit Archimedes Principle to detect liquid level by continuously measuring the
weight of an object (called the displacer ) immersed in the process liquid.
As liquid level increases, the displacer experiences a greater buoyant force, making it appear lighter to the
sensing instrument, which interprets the loss of weight as an increase in level and transmits a proportional
output

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Virtual Session: Basic instrumentation for Process

Continuous Level measurement : Radar level measurement


Radar level instruments measure the distance from the transmitter (located at some high point) to the surface of
a process material located farther below by measuring the time-of-flight of a traveling radio wave.
Radio waves are electromagnetic in nature (comprised of alternating electric and magnetic fields), and very
high frequency (in the microwave frequency range GHz).
Some radar level instruments use waveguide probes to guide the electromagnetic waves into the process
liquid while others send electromagnetic waves out through open space to reflect off the process material. The
instruments using waveguides are called guided-wave radar instruments, whereas the radar instruments relying
on open space for signal propagation are called non-contact radar.

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Virtual Session: Basic instrumentation for Process

Discrete Level measurement : Level Switch


A level switch is one detecting the level of liquid or solid (granules or powder) in a vessel. Level switches often
use floats as the level-sensing element, the motion of which actuates one or more switch contacts.
The float directly senses liquid level, positioning the steel rod either closer to or farther away from the magnet.
If the rod comes close enough to the magnet, the mercury bottle tilts to change the switchs electrical status

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Virtual Session: Basic instrumentation for Process

Continuous fluid flow measurement : Orifice


Of all the pressure-based flow elements in existence, the most common is the orifice plate. This is simply a
metal plate with a hole in the middle for fluid to flow through. Orifice plates are typically sandwiched between
two flanges of a pipe joint, allowing for easy installation and removal.

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Virtual Session: Basic instrumentation for Process

Continuous fluid flow measurement : Variable-area flowmeters


An Variable-area flow meter is one where the fluid must pass through a
restriction whose area increases with flow rate. The simplest example of a
variable-area flow meter is the rotameter, which uses a solid object (called a
plummet or float) as a flow indicator.
As fluid flows upward through the tube, a pressure differential develops across
the plummet. This pressure differential, acting on the effective area of the
plummet body, develops an upward force(F = P/A). If this force exceeds the
weight of the plummet, the plummet moves up. As the plummet moves further
up in the tapered tube, the area between the plummet and the tube walls
(through which the fluid must travel) grows larger.
At some point, the flowing area reaches a point where the pressure-induced
force on the plummet body exactly matches the weight of the plummet. This is
the point in the tube where the plummet stops moving, indicating flow rate by
it position relative to a scale mounted on the outside of the tube.

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Virtual Session: Basic instrumentation for Process

Continuous fluid flow measurement : Coriolis flowmeters


Two identical Utubes are built next to each other and shaken in complementary fashion (always moving in
opposite directions). Tube twist is measured as relative motion from one tube to the next, not as motion between
the tube and the stationary housing of the flowmeter. This (ideally) eliminates the effect of any common-mode
vibrations on the inferred flow measurement.
The fluid flow is split very evenly between the tubes so their respective Coriolis forces should be identical in
magnitude. Two magnetic displacement sensors monitor the relative motions of the tubes and transmit signals to
an electronics module for digital processing.
Coriolis flowmeters are equipped with RTD temperature sensors to continuously monitor the process fluid
temperature. Another variable is measured and (potentially) transmitted by a Coriolis flowmeter, and this
variable is fluid density

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Virtual Session: Basic instrumentation for Process

Continuous temperature measurement : Bi-metal & Filled-bulb Temp Gauge


If we were to take two equally-sized strips of copper and iron, lay them
side-by-side, and then heat both of them to a higher temperature, we
would see the copper strip lengthen slightly more than the iron strip: If
we bond these two strips of metal together, this differential growth will
result in a bending motion that greatly exceeds the linear expansion. This
device is called a bi-metal strip .
This bending motion is significant enough to drive a pointer mechanism,
activate an electromechanical switch, or perform any number of other
mechanical tasks, making this a very simple and useful primary sensing
element for temperature.
Filled-bulb systems exploit the principle of fluid expansion to measure
temperature. If a fluid is enclosed in a sealed system and then heated, the
molecules in that fluid will exert a greater pressure on the walls of the
enclosing vessel. By measuring this pressure, and/or by allowing the fluid
to expand under constant pressure, we may infer the temperature of the
fluid

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Virtual Session: Basic instrumentation for Process

Continuous temperature measurement : Bi-metal & Filled-bulb Temp Gauge

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Virtual Session: Basic instrumentation for Process

Continuous temperature measurement : Resistance Temperature Detectors


RTDs are devices made of pure metal (usually platinum or copper) which
always increase in resistance with increasing temperature. The major
difference between thermistors and RTDs is linearity: thermistors are
highly sensitive and nonlinear, whereas RTDs are relatively insensitive but
very linear.

100 is a very common reference resistance for industrial RTDs. Since the
wires connecting an RTD to its ohmmeter possess their ow resistance,
which will be a more substantial percentage of the total circuit resistance
In a three-wire RTD circuit, voltmeter A measures the voltage dropped
across the RTD (plus the voltage dropped across the bottom currentcarrying wire). Voltmeter B measures just the voltage dropped across the
top current-carrying wire. Assuming both current-carrying wires will have
(very nearly) the same resistance, subtracting the indication of voltmeter
B from the indication given by voltmeter A yields the voltage dropped
across the RTD. VRTD = Vmeter(A) Vmeter(B)

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Virtual Session: Basic instrumentation for Process

Continuous temperature measurement : Thermocouples


When two dissimilar metal wires are joined together at one end, a voltage is produced at the other end that is
approximately proportional to temperature. That is to say, the junction of two different metals behaves like a
temperature-sensitive battery. This form of electrical temperature sensor is called a thermocouple:

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Virtual Session: Basic instrumentation for Process

Final control Element

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Virtual Session: Basic instrumentation for Process

Control Valve: Definition & Types


The most common final control element in the process control industries is the Control Valve. The control
valve manipulates a flowing fluid, such as gas, steam, water, or chemical compounds, to compensate for the
load disturbance and keep the regulated process variable as close as possible to the desired set point.
In other words Control Valves are variable area orifices in which variation in pressure drop across the orifice
causes variation in the flow.
Types of Control valves :
Globe valve: Rugged, usually the most expensive, particularly in the larger sizes, accurate and repeatable
control, high pressure drop
Gate Valve: sliding disc (gate), ideal for high pressure drop and high temperature applications where operation
is infrequent, multi-turn or long stroke pneumatic and electro-hydraulic actuators are needed, poor control
Ball Valve: Tight shutoff, high capacity with just a quarter-turn to operate
Butterfly Valve: Damper valve , most economical valves, high torque required

Diaphragm Valve: Simplest, tight shutoff, isolated, ideal for corrosive, slurry and sanitary services.
Disk Valves: Disk valves (often referred to as eccentric disk valves, or as high-performance butterfly valves)
are variation on the butterfly design intended to improve seat shut-off.
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Virtual Session: Basic instrumentation for Process

Control Valve: Types

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Virtual Session: Basic instrumentation for Process

Control Valve: Parts

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Virtual Session: Basic instrumentation for Process

Control Valve: Fail Safe condition


The selection should be made based on the safety consideration. For example
Case 1: Furnace fuel valve should be closed in case of utility failure
Case 2: Coolant valve in exothermic reactor should be open in case of utility failure
AIR-TO-OPEN:
Air-to-open (normally closed, fail close): as the air P increases, the valve opening gets larger.

AIR-TO-CLOSE
Air-to-close (normally open, fail open): as the air P increases, the valve opening gets smaller

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Virtual Session: Basic instrumentation for Process

Control Valve: Accessories


Controller
4 20 mA

FB

3 15 psig
I/P
converter

Air Supply For


I/P

Air Supply For


Positioner
AFR

Positioner

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Virtual Session: Basic instrumentation for Process

Control Valve: Valve Flow Coefficient & Valve Flow Characteristics


CV : The number of U.S. gallons per minute of water at 60
F which will pass through a given flow restriction with a
pressure drop of 1 psi .

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Virtual Session: Basic instrumentation for Process

Controller

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Virtual Session: Basic instrumentation for Process

Controller : Concept
Open Loop : When a Control System doesnt have the feedback structure, it is called an open-loop
system ( non-feedback system ) or any physical system which doesnt automatically (or manually)
correct for variations in its output is called an open-loop system.

Closed loop: A Closed-loop Control System is that system in which the control action is somehow
dependent upon the system output. Thus a closed-loop control system measures the actual system output,
compares it with the input and determines the error which is then used for controlling the the system
output to have its desire value.

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Virtual Session: Basic instrumentation for Process

Controller : PID controller


The Proportional-Integral-Derivative (PID) controller calculates the MANIPULATED VARIABLE
(MV) based on the error between SET POINT (SP) and the CONTROLLED VARIABLE (CV).
The PID control algorithm is most widely used for process control applications, as :
It provides reasonably good control performance for single loops.
It is applicable to a wide range of processes simply by changing tuning constants
Kc
:
Controller GAIN
Ti
:
INTEGRAL TIME
Td
:
DERIVATIVE TIME
It is provided as a standard feature on all commercially available systems.
The algorithm is easily enhanced for multivariable control schemes
SP = SET POINT
ERROR
PID

MV =

+
_

MANIPULATED
VARIABLE

PROCESS VARIABLE(PV)
CONTOLLED VARIABLE(CV)
MEASURED VARIABLE
SENSOR

PROCESS

CONTROL VALVE
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Virtual Session: Basic instrumentation for Process

Controller : DCS (Distributed Control System)


A Control System which is Functionally as well as Physically
distributed is called a DCS .
Features of DCS:
Redundant architecture
Process monitoring much easy
Ease Of Maintenance
Trending facility
Alarms
Supports Online Configuration changes
Future Expansion simple
Does not affect the whole system / process in case of
failures

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I/O

MICROPROCESSOR

MEMORY

For Data Acquisition

For Processing of Data

For Storage

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Virtual Session: Basic instrumentation for Process

Controller : DCS (Distributed Control System)

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Virtual Session: Basic instrumentation for Process

Controller : PLC (Programmable Logic Controller) & Interlock


Designed to initiate corrective action in process units under abnormal conditions that cannot be handled
upon, to prevent or mitigate hazardous consequence.
The equipment safety is designed as per the risk analysis of the process and subsequently translated in to
logical interpretation and implemented in microprocessor based programmable logic controllers (PLC).
The controller checks the status of each individual input contact , performs the necessary logic and sets
each of the output to the required status by energizing & de-energizing the contactors, solenoid valves or
by giving supply to indicating lamps.

Auto Spare

I/P Leg A

Auto Spare

I/O Bus
Tribus

Main
Processor A

O/P Leg A
Tribus

Input
I/P Leg B

I/P Leg C

26/11/2015

Main
Processor B
Tribus
I/O Bus

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I/O Bus

O/P Leg B

Main
Processor C

O/P Leg C

Output

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Virtual Session: Basic instrumentation for Process

Controller : PLC (Programmable Logic Controller) & Interlock


An interlock is used to help prevent a machine from harming its operator or damaging itself by preventing
one element from changing state due to the state of another element.
Input devices : Limit switches, pressure switches, temperature switches, level switch, push bottons etc.
Output devices: Lamp, motors, solenoids valve etc.

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Virtual Session: Basic instrumentation for Process

Thank You

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