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21st century assessment

1. 1. ASSESSMENT IN THE 21ST CENTURY Dr. Carlo Magno Associate Professor of


Educational Psychology De La Salle University, Manila
2. 2. Answer the worksheet: Activity #1
3. 3. ADVANCE ORGANIZER 21st century skills Assessment competencies of teachers
Shifts in assessment trends Assessment for learning and assessment of learning
Alternative forms of assessment
4. 4. DEFINITION OF ASSESSMENT (AFT, NCME, NEA, 1990) Assessment is defined
as a process of obtaining information that is used to make educational decisions about
students, to give feedback to students about his or her progress, strengths and
weaknesses, to judge instructional effectiveness and curricular adequacy, and to inform
policy.
5. 5. 21ST CENTURY SKILLS Learning and innovation skills Creativity and
Innovation Critical Thinking and Problem Solving Communication and
Collaboration Information, media, and technology skills Information Literacy
Media Literacy ICT (Information, Communications and Technology) Literacy Life
and career skills Flexibility and Adaptability Initiative and Self-Direction Social
and Cross-Cultural Skills Productivity and Accountability Leadership and
Responsibility Partnership for the 21st century skills
6. 6. ASSESSMENT COMPETENCIES FOR TEACHERS Constructed by the AFT,
NCME, NEA: Teachers should be skilled in: 1. choosing assessment methods
appropriate for instructional decisions. 2. Administering, scoring, and interpreting the
results of both externally produced and teacher produced assessment methods. 3. Using
assessment results when making decisions about individual students, planning teaching,
and developing curriculum and school improvement. American Federation of Teachers,
National Council on Measurement and Evaluation, and National Education Association in
the United States of America.
7. 7. ASSESSMENT COMPETENCIES FOR TEACHERS 4. Developing valid pupil
grading procedures that use pupil assessment. 5. Communicating assessment results to
students, parents, other lay audiences, and other educators. 6. Recognizing unethical,
illegal, and otherwise inappropriate assessment methods and uses of assessment
information.
8. 8. SHIFTS IN ASSESSMENT Testing Alternative assessment Paper and pencil
Performance assessment Multiple choice Supply Single correct answer Many correct
answer Summative Formative Outcome only Process and Outcome Skill focused
Task-based Isolated facts Application of knowledge Decontextualized task
Contextualized task
9. 9. Watch Rick Stiggins Video
10. 10. ASSESSMENT OF LEARNING AND ASSESSMENT FOR LEARNING Crucial
Distinction Assessment of Learning How much have students learned as of a particular
point in time? Assessment for Learning How can we use assessment to help students
learn more?
11. 11. ASSESSMENT OF LEARNING AND ASSESSMENT FOR LEARNING Effect of
Previous Practices: rank students on achievement by graduation New Expectation: Assure

competence in Math, Reading, Writing, etc. Implications? Assessment and grading


procedures should help students succeed.
12. 12. ASSESSMENT FOR LEARNING We need to close the gap between standards and
students competencies Risk: our society will be unable to productively evolve in social
and economic sense. Assessment is a tool to ensure student mastery of essential
standards.
13. 13. ASSESSMENT FOR LEARNING Mistaken beliefs about how to use assessment to
support school improvement: 1. High-stakes tests are good for all students because they
motivate learning 2. If I threaten to fail you, it will cause you to try harder 3. If a little
intimidation doesnt work, use a lot of intimidation
14. 14. MISTAKEN BELIEFS 4. The way to maximize learning is to maximize anxiety 5. It
is the adults who use assessment results to make the most important instructional
decision.
15. 15. MISTAKEN BELIEFS PROFOUND MISTAKE Teachers and leaders dont need to
understand sound assessment practices the testing people will take care of us.
COUNTER BELIEF They do need to understand sound assessment practices.
16. 16. ALTERNATIVE FORMS OF ASSESSMENT Performance based assessment
Authentic assessment Portfolio assessment
17. 17. OBJECTIVES 1. Distinguish performance-based assessment with the traditional
paper and pencil tests. 2. Construct tasks that are performance based. Design a rubric to
assess a performance based task
18. 18. TERMS Authentic assessment Direct assessment Alternative assessment
Performance testing Performance assessment Changes are taking place in assessment
19. 19. METHOD Assessment should measure what is really important in the curriculum.
Assessment should look more like instructional activities than like tests. Educational
assessment should approximate the learning tasks of interest, so that, when students
practice for the assessment, some useful learning takes place.
20. 20. WHAT IS PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENT? Testing that requires a student to
create an answer or a product that demonstrates his/her knowledge or skills (Rudner &
Boston, 1991).
21. 21. FEATURES OF PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENT Intended to assess what it is that
students know and can do with the emphasis on doing. Have a high degree of realism
about them. Involve: (a) activities for which there is no correct answer, (b) assessing
groups rather than individuals, (c) testing that would continue over an extended period of
time, (d) self-evaluation of performances. Likely use open-ended tasks aimed at
assessing higher level cognitive skills.
22. 22. PUSH ON PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENT Bring testing methods more in line
with instruction. Assessment should approximate closely what it is students should
know and be able to do.
23. 23. EMPHASIS OF PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENT Should assess higher level
cognitive skills rather than narrow and lower level discreet skills. Direct measures of
skills of interest.

24. 24. CHARACTERISTICS OF PERFORMANCE-BASED ASSESSMENT Students

perform, create, construct, produce, or do something. Deep understanding and/or


reasoning skills are needed and assessed. Involves sustained work, often days and
weeks. Calls on students to explain, justify, and defend. Performance is directly
observable. Involves engaging in ideas of importance and substance. Relies on trained
assessors judgments for scoring Multiple criteria and standards are prespecified and
public There is no single correct answer. If authentic, the performance is grounded in
real world contexts and constraints.
25. 25. VARIATION OF AUTHENTICITY Relatively authentic Somewhat authentic
Authentic Indicate which parts of a garden design are accurate Design a garden Create a
garden Write a paper on zoning Write a proposal to change fictitious zoning laws Write a
proposal to present to city council to change zoning laws Explain what would you teach
to students learning basketball Show how to perform basketball skills in practice Play a
basketball game.
26. 26. Answer worksheet 2
27. 27. CONSTRUCTING PERFORMANCE BASED TASKS 1. Identify the performance
task in which students will be engaged 2. Develop descriptions of the task and the context
in which the performance is to be conducted. 3. Write the specific question, prompt, or
problem that the student will receive. Structure: Individual or group? Content: Specific
or integrated? Complexity: Restricted or extended?
28. 28. COMPLEXITY OF TASK Restricted-type task Narrowly defined and require brief
responses Task is structured and specific Ex: Construct a bar graph from data
provided Demonstrate a shorter conversation in French about what is on a menu Read
an article from the newspaper and answer questions Flip a coin ten times. Predict what
the next ten flips of the coin will be, and explain why. Listen to the evening news on
television and explain if you believe the stories are biased. Construct a circle, square,
and triangle from provided materials that have the same circumference.
29. 29. Extended-type task Complex, elaborate, and time-consuming. Often include
collaborative work with small group of students. Requires the use of a variety of
information Examples: Design a playhouse and estimate cost of materials and
labor Plan a trip to another country: Include the budget and itinerary, and justify why
you want to visit certain places Conduct a historical reenactment (e. g. impeachment trial
of ERAP) Diagnose and repair a car problem Design an advertising campaign for a
new or existing product
30. 30. IDENTIFYING PERFORMANCE TASK DESCRIPTION Prepare a task
description Listing of specifications to ensure that essential if criteria are met Includes
the ff.: Content and skill targets to be assessed Description of student activities
Group or individual Help allowed Resources needed Teacher role Administrative
process Scoring procedures
31. 31. PERFORMANCE-BASED TASK QUESTION PROMPT Task prompts and
questions will be based on the task descriptions. Clearly identifies the outcomes,
outlines what the students are encourage dot do, explains criteria for judgment.
32. 32. EXAMPLE OF A TASK PROMPT:

33. 33. PERFORMANCE CRITERIA What you look for in student responses to evaluate

their progress toward meeting the learning target. Dimensions of traits in performance
that are used to illustrate understanding, reasoning, and proficiency. Start with
identifying the most important dimensions of the performance What distinguishes an
adequate to an inadequate demonstration of the target?
34. 34. EXAMPLE OF CRITERIA Learning target: Students will be able to write a
persuasive paper to encourage the reader to accept a specific course of action or point
of view. Criteria: Appropriateness of language for the audience Plausibility and
relevance of supporting arguments. Level of detail presented Evidence of creative,
innovative thinking Clarity of expression Organization of ideas
35. 35. Watch video of Cody Green
36. 36. RATING SCALES Indicate the degree to which a particular dimension is present.
Three kinds: Numerical, qualitative, combined qualitative/quantitative
37. 37. Numerical Scale Numbers of a continuum to indicate different level of
proficiency in terms of frequency or quality Example: No Understanding 1 2 3 4 5
Complete understanding No organization 1 2 3 4 5 Clear organization Emergent reader 1
2 3 4 5 Fluent reader
38. 38. Qualitative scale Uses verbal descriptions to indicate student performance.
Provides a way to check the whether each dimension was evidenced. Type A: Indicate
different gradations of the dimension Type B: Checklist
39. 39. Example of Type A: Minimal, partial, complete Never, seldom, occasionally,
frequently, always Consistent, sporadically, rarely None, some, complete
Novice, intermediate, advance, superior Inadequate, needs improvement, good
excellent Excellent, proficient, needs improvement Absent, developing, adequate,
fully developed Limited, partial, thorough Emerging, developing, achieving Not
there yet, shows growth, proficient Excellent, good, fair, poor
40. 40. Example of Type A: Checklist
41. 41. Holistic scale The category of the scale contains several criteria, yielding a single
score that gives an overall impression or rating Example level 4: Sophisticated
understanding of text indicated with constructed meaning level 3: Solid understanding of
text indicated with some constructed meaning level 2: Partial understanding of text
indicated with tenuous constructed meaning level 1: superficial understanding of text
with little or no constructed meaning
42. 42. EXAMPLE HOLISTIC SCALE
43. 43. Analytic Scale One in which each criterion receives a separate score. Example
Criteria Outstanding 5 4 Competent 3 Marginal 2 1 Creative ideas Logical organization
Relevance of detail Variety in words and sentences Vivid images
44. 44. RUBRICS When scoring criteria are combined with a rating scale, a complete
scoring guideline is produced or rubric. A scoring guide that uses criteria to differentiate
between levels of student proficiency.
45. 45. EXAMPLE OF A RUBRIC
46. 46. GUIDELINES IN CREATING A RUBRIC 1. Be sure the criteria focus on important
aspects of the performance 2. Match the type of rating with the purpose of the assessment

3. The descriptions of the criteria should be directly observable 4. The criteria should be
written so that students, parents, and others understand them. 5. The characteristics and
traits used in the scale should be clearly and specifically defined. 6. Take appropriate
steps to minimize scoring frame
47. 47. PORTFOLIO ASSESSMENT: EXPLORATION Have you ever done a portfolio?
Tell me about this experience. Did you enjoy it? What elements did you include in your
portfolio? Are the materials placed in the portfolio required? Watch video on Portfolio
48. 48. WHAT ARE PORTFOLIOS? Purposeful, systematic process of collecting and
evaluating student products to document progress toward the attainment of learning
targets or show evidence that a learning target has been achieved. Includes student
participation in the selection and student self-reflection. A collection of artifacts
accompanied by a reflective narrative that not only helps the learner to understand and
extend learning, but invites the reader of the portfolio to gain insight about learning and
the learner (Porter & Cleland, 1995)
49. 49. CHARACTERISTICS OF PORTFOLIO ASSESSMENT Clearly defined purpose
and learning targets Systematic and organized collection of student products
Preestablished guidelines for what will be included Student selection of some works that
will be included Student self-reflection and self-evaluation Progress documented with
specific products and/or evaluations Portfolio conferences between students and
teachers
50. 50. PURPOSE OF PORTFOLIO Showcase portfolio: Selection of best works. Student
chooses work, profile are accomplishments and individual profile emerges.
Documentation portfolio: Like a scrapbook of information and examples. Includes
observations, tests, checklists, and rating scales. Evaluation portfolio: More
standardized. Assess student learning with self-reflection. Examples are selected by
teachers and predetermined.
51. 51. ADVANTAGES OF PORTFOLIO Students are actively involved in self-evaluation
and self-reflection Involves collaborative assessment Ongoing process where students
demonstrate performance, evaluate , revise , and produce quality work. Focus on selfimprovement rather than comparison with others Students become more engaged in
learning because both instruction and assessment shift from teacher controlled to mix of
internal and external control. Products help teachers diagnose learning difficulties
clarify reasons for evaluation Flexible
52. 52. Final Workshop crlmgn@yahoo.com