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Cumulative damage during fatigue is studied analytically. Extensive reviews are performed
on the published damage models. Three different cumulative damage models
are defined using several physical variables such as fatigue modulus and resultant
strain. Proposed model I is defined using fatigue modulus, while models II and III are
defined using resultant strains. Proposed models are derived as functions of normalized
applied stress level, r, and number of fatigue cycle, n. It is verified that the
proposed cumulative damage model III has better agreement with the two stress level
fatigue experimental data than other models.

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W. HWANG AND K. S. HAN

State University of New York at Buffalo

Buffalo, New York 14260

(Received August 1, 1984)

(Revised March 6, 1985)

ABSTRACT

Cumulative damage during fatigue is studied analytically. Extensive reviews are performed on the published damage models. Three different cumulative damage models

are defined using several physical variables such as fatigue modulus and resultant

strain. Proposed model I is defined using fatigue modulus, while models II and III are

defined using resultant strains. Proposed models are derived as functions of normalized applied stress level, r, and number of fatigue cycle, n. It is verified that the

proposed cumulative damage model III has better agreement with the two stress level

fatigue experimental data than other models.

INTRODUCTION

SERVICES,

DURING

jected varing

loadings. The nature of multi-stress level fatigue is more complicated than

constant amplitude stress fatigue. There have been numerous studies [1-23,

25-32] to explain multi-stress level fatigue phenomena and predict its life by

cumulative damage model approaches, approaches without a damage model,

and statistical approaches, etc. Cumulative damage model approach could be

classified as damage models defined by number of cycles and material char-

to

acteristic variables.

Failure modes of composite materials are complicated and quite different

from those of isotropic materials. For short fiber composite materials, fibermatrix debonding, fiber fracture, and matrix failure are the main possible

failure modes. For composite laminates, delamination is also a possible

failure mode, in addition to the above failure modes. Based on these failure

modes, crack length, crack density, delamination, and number of deboned

fibers are apparent damages, which can be detected through microscopes, or

NDT instruments. These variables could be used to define the damage.

Journal of

0021-9983/86/02 0125-29 $4.50/0

@ 1986 Technomic Publishing Co., Inc.

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125

126

residual strength, and strain, which would vary during fatigue loadings, may

be used to define the damage. A damage model defined by material

characteristic variables should be formulated as a function of number of

cycles and applied stress level in order to use it for calculation of the damage

and prediction of fatigue life. In this study, three different fatigue damage

models are proposed using fatigue modulus and resultant strain, and

evaluated for the two-stress-level fatigue life predictions.

fatigue cycles, frequency, temperature, moisture content and geometric shape

of the specimen, etc. The damage can be written as a functional form,

where,

number of

fatigue cycle

applied stress level

f : frequency

n:

r:

T: temperature

M: moisture content

As a first approach, constant frequency and environmental conditions are

assumed. In addition, the effect of temperature rise during a fatigue test is ignored. Then the Equation (1) is reduced,

following

two

F(n,r)

could be

expressed

as

either of

relations, i.e.,

or

With

satisfy following initial and final boundary conditions.

For a constant amplitude loading,

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127

For

sequence

loading,

where,

N: number of cycles to failure

number of load sequence until final failure

AD,: amount of damage accumulation during fatigue at stress level r,

m :

number of cycles. With this assumption and Equation (3), the damage function is plotted in Figure 1. The Equation (3.a) seems a function of n alone

explicitly but the equation has stress effect because of N which is related to

applied stress. Though the Equation (3.a) contains applied stress effect, the

damage model which do not have stress dependent constants are classified as

a stress independent damage model. The reason is that these damage models

can be represented by one function and one curve, as shown in Figure 2.

The damage function has a trend either A, B, or C in Figure 2. The trend

can be determined by first derivative of D, dDldn (damage rate), or second

derivative, d zDldn 2. Following determinations can be made;

Figure

1.

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128

Figure 2. Damage

as a

using the above three equations in the following manner;

Two-stress level fatigue life prediction:

1. Find n,2 , the cycle at the stress r2, which has equivalent damage under the

stress r, and cycle n, , by equating

or

2. Then the

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129

Multi-stress level

above procedure 1.

1. Same as the

2. Find n23 , the cycle at r3 which has equivalent

curred under stresses r, and r2 , by equating

damage accumulation

oc-

or

where,

4D<~ - ,

(k - I)&dquo; load

1)&dquo;,

It should be pointed out that I:1D2 is not the same asj(n2/N2). Since AD2 is

defined by the damage accumulated under the stress level r2 , it becomes,

3. It can be also proved in the following manner.

as

shown in

Figure

[Proof]

Since there is only

The damage

sum

one

stress

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130

Figure 3.

Four step

fatigue

life

models.

Finally it

can

be written

The function f in Equations (14) and (15) is same, therefore the arguments of

the function must be equal.

Namely,

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131

The Equation (16) represents Palmgren-Miners rule. That means the stress

independent models predict same multi-stress level fatigue life though they

could have different damage accumulation procedure during the fatigue test.

There is another damage summation method, the so called equivalent stress

approach (Leve [1]). According to this summation method, the damage sum

could be expressed,

If Equation (17) is used for damage sum, each stress independent model

predicts a different fatigue life. But the equivalent stress approach, which is

from the direct consideration of the result, fails to explain the effect of sequence of loading as well as the damage accumulation procedure.

REVIEWS

damage rule which was developed further by Miner [4]. This is the first

cumulative damage theory and known as Palmgren-Miners rule or linear

damage rule. This rule defined the damage as the ratio of the number of

cycles of operation v.s. the number of cycles to failure, i.e.,

treatments, remaining life can be obtained as follows;

Remaining life for two-stress level

Because of its simplicity, this rule is still widely used. But this rule fails to

predict the effect of load history. Experimental data indicate that the order in

which various stress levels are applied, does have significant influences on the

fatigue behavior of materials. It is a generally known fact that the PalmgrenMiners damage sum to failure is greater than unity for low-high tests and less

than unity for high-low tests.

A nonlinear damage model, which is called modified Palmgren-Miners

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132

was considered for predicting multi-stress level fatigue life

cisely. The damage is defined as follows;

rule,

more

pre-

is a stress-independent model and predicts the same remaining life with

Palmgren-Miners rule. According to Leve [ 1 ], the constant C is greater than

1. Then this damage model has a trend C in Figure 2.

Shanley [5] proposed a linear damage model, which is expressed as follows;

where,

S:

C,k :

applied

stress

constants (k is

greater than 1)

b : slope of the central portion of the S-N

curve

damage model which has a similar form as modified Palmgren-Miners

model. The damage model is;

Where C, is a stress dependent constant. The value of C, should be determined in order to predict multi-stress level fatigue life. But evaluation of C, is

not possible unless the damage model matched with some physical variables

which can be detectable during fatigue tests. Only the following inequalities

can be obtainable from the Equation (6) and Figure 4.

where,

assumptions.

1. The S-N curve

stress value

can

be

on

the

following

where,

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over-

133

K: material constant

limit of a virgin specimen

81: fatigue

2. When fatigue damage accumulates, both the K and 81 is general will be affected. Thus damage will have a new fatigue limit and a new fatigue life at

each stress level above the new fatigue limit value.

3. The K value for any degree of damage is assumed to be proportional to the

new specimen fatigue limit corresponding to the degree of damage.

The

damage is

defined as,

where,

Using the above three assumptions, Henry formulated

predict fatigue limit after damage;

following equation

to

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134

As

final result, he

presented,

where,

x:

cycle ratio,

q: overstress

n IN

ratio, (S - Sl )lSl

defined as follows:

where,

m :

c,a :

function of the stress condition

1.During the two-stress repeated block stress histories, the predominant influence of stress history was accounted for by assuming that once damage

nuclei were introduced at high stress level r&dquo;, they remained and propagated during subsequent loadings at both high and low stresses.

2. The rate of propagation of damage nuclei was determined solely by the

stress amplitude, either r, or r2, regardless of previous stress history.

3. The a in Equation (28) is not a function of applied stress condition but a

For

constant.

dition which can be written,

The

equivalent to another ratio involving stresses Sl and S, that could be more

easily evaluated. Pursuing this thought, Corten and Dolan formulated the

relationship;

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135

Gatts [11] derived a life prediction equation using residual strength and

fatigue limit degradation approaches. He defined the damage as a power

function form of the load; that is

where,

St : fatigue limit

a:

Residual strength degradation rate is proportional to the damage.

Fatigue limit is proportional to residual strength.

The damage function is related to strain energy associated with strains and

stresses that exceed the level of the fatigue limit.

For

1.

2.

3.

constant

developing

4. Failure

his theory,

occurs

when residual

he derived

For constant stress amplitude;

stress.

following equations.

At failure;

For

fatigue limit

where,

81: fatigue

limit of

virgin specimen

k, C :

constants

q: stress amplitude

q,:

ratio, S/S,

fatigue limit ratio, 8//81

Marin [12] proposed a cumulative damage theory based on the consideration of relations between damage as a function of cycle ratio and changes in

the S-N curve due to damage accumulation. As a result he derived a multistress level fatigue failure criterion which is exactly same as the CortenDorans criterion, Equation (32). Marin developed the Equation (32) further

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136

of the form.

as

where,

hypothesis if p 0.

Manson [ 13,14] presented a double linear damage rule based on the fatigue

cycles for crack initiation and crack propagation. He assumed that the crack

propagation period Np can be written in terms of the total life N by the equa=

tions,

The crack initiation cycle is

crack initiation and crack propagation cycles.

For crack initiation period

propagation period;

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137

Owen and Howe [15] studied about debonding and resin cracking of a

glass-reinforced plastic during fatigue. They concluded that resin cracking

could represent fatigue damage in the composite. A stress independent model

was established based on the experimental results; that is

Where B and C are constants. It is interesting that the two constants can be

reduced to one if the failure condition (D 1 when n N) is considered, i.e.:

=

This model predicts the same multi-stress level fatigue life with PalmgrenMiners rule since it is a stress-independent model.

Subramanyan [16] proposed a non-linear cumulative damage model based

on S-N curve, fatigue limit and isodamage line in S-N curve. As the final

results, he presented following equations.

Damage model;

where,

Nt

number of cycles at

Multi-stress level

fatigue limit

fatigue life;

fatigue life;

where,

x, :

n, IN,

stress at ith loading

limit

S,: fatigue

t~:

S, : applied

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by con-

138

Lemaitre and Plumtree [ 18] proposed damage models in creep, fatigue and

Their fatigue damage model can be expressed;

creep-fatigue interaction.

where,

=

a =

1 /(p + 1 )

11(c + p + 1)

when stress is controlled

p: material constant

c:

For

curve

multi-stress level fatigue life with Palmgren[19] stated that the constant depends upon the

testing conditions including strain range. Socie et. al. [20] determined the

value of p from crack length, load drop and strain accumulation measurement. For cast iron, they presented a following relation.

same

Their result shows that better agreement of Equation (49) with experimental

Palmgren-Miners rule for the programmed strain control tests.

Fong [21]equated a non-linear damage model with the following assumptions.

data than

2. Damage varies linearly with D.

Namely,

where,

k, k :

constants

The solution to

The

Equation (51),

on

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139

research, this damage model is matched with many physical variables such as

residual strength, maximum damage length, number of debonded fibers and

total resin crack length, etc.

There have been other damage models defined by physical variables during

fatigue test but not equated as a function of fatigue cycles. Cole et. al. [22]

studied the damage in composite materials by non-destructive techniques.

They determined the attenuation due to the damage from the total attenuation and undamaged material attenuation. Dibenedetto and Salee [23] investigated fatigue crack propagation in graphite fiber reinforced nylon 66. In

this study, the rate of damage (crack propagation rate) is defined by the rate

of change of compliance with time, dCldt. Fitzgerald [24] suggested a

damage model defined by undamaged and damaged modulus. This damage

model was investigated further by Wang et. al. [25] for fatigue of short fiber

SMC composite. Wang et. al. [26] also presented a shear fatigue damage

model defined by shear modulus.

The disperse nature of fatigue data is well known. Some efforts have been

given to study multi-stress level fatigue by statistical approaches. Yang et. al.

[27,28] predicted multi-stress level fatigue life by a residual strength degradation model. Chou [29] proposed a percent-failure damage model. He defined

the damage by the percentage of failure occurred during the load. Johnsen

and Dover [30] expanded Palmgren-Miners rule by Monte Carlo method.

They assumed that value of damage sum at failure follows normal distribution and the fatigue life at an applied stress level is lognormally distributed.

They presented the following life prediction equation.

where,

Z:

damage

sum

at failure

1, 2,

n &dquo;&dquo; Z and N, : random variables

n, : constant

(i

...,

m -

1)

Three different fatigue damage models are defined using fatigue modulus

and resultant strain. Those models are made mainly for the purpose of

predicting multi-stress level fatigue life. To derive the damage models as functions of number of cycle, the assumptions used in Reference [34] are needed.

The values of material constants B and C, which can be evaluated by one

stress level fatigue test, are used for the prediction of remaining fatigue life. It

is also postulated that the constant amplitude fatigue life is well followed by

the life equation which is derived in Reference [34].

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140

The fatigue modulus, which varies with number of cycle during fatigue,

could be used to define the damage. The fatigue damage, D, which satisfies

the initial and final boundary conditions, is defined as follows;

1. Proposed

Substitution of Equations (7) and (8) in Reference [34] into the above equation provides,

Equation (55) has exactly same form with modified Palmgren-Miners model.

The constant C is determined by one stress level fatigue life equation, in

Reference [34]. It is expected that C is between null and unity regardless of

material system. Therefore this model predicts damage trend A in Figure 2.

The Equation (55) represents a stress-independent damage model. This result

is mainly due to the assumption that fatigue modulus is function of number

of cycle, n alone (refer to Reference [34]). If the stress effects on the fatigue

modulus were found, this model might be derived as a stress-dependent

model.

2.

Fatigue damage is defined by the ratio of the resultant strain

v.s. the failure strain,

at nth

cycle

The resultant strains are defined in the Figure 5. By the fatigue modulus concept, the applied stress and resultant strain could be written,

failure strain could be expressed,

on

the above

equation pro-

vides,

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141

Figure 5.

where,

Reference [34]).

(60)

can

be also

expressed

as

followings (Refer

to

This model predicts damage amount r at n 0 (when stress reaches maximum applied stress level during first fatigue cycle) as shown in the Figure 6.

At a specific fatigue cycle, the damage is proportional to applied stress level

according to this model. This relation is presented in the Figure 7. The r, in

the Figure 7 is the applied stress level which has fatigue life N, cycles and r1 is

fatigue limit.

Multi-stress level fatigue life can be predicted by the procedure in the structure of damage function of this study. Two-stress level fatigue life is ex=

pressed as follows;

3. Proposed

as

III

follows;

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Figure

7. Stress effect

on

the

11 representation.

142

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143

where,

Substitution of Equations (57), (58), and (64) into Equation (63) provides,

The

Consideration of the

Equation (66)

can

on

be rewritten,

the

If the constant amplitude fatigue life Equation (13) in Reference [34] is considered on the damage Equation (67), the damage could be also equated as

follows,

This model predicts damage trend A in the Figure 2. The relation between

damage amount and applied stress level at a specific fatigue cycle can be also

predicted. Figure 8 shows this relation.

Mathematical calculations provide following equivalent cycles for two

stress level fatigue.

FATIGUE LIFE

Theoretical

using the results of Reference [34]. The effect of applied

applied

stress level on the damage at a fatigue cycle are also predicted and plotted in

the Figures 14 and 15 for the proposed models II and III, respectively. The

stress level, r

0.33 in the Figures 14 and 15 is regarded as an approximate

fatigue limit which denotes a stress level predicted by the Equation (13) in

Reference [34] when the fatigue life in 106 cycles.

Two stress level fatigue life is predicted in the case of low-high test and

high-low test. The predicted values are compared with the experimental data

which are presented by Han and Hamdi [31]. The lower stress level is 38.52

ksi (r 0.6) and the higher stress level is 44.94 ksi (r 0.7). The value of n, is

stress level

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Figure 8.

Stress effect

on

the

144

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Figure

Figure

10.

11.

Damage predIctIOn

Damage prediction

at each

at each

145

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Figure

Figure

12.

13.

Damage prediction

Damage prediction

at each

at each

146

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Rgure

II.

Rgure

III.

147

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148

Table 1. Comparison of predicted two-stress-level

fatigue life with experimental data.

* Palmgren- MinersRule,

Modified

Table 2. Two-stress-level

damage sum

to failure

10,000 cycles for the low-high test while 300 cycles for the high-low test. The

specimen material is glass fiber cloth epoxy composites (G-10 CR). The

fatigue life used here is the mean log fatigue life of ten experimental data

(both low-high and high-low tests). The results are presented in the Table 1.

The comparison shows that the presented model III has better agreement with

experimental data than the other models. The damage sums to failure are

evaluated in the Table 2. As it is expected, the result shows that the PalmgrenMiners damage sum to failure is greater than unity for low-high test and less

than unity for high-low test.

CONCLUDING REMARKS

(1) To explain multi-stress level fatigue phenomena and predict its life, the

cumulative damage model approach may be useful.

(2) For understanding multi-stress level fatigue phenomena, it is desirable

to define cumulative damage model by physical variables than by number of

cycles. It is because the direct use of number of cycles to define damage model

can not escape the empirical relation though the damage model predicts

multi-stress level fatigue life well.

(3) Fatigue modulus and resultant strain could be used as parameters of

representing damage.

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149

improved final damage functions using the proposed damage concepts.

(5) It seems impossible to establish a universal fatigue damage model right

now. But the effort must be given to find it. As an attempt to establish a

universal fatigue damage model, the following requirements are proposed.

a. It should explain fatigue phenomena at an applied stress level.

b. It should explain fatigue phenomena for an overall applied stress range.

i) During a cycle at a high applied stress level the material should be more

damaged than that of at a low applied stress level.

ii) If it is true that failure occurs at each maximum applied stress level,

then the final damage (damage just before failure) at a low applied

stress level should be larger than that of a high applied stress level.

c. It should explain multi-stress level fatigue phenomena.

d. It is desirable to establish the fatigue damage model without S-N curve.

more

REFERENCES

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2. Palmgren, A., "Die Lebensadauer von Kugellagern," Z. Vereines Deutcher Ingenieure, Vol.

68, pp. 339-341 (1924).

3.

, translated by G. Palmgren, et al. 1st ed.,

(1945).

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K. L. Reifsnider, Ed., pp. 243-266 (1982).

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Nylon 66," Polymer Eng. and Sci

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Workshop on a Continuum Mechanics Approach to Damage and Life Prediction, Carrollton, Kentucky, U.S.A., pp. 153-158 (May 1980).

25. Wang, S. S. and Chim, E. S. M., "Fatigue Damage and Degradation in Random Short-Fiber

SMC Composite," J. of Com. Mat., Vol. 17, pp. 114-134 (1983).

26. Wang, S. S., Goetz, D. P. and Corten, H. T., "Shear Fatigue Degradation and Fracture of

Random Short-Fiber SMC Composite," J. of Com. Mat., Vol. 18, pp. 2-20 (1984).

27. Yang, J. N. and Jones, D. L., "Load Sequence Effects on the Fatigue of Unnotched Com, ASTM STP 723, pp. 213-232

posite Materials," Fatigue of Fibrous Composite Materials

(1981).

28. Yang, J. N. and Du, S., "An Exploratory Study into the Fatigue of Composites under

Spectrum Loading," J. of Com. Mat., Vol. 17, pp. 511-526 (1983).

29. Chou, P. C., "A Cumulative Damage Rule for Fatigue of Composite Materials," Modern

Developments in Composite Materials and Structures, J. R. Vinson, Ed., ASME, pp.

343-355 (1979).

30. Johnsen, S. E. J. and Doner, M., "A Statistical Simulation Model of Miners Rule," J. of

Eng. Mats. and Tech., Vol. 103, pp. 113-117 (1981).

31. Han, K. S. and Hamdi, M., "Fatigue Life Scattering of RP/C," 38th Annual RP/CI Conference, SPI (1983).

32. Collins, J. A., Failure of Materials m Mechanical Design: Analysis, Prediction, Prevention,

John Wiley and Sons (1981).

33. Wool, R. P., "Material Damage in Polymers," Workshop on a Continuum Mechanics Approach to Damage and Life Prediction, Carrollton, Kentucky, U.S.A., pp. 28-35 (May

1980).

34. Han, K. and Hwang, W., "Fatigue of Composites—Fatigue Modulus Concept and Life

Prediction," Journal of Composite Materials

, Vol. 20 (March 1986).

16.

1.

Palmgren-Miners Model

Downloaded from jcm.sagepub.com at GRAND VALLEY STATE UNIV LIB on November 8, 2016

151

2. Modified

3.

Palmgren-Miners Model

Shanleys Model

4. Marco-Starkeys Model

5.

Henrys Model

where,

6. Corten-Dolans Model

7. Gatts Model

8. Mansons Model

For Crack Initiation

For Crack

Propagation

9. Owen-Howes Model

10.

Subramanyans Model

Downloaded from jcm.sagepub.com at GRAND VALLEY STATE UNIV LIB on November 8, 2016

152

11. Lemaitre-Plumtrees Model

12.

Fongs Model

where,

C: attenuation of virgin specimen

A : total attenuation

AD: attenuation due to damage

14. Dibenedetto-Salees Model

where,

15.

Fitzgerald-Wangs Model

where,

E: modulus at a fatigue cycle

E* : reference modulus

18.

Proposed Model

Downloaded from jcm.sagepub.com at GRAND VALLEY STATE UNIV LIB on November 8, 2016

153

19.

Proposed Model II

20.

Proposed Model

III

Downloaded from jcm.sagepub.com at GRAND VALLEY STATE UNIV LIB on November 8, 2016

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