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1952

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[Polak 1955: 79-80].

. 1920 () . . . 1920. ( . .).
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11

. 1949 . . 1949. ( . .).


. 1914 . . 1914.
.. 1960 - //
. 1960. 1.
.. 1912 - // . 1912.
. 1937 . . 1937. ( . .).
. 1880 . 2. . . 1880.
. 1912 // . 4. . 1912.
. 1938 -- . . 1938. ( . .).
Brosset . 1849 Rapports sur une voyage archeologique dans la Georgie et dans 1'Armenie. 7. St.-P6tersbourg. 1849.
Polak V. 1955 Contributions a la grammaire historique des langues Kartveliennes // Archiv Orientalny 23, 1-2. 1955.
Vogt H. 1938 Armenien et caucasique du Sud // Norsk Tiddskrift for Sprogvidenskap 9: 321-338. 1938.

12

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1998

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22

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25

.. 1955 - :
. . ... . . . , 1955.
.. 1962 - - . ., 1962.
.. 19626 - . ., 1962.
.. 1964 - . ,, 1964.
.. 1965 - . ., 1965.
.. 1967 - . ., 1967.
.. 1971 - - . .. 1971.
.. 1973 - . ., 1973.
.. 1977 - . ., 1977.
.. 1981. - . ., 1981.
.. 1983 - . ., 1983.
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.. 1994- . ., 1994.
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., .. 1964- - //
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.., .. 1959 - - - //
. . .-. . . XVI. . 1959.
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.. 1982- //
: . . . ., 1982.
... 1976- / . . .. . .
1978.
. 1963 - //
. . III. M.. 1963.
Klimov G.A. 1969 - Die kaukasische Sprachen. Hamburg. 1969.
KlimovG.A. 1994-Einfiihrung in die kaukasische Sprachwissenschaft. Hamburg, 1994.
Pokorny J. 1959 - Indogermanisches etymologisches Worterbuch. Bd I. Bern: Munchen, 1959.
Swadesh M. 1952- Lexico-statistic dating of prehistoric ethnic contacts with special reference to North American
Indians and Eskimos // Proceedings of the American philosophical society. V. 96. 1952.
Swadesh M. 1955 -Towards greater accuracy in lexico-statistic dating//UAL. V. 21. N 2. 1955.

26

v 4

1998

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27

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28

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GamkrelidzeTh.V. 1974 -The problem of I'arbitraire du signe// Language. V. 50. M 1. 1974.
.., .. 1984 - .
- / P.O. . ,
1984 (. : Berlin; New York, 1995).

1998

1998 .

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[ 1977: 109-112];
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1976], .III. [ 1980; 1995], . .
[Siewierska, Bakker 1996];
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e-lap'arak'- "(-.)[ (-.^- (-.). TOTJ -*^
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1993; Napoli 1993, . 2]. .. [ 1979], ( .
) ;
.: [ 1992, III; Foley, Van Valin, 1984].
36

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present (96) *John brought myself a present " "
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[Zribi-Hertz 1989].

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;", (13') Mary-, likes herself "( ,".
1.1. " " . . 1970- . ,

37

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.]). " " [Chomsky 1970],

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, . , , .
, (,
, ).
, , (3, (3 ,
3. ,
" "
( ) " " ( ); , , , , , .
: '
(anaphors), ( -)
, ,
(pronominals), , . ,
. , , ,
- .
, [Chomsky
1981], , - ,
:
. .
. (.. -) .
, , " " (binding domain). He
, , " "
, , (
,
);
(14), (15) ,
: (14) their criticisms of each other "
"; (15) John's book about himself " ",
their "" John's "" ,
. (14') They criticize each other " ",
(14).
.
,
" ", c-command,
[Reinhart 1981] "", 1969 . . [Langacker
1969]. .
. [ 1997; 1997].
38

, .
: (
);
; (.. "" ) ; .
, .
.
1.2. : .
, - , "",
"" (long-distance reflexives; - non-clause-bound
reflexives), ,
( , ,
).
. - ,
,
: (16) ; .]
[ ,/] ]; (17) , , [
;/]], . [ 1985 : 200; Rappaport 1986]. .
: (16') * [
]; (17') * [ ].
, , :
(18) Pe'tur; bad Jens urn [ad raka sig;] "; [ |]"
[Thrainsson 1991]; (19) Jon, h0rte oss [snakke seg; II *seg selv] "[
, (.: ;) // * " [Hellan 1988]; :
(20) paiei; ni wildedun [mik piudanon ufar sis;] ", , [()
HMHJ (.: )]" ( 19 : 27; : [Harbert 1995]).
,
(16-20), : ( ) (21) ; mhanat hota [ki Sue ni aaplyaalaa-, maarle] " TOMJ , [
erOj (.: ) ]" [Dalrymple 1993 : 20]; (22) . ) sagdi [ eg hefSi svikid
sig;] ", , [ , (.: )]"; (23) . Gianni; pensava [die
quella casa appartenesse ancora alia propria, famiglia] "! , [ erOj (, ,) ]" [Giorgi 1983^4 : 316]; (24) Zhangsan-,
renwei [Lisij haile zififo] ", , [() Jlncbij erOj // |]"; (25) .
-,- - -; ] "; , [
; (.: )]" [Manzini, Wexler 1987].
, , ,
. ( ) ,
. , ""
- ,
, - ?
( [Giorgi 1983-1984]):
, , (. . (26) , ; ),
.
,

39

,
. (16-17)
. , ,
"" ziji ""
ta-ziji, , "-". , ,
, . (24) (27) Zhangsan-, renwei [Lisij haile ta-zijij/*;] "^ , [()
Jlncbij -*;]". zel/
zichzelf [Reinhart, Reuland 1993]; ,
-, . (25)
(28) : -, -,, II --: "TapOj ;" [Katada
1991]; -
-, . .. , , [Dalrymple
1993] [Mohanan 1982] - , ; .
sich selhst
: (29) ; dachte, daji [HaiiSj iiber sichuj II sich selbstyj gesprochen hat]
"| , FaHCj ^" ( : [Katada 1991 : 310]; (30) ,
[ ,].
,

[Katada 1991; Reinhart, Reuland 1993].
,
, - .
-
, -
. ,
:
(31) -, II , II *,, -
: (32) , [
-, II ; ].
to, ,
,
( ), . [Dalrymple 1993].
, , ,
,
,
, ,
[Reinhart, Reuland 1993].
"", . (33) Jon, foraktet seg selv, II *seg ";
:"; (34) JoUjfortalte meg seg sehj II *seg "; /';
(35) Hun-, kastet megfra segj II ??seg selv "; () ;" [Hellan 1988];
(36) (swataah , ):
ne swataahlaa, II
| . , //
" ";
(37)

40

*aaplyaalaa badavle
*.

Jane, ne swataahkavtaa, II applyaakartaa-, II ticyakartaa-, saadi


| . ; //
. ; //
. ;
ghet li

" " [Dalrymple 1993].

, .
-,
: (38) , ( II * II *
[ 1997 : 64-65]. -, : (39) John; saw the gun near him, ";
)" [Reinhart. Reuland 1993].
,
.
,
,

[Yang 1983; Borer 1984; Rappaport 1986; Manzini, Wexler 1987 .].
, "" ,
, , [Anderson 1983; Giorgi 1983
1984; Iatridou 1986; Sportiche 1986; Vikner 1985; Enc 1989 .]. ,
,
,
. , , "" ,
, ""
[Huang 1982] ; , . .
( ) [ 1997]; ..
,
" ".

. . [Manzini, Wexler 1987].
,
, " " (. 434). ,
( ), : 1) ; 2) , ;
3) ; 4) "" ;
- ,
; 5) "" ,
. himself
( ), .
sig 3),
, .
4),
- . ,
"" .
. , ,
"- " .
. (.: [Bresnan, Kaplan 1995]), "
" ( 1 ), "
" ( 3) " " (41

5). ,
- " " (
), ,
( (36-37)).
, ,
" "
[Silverstein 1976] " -" [, 1982],
- : " 1 2 ,
"; " ,
"; " ,
"... ..
(,

-).
[Hawkins 1994].
( [Pica 1987])
"" . ,
( ),

""
" " ( , ). ""
,
, :

- , ;
, "" "" [Reinhart, Reuland 1993; Bailyn 1992;
Cole, Wang 1996 .].
, , ("" ) . ziji
(. (24); [Tang 1989; Battistella 1989; Cole, Hermon, Sung 1990; Huang, Tang
1991]).
"" ,
. , , (.
).
(29-30), (36).
1.3. : . , , . (33) (36). , , ""
. , . [Vikner 1985], ( )
. [hanan 1982], [Saxon 1984], [Iatridou
1986] [Huybregts 1979]; ,
- , . . ,
,

42

[Thrainsson 1991: 50]. . . ,


, , ,
. , ,
/ , - ,
.
1.4. . , "" .
,
, , ,
( ): (40) Petur, bad JenSj [ haniiy*j/*j]
",- ,- [ *,/*/]"- $ ", " ,
(. mie
txwim): (41) wanoSj zurabj e^a-sJmic-Jtxwim-Sj mam
toywrewi "BaHOj , 3ypa6j ero k / / cej (.) ".
3 , (.
). " "
[Hestvik 1991], , ,
.
1.5. . , ,
. , ,
(,
,
), , "
" ( " " . [Kuno 1987]),
, "" 1^ [Edmondson, Plank 1978; , 1995; 1997
.]. (42) Maria var alltaf svo andstyggileg. Pegar 6lafur-s
kaemi segdi hun ser;pj dreidanlega abfara... " .
^ ^- (.: ) "
se'r ,
(""),
""), ... , , (42),
: [Thrainsson 1991].
: (43) The
young man, whose name was Robert Jordan, was extremely hungry and he was worried. He
was often hungry, but he was not often worried because he-, did not give any importance to
iti happened to himself) (E. Hemingway) " ,
, , . ,
- , , , 4TOj
|." [Dalrymple 1993; Zribi-Hertz 1989]. . [Sells
1987], ( 4
" " . ,

4
, ( -) " , ,
, "
[Clements 1975: 141].

43

. ,
, (44),
, (446); , ,
- "" : (44) a. Lucie'st eyes watched eagerly a new picture of herself) in the
paper " | ; ";
. *Lucie'Sj eyes watched herself) in the mirror with new eagerness " ; ; (, ) " [Reinhart, Reuland 1991;
1993].
,
,
,
. , ,
- .
2. 5 .
,
, , , .
( ) - , ;
.
(
); , ,
, - ( . ). -
, - wuj,
( ).
2.1. - . - -
, .
- I . ..; - II . ..; - III . ..; - ..;
-- -- . zi-w I .
..; zi-j II . ..; zi-b III . ..;
in-; in-su-li "(-. .-..). e-w I ...; e-j II . ..; - III . ..; - 1-11 . ..; - III . ..;
, : in-su-r ..
I . .., in-ti- .. IIIII . .. ..
( - -, - -da):
- --, --, -- ..; - zi-w-da, zi-j-da, ... insuta (< *'in-su-li-da) ..; - e-w-da, e-j-da... in-su-r-da .. 1 2 , . . (45) . - - - " (.)
5

1993-1997 ., .. INTAS.
, .-. ( ) . ( ).
44

= .) (.)"; . - dup- (*)- -" (.)


(.; .: "-") (-.) (.)".

( ) -:
(46) .

--zoll
-1-//

* -
*-1 -

" "
(47) .

-
-- *- !-
- -1- *-1 -
" "
c

ali

in-su-c 'u-dall

-
-

* in-su-c 'u

buz-idp

*--

:.

--//
" "
c

ali-di

in-sula/l

*in-su-ti

quca

-..//

*-

:: ^.

-
" ";
, ,
. , , , :
(.50) .

-
-

-- --
--1-

" "

-
-

,
- :
(51)
.

ali-di

inso-da

zi-w-da

.- -1-

" "

(> zi-w-da) w-uku-da


(-1-)

1-

,
( - ): (52) hokco hini-zu zii iL'e-jo "(..) (.. ) (..) (-.)"
(526) *hokco zii iL'e-jo ;
. (53) hokco-l zii c'ik'a-li' ega-jo
"(-.) -(-.) ".
- (54-56), (57-58)
(59) , , , -

45

:
(54) .

[--,// ? -!-- I] -1
-]
-1-
//? I- -
-
.
"; , OHj {:, - }"

(55) .

-;

--
[--;
-- --

-
-

/-
/-

!-
-

--]

-.

-
") , (.: "") ("
(56) .

ima-sur
[in-sur-da/
*in-sur
- --/
*-
awal
icibeta

.
" , () ".

3-b]
..-

(57) .

jasu-la,
-

(58)
.

1,

q,'arac-anda

[zi-w-dai //*zi-w

[-I

q'oca-mo eka'a [ima-lur


-

" ; , eej "

e-j-daj
--/

e-jt
wesisa]
- .

//*-1

maXackala-jalda w-un-i]
- 1--]
"; (caMj) "
(59)
.

wasu-ra;

bilata-da

[zi-w-dajl

zi-Wi

-1-//

-1

maXackala-jalda w-un-i-Libu
- 1--.
"; , ; "

w-uk'-ir
1--

(
, ,
)
, ""
-11- - , L' , -Re .
, ,
, , ,
. , ; ( )
46

(64):
(60) .

-,!
-

eac-acduj
-

[,// -zOj !
[//
-

-
-
1-]
.-]

"; | ; // CBOHJ "


(61) .

[-
[-I

(/*--) -
(*-1-) -I

---]
1--1-]

--
--

-
-
" , () [.: " -")"
(62) .

[--, !--
[--
--

1-
-

!-/
-.

1--
---,]
--I 1--1-]

-
-

" , (), "


(63)
.

ali-dij

hiL'-i

[wacu-dij

in-su-ti,//

in-su-ldj

[- --//

-.

hanqo'abe

raX-i-Libu-L'u]
--.]
"; , | ; // ce6ej "

(64) .

ali-r
-

w-esis-iraX
1--

eko'a cUmari-la
-

[e-w
-1

du-c'
heric'o-w-Re]
- .-1-
"| , ; {.: ) "
( )
, ,
();
, , ( ). ,
, :
(65) .

!--:
-

[--;/
--/

-,/
-

---
---
(*-- --)
(*-- --)

(/-cdcij j) -!!----\
-
-
----

"! , ; (/; j) "

47

(66) .

-;
-

-
-

-
-

-, /-/ s
- /-

--
--
"[ , [ / ;j "
, -
.
-
.
,
- (51).
. , ,
, ( )
(60).
2.2. . wu^ (I, III .; /Vj II, IV ; | ..; . . I . ..; | - II .; ci- IIIIV .)
.
, - ,
. , -.
wuye wu$ "(-.)
(.)":
(67)

rasuj-
wu^e:
yi-ll
- - -//
" ."

(68)

rasuljiTa'k-ma

-~
-

(H'WJ) "<7/

X\T qet-u
-

naX,,ar-cnce

- () - -
" "'
- ,
,
wu%, :
(69)

rasul-ej

wuye

wu^// ?wuy jaralamisdl-u

- - //
", , "

? -

\\>$ , . . -, :
(70)

gade-jk'le
Gayejn
dal
- -
" "

ju-ni
-

'

-, - (71), (72) (73) , , (74):


(71) [wuye,
muRurqal-uu
gade-jka
mahlamadi saljXynna
- - -
.
"; , ; "
48

(72)

bajram-iSj
q'ahilx-ajn
[all'i-k'le
-
- -
"; , ; "

wu^

(73)

[5<>

jis

qort'ulna

kumaghal-as]

jed-;

- - -;
"; ce6es "
(74)

Ga^e-j]
-

[raml-e-ji
--

malhammad-], iwhojn
Ru^O;
aldamisaw?-i-mi
- . . -
" ]; , ; "

, VUMJ , "
"' [ 1997]:
(75)

-'se
mafiallim-ise
dal-wX-u
- - --
" "

halfal-as
-

pirmer

, wwj (. ), (76), (77).


(ha)mana, (ha)sena, (ha)ina ", " '| : (76) > iTozur-or "( ) (-.)";
(77) all- anwar getu, wuyur gesuna "(-.) {} (-) ".
, wu$ , , , (67) "| | ", (68) "; HerOj ". ,
(76-77), , ,
(78)6, , ,
(79).
(78)

sa
XIamde

-qabj
-

temraij

hark'm-o-r
.--I

dost-ar
kar-b\
- -

sek-eqa.
-
awajke
wuxa.
.

" | . ; [=
- ]".
(79)

bajram-iqadj

des-wi
3u'^eij
- - -
" ( , | j "

k'eletXmin
.

, '|

, , . vra| ,
-
wu^e wu% .
, - 6

(78) (80-83) [ 1998], E.IO. .. .


49

, ina "" Sena "". wu$, .


, , . WM3 - , ,
,
( ),
, -
.
.
,
. , , .

.
WMJ
. ,
.
-, , , , .

wuy.
(80).

sa

jalq-
maliallim-
s\Rocdl-una
- - -

hala-ni
-

yg-,
-

iwhojn:
.

" () , [= ,] () ,
:
.

"iwh-e
z\ halbsalad
-

, !

gojne
wu$-e-d
ejh-e-ji
maliallim-
iwho.

-- --
- .
[= ] , ."

iwho!"
.

. . (806) ,
, .
(80) - , ,
WMJ .
:
(81).

emzar-
iwhojn:
- .
" :
"da,

z\

qik-e
qaltq-as,
- -

, , .

50

za-se
-

alX-asin".

6.

"nalXudne

wa-se
-

qildatq-'inGIa

alX-as,

Ru

maktab-".

.- -
, [= ] .
.

gojne wuyur qaltq-as


qilc-'i
des.
- - - .
" ."
, . (816) ( ).
(81) ,
. WMJ.
-, WMJ , ,
, ""
, , , , . ( ) :
(82).

nimdd

calpalda-d
-

ix-e-nl,
--

ic-

hal-am-nn

--

hama-ni
-
des-di-xe.
.--

" (), [= ]".


.

gojne jed--
--

jicw-e
-

ajqeq-a
-

qakah - a

kar-bi,

alal-am-nn
--

temiz-im-mk
--

hama-na,
-
gojne-d
-
$e-lqa.
-

, , ".
(82) -. (826)
, ,
(). ,
(826), WHJ.
-, wj , ,
, :
(83).
-
-

iwho
.
kar

wod:

"manGii-se
-

aFXa-s
-

des
.

hala-s".
-

() : " ".
.

iwhojn:
"balkan
qolpq-una
wuyo-r-na".
.

-
--1-
( ) [= ]: " ".
51

(83) , , (83) , , (836), WM3, , .


, '|
. , , ( ,
) . , . selhst ..
, WMJ ,
, ,
,

. , , ( kendisi ,
. [ 1989]). ( .
[Voorhoeve 19801), , . , , ,
, ,
. [ 1997].
, . -, , ,
,
. -,
( ), -, :
. -, .
, .
3. .
" " .
[Manzini, Wexler 1987; Dalrymple 1993] [ 1997: 69]. ,
"" -.
" " ,

, .
: : () :
(, ); , (.. ); ,
; , .
, , .
;
, , . ,
,
.
{, , . His .)
; ,
.
,

52

:
(2) > () > > > >
:
himself
he
:

*
_ _ _ ^ ^ _

>

[Dalrymple 1993]
swataah

WU

:
insuda ziwda
ziwda
[Hellan 1988):
sex selv

seg

( , . [O'Connor 1993]):
k'ave
*
tivi



- : .
(84) / consider [myself to be intelligent] " , "
" " (85) / consider [myself intelligent] (
, , ,
. [Radford 1988; Napoli 1993]), swataah
(86) Jane,- laa waqtte [ki swataaj saglyaat sundar aaho] ";
() [ ^ ]" [Dalrymple 1993: 19].
.
1) " X,
Y".
2) (
) . ,
,
.
"" (.
[ 1997]).

53

3) ,
( ).
, , . ,
, . ,
.
(
(ha)mana ^),
( ( WM| ). ,
, (-, .
[Schaub 1985]).
4) X,
X ( ).
5) X,
X.
6) X , Y,
, X. ,
Y, , Y,
, X.
7) , , ,
, , .
8) ( , ) X,
X ( , , ). wu^,
.
1)-8) , . [Manzini, Wexler 1987], ,
,
, .
, , " ", " "
, ,

("
,
" ..),
, , .
,
-
[ 1997]. , .. , (.
(87) [ III]
(88) III [ ] ), , -

54

,
.

I - I
II - II
III - III
-
-
-

-
-
-
-
-
-

-
-

-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-

-
-
-
-


. 1970 - , // . . V. . 1970.
. 1997 - // . . ., 1997
.., .1997- //
. . . 1997.
.. 1987 - - // . 1987. 3.
.. 1988 - : . ... . . . .
1988.
.. 1979 - . 0. //
. . . . 126. . 1979.
.. 1992 - . . 1992.
.., .. 1995 - . // . 1995. 3.
. 1982 - // . .
XI. . 1982(1976).
., . 1982 - //
. . XI. . 1982.
.. 1977 - . . 1977.
.. 1980 - //
. . 1980.
.. 1983 - "" // .
. .
. 156. . 1983.
.. 1995 -
//. 1995. 1.
.. 1997 - // . 1997. 6.
.. 1985 - . .. 1985.
.. 1983 - //
. . 21. ., 1983.
1998 - . . 1988 ( ).
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57

1998

1998 .

..


( )
. . , , --, () , . (), () , , ,
() (), , .. .
, , : 1) , .: , kutize "" keteze
" ", "", . arses "" urses "", 2) , .: , aq-e "" m-arq-a " ", .
"" ciptin "" (
: i, < , in), .
huxun ( ), huxus () "" halg-in (), halgas () "", ijin (), ijis () ", " geribxun (),
geribxus "", "", . ehes "" jison-ha'as "" (,
" "), -i,Aa/ "", "" getas "", 3) ,
.: . "" kanc-a-c-i "", buq-i "" buq-a-q-i
"", . uhas "" uho-has "", 4)
--, -/-, --, -d, d-, -da, -Uri, -nu, -uj, -iri, .: . bikes ""
birkes "", . ha-l-g-as < ha-r-g-as "" ha-l-ir-g-as < ha-r-il-g-as
"" // la-r-g-as "" la-r-tr-g-as < la-r-U-g-as ""
.. .
.. , , [ 1967: 411-414; 19676: 429-431; 1967]. [ 1967:
481] , -da , : quwa "" qoda " ", "", caha "" cahda " ".
" " ( .. ): " -d-,
-da- , : cahal
"" cahdal " ", bucal "" bucdal "
", qowal "" qohdal "", " " [, 1967: 463].
, [ 1967: 329-333; 19676: 344-347], , [ 1967: 393-395; 19676: 362-364;
1967: 377-379] .
58

"" bah-a" "", 1'-


"" [ 1967: 393]. .
, -in, -", , baq-i" "", -
"", baq-un "". "" ,
, (-a", -in, -un)
, , .
, ida "" (resin hudata
buka " ", tuso bicata buka 'arab ball " -") ,
(jaci ja jika " ", .
bahu buka " "). ,
: haniqa zabu ida II zabuda " ", qeru bizanda "
" [ 1973: 131]. ,
, " ", " ", " ". "", "" . , , .

. -
[ 1959; 1964], " " [ 1949: 54], " ()
" [ 1980: 90], " " [ 1967: 774] .
, , .: -- (hiqi "" hiqari ""), -d- (yuyaj "" yuyadi
""), -dar- (qaj "" qadari ""), -old- (heqej ""
heqoldi ""), -rd- (kuci "" kicardi ", "), -qd(bekeri "" bekaraqdi ""). , . : kutize "" keteze
" " [ 1967: 264, 265].
.. . ,
, , .: bakize "" (, ), bak-bakize "" (, ), bakarize
"" (, ), quncize "" (, ), qunc-quncize "" (, ), qenceze "" (. ). [ 1991: 5-9].
..
[ 1967: 498-500]. .. . -j: qacudaj "", ijidaj "", qacuzwaj " ",
ijizwaj " ", qacuzmaj " ", ijizmaj " " (
, ). .. , , [ 1967: 357].
" ?" [ 1996: 125-135].
59

.
" " ( -)
" " ( ) .

.. :
. , .
: aqas "", "",
arq-a-ri, aq-u-na,
arq-ari-a, () aq-unaj [ 1967].
, .: aq-e "", m-arq-a " " [ 1970:
156-157].
, .. , . , . .: . . (. . )
qawcus "", "",
qiwc-urdi, qiwc-urca, qiwc-urdajza,
qiwc-arza, . . qiwc-urdejza, . , qiwc-arza, ,
qi-mi-wc-an; . . qawc-unu, . 1 qawc-unuza, . 1 qawc-unijza, .
qaawc-iza, . 2 qaawc-unuza, . 2 qaawc-unijza, .
qawc-idiza, . . qawc-ur, , qawc-a. i ( ) (
). , , , [ 1965: 190-191].

.. . , : ,
, , . -urill-uri: apub "",
ap-uri "", yajlayup "", yaxdaj-u/i "",
- d-lldN-: adayub "", adaynu "", urzub "", durznu "", bikub "", dibiknu "". ,
-: lihuri wu > lihuri " ".
. , ,
( ): licuji (< licuri wuji) " ", licuraji (<licuri aji) " ", dilicna (< dilicnu ) " ",
dilicnaji {<dilicnu aju) " ". ,
, .: lajiin dapiiaji " " dapiiaji lajiln " ". , . ,
,
: apub "" "", "", "",
apuraji " ", dapna " " [ 1967: 554-555].
..
: , ,
: cuntu "", hsaltu "", coloyu "", , : ciptin "", hfitil "", cobyul "" [-

1967: 652]. : , : (fatk-uj "", cek-uj "", ,


, -iri, , ,
fatk-iri "", cek-iri "" [ 19676: 670].
.. :
" .
, ,
" [ . 1972: 166-184]. . ,
,
, . ..
( . ) . ,
. , .. , [ . 1972: 178-184].
..
.
,
(. . ), , (. . , ): , , , , , :
, , , ,
, , ,
(. . ) . . , : , , ,
(. . ) (. . ) . . , : , , . . , , , : [, 1988: 16 .]. -
, "... ", :
"" + "" + "" + "". "
, , " [ 1992: 31]. , " " , "

" [ 1992: 3].
- . : "" "";
" ... "; " ";
" , ... . ... " [ 1992: 136]. : , .. : "
, " [ 1992:
61

140]. , ..
.

.. A.M. . " " A.M.
. , ,
, ( ) -I- --. , ,
A.M. , :
"", ray "", jiqin "", jiq "", lixin
"", lirx "", q'udqun "", q'ulqe "", ji-', ji-s,
ji-k "", ji-s-in "". A.M. , (
) ( fectum'a ) - -I.
, , -- (
-1-) [ 1911: 58]. -I ()- [ 1890: 226].
, "" -I- --. ,
: ( ), , ..
,
. A.M. . ,
"" wa, .
A.M. , . ,
[ 1911: 58, 59, 95].
A.M. (. . )
.
. , : ",

, , , . , , ,
" [ 1913: 59].
A.M. ,
. ,
( ),
.
, , , . A.M. ,
, .
, ,
, .
( ).
A.M. .
[ 1913: 68,
75]. ,
.

(, )
.
,
.
, ,
, .
, , . .
.
. -I- --,
.
. , ,
. ,
, , . hagun "":
I, IV .
II .
III .

, .
ha-ga
ha-r-ga
hu-w-ga

, .
. .
ha-gara
ha-r+gara
ha-r-gara ha-ru-r+gara
hu-w-gara hu-wu-r+gara

, , -0- (I, IV .), -- (II .), -W- (III .), , , , - (--, -wu-).
: , ( , ), .
,
, , .
. , , . ( ) :
1. , . . . I, IV .
ha-'-as, II . -'as, III . wa-'-as "", I, IV ha-'-ara, II ra-'-ara, HI wa-'-ara
" ", I, IV ma-', II ma-ra-', III ma-wa-' " ", I, IV ja-has, II ra-has,
III wa-has ", ", I, IV ja-h, II ra-h, III wa-h ", ", I, IV ja-hara,
II ra-hara, III wa-hara "", I, IV ja-, II ra-htra, III wa- "", I, IV
mt-ja-h, II mt-ra-h, HI mtwa-h " ", I, IV $a-has, II $a-r-has, III ja-w-ljas " " .. , ;
2. , () ,
( -,
+,
). . I ha-1+gas, II la-l+gas (<ra-l+gas), III wa-l+gas, IV da-l+gas ""; I ha-l+gara, II la-l+gara (<ra-l+gara), III wa-l+gara, IV da-l+gara "";
I ha-l+gtra, II la-l+gtra (<ra-l+gira), III wa-l+gtra, IV da-l+gira "", I ma-li+g,
II ma-rt+g II ma-ri-l+g, HI mu-wu-l+g II mu-w-lu+g, IV ma-li+g II ma-d-U+g " "; I, IV $a-l+gas, II -ra-r+gas (<$a-ra-l+gas), III $a-wa-l+gas II $iwi+gas " " .. -/- (
).
63

() ,
.
. . ( ) : I, IV jax-h jd-r+kas,
II rax-h rd-r+kas {<ra-h rd-l+kas), III wat-h wd-r+kas (<wax-h wd-l+kas)
"", I, IV jat-h jd-r+kara, II ra^-h jd-r+kara, III wa3-h wd-r+kara "", I, IV jax-h jd-r+ktr, II rat-h rd-r+kir, III wax-h wd-r+ktr "" (
, ;
--, , -/-, jaji-
jd-rkas); I, IV yu-r+yas, II ru-yu-r+yas, III wu-yu-r+yas "", I, IV yu-r+yara, II
ru-yu-r+yara, III wu-yu-r+yara "", I, IV ru+yuri, II ru-ru-r+yuri, HI wu-r+yuri
"", I, IV ma-ru+y, II ma-ru-ru+y, HI ma-wu-ru+y " ".
, --.
, .: I yu-r+yasi II ru-yasi, II
ru-yu-r+yasi II ru-r+yasi .. . , . ;
3.
-/- (<--), .: I sa-tas "", sa-1+tas "", I sa-tir "", sa-1+ttr
"", I ha-gura "", ha-r+gura "" ..
4. , : gerubxus ", ijis "",
"", jifpjs "", "", jetes "", halgas "", 'uxus "" ..
[ 1978: 89-94, 156-157, 180-181, 216-220, 272-274].
,
. , . , .
. ,
: I, IV g-e-tu, II g-e-j-tu > g-e-tu, HI g-e-we-tu > g'-o-tu "", I, IV g-e-ta,
II g-e-j-ta > g-e-ta, III g-e-we-ta > g'-o-ta "", "", I, IV gi-me-ta,
II gi-me-j-ta > gi-me-ta, III gi-me-we-ta > gi-nw-ta " , " ..
( ) .
, .
j , r, , i , ,
. , ,
.
,
: I, IV i-j+karas, II i-ji+j+karas, III i-wi-j+karas "" ( +
, ), I, IV i-j+ktre, II i-ji-j+kire,
III i-wi-j+ktre "", I, IV i-j+ktr, II i-ji-j+kir II i-j+ktr, HI i-wi-j+ktr "", I,
IV i-j+kar, II i-ji-j+kar, III i-wi-j+kar "", I, II, IV i-mi-j+kar, HI i-mi-wi-j+kar "
" ( i-j+y'aras, ji-j+y'aras, wi-j+y'aras "", a-j+ha/as,
a-je-j+ha/as, a-wa-j+ha/as "", a-j+hanas, a-je-j+hatias, a-wa-j+hanas "", "", q'o-j+xaras, q'i-je-j+xaras, q'i-wo-j+xaras "").
:
, .: i-ki-j+ka-ras (I, IV) "",
i-ki-j+kanas (I, IV) ", , " ..
-j-.

, , ixes "", ha'as "", .: - (<aca-ixe)


"", - (<aca-txa) "", "", "", "" .
oxanas II uxujxanas "" : . , , , [ 1975: 63-75].
,
. j , , : i , , i, : q'a-w-xes
"", q'a-w-xe "", "", q'i-mi-j+xe " ", q'a-j+xt- ",
", "" (
: gaf q'awxu, z* inaqa art " , "), q'i-wi-j+xe "", "".
-wV-,
.
--vV- ,
( ). -wV- -j-. , (--, --, -d-) -wV- . -wV- . ,
-wV- . . giwahanas "",
hiwa^es "":
I
II
III
IV

gi-w-a-hanas
gi-w-e-hanas
gi-w-a-hanas
gi-w-a-hanas

(< gi-wa-lianas) gi-wa-r-f}tn


(< gi-we-j-fyanas)gi-wa-r-hin
(< gi-wa-w-hanas)
gi-wa-b-
(< gi-wa-hanas) gi-wa-d-hin

I
II
III
IV

gi-w-aj-han (< gi-wa-j-han)


gi-w-e-han (< gi-we-j-han)
gi-w-a-han (< gi-wa-w-han)
gi-w-aj-han (< gi-wa-j-han)

I
II
III
IV

gi-m-aj-han (< gi-ma-j-han) hi-w-a-$es (< hi-wa-$es)


gi-m-e-han (< gi-me-je-j-han) hi-w-e-^es (< hi-we-j-}es)
gi-m-a-han (< gi-ma-wa-j-han)hi-w-5-$es (< hi-wa-w-$es)
gi-m-aj-han (< gi-ma-j-han) hi-w-a-jes (< hi-wa-$es)

I
II
III
IV

hi-w-a-^e (< hi-wa-j-$e)


hi-w-e-fy (< hi-wa-je-j-$e)
hi-w-a-$e (< hi-wa-wa-j-$e)
hi-w-a-$e (< hi-wa-j-%e)


gi-da-r-hin
gi-da-r-hin
gi-da-b-hin
gi-da-d-hin

hi-w-a-$u
hi-w-e-$u
hi-w-a-$u
hi-w-a-$u

(<
(<
(<
(<

hi-wa-ju)
hi-we-j-$u)
hi-wa-w-$u)
hi-wa-$u)

(hiwa-^e) . (, ) , .: hiwajena

dewlet " ()", si dewlet hiwajena " () ", si hiwa$ena dewlet " () ()" ..
--
ara+ "", gera+ce ""
( .: . , I, j , . j ) .
"" : . (gikas), .
(g'abtas). g'abtas --:
g'abte (I, II), g'ate (III, IV), g'abtu (I, II), g'atu (III, IV),
g'abata (I, II), g'ata < g'adata (III, IV), g'imabata (I, II), g'imata
< g'imadata (III, IV).
: - . ,
, : getas "" , tha/ "" , '^ "" , hoyaj "" , g'ajxes "", ktrt-hiles "", ijkaras "" (
-j-, ), hoharas "" (jatq hoharas "
", , .: I, IV
hora "", "", II hijera, III hiwora) ..
- , , ( [ 1990: 114-122, 196]). . , ,
.
[ 1985: 75].
,
.
( )
. , ""
- .
(), ,
() , , . " "
, , , , , .. -.
()
/ ,
, , , .. [ 1990: 83]. (,
) ( )
.
, . , , , . .
: , . , . . . : hdl etdi (-/, -) . , hdl edirdi {-m, -ri) .
, hdl etmddi (-m, -) . . hdl edirdi

() , " ()", . hal edir "".


-di " (, )".
: haJLlaw'una "" (. ), hajla'ajij
"" (. ), hajlaw'u des II hajiled'aw'una (< haJLl-hid'aw'und) " "
().
(
),
,
, ,
(, -, ). -
, () ,
, ,
, , ,
. .

.. 1985 - . .
. ., 1985.
.. 1949 . . , 1949.
.. 1967 // . . IV: - . ., 1967.
.. 19676 // . . IV: - .
., 1967.
.. 1967 // . . IV: - . ., 1967.
.. 1967 // . . IV: - . 1967.
.., .. 1967 // . . IV: . ., 1967.
.. 1967 // . . IV: - .
., 1967.
.. 19676 // . . IV: - . ., 1967.
.. 1967 // . . IV: - .
., 1967.
.. 19676 // . . IV: - .
., 1967.
AM. 1911 . , 1911.
AM. 1913 . , 1913.
.. 1978 . ., 1978.
.. 1990 . ., 1990.
.. 1996 ? // . 1996. 1.
.. . 1972 . ., 1972.
.., . 1988 . . ., 1988.
.. 1992 . ., 1992.
1990 . ., 1990.
. 1967 // . . IV: -
. 1967.
. 19676 // . . IV: - .
., 1967.
. 1967 // . . IV: -
. ., 1967.

.. 1971 . , 1971.
.. 1965 . , 1965.
.. 1967 // . . IV: - .
., 1967.
.. 1970 . , 1970.
.. 1967 // . . IV: - . ., 1967.
.. 1980 . , 1980.
.. 1967 // . . IV: - .
., 1967.
.. 1959 . .;., 1959.
.. 1964 . , 1964.
.. 1967 // . . IV: - .
1967.
.. 1991 // . , 1991.
.. 1973 . , 1973.
.-.. 1967 // - . ., 1967.
.. 1890 // . . . IV. , 1890.
. 1975 . ., 1975.
..-. 1967 // . . IV: -
. ., 1967.

1998

1998 .

..




, ,
1 . , : (XVIII-XX .) - .
(V-XI .)
(XII-XVIII .) .
,
,
.
, , ,
.
.
, ,
2 . , ,
- , ,
.
- (. , . ''), -, --,
( ''). .. ,
1

- .. . , "
- (.
, . ).
.
. , , ,
- . , . . -
, , . , - .
- - ,
(V-XI . ..)" [
1986: 183-184].
2
-
.. ..
( 5^-. ..).
( , )
[, 1984: 30].
69

-'' *- , , ' ': <


< * < *- [ 1966: 235]. .. '- - .
, , , ,
,
*- - (=700 . ..). - , ,
.

, .
,
.
, . , . , (., . '')
(., ., . ) ~ (1~1 ''), ..
-- ", -- - "
[ 1978: 89]. , .:
., . 1 '' - ., . 1 '' < , ',
';
., . - ., . '' < , ;
., . 1 - ., . ! '' < . 1:
., . - ., . ', ' < , ''.
, .
. , , - ,
.
,
- ,
.

. . -
. .
.
, , ,
.
.
. .:
. " ' " > ., . .
. < , ;
. * ' ' > .. . , . .
. , ;
. "! '' > .. . /, . 1. . . !.
up 1;
. " > ', ' > . . . . .
. . , ;

70

. * > * > ., . , . ''. . .


.
.. :
, : > * >
'', > * > '' [ 1979: 51]. .
, -, :
*, *,
(* > , * > ). , .
, .
, .

. , , ,
. ..
, .
-,
.
, -,
: ,
[ 1980: 20].

. .
: . ''; .
, . !, . , ., ., . ''; . ,
. 1 ''; ., ., ., . ''; ., . ,
. ', '; ., . ''; . '
'; . '' < .-. () ',
' (. . ), . {) ' ' <
', '; . '', ., . '", .
(. ) '' < .-, '' 3 .
,
, XIVXV [ 1964: 387]. , ,
, ,
, ,
.
,
[ 1966; 1961: 5].

( ) .
, '', '', '', , . . .. ,
3
'' . [
1962].

71

XII , ..
[ 1930: 232]. XI ,
.
IX [ 1945: 244]. ,
,
, , .

: ., . . .
, . , , . '' (. , '; '); . , . , . , . . , -, ,
. ,
,
,
. ,
XIX - XX . , ,
. ,
(.) , (.)
''?
, . .
, , ,
, , [ 1925: 3^1; 1960: 138], :
', '; '', ''; '',
'', ', '; ', '; ', ' .. ,
, .: .-, '' > . , .-,
'' > . ''. -, .
.
.
,
.
[ 1925: 3-4]. , ,
-
. , , ,
(.: , . . mht.io, , ),
,
.
. , '' (<
''), . ,
, - ,
.: > [ 1960: 150]. , "" . -: - - [ 1967: 29].
- (. .
', '; . ''),
(, , ), , , XVIXVIII . - , , [ 1964: 384]. ,
XVI-XVIII .

72

, .. .
,
,
, [ 1978: 266]. . , "
. , -
,
... ,
. -,
, "" . -,
, .
, , ,
,
" [ 1972: 356].

: '' > , 11 '' > ! //
11, '' > (.); '' > , '' >
> 1, '' > !1 (.). '' >
(.) ' ', '' > (.)
[ 1974]. . , , ,
, , 70 ,
, () ,
.
. , : . ', (, )' (. ,
''); ., ., . "' (. , <
< .) ''; . 1 '' (. , ), . 11 ''
(. 1), . '' (, ): . '', .
'' (, ). : .
'' < , , . \ '' < cacmleena.
, , -
, .. ,
( ,
, ..).
( , , , ..) , ,
,
, , , , ( ),
. : '
', '', '', ' ', 1 ' ', '', '', '',
'', 1 '', ''. Klumlpu '', ' ', '', '', '', \1 ''. 11 '".
''.
, , -, : ) '' ) '', '', mlaxu '';
'', 1 ' '.
.
74

, .. , " ,
, , " [ 1968: 118].
.. , XII , ,
, ""
[ 1930: 232]. ""
[ 1930].
, . ,
: ., . , , , . --1, . 1-1, . , . , ., .
, ., ., ., ., ., . , . , , , .,
. , . . : . , . , . , .
. , , {), (),
().
, .. ..
, "...
- , , ,
, . ,
, (, -,
) , -, ,
-, .
,
- " [, 1990: 4-5].
, , XVI
[ 1953 : 6], XVII ,
[, 1990 : 5]. , , . ,
"" . "" ,
, , (. , ) ''.
XI - XIII . .
.

,
[ 1968 : 115-116]. ,
. , .
- XI-XIII .
,
- . , , : ', ',
1 '' (< .), '', '' (< .).
1 '', ' , ', '"
(< ).

(XI-XIII .). - .,

75

,
V [ 1957 : 62]. .. , "
- .,
,
XIV " [ 1958 : 178].
.
-
, : 11, 1, .
,
.
"" (XVI-XVIII .) ., ., ., . ', ' <
(. < .) ' ()'.
-
, ,
(, '', '', 61 '', 1 '',
'', 1 '', 1 '' .),
( '', ''), (
'', ''), {
'', ', '; '').
, , ,
. ,
, , --,
.
.
. :
., ., . , . '' < , ;
., . , . , . , . ', ' <
', ';
., ., ., ., . ' ' < (. . 11);
., . , . , . '' < (. .
);
., . , . , . '' < ;
., . !11, . !11, . 111 '
' < 111;
., ., . '' (. ., . '') <
'';
. , . , . , ., . , . , .
', ' <;
. 1, . , ., . 1 '' < 1;
., ., ., ., . nlomlu '' < nlomlu ''.
, -- ,
, , ,
. .:
., ., ., . , . , . , . ' " <
, ;
., . '', . , . '' <
'';
. 1111, . !111, . !, . 1, . 1, .
1, . 1 < 1111;
., ., ., . , . !, . , ., , . '' < (.-, ) ''.
76

, ,
, :
. 1, . 1, ., . 11, . !1, . '1, .
11 ' , ' < . 1.
., ., . , ., ., ., . , . , . , .
11 ', ' < (. . , . , . );
. !1, . 11, . 111111, . 11,
., . 11, . 11, . 11, . 11, . 11',
., . 11 '' < 1! (< .);
., ., . Klacpu ' ', . , . 1.11111! ' ' < idacpu '';
., . !, . 1, . 1, .. 1, .. !
'' < !;
., ., ., . 11, . Klumlu, ., , , .. mlujclu, .
mhihcluu, '' < mluidu;
. , . 1, . 1, . idanlyp, . 1111,
.. 1, . 1, . 11/111, . ! '', .
1- '' < ''.
.. .. , " ,
,
, , ,
-" [, 1987 : 162].
:
, .
-, , .
-
.
.

, ,

. ,
, . ,
,
, : ., ., ., . 1! < . !1
(< .) ' ' (. , ), ., . < ,
(< .) '' (. , !), ., . < , (< .) ''
(. ., ., ., . /). ,
, (
,
); . ! '' (< . < .), . ! I 1 (< .
< .) '' (. . 1), (. < .) '' (. , ) .
, , .
.
V
XV -, () -
[ 1966 : 521].
.
: . .
> . ''; '', ' ' (,

77

'') > . '', . '-', .


'', . '-'; . > 11 ', ' >
. 1//11 ''; . > , ''
> . ' '; . 4 > . 11
> . 11, . 11 ''; . () '' > .
1 ', ' > ., . 1 ''; . > .
/ > . 11 ' (.)': .
> , ''; . > , ''; .
> , ''; . > , ' ( )'; . > , ''; (.)
> ''; (. < .) ', '; (.
< .) > ', '; (.) > , '',
(.) > , ''; . > , ', '; .
> ''; ., , > ' ' 5 .
1 '' 1 ', ' , ,
, 1 ', ', kapah ''.
, ,
, : , ' ', .
- '', , ', ", . , , .
'' [ 1980 : 78].
,
, ..
.
, X .
,
. , , ,
(, ). ,

. : '',
'' < '' (. <.), '' < (.
< .), '' < (. <.), 1 ' ' < 1
(. <.), '' < (. < .), '' < (.
< .), '' < (. < .), '' < (.
<.).
,
, , . , , , -
. : 111 '
' (. . ''), !! '', (., .,
.) '' < (. < ., ), ! '' (. < . ),
'' (. < . ), \\ '' (. < . ), 1
4

11 '' ,
inanaic '' (. . mlaOtud ' , '), , (.
. ''), , , ( '').
.. [ 1989].
5
.. .. '
' [.
1987 : 165].
78

', ' (. < .) '-'. , ,


, .
,
, , , .
. ,
VII ,
XIV-XV .
XI . :
/ '', 11 '' (. . !1, ., . 11,
. ! < . , ., . 11 - , ;
- ), 1111 '', ' '.
XVIII
,
, [ 1953 : 338; 1978 : 203]
.
, ,
- ,

:
1) , , : '',
1! '', mlunu '', 1 '', 1 ''.
2)
- /, nil, 1, 1 , , , . .
,
, , , ,
, : . 11,
.
!11, . 11 ''; . 11 '', ., .
11111111 ''; . 11, . nlanmlo ''; 1!
''; 11 '' < 11; ! '' (< . ).
3)
.
(). -
, : 1 (.) '' > 1, 1 (.)
'' > ! (., ., .).
,
, ,
.
, .
, , .. , - . , , -,
, , -, ,
.
,
.
.

,
(XVIII-XX .). , --

79

, .
-
, - ( ' ',
'', ''), (1 '', 11 '', ''); ,
(! '', '', ''); { '', '', ' ');
(, , , ), ( '', !
'').
, -,
- () . :
,
. . ,

.

.. 1989 - - . . 4. ., 1989.
.. 1978 - . , 1978.
.. 1966 - - . . 166
( . .).
. 1958 - // . . . . . 4. ,
1958.
.. 1980 - : . ... . .
. ., 1980.
.. 1968 - - (
XIV .): .... . . . . 1968.
.. 1930- - // . ., 1930. 7 .
.. 1979 - - . , 1979.
. 1973 - : . . ... .
. . , 1973.
. 1974 - -- . . 1974.
.. 1953 - . .. 1953.
.. 1930- . . 1930 ( . .).
.. 1960 - . . 1960 ( . .).
.. 1964 - . . 1. , 1964 ( . .).
.., .. 1990 - // -
-. . 1990.
.. 1986 - . .. 1986.
.. 1925 - . ., 1925.
.. 1978 - - //
- . . 20. . 1978.
. 1978 - // .
. ., 1978.
., .. 1984 -
// X-IV . .. // .
. ., 1984.
.. 1966 - - '' // - . . 15.
. 1966 ( . .).
. 1962 - - ( ).
, 1962.
.. 1990 - . ., 1990.
.. 1966 - . , 1966 (
. .).
. 1972 - // . ., 1972. . 6.
80

.. 1967 // . . IV: - . .,
1967.
. . 1961 - : . . ... .
. . , 1961.
. 1975 - - // . . 2. , 1975.
.. 1945 - (897,
936, 937). . 1945.
.. 1957 - // . . .
. . 3. , 1957.
.., .. 1987 - //
- . ., 1987.

81

1998

1998 .

..



*
1.

.
,
/ . :
, , , . . ? ,
, , ,
? , .
,
, , (. [Ries 1931]). ,
, , -. ,
ego eimi alfa kai omega, ego eimi protos kai
eskhatos " , " - eimi
, (, ., , .. 1 .). : - (, ,
.). , " <=> " -
, - (.
[ 1972]). (. [Radford
1988]): - " " (Vmovement) AUX I, ( 1).
I - .

? , : " -
* 95-06-17234.
.. .
.
82

(grammatisch geformte) ,
" [Ries 1931: 99]. ,
" ,
" [ 1979: 7-8]. (,
, , )
.
:




- :
(
, ), , ,
.
""
(,
) ( - ):
" , " [ 1979: 8].
, .. , "
"
[ 1970: 542]. ,
.
- ,
"
" [ 1979: 9].
,
.
, ..

: ,
( ), , , ,

83

. , .
, (.. , ) (.,
[Ries 1931; 1975]). " - .
,
. , " [
1979: 8]. "
, ,
, , ,
, ,

" [ 1975: 266]. ,

,

. ,
,
-,
.
, , ,
, , -
( ),
, . , :
( ), ()
, ,
.
, . (. .)
, ,
. . (), ,
(. ).
(..)
, (. . . ).
, (,
), (
). John's running to and fro is
up to no good "To. -, "
running
. , -
, ,
( ):
(1) ac'axa-j-l-e
1. , -MSD-SUP-EL

qiRa

hama-na
-

halkan-y=b
zu-s
w=uxe-ze
.=.
. OBL.l-DAT
3=AUX-JUSS
" () , (=)".
, .. , {
running man " "), . ,
84

. ,
, , .

(. .), (. .)
(. .).
, - , - . ,
starrend : Mit einem stieren undfast irren Blick ins Leere
vor sich starrend, murmelte er unversfandliche Worte "
, ".
, ( ),
, , .
, , . II to move: Deeply moved, he
pressed her hand to his lips " , ".
moved
, , , -. .
was sad " " was deeply
moved " ". ,
, , , ,
.
-
- . . was drinking hard " ",
. Sie hat mich gerettet " ", . Je suis tomb'e " " .
,
(/ ) :
(
).
:

,
. ,
,
, -.
, ,
( , , )
,
.
. -
,
-. -
( ) -
,
.

85

2.


- ,
, ; .
, .


.

,
.
, :
, , ( / ). ,
-,
. :
,

.
(- , -- ).
, .
! "" - 1- (, .), 1- (. .), 1- (. .)
( [ 1967]).
, ,
: ( [ 1949]):
(2)

= -- =
. ERG
N = -FUT-NEG = PART.N
", ".

,
-,
:
, , ,
( [ 1949]):
(3)

-
1
-ERG
-
- -- =
= -PRES-NEG = PART.M
" - ".

=1
=

- ( [ 1996]):
(4)

86

-
-
-RESTR
-
= =

=
. IMP
" ".

= -
N = -CONV

.
(5)

*-
.-ERG

-
-RESTR

= -
N = 6paTb-CONV

(- , ).
-
, ,
- , . (. [ ( )]). , , :
1) . ,
(, ,
), (
1-3 - 4 ). , ,
1. .:
()

balkan
qol = p = q-u-na
. N.3
N.3 = -PF-AT.M
", ";

()

temraz-e
qol = t = qo-in
-ERG
N.4 = . PF-AT.N.4
", ";

(7)

temraz-e
balkan
-ERG
.
" ".

siXnari
.
gynej
. N.4

qol = = qu-na
N.3 = .PF-AT.N.3

2) , .
( .
[, 1998]) , ,
.. ,
:
(8)

dak-
dawar
-ERG

" ";

(86)

dak-e
dawar
qa-b -
-ERG

N = .
" ";

(9)

dak-
dawar
-ERG

" ";

(96)

dak-e
dawar
qa = b =
-ERG

N = .-
" , ".

qa = b =y
N = -PF
gi = w = k'-u-na
N = -PF-AT

gi = w = k'-as
N = -
gi = w = k'-as
N = -

, (), ,
- , -

1

, . .. , . - .

87

. ,
, . ,
, , , .
( , ). ,
, .
:
(10)

-PRES
" ";

(11)

-PAST
" " ( ,
).
, , (. [ 1958; ,
1965; . , . 1962]), , :
(12)

3SG-DAT
-PART.RES
" ( )".

. :
(13)

XY6YYH

-GEN

-
-
[- -]2
- -PART.RES
[]
" , ".
( , .
[. , . 1962]) :
(14)

" ";

(15)

-
-PART.PASS
" ".

-
-PART.PASS

,
-
: ( ~, V
, ,
), ( -VVg)
( -). ( ) :
(16)

ZY?

-CONV QU
" ()?";
2
,
.

(17)

- 2Y?
-CONV QU
" ()?".

,
: , -, ,
( [, 1965)]:
(18)

1SG

" ".

up-
-CONV

( ). (
), :
turara-yi-la
-PRS-NI

(19)

nawu
kupa
3SG

" ";

(20)

nandu
nuwa
ngupara
tiijta-ya

-PAST
" ".

, ,
: (, ) (,
).
. , .. ,
.
( [Austin 1991]):
(21)

nawu pall-rid

nulu
tayi-na

3SG.S -PART
3SG.A
-PARN
wara-yi
AUX-PRS
" () , (. )".


:
(22)

paku-na-ta

(23)

-PART-Ol
" ";
mata
tana
wapa-na

3PL.S -PART
" ".

nina

3PL.A

mita

,
.
:

(24)

yundu
wayi-na
wara-yi

2SG.A
-PART
AUX-PRS

wapa-nantu-la
-CONV-NI
" , ?'

tana
3PL

89

(25)

niayi
8 Qi
wapa-nzntu-la

1SG.S
-CONV-NI
", ".

( - ). Qal, ,
: "...
(Verbum finitum) ,
" [ 1874: 515]. , , :
, . ( [Dobson; Sawyer
1980; 1874].)
(26)

<iod
tseh
m'daher

. PART. ACT
ha

" "

(27)

dor
holekh
u-dor

. PART.ACT
CONJ-
ba

"() , () "

(28)

u-ha
melekh
slomo
CONJ-DEF

barukh
. PART.PASS.M
" ()"

u-tseh
CONJ-

, Qal , , "
" [ 1874: 157].
:
(29)
anoki
met
1SG

" (: )".
(26) (27)
- , . :
(30)

barukh
. PART.PASS.M
b'shem
adonai
. . CONST

ha
DEF

ha

" ".
( ). ():
: nzo > nzpnzo "".
(
[Hagege 1970]).
(31)

Idklak

hur

hw

.
" "

(31)

,
90

,
. , - ( ),
.
, :
(32)

zi ""

Bdng-zi-Bang
3PL
. -
" " (. BangBang " ");

(326)

si ""

kd-se-kd
1SG
. -
" " (. " ");

(32)

ga ""

nzd-gd-nzd
3SG
. -
" " (. nzdnzd " ").


, , , :

(33)
(34)

Idk

" ";
Idk

" ".

hur

lord

lord

, ,
, , , (
).
, ,
, ( )
( ): tdk > tdk-a " ";
nzd > nzd-na "".

:
(35)

i-

guluk
kpdnga-ke
-MASD
GEN
3SG

-38
" , " ( ).

:
(36)

nzuk
i-nd
guluk

-MASD

", ".

kpdnga-
-

, ,
, :
(37)

nzuk
ai
nzd-na

-MASD
PAST
" (=, , )".
91

:
(38)

se-na
-MASD
" - ";

(39)

tdmari
su-na

.PL
-MASD
ACL
" ".

ACL
hai

ai

, ,
.
(40)

ka/d
lakldk
mbdi
3SG
IPF/PF
.

" ()/ "


(41)
*
ka/d
ldk-a
mbdi
:
(42)
gun
ka
hu-na

PROG
pacra-MASD
" ";
(43)

ii
3SG
MOD
" "3.

se-na
-MASD

, ,
( ), ( ),
,
.
,
"" .
, ,
"",
, ,
, .
( , ).
,
-(i)l ( ), -(i)t ( ), -(i)b ( ),
( . [Bykova 1981]). ,
( , . [ 1960; Bykova 1981]), , .
, ) )
- ,
( [ I960: Bykova
1981]):
(44)

iha-ke
pawa
3SG-ACC

" " (, "").

,
:
3
[Hagege 1970] , ,
- .

92

(45)

rang
kora

" ".

bhru
.PL

-
:
(46)

-
/
1SG-GEN

" ".

,
, (. [ 1960; Bykova 1981]),
:
(47)

prokkriti-r
jol
tola
-GEN
BOfla.NOM

" " (, " () -").

, ():
(48)

jol
porbar
.
.MASD
" ";

(49)

ta-r
pore
totkhonat
apif-e
prosthan
3SG-GEN
-LOC .
" ".

bdo

. -iya,
[ (50)], ,
[ (51)]:
(50)

kor-iya
-CONV
"() ";

(51)

bhij-iya
atyanta
bhari
-CONV

", () ".

+ achi
+ AUX.1SG.PRES

> koriachi

haila

. :
(52)

sammukhe
sivanath

" ".

bas-iya
-CONV

( , ).
( ,
,
- . [. . . 1985]). - , .
.
"
" ([. . . 1985: 231]). :
) :
(53)

cia
sako

roBopHTb.PRES.3SG
", , ";

mist-ai
-PL

buve
6biTb.PAST.PART.PL

93

) :
(54)

uzkastieji
pinig-ai
3aKanbmaTb.PART.PASS
-PL
" () ";

dega
ropeTb.PRES.PART.PL

) , :
(55)

tie
vaik-ai
rupkiuk-ai
pup-ose
buve
.
-PL -PL
-LOC
6biTb.PAST.PART.PL
" ( )";

) :
(56)

jis
atsigrezes

o6epHyTbcn.PART.PAST.M
stops
co.PART.PRES.SG
" , - ".

ziiiri
CM0TpeTb.PRES.3SG
velnias

,
.
(57)
[moteriske pamati]
vyra
atein-ant
[ ]
.
-CONV
" , (= )"
(576)
*vyra-s
atein-ant
-NOM
-CONV 1
(58)
(586)

[rado]
sunfl
uzgim-us
[]
.
poflHTbca-CONV2
"() , (= )"
*sunu-s
uzgim-us)
-NOM
-CONV

, , ,
. ,
, , , " "
.
.
/ (. [ 1979:36]): 1) ,
; 2) ,
.
,
,
(, ) . , ,

.

. ,
. -
, ( ,
) : ,
, , ,
( -) 94

, .

. , ,
, ( ).
:
(. [. . . 1985]),
[. (57)-(58)],
, , , ,
, [. (53)(56)].
[. (3)-(6)], [(44)-(52)] [(19)(23)],
, , ,
, ,
, , . , ,
:
, ( -
, - , ., . [.
, . I960]), , ,
( ,
[. (12)(17)]).
(
), [. (31)(43)]. , , ,
,
[. (6)-(9)]. (
) .
, ,
, , ,
, ,
, . - , - . , .
, , .
4 (. . 1).
,
, ,
.
3. /

,
,
.
? , ,
?
, (/ )
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/
.
4
: .
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95

-.

1 1 1 1 1 1

^ ^\. ^ ^ > . **^ *^ . *^ ^ ^ ^

r^J

8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 S 8 $ 8 8 8 $ 8 8 ?

:
( ), ,
, / , , .
, ..
/
, .
, ,
/
, (/
).
,
,
?
,
6
( ) . -, , ""
( ),
, (
) , -, . -,
5

, ,
(, , ).

, "" , .. ( .
[Wetzer 1996]). , , ( " ", " "). .
96

[Hengeveld 1992], , (
)
, ..
. ,
. is mean "
", ,
" ". ,
is sleeping " ". ,
( -) -,
.
, , 2
,
,
, .. , , - - , , . , ,
( ) ,
-7.
.
1. -
: , . -
, , ,
, ,
, .
:
(59)

(60)

(61)

(62)


=
1
==

3TO=N

N=npocrou=N

" " (. " ");



-
sudha
bara
meye
sl/s J \a
-GEN


" - ";

ngani
pulukayita
1SG

" ";
ngani
mankada
ninta
pani
3SG

,
" - " (. " - ").

7
, ,
. .
(. Omnia praeclara rara), , [Ries 1931].

.

4 , 4

97

, .
: . :
(63)

manda

malangti

ngana-yi
AUX-PRES

" " (. " "). , , .


- ,
, .

ani
hokma
1SG

" - ".
, -,
:
(65)

V-hokma
ahot-i
lat
. IMP
LOC-
. CONST-1SG
2SG.F
: " - ".
(64)

.
-, :
(66)

(67)

dzuolas
iyra)

(. PRES.3SG)
" () ";
pats (esi)
(. PRES.2SG)
" ".

medis

- as
-

" ,
, " [. . . 1985: 538]:
(68)

genys
marg-as,
zmog-aus
gyrenimas

- -GEN
" , ".

dar

marg-esnis
-

(. [ 1965; . . . 1985; Austin 1984]) , . , , ,


. , :

+ 0

,
[Givon 1984], ,
. , .. , 98

( ), - . ,
,
, -,
[. (63)].
1.1.
.

8.
(69)


akas
njval

CONJ

nirmal

" () " ( .. [ 1965],


,
.)
(70)

kuber

takhan

chota

" " (
takhan - ''.)
. , ,
- :
(71)

ha
iS
moSe
gadol
DEF

" () ".

m'od

1.2.
(
? ?, ?) .
, , -
, , : Who is that guy in a dressing gown? "
?".

(72) =
-=

=1
=
M=6biTb=PART.M
=
" ?" (. " ?")

(73)

mar.

moto prthibite

bir

ke?

3SG

" ?" (. ", , ?")



(74) mina
tana
tudu
puta

3PL

" ?"
(75)

mina
yinil

2PL
" ?"

" : /967 , . , ,
... ( ),
.
4*

99

(76)

(77)

mah
s'mu

. CONSTR. 3.
" ?" (. " () ?")

am

" ()?"

2. , ,
, ,
.
. , , ,
, .
-:
(78)

gun
nziki
nzo'nzo

" "
-:

(79)

ra
PAST

zuk
ai
nzona
ra
PAST
" "

.
: ,
.
:
(80) ami
[cole giye]-chi
1SG []-AUX. PRES. 1
" "
(806) amra
[cole giye]-chi
1-PL
[]-AUX. PRES. 1
" "
( (50)).
:
(81)

tahara
kisakale santan
3-PL

. SG
" - "

(82)

amra
vangali
1PL
. SG
" - "

.
- , :
(83)

-
1SG -lSG
" - ";

(84)

[ ]
-
[ ] 1SG-1SG
" - ".

100

.:
(85)

-
--
1SG - -HORT-lSG
" "
:

(86)

-1-6
-OPT-lSG
" "
, , ,
:
(87)

UIU-M.HU,

--

-POSS. 1SG -REFL. 2SG neTb-SUBJ-2SG


", , , ";

MOD

(88)

-
,
-

-lSG. POSS

-lSG. POSS
MOD
" - , - " (
,
- . [. , . 1962]).
. . , , , wo = CL -nil - ji ( . [,
1998]) ( [ ( )].)
(89)

temraz
siXnari

" "

wo =
=

(90)

ma-
"coban-jl
-AT -EPISTl
" - "

(91)

mdlaram
zurnaci-ni
-182
" "

.:
(92)

temraz-e
halkan
qol = = q-u
wo = bl
-ERG . N. 3 N. 3 = -PF COP = N. 3/
qol = p = q-u-nl(jl)
N. 3 = -PF-EPISTl (EPIST2)
" "
3. , , :
,
- ,
, .
. "" - !, :
(93)

[1 / = ]
-
[ = ]
-ADV

-- [mlaca -]
-OBL-LOC
[-INF]

1- =
-PAST = PART. M
= =

N = = N NEG
101

. .
. .
. .
.

.
.
.

59
60

69-70

72
73

7!

74-75
76-77

61-62
64-65
66-68

93
80-82
83-88

78-79
89-92

. .

94-95

" , , "
(, " ").
. ,
(. . 2). ,
:
(94)

gun
mu
ACL
"-";

(95)

guilt

fesi

" - ".

kronga -
CKnbHbra-3.SG

ACL

, , , -.
,
,
. , , , -.
- , .
, ""
. , [Bowers
1993 : 594-595] , VP:
= )V, Adj,N}
VP ,
(, , ). - , (predication). () "
, - " [ : 647].

, ,
, , X = (N, Adj, P.10}, ,
.
9

, , -, .
- (prepositional phrase).

1(1

102

Pr

, :
,
. :
, "" - [
, - . (59)-(95)],
,
, .
( )
,
. -,
.
, , : ( -, , . [Bouquiaux 1970]), (
- , . [Canu 1973]), (
, . [Bunn 1974]).
:
, (
):
(96)


. PRES
" - ";

(97)


. PAST
" ".


, :
(98)

-?

. PRES-QU
"-?";
103

(99)


-?

. PRES. NEG-QU
" ?".

, :
(100)
1
-PF
" ";
(101)

1- -
. ERG -PL
-PF
" ".
, , , () .
:
:
(102)

1- --
. ERG -PL
-PF-SUBST. SG
" ".

COP. PAST


-. , (
-). .
. , ,

.
( ) ,
( , , .). ,
, , ,
.
4.


: -, ,
. ,
.
.
, -
,
: , (
), ( ) . : - ?
, ,

104

,
.
. ,
. ,
/ (). ,
, " "
[ 1979 : 8]. ,
, , ,
, .
[Foley, Van Valin 1984] (
, ), ,
,
.
- , (
), .
- ,
("", "", "", ""
) .
( [ . 1975]):
(103)

nay
anh
ay
da
[tot nghiep dai hoc]

CLASS
RES [ ]
" ";

(1036) sau
anh
ay
da
[tot nghiep dai hoc]

CLASS RES [ ]
" ".
( -
, - ), . , " " . ,
, [. (69)-(71)]. , , - : [Broschart 1997],
, .
:
, - . ,
,
, , .. :
- ("" ),
, , ("" ),
. , (104) ,
(105) :
(104)

ta'ahine
PC ART
" ";
(105)

'
kei
PAST

" () ".

lele

105

"" "" -
: (, ,
, ) -
", (, , ) -
.
(106)

'
kei
tamasi'i
PAST


".

(107)

'alu
'a
sione
lei
PC
ART

GEN

ALL
" " ( )

.
(108)

'
'alu
'a
PAST

ABS
" ".

sione

ki
ALL

kolo

kolo

, "" "", , [Broschart 1997], ""


"" ,
, . , ,
, "" "" , .
,
: .
,
, , -
, : ,
"". .
) 3,

, , - ,
.
,
,
, ,
[., , (61) (62)];
) (69) ( ) (71) (),
;
) ( )
(. (103)
). , ,
[. (70)].
,
, ,
, , , 12 :
11

, . [Broschart 1997].
12
[ 1994] , ,
- .
106

)
13, [. (83)(88)];
) ,
( ), - [.
(89)-(92)];
) ,
. ,
[. (80-82)];
) , - ,
, - [. (93)-(95)].
,
,
. ,
, ( [, 1965]):
(109)

-
-PL

(1096)

-
-PL
" ".

,
, ( [Austin
1981]):
(110)

tana
ngama-na
3PL
-PART
" ".

wapa-yi
AUX-PRES

mita

muya-ni
-LOC

, , ,
,
/
( ,
), , /
, , . , - ,
,
-. ( ), ,
-,
. , , .. , .
, [Foley. Olson 1985: 57]:
(clause) - , .

13
" ....
. -
... ,
"... [ 1979: 42].

107

( , ,
), ,
Verbum Finitum. [Foley, Olson 1985], ,
.

, (/
), ,
. ,
. :
,
( ), (
/ - ,
..). , ,

, - ,
.
,

.
:
-, ,
( ) , . ,
, :
,
. ( ), , , () ().

. ,
,
. -, ,
, , -
? ,
( )? -,
, ( ,
,
), ( [Foley, Van Valin 1984]),
, /
. ,
, , [. (53)(56)],

, "
" [. . . 1985: 231]. ,
, .


/ (. [ 1994; (
)]).
, ,
.

1 -
2 -
3 -
- ( )
-
-
ACL -
ACT - ()
ADV -
AOR -
AT -
AUX -
CL -
CLASS -
-
COMPL - ()
CONJ -
CONST -
CONV -
()
DAT -
DEF -
-
EPIST -
ERG -
F ()
-
FUT -
GEN -

HORT -
IMP -
INDQU -

INF
IPF -
LOC -
()
MASD-
MOD -
N ()
N.3 - . 3
N.4 - , 4
NEG -
N1 -
NPL -

0 - ( )
OBL -
01 -
-
PART -
PASS - ()
PAST -
PF
PL -
-
POSS -
PRES
PROG -
QU -
REFL -
RES -
RESTR -
S ( )
SG -
SUBJ -
SUBST -


.. 1958 - . -. 1958.
.., .. 1965 - . . ., 1965.
.. 1949- . ., 1949.
.. i960 - . ., 1960
.., , .. 1975 - . .. 1975.
.. 1975 - // .. .
. ., 1975.
. 1874 . .. 1874.
. , . 1962 - . . .. 1962.
. , . 1985 - . . 1985.
1970 - . ., 1970.
109

.. ( ) - //
/ . .. ( ).
.. ( ) - //
/ . .. ( ).
.. ( ) - //
/ . .. ( ).
.., .. ( ) - //
/ . .. ( ).
.., .. 1998 //
. 1998. 1.
.. 1972 - " <=> ". ., 1972.
. 1996 - ( ). , 1996.
.. 1954 - // . . 2.
, 1954.
.. 1967 - - . ., 1967.
.. 1984- . .... . . . ., 1984.
. 1984- 1 ( ) ( ). , 1984.
.., .. 1966 - // .. .
.. . - . ., 1966.
.. 1979 - . , 1979.
Austin . 1981 - A grammar of Diyaari, South Australia. Cambridge, 1981.
Bowers .1. 1993 - The syntax of predication // Linguistic Inquiry. 1933. 3.
BouguiauxL. 1970- La langue Birom. Paris, 1970.
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Bunn 1974. Golin grammar. Ukarumpa (Papua NG), 1974.
BykovaEM. 1981 -The Bengali language. Moscow, 1981.
Cunu G. 1973 - Description synchronique de la langue more. Paris, 1973.
D'ohsoh./. - Learn Biblical Hebrew ( ).
Foley W., Van Valin R. 1984 - Functional syntax and universal grammar. Cambridge, 1984.
Foley W., Olson M. 1985 - Clausehood and verb serialization // Grammar inside and outside the clause: Some
approaches to theory from the field. Cambridge. 1985.
Givo'n T. 1984-Syntax: a functional typological introduction. V. 1. Amsterdam, 1984.
Hagege Cl. 1970 - La langue mbum de Nganha (Cameroun). Paris, 1970.
llaspelmath M. 1992 - A grammar of Lezgian. Berlin; New York, 1992.
Hengeveld K. 1992 - Non-verbal predication. Berlin; New York, 1992.
Radford A. 1988 - Transformational grammar. A first course. Cambridge, 1988.
Ries./. 1931 - Was ist ein Satz? Prag, 1931.
Sawyer.I. 1980 - A modern introduction to Biblical Hebrew. London, 1980.
Wetzer II. 1996 -The typology of adjectival predication. Berlin; New-York, 1996.

110

1998

1998 .

..



*
0. , , . -, -
1 , . , , , ,
,

(
. 1).
a priori .
-
. ,
2, : "" (, ) .


. .
.
.
.
1.


(island
constraints - , " "),
. [Ross 1967/1986]. ,
, . ,
, ,
, * .
1995 1996 .. . .. .
. 95-06-17234.
.. .. .
.
- .
[ 1990] [ (.). ].

2 ; , .
,
, "".
, , ( ), , :
(1) . ,
. ,
. ,
(2) . ?
. ?
. ?
, , (.,
, . [Huang 1982])
" " (clefting) , . [Prince 1978].
, - ., , .:
(3) , [ ]?
(4) , , [ ]
, , ,
. ,
, ,
, , , (6):
(5) . [ ] [ ].
. *,
(6) . [, [ ]].
. *, ,
(5)-(6) ,
:
(7) * ?
(8) * , ?
, ,
. ,
(Coordinate Structure Constraint) (Complex NP Constraint).
"" 3
, . "" 4
.
2

,
.
3
, " ". .
, , ,
(.
[, 1997]). ;
"" .
4
, ,
, ,
,
. , () :
112


(Adjunct island constraint), ,
[Huang 1982], , ""
- ,
5, .:
(9) . , [ ].
. ^ , ! (. ,
?)
(10) . [ ].
. ?
(11) . [ ].
. * ?6
""
:
. , ,
(3)-(4).
, ""
,

.

( [, 1997] " ",
island constraints;

).
(., ,
[Chomsky 1973; Goodluck, Rochemont (eds.) 1992; Kluender 1991; Lasnik. Saito 1992]).

, 7.
(i) [That John came] frightened Bill.
" , ",
(ii) *Wha did [tliat came] frightened Bill.
. " , ?"

. , (. [ 1997:
110-111], ,
). ,
"" .
5
, , , .:
(i) [ ] 1}
, ; , (8) (ii):
(ii) [ ] 1!
, , , ,
, (
"pied-piping").
(
' (i) ! :
.
1
, ,
, [Erteschik-Shir, Lappin 1973; Haig 1996].
, , .
113

" - ". , , - , .

,
.
:
""
, , .

( [Chomsky 1986]); ,
, ,
(., ., [Van Valin 1993: 121-124]).
. 2
, (, ,
) "" , ,
, ,
- ,
.
, , .
2.

2.1. .
.
2.1.1. . ,
, ,

(
. [ 1997; Kazenin 1996; Testelec 1997]).
, ,
,
.
"" ,
. [ ( )].

"" wo=d. (12) wo=d
, (12-) wo=d
8
(
):
s
: - 4
. , - 1-3 , AFF - . ALL - , AOBL -
, - , COMIT - . CONT - . DAT - . EL , ERG - , HPL - . , IN - , IPF - , NEG - , NOM - , NOMPL - . . NPL - .
, OBL - . OBLPL - . , PF . PL - . , Q - , - . SUP ; ,
=.

114

(12)

a.

all-e
Xaw
alfll-a
-ERG
.4
4.-1
" "
all-e-wo=d
Xaw
aljul-a.
Ann-ERG-6biTb=4
.4
4.-1
" ".
all-e
Xaw-wo=d
alpl-a
-ERG
.4-=4
4.crpoHTb-IPF
" "

wo-d.
=4

, ,
. . [ ( )].
2.1.2. .
(12-) , .
,
(13), (14)
(15):
(13)

(14)

a.

all-is

-OBL-DAT
[. 1
ikan-o=r
1 ..1-=1
" , "
. all-1-s
03-0=1-OBL-DAT
[.1-=1
tkan
LxoTeTb.IPF
" , ".

a.

rasul
pat'imat
.1
[.2
a=r=k'in-o=r.
1=.-=1
" , ",
.
rasul
pat'imat-o-r
.1
[. 2-= 1/2

qa=r=i
1 =.1]

qa=r=i
1=.]

a=r-b\Gal
npHXOfliiTb.PF=2=TEMP]

a=r=InGaf
.=2=]

==''.
(15)

a.

1=.
" , ".
za-k'le
misles-k-qa
ulq-a-na
1.-1-]
.-AFF
[[-CONT-ALL
wo=r.
gade
Ga$-e
. 1 ]
1. -IPF
=1
" , ".
ulqa-na
za-k'le
misles-k-qa-wo=r
.-
[[MHirniein-CONT-ALL-6biTb=l
1..1-]
gade
Gaye
. 1 ]
1. =1
" , ".
115

(146) (156) ,
- (146) ,
(156) - . , ,
: , (
"" , ), , , . ,
(136) (13):
(13)

co$-o-r
.1-=1
\

all-T-s
-OBL-DAT

qa=r=\
[1=.]

LxoTeTb.IPF
" , ".
"" , .
(13) .
,
. (14)
(15), (146) (156)
:
(14)

(15)

*pat'imat-o=r
rasul
a=r=InGaI
.2-=1/2
.1
[.=2=]
a=r=k'in.
1=.
" , ".
*m\Me$-k-qa-wo=r
za-k'le
ulqa-na
-0-1-=1
.-AFF
[..-]
gad e
Gaye
. ]
l.BUfleib-IPF
" , ".

(14) (15) , .
,
, . , , , ,
() . ,
(16)
, (17)(18) - :
(16)

116

-
Xaw
malhamad-ni-wo=d dak-
-
.4
[--=4 - ERG]
alpl-u.
4.-
" ",
malhamad-ni-wo=d
-
Xaw
dak-
--=4
-
.4
[-ERG]

(17)

(18)

alpl-u.
4.-
" ".
a. rasul
jiz-di
dost-u-ni-wo=r
.1
[[-AOBL
--]-=1
balkan-u-koa
qa=r=i
-OBL-COMIT]
1=.
" ".
. jiz-di
dost-u-ni-wo=r
rasul
[-AOBL
-1_-]-=1
. 1
balkan-u-koa
qa=r=\
[-OBL-COMIT]
1 =.
" ".
a. baluR-a-r
Xur-ni=d=o=d
-PL-NOMPL
[-=.==
dama-b-is-
ix-es.
-PL-OBLPL-IN]
NPL.craTb-POT
" ".
. Xur-ni=d=o=d
baluR-a-r
a-AOBL=COH.NPL==NPL
-PL-NOMPL
dama-b-is-
ix-es.
-PL-OBLPL-IN
NPL--
" ".

,
. ,

9. , , :

,
, ,
.
,
" ".
2.2. "" .
, (17)(18), ,
,
- , "" .
, , ,
, ,
, .
, . [Hale 1983] . , ,
, .
, , , ,
lJ
, ,
: ,
, ( , ,
- [Sumangala 1992], - [Barss . 1991]).

117

.
, ""
, . (i)
,
(ii) - :
(i) (Ii)

,
2

, ,
(17)(18) . ,
, . ,
[. (ii)]. (17)(18)
,
. ,
(17)(18), , . , , . ,
.
2.3.
. , .
2.3.1. .
.
-, .
. , , ; ( -).
, ) , , ) ,
.
)
) - :
(19)

(20)
(21)

' -
-
" "
c'ek'-ni
-AOBL
" "
c'ek'-ni
[[-AOBL]
" "

03

-l.NOM
Zoyu-s
-OBL-DAT
co$-in
-]

Xaw
flOM.4.NOM

2.3.2. .
, , 118

? .
,
. - ,
,
(.. ),

. (22),
:
(22)

3agoara-n
a=d=i
-
NPL=npHHTH.PF
. " ".

balkan-a-r
-PL-NOMPL


(23), , , ( - , - ):

(23)

gagoara-n a = d = t
balkan-a:-r
- NPL = . -PL-NOMPL
. " ".
, , (24) ,
, - , .. , ,
- 1 0 , (24)
:

3agoara-n
-

balkan-a:-r
-PL-NOMPL

a=d =
NPL = p

. "

".

(24)
. , (23) (24).
, , , ,
, ., (22) (25):
(25)

3agoara-m-m\
a=d=i
-A-NOMPL
NPL=npHirra.PF
. " ".

balkan-a-r
-PL-NOMPL

10
,
, .

119

, ,

-ni, ,
(26):
(26)

zi

jiRi-n-ci-l-e=r
. OBL-A-OBLPL-SUP-EL=COH.NPL
Xoa-b-is-l-e
-PL-OBLPL-SUP-EL
" ".

qiajq'an
.

, ,
.

,
, .. .
.
[, ( )!,
. .
, , , , , (27-) :
(27)

a.

was

sawu-na-ne

.-DAT

[[KTO.OBL-AA-Q

qa=r=i
ikan
1=.]
1. .IPF
" , ?"
was
sawu-na
.-DAT

[[KTO.OBL-AA

qa]-=\
ikan
1=.]
1. .IPF
" , ?"
was
sawu-na
.-DAT

[[KTO.OBL-AA

diX
.1]

diX-ne
.1]-0_

diX
.1]

qa=r=\-ne
ikan
l=npnxoflHTb.PF]-Q
l.xoTeTb.IPF
" , ?"
, , ,
. , (27),
,
,
:
(27)

*was-ne
sawu-na
.-DAT-Q
[[KTO.OBL-AA
ikan
qa=r-'\
1=.]
1. .
" , ?"

diX
.1]

,
120

, , , :
(28)

sawu-m-rm-ne

. OBL-A-NOMPL-Q
a=d-i
NPL=npnxoflHTb.PF
" ?"
. *sawu-m-m\
. OBL-A-NOMPL
a-d-\
NPL=npnxoflHTb.PF

balkg.n-5.-r
-PL-NOMPL

balkan-a-r-ne
-PL-NOMPL-Q

,

, , :
(29)

sawu-n-ne
. OBL-A-Q
a=d='i
NPL=npnxoflHTb.PF
" ?"
. *sawu-n
. OBL-A
a=d=i
NPL=npnxoflHTb.PF
" ?"
.

balkan-a-r
-PL-NOMPL

balkaii-a-r-ne

-PL-NOMPL-Q

(29)
, ,
.
(28) (29) , - ,
, .
,
, .

:

(30)

(31)

a=d='\
i,agoara-m-m\
NPL=npnfrra.PF
-A-NOMPL
" (.) ".
qlajq'an
jiRi-n-ci-l-e=r
. OBL-A-OBLPL-SUP-EL=COH.NPL
1..IPF
" (., )"

(30)(31), , , . ,
,
, ,
. (25)-(2),
, (30)(31), , .
121

,
, , , .
, - .
(17)(18) ,
. , ,
.
,

. , , (17)(18)
, . , , ,
, ,
, .
3 . 0

,
. "" , , ,
.
, , , . , ,
,
, ,
.
,
" - ". , ,
"" . , , .. ,

( ) .
, , 1
.
, "" .
. .
. ,

(
, ).
.
,
[ 1997]. , , .

122

4.


. -, -
. ,
, .
, ,
, .
,
, , , ,
, ,
.

.. 1990 - . ., 1990.
.. 1997 - (
). .... . . . . ., 1997.
. ( ) - //
/ . .. ( ).
... .. 1997 -
// / . .. .
.. . .. . ., 1997.
.., .. ( ) - //
/ . .. ( ).
.. (.) ( ) - ( ).
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123

1998

1998 .



,
, , , , ,
,
. " " .
, , , ,
.
[Golb, Pritsak 1982;
Golden 1980; 1992 .], ,
(, ,
) . , , , , ,
,
.
, , ,
. ,
, " ",
' ( , , , " -"1, .. 786-809 .) , ,
" -" - -.
("Jabal Warsan"),
(Kitab al-Khazari, II, 1).
(. Sa4r)
- ,
(. -j-z-u-l) [ 1932: 67-68, 113
116].
, ..
" " , "... ,
, ,
..." [ 1962: 273]. , ..
.. ,
[ 1874: 145 .; 1932: 67-68], -
1
, -.
(620 .) [ 1879: 164], (740 .)
',
, , , [. 1932: 80, 97; 1962: 279 .].

124

. - [Marquart 1903: 68].


- , ( ,
..) [ 1962: 273]. , .
- "
.." [Marquart 1903: 19
.], .. ..
(. Wartan, Wrtan, Warthan, . Vardanakert)
(!) 2 [ 1879: 165; Minorsky 1958: 94].
.. ,
,
[ 1869: 68].
, , : . ,
, - , ,
.

, - :
, ,
? [ 1932: 67]. ,
" " (. XXXVI. 8-9: . II, 6 .)
, .
. .. , ,
- [ 1962: 273],
: -1
, , - Warsan,
(? - . ) , - : . ", ": , ,
""; . . *varsa- ", ", . varasa-. . wrs, .-.
valqa- ", ". , Warsan ,
, *vars-
-()- , , , ,
Sa4r .
,
-, ,
.
,
,
[ 1932: 75-77. 92-94].
730-731 ., , , ,
, . , .
, ,
- [Tabary 1879-1901. . 1530: -
1940: 26, ' 1927: 26-27].
. -, - VIII .
: -.
2
- Warthan Wrtan - " " (Vardanen daStin) , .
, , ,
, , , . [Hewsen
1992: 121, . 102,103].

125


" -" (I, 47), .. 740 . [ 1932: 131-132; 1962: 266], '

[ 1962: 280].
VIII .
. , () , ,
[ 1862: 71-72].
- ,
, ,
730-731 . [Hewsen 1992: 253-257]. - "
" " " (. pcaytak ", "
-, pcayt "" + , garan "", , , , . [Hewsen 1992: 254]) '
, , , ,
.
" " ,

,
[Hewsen 1992: 254; 1982: 179].
"", -
[Kitab al-Khazari, II, 1]. , .. VII-IX .
( ).
,
"" "",
[ 1996: 162]. ,

[ 1982: 176].
.
, -.
- ,
(. Warthan, . Vardanakert).
, ,
(, ) , . ,
-,
730-731 . [ 1927: 16; - 1940: 27-28].
, , , Warsan
Warthan (-. . -0- = .-. . -s- [ 1979:
100]), Warsan < *varsa-anc .-, vars "",
. gurs "". , , - Balh-ab, Balarot, Rot-i-Bala . -
varQan:
varQan vahlan > valan > balan,
-an , . -9
-
,
3 .
( ,
3

126

: > -.

) - ,
, "" ,
4
.
,
, , , .
, ,
, ,
() , , , , ,

.

.. 1962- . ., 1962.
- 1927 - / . .. // .
, 1927.
.. 1874 - . ., 1874.
.. 1879 - . ( VII). .. 1879.
1862 - . VIII . / . . .
.. 1862.
.. 1996 - (). ., 1996.
- 1993 - . .. 1993.
-Acup I940 - - ( ) -.
. , 1940.
.. 1932 - - X . ., 1932.
. 1979 - () // I. M.. 1979.
.. 1869 - , . , , - . X
, .. . .. 1869.
.. 1982 - - // . ., 1982.
.. 1992 - ( ,
). . .... . . . ., 1992.
' 1927 - / . .. // . . IV. . 1927.
Golb N.. Pritsak . 1982 - Khazarian Hebrew documents of the tenth century. London. 1982.
Golden P.B. 1980 - Khazar studies: A historic-philological inquiry into the origins of the Khazares. Budapest. 1980.
Hewsen R.H. 1992 - The geography of Ananias of Sirak (ASxarhacoyc). The long and the short recensions:
Introductions, translation and commentary by R.H. Hewsen: Dr. L. Reichert. Wiesbaden. 1992.
Jeluida Halevi 1931 - Kitab al Khazari. London. 1931.
MarquartJ. 1903 - Osteuropaische und ostasiatische Streifziige. Leipzig. 1903.
Minorsky V. 1958 - A new book on the Khazars // Oriens XI. 1958.
Tabary 1879-1901 -Annales. Leiden. 1879-1901.

,
, , . ,
.
127

1998

1998 .



1. , ,
- , , (
- ).
.
:
( , ,
),
, - (VIII-X . ..)- X -
XIII .
XIX ( 1803) ( 1810)
, ( 1931 -
), .

, .. () .
, , .
, XIX . .
"Travels in Circassia, Krym-Tartary" : ",
[ . - . .]. , ..." (. 317-318).

- ,
( ) .
XIX
(-), ,
. . [ 1880: IX], "
. -
, ...".

. , , , , , ,
, - -
XX .
, -, XIX -
XX , , ,
(
)
12

, , ,
. , , , , (
).

, , , ,
30 ,
(
) , ,
(. [Chirikba 1996: 101-102]).
- (..
XIV ), , .

, ,
,
- -, - ,
, .
, , ,
(
, . *adg'd'l '' , adgil-i
( ),
, . . *abfar ', ' . *ab^'ar-i vs. .
an$'ari)1, , ,
.
( ,
--
, , ( . [ 1967: 6970; Hewitt 1992a: 245-246]). ,
1931 .,
.
2.
[ 1912; 1928; 1950; 1964;
1969; 1980; 1986: 1989 .].

. , , . .
[ 1914]. . [ 1880: VIII-IX] ,
- XIX .
..
1
: . - :
. ; . - : . - : . -
; . - : . - : . - ; .-. - - : .
; . - ; . - ; . - : . - : . - ; . - ; -. - -; . - ; . - ; . - : . : . - : . - ; -. -.

5 . 4

129

[ 1938].
[ 1942; 1942; 1947;
1956; 1977; 1971; 1986; 1987; Hewitt 1992a; 1992]
.
, (
), ,
-
.
(
),
.
, , , .
,
.
. , . ,
. ,
.
(.. -). , , .,
.

.. ,
, ,
. .

,
-.
3.
.
, (' ', '', ' ", ',
', ' ', ', ', ' ', ' ', '
' ..). , (' ", ' ', '
', ' ' ..), ('', '
', ' ', '' ..),
(', ', ' ',
.), ('', '', ''),
(', ', '', ''), ('', '',
''), ('', '') ..
4. .

, .
, , "-" .
. ,

, .
, ,

130

( ~ ), (
[ 1971:6].
, "",
, . ,
, ,
(z s z, s, 5 ; ' > <?%
( > ), .
,
, /,
- .
,
, .
(
, -, ), , ,

. [
1912: 2], , "
".
[ 1912: 59], "
.
, ,
, ... / ,
; , ,
" (. [ 1880: 9, 18; 1914: 012-013]).
, ,
,
.
4.1. .
(1) .
,
.
,
.
(1.1.) . > . . , :
.

: .
>

>

:a.6x.Aq'a > . Aq'u '' (


q'); a-s'xa-- > sxurici '
';
:. a-lera > . lere '', h-taca > xateci '()
', a-pha > xe '' ( ), -1' > 1'() ' ' (.), -' >
>cemkwa ' ', -'a't > xee'eti '', a-ha-c ' ' > xec'ec'i ' '.
,

;
5*

131

>

>

:. -1' > . 1'() ' ",


a-laha > // '';
:
: . -\\> > . ' '.
-" > ' '', -'()'' > '' ''.
a-naxta > naxuta II naxuto ''; . . ' <
*' '' > . ' ''.

(1.2.) ,
:
.:

.
>i

>

>
>
>0
>

:. a-iws' > . nisi '', '1 > ' '.


', a-naga > niga ' ', -' /idra >
> c'ic'indera '', -'"" > k'ac'ic'i '
', -' > // '';
:
:. > . apuni '', a-hg > luga '",
>
' ', - >
'';
:. a-hra > . lere '';
:. > . ' ";
:. -'> . cinori ' ';
:. -' > . cemkwa ' '.

(1.3) ,
, , , -,
, . . - > . '
' (. *), . a-xaz> . '' (.
*qazd), . a-hg > . luga '" (> . lungi: . *bga1).
(1.4.) -.
,
" " . . , , ,
( 20 ). , , . . -xk'aara '
' > . 'avail'
' '. -, ' '
()' ( . ' '') < . ' (< *') '', aywiri '"
< . ayra, aswamk'jad (.) < . axd-mk"at ' '
(as '').
(2) .
(2.1.)
(.: . > . apuni '', -xk'aara > ' '
'; -' > ' ''), w (
- > -aall-awa).
.
.
*, , . . (< *Mahan) > .
Maryanija ' ' ( --
-ija). . aanda > . yanda ''.

132

(2.2.) :
.
ow

:.
> , ,
>

:. abowra
:. ajla(r)f

>

. ajk'aya

>0

:. ack'a hzdja

>

:. a-wdra

> . ahoura, abura, ambura '';


> . ela(r)^i ',
';
>. k'waya ' '
( . , 5.2.);
> . ckebzi ' ' ( . , 5.2);
> . ' '.

(3) .
,
( ) .

. , /C'al ( )
//, . . a-zak'a > . bzak'e '', . a-ck'a bzaja '()
() ' > . ckebzi ' ', . -' > . make
' ', . a-q''at'ama
> . yetama ' ',
/'/ /Ci/, . . -' ' ' > . ''it"7 '
', . a-ps'drha > . dpSirha '
'.
, ,
/Cw/ //:
(a) . // . /Cwa/: . a-daga > . dagwa '', a-inaza > mazwa
'', a-garta > agwarta '', a-maxar > maxwari '', a-k'adac > k'wadaci
'' (.);
(b) . /1 . /./: . -1' > . lek'unixa ' ':
(c)
" ": .
a-xaz > . xozo ' ', - > '' (Mespilus germani), -'' - > '' '' (.).
(3.1). :
.

]
3
t

.
>/
>w

>
>gu
>,

'

:. h-taca
:. '$
:. a-q"at'ama
:. Aq'a

> . aia '';


> . Naweia '. ';
:. '- > . a^lzmax ', ':
:. ajd-va
:. Najej

>t
>

:. a-q'at'anm
:. a-s'xa-rd-z

> . xatecillxaceci '() ' (


);
> . Guyiiaxan '. ':
> . yetama ' ", .
a-bacq'' > . ',
":
> . ? '". . Bataq'a >
> . Batalua '. ';
> . yetama ' ';
> . sxurici ' '.

(3.2.) h, ,
133

\ . . a-hata > . xarta '', h-taca > xatecillxaceci


'() ', a-pha '' > ' ', a-lak'3mha >
> lek'u(m)xallluk'() ' " (> . lulc'unixallnuk', , luk').
. h , . . a-c'amha >
> . camhwallcamkwa ( ) '', . a-laha > . luyi (
loyi [ 1914: 274] ''. , -,
- (. . luyi, , leywi <
< *layw- ''; . . ma-layuri, , layur-i ''), , ( *1' '', .
. Lax'd, . '' [Chirikba 1996: 303]. ,
* '', . -mha (
[ 1982: 79].
.
(3.3.) :
./f
. nd

> . nt
> . ndlmd

:. Ajtar > . Antari ' ';


:. -''dndra > . ' ic' inderalIc'ic'imdera
''.

(3.4.) .
, ,
. .
: . abowra > . amhura "', a-xaga > xanga
'', a-hata >xarta '' (> , xalta), a-xc'ara > ()'() '
' (> , '), a-t'ama > . at' > . ant'ama, at'amba (
, at', , at'ami, -. at'ami) '',
- '' > nerci ' '. ,
w , . . - > . -aalawa .
(3.5.) .

, (, /, , ).
, . . - > . bsgd^ari
'', -' > 'avail' ' ', a-pha '' > - ' ", a-xra^aga > xdra^aga f/xira&Jga '
', -- - > 'rail' ' ', a-ha-c"c"a ' >
> xec'ec'i (.) ' ' (> , xec'ec'ur-i '
', . ur-, . xic'iac'ur-i, . ""uri, (mcxul) xec'ec"uli
' '), a-xc'af > xec'et'i '', h-taca ' ()' > xateci ''.
-''diidra > c'ic'inderqllc'ic'indard '', -' > cinori ' ',
-'' > '' ''.
, . . >
> . crfwiri '', -1' > lek'uxa/lluk'uxa ( luk'/', .
luk'umxa/lo, lek'uxo, . luk'urxo, . Ink') ' '. - '' >
nerci ' '. a-naxta > naxutallnaxuto ''.
(3.6.) .
,
. . :
. a-garta > . agwartallargwata ', ';
. a-bgdjpr > . b9gd^drillh^giri ''.
/

134

'a(3acrxoi abxaz, , , .
5. - .
5.1. ,
.
.
. ,
( ' '),
( .).
- ' '. [ 1914: 335]
, [ 1964: 203]
, ,
. . . [ 1986: 182] .
. . -
-' ' '. , (
"). , . -" '' (. "-] ' '), .

( ): a-bdcq"a. bacq'a
'' .
: - (< *) ', ' -q''a
''. ' ' '". .
, ' , ' [
1984: 538].
a-bdcq"a,
.

' ',
. , - ,
, , ,
,
.
, -, .
(.-.) yetama ' ', . a-q"at' . a-y'at'ama ( ).
, -, ,
'- .
, [ 1964: 225],
. q3tama, . '. ' ' (< . *q9-tama).
5.2. , , , , .. ,
. . . k'waya ' ',
. ' ' ', . ajk'waya, . ajk'ay. .
. ' ' . ha%a vs. . -'', . -'" ( )
( ), .
argam ', ' . argam vs. . argama ( ;
, . . a>rgom ',
; , '), . ckebzi ' ' bzi , .
. ] vs. . ''.
, , ( ,
135

) , -
( , ),
, - ,
( ,
-), ( ), ..
.
, , XIII
XIV . ,
, . ,
,
(.. ) ()
, . . '', . < . ''.
5.3.
, , .
, . ahragi ', ', bzak'e '', dagwa '',
' ' ( ), naxuta/naxuto '' (
, , -, ), cinori '
' ( ), agvam ', ' (
).
5.4. , , ,
, , ,
. , aywiri (
cRwifj, , haywr-ll ', '
. ( ) (. [ 1985: 80]).
*, (. .. . ).
,
(. [ 1994: 54]).
, . , .
xuri, . , . /, . , ., .. . .
( . [, 1990: 158]).
, ..
.
. aswamk'jad (.) ' ' . a-sd-mk"at ( ) ( $- ''),
[ 1915: 81] sum k'et'i
' ', , (
- ). . . k'et'i
a-k"at' '', .. ,
. [ 1981: 114]
, ]^mk"at ' ', : ]-$
' ', mk"at ',
-'.
, . . /usi/nusi
'' [. . nusillnisi. , (.) nusa/nus-i], . -$' (
). [ 1912: 13]. . . ( .) ,
, ,
( ,
136

). ,
,
- ''.
- , .-. *nau-s '' (.
. vauQ, . ndvis, . naus ''), .
6. . , , .
, Antari Zini//Zini Antari ' ', .
'/ ', . Ajtar ' ',
N apral IN ' ', . Napral/- ' ' (- '',
''), ziwow . je-jwow ' ,
' (je '').
,
Batalua, . Bataq'a ( , -q'a, ''), Gudu, . G3-ddw, . ' ', Gu$ma-xan, . '^'- (a-k'dfma '', -
), Naveia, . Najej (< ''),
Gwasa, . Gas'a, (
gas'a ', ') ..
, ,
. Aq'u-yxa, Alu-yxa '', . Aq'u-s cixe, aq'u (. j/xa, , cixe
''; . Sohum-kale '-'). XVII
, XVIII ' ". . Aq'a ''.
, .
. agwara ' ' [< . a-gara ( )], asta ', ' (< . asta ',
'), aj/zmax ', " (< . ^ ''), k'ak'aralo '
' (< . a-k'k'ara) .. [ 1975: 34].
6.1. , , , ,
-, .
-aall-awa -pxell-xe.
6.1.1. -awa , , . Bok'uc'-awa, Lec-awa, Gud-awa, Mik-awa
. .. [
1938: 4], . - '' (
-, . Agr-ba, Tar-ba, 2- ..), . -awa: -aa, . Lec-aallLec-awa, Mik-aa/IMik-awa, ''-''-awa, Kard-aa//Kardawa .. - , -, ,
-,
(.. Agr-aa, Tar-aa,
Bdt-ad), , . apswa '', .. apsw-aa, a-waj3
'', .. a-w-aa .. -w- -awa,
, , .
. ma-wa ', ', ma-a, psuwa '' psua (.
msuallmswa '') ..
[ 1980; 74],
.
*-fia. , , - XVIII
137

( . ).
,
, ,
- Maryanija, *Mahan > . . ; . . yanda '' < .
*aRa-nda ( ) > . . aanda. , ,
, *- (< . *-h~a)
-aall-awa, .
6.1.2. ,
, . -, . Zinc'are- ' ', Mocik'a-xe
' ', Dadi-xe ' ' ..
. a-pha '',
, . Agr-pha ' ', Tar-pha '
' Maan-pha ' ' .. ,
, -,
, . ,
(1938: 42), -. -. . -
: %ibut'i-pxe ' ', Beri-pxe ' ', K'alanda ' ', Rami-pxe ' ' ..
[ 1984: 556], ',
'. [ 1938: 136] ,
-:
Ali-pxe, Mali-pxe,
Bzik'i-pxe, Bzik'i-e'ila-pxe,
Malazoni Mocik'a-pxe.
,
[ 1938].
, ,
, , ,
. , -
-si, , . ^a-si-pxe
' -', T'uyu-si-pxe ' -' ( -
[ 1938: 140]).
,
(
), . . Gurieli-pxe ' ', yiq'eli-pxe ' "
.., [ 1938:
137]. '
, , , -pha
-ha. . Agr-ha '
'. Tar-ha ' ', Maan-ha '
' .., -.
[ 1938: 42]
- - -,
. , [ 1938: 137-138] - -- -, --,
, her '', - - xin <>
'', ', ', . . [ 1942: 26]. , -pxell-xe mqew-al- ''. [ 1983: 134]
, - - . ..

138

-. , X. [ 1987: 911
, (a-pha
'', ' ' > -pha/1-ha,
). , , -()
. . a-pha . . ' '' (< . *-').
7. ,
.
, , .
-
[ 1971: 258].

, .
, , . ,
, ,
-ni '',
, ,
,
.., ,
, , [ 1977: 96]
.

, .
, . , - '()', ' - '', '', to- '', la- '', ,
[ 1942: 151-152]. ,
. , ''1 ' ()' [ 1942: 155].
-'1-'-'1-.-
', '.
-ta-11-to- '', . -ta-,
. a-1-lle-laIlila [ 1942: 155]. . [ 1947] , - (. ).

,
, ,
, ''1 ' ()' ,
, -. . ''1, :

k'zla-rdlua
k'sla-sxap'ua
'1-1
'dla-rywapa
k'al-ed

-'1--
-'1--
-'1--
a-k'al-da-ra
d-k'dl-s3-j-t'

' ( )'
''
''
'/ '
' (, ' ')

''1 ,
, . . k'ila rwili |ur ' ' (, '
'), k'ila-xifonili ', ' ..
,
. , -sa-xfi/)
139

' ', . lude-sa-x(ali) ' ', yura dya-sa-x ' ', zugidi-sa-x
'/ ', . . --' '( ) . a-jn-ax' '
' .. [ 1947].
. . k'oc-i-sa '
', oxo(r)i-sa ' '. , .
- + '() ' ". ,
- ". '. .
-sa-xa ', ',
-Sa-x ' ", . . baba skimi-sa-xa ' ', hama-sa-xa
' ' LMapp 1910: 228]. ', '
' ". [ 1947: 194] , - -
zido-x-se '', '- '", dik'o-x '', . dolo-xe '', '-/ ''
..
8.
( ),
. . guri-c'wili '', , ' ', . a-g -1- ',
', , ' ', . nina-dacxiri, . a-mca-bz '',
, ' ' (. . mdfa-bzdj, . '-bza ' '), . arti neeri
', , -' (arti ''), . '- + la-sa ( ) ('
'', + la , -sa '': . , am naeri ", ', am ''; .. )
..
9. - ,
, , , ,
,
.
, . .. [ 1986:
183], . . k'ai mac' '
', , ' ' . bzdja ja-z-ba-jt' '
', , ' ". , .. -. ,
- ,
, .
', '. -k'ule.
-s, . . ondye(r)-i-s-k'ule ' ", oxor-sa mo-p-ti-s-k'ule '
/ '. ,
rodesac: roca saxls miwuaxlowdit ' ", roca is dabrundeba '
'. 'ule : . e-k'ule, . u-k'uli ',
, ' k'ule '', , k'wal-i (
). k'wal-i ,
- + ta '": d-an-c[a]-a + + ta + '
'/ ', d-arw-z-ba + + ta + : ' /' ..:
. - + ta + ' ', ' (< * + ta-a + '. , ' '),
u-k'ulille-k'ule .
+ ta. ta. , . d-ca-ta < d-ca- +
+ ta ' ', .. ' ", s-c"a-ta < s-c'a-s' + ta ' " ..,
-, . d-ca-s'a '()
140

', s-t'a-s'a ' '. -s-k'ule.


10. ,
,
,
. [ 1971]
,
.

.. 1964 - ( ). . 1964.
.. 1987 -. . . 1987.
.. 1928 - // . . VIl- .
, 1928.
.. 1984 - . . 1984 ( , ).
.. 1947 - // . . . VIII. 3.
II.C. 1915 - // . . IV. . 1. ,
1915.
.. 1986 - . . . . .
.. 1986.
.. 1987 - //
-. . 1987.
II.E. 1971 - . . .
. . , 1971.
.. 1980 - -elfl-av // . . XXII. 1980.
.. 1981 () . . 1981.
.., . 1990- . . . ..
1990.
. 1914- () //
. VII. ., 1914.
.. 1971 - 1968. ., 1971 - .: Dumesil. Documents anatoliens sur les langues et les
traditions du Caucase. IV. Recits Lazes.
.. 1986 - . .. 1986.
.. 1994 . .. 1994.
.. 1956 //
. 12. 1956.
.. 1949 - . . . 1949 ( , ).
II.. 1910- () //
. II. ., 1910.
.. 1938 - . .; .. 1938.
.. 1938 - . .: .. 1938.
.. 1942 - -- privativum ga //
. . . 3. 6. 1942.
.. 1985- //
. .. 1985.
.. 1967 - . I: . 2- . ( , ).
. 1880 - . . . .. 1880.
.. 1969 - . . 1969.
' .. 1977 - - // . .
. . VI. . 1977.
.. 1975 - . , .... . . . . 1975.
. 1912 - . .. 1912.
.. 1942 - //
, . . .. . . XX. . 1942.
141

. 1983 - '' // . . 4. .
1983.
.. 1982 - - . .. 1982.
.. 1989 - - . ., 1989.
Cliirikba V. 1996 - Common West Caucasian. The reconstruction of its phonological system and parts of its lexicon
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Hewitt B.G. 1992a- Languages in contact in N.W. Georgia: fact or fiction? // G. Hewitt (Ed.). Caucasian perspectives.
Munchen, 1992.
Hewitt B.G. 1992b - Another case of influence of Abkhaz on Mingrelian syntax? // Catherine Paris (Ed.). Caucasologie
et mythologie compared. Actes du Colloque International du CNRS. IV-e Colloque de Caucasologie (Sevres.
27-29 juin 1988). Paris, 1992.
Lacassen W. 1989 - Loans in Abkhasz // Studies in Slavic and general linguistics. V. 1. Utrecht, 1980.
Schmidt G. 1950- Abchasische Lehnwortstudien // Studia Orientalia / Ed. Societas Orientalis Fennica. XIV. 4.
Helsinki. 1950.
Spencer E. 1839 -Travels in Circassia. Krim-Tartary. V. 1. London, 1839.

1998

1998 .

.. , ..



() -
, .
, , . -
.
, ,
.
,
, ,
, .
.
, , .
,
.
.
.4.1.2
( 453-476), , " ",
200 . ,
.
. [ 1993: 120-135].

" ", 469 "".
""
"". "" .
[ 1996: 105-116].

*snuso "", "". , , .-. sneu "",
" " [ 1959: 131: 1987: 700]. . . Sclmur "" "".
. . , , *snuso
, , *{s)neub[li], .
" ", . vu|X(pn "" [, 1984: 761-763].
*snuso .-. " ": .-.
snusa, . , . 6<, . nurus, . snur, , sniicha.
, .-.
( snuso-
143

.. ). . ., . iwsa, ., ., . nus, , nus, nusa(j), .,


. nusa, . nustw. : .
noso-, nisei-, . nusa-, nisa-. , . sos, , ., . sus, . svas, . ,
""
. ,
, ( "" - "" , ).
()
, () [Buck
1971:93, 123].
'' [, 1984: 761,
762], ,
, "
, '' ' '.
, ".
' ' ' ', ''. .-.
*gen...t- < *- '', '' ( ''
"" [Kiparsky 1942:113-121; 1987:112]) . ?,
(.) jamutro, ., . zjaf, . zjac', . zet, . zet, . zat\ , .
zet, . zet, , znudts, . zentas, . gendre, . , . dhender.
,
sodamo sodams "".
, ,
, (
, , ). ,
- "" .
, , , ( ).
() :
, .
.
,
. - ,
.
; ,
():
[] " " - "" -
[] " " - " " ,
[] " " - " "
,
[] " " - .
.

, , , . . , - .
, ,
,
. ,

,
, ( ).

: [ ].
: [ ] [ ].

(, .)-
,
, ,
, .
, - , .
, ,

, . .-. mag r "// " [Kruijsen 1986: 330; Debus: 1958].

. : (, . . [z'at'], , [z'at] < . , , [m'ahka] <
, mdgr, . znuot < , znuots, . [k'jaey] , [kijaw] < , kijdii)
- (, heau-fih
, (. beau-
,
, - -: schonzon,
shoonbroeder ..), ; son-in-law ).
, , . . guid son
, . "beau
sire". good
(good-father, good-mother .., good-father-in law).
beau-fils 1468 .
beau "" .
, beau-frere, belle-mere, beau-fils
. beau-fils beau-garcon
, -garcon
. Swigersyn
. Schwieger, . *sym>.
. ,
.
: ().
.
.
, ,
..
: , , , -
..
,
: 1) ( );
2) ; 3) .
() (. jove).
, . .

. ""
,
145

, :
. .
, ;
, , . , . dhender
"" - "" ( ).

. , .
. - .
" ",
"" "" . .
. beau-fils "/". . synowiec "/" . . netso, nipote "/".
, ,
,
, .
: .
(, [ ]),
, (, . son [ ] -in-law [a]): -in-law
.

.
- " " - ,
.
. -, , ("
") (" "). -, .
.
, .
). " ": . tidarrmez (tiddr "" + mlez ""), . daughter's man
( man "", "" ; . an duine aig do
nighean ' ', . mijn dochter haar man ' ".
meitas
virs, meitas - meita "" (.
. " - ").
our Hetty's hushand " " ( our
Jack's wife " ") .
) " ". : . mann tilldt dotter(a) . . di mia figlia
" ", . an duine ag do mignean " ".
, . . Tochtermann.
) "". , .. ,
. -
- (, )
[ 1988: 148, 168:
1987: 228 ., 279 .].
"" ( , -
146

).
, .
pfichodny syn. : prichodna dzowka. . . . ",
" , kijati /?/"-" (<. ).
) "() "
: . *ailumaz > Eidem, Eidam, Eirem, Eidensohn [Kruijsen 1986: 331].

().

, ,
"".
- : ,
.
. "" "".

:
- : . ., . jove, . joven (
u.-t.juwen ""); . mladej; . mladv.
- : . . schwiegerjunge.
giuhere . giner'e (< . generem) +
+ . June (< . juvenis) .

(

) . :
.
) ,
, , ,
.
. ,
( ) ( ).
"".
: "" ,
"", : . bru < .
brutis < . *brudi, . . *bruths "", ""); . brut:
. T]ij|iOr| ", "); . morzirn (
"", " ): . . spoza < .
sponsa "" spondere " "); (.) < .
varoru "", ""). ,
, : dhender "" "".
) .
"" " ",
,
, "". .
- [] - " ", " ".
- : []
, , , "", ,
"" figlio.
beau-fils : 1. "", 2. "
". "" beau-fils , ,
. oentrouwe soan ",
" , , . aangetvouwde kinderen - "
", .. .
147

"" "":
. filiatre, . filiaster, : . "
" - . " ". ,
, . . filastr, . .
figltastro . filiaster "". - atre
, -at: OKcur.fiHat.
- [] - " ".
: . . .
cieamain, cleamhuin *klijomnis " ". ,
mac ceile " ".
. cognatus.
cognatus,-a, "
", .
. cunado , .
"" .
. , (. . , , , , ..)
.

, ,
(
).
.
) , [] + [ ].
: "", "" "".
- "" Schwieger.
Schwiegersohn "", Schwiegervater ", " Schwiegertochter "" ..
, . socer, . *svekry. .-.
" ", " " [, 1984: 760].
, Schwiegersohn
" ".
Schwieger " ",
Schwiegereltern " , ".
. .
, , schwieger- ( ).
469 - "-sohn". "-maim" "-junge". .
Swiegersohn - , a Tochtermann - .
: .
Schwager, . svoger ( ). . . schwager ""

.
- "" . (Schwieger)
,
. , , : . son-in-law; -in-law (, " "),
, mah yng nghyfraith (" ", .); . beau-fils, . mah kaer - , " ". . ,

148

: "",
[Benveniste 1969: 245-246].
- "" , , beau- (belle-),
, ,
, : belle-petite-fille "
", helle-famille " " ..

, . -inlaw, . schoon-, . Schwieger-, ., . sviger-, , svdr-,
,
() , ,
() ,
.
) , [ ] + [].
"" " ",
: " ", "
". , ,
, , /: ()
, 0/-.
:
"", .
:
. :
- -esse: . . gendre "''/gendresse
"" (. prince/princesse); . gendressa.
- (

): . gendre "" (. gendro
""), . gen(d)re/gendra; , genrolgenra; . yernolyerna, . nuorolnuora.)
,
, . . / abuelolabuela; /
hermanolhermana, / tioltia. yerno/nuera "/"
, yernolyerna.
( . gener "") ", ",
" ",
. - . ,
.
: "" "".
- - .

[ ] ""; . , .
, ,

, .
"", ", " - "",
"" [ (., .) /
].

149


. 1993- : . . 120-135//. 1993.3.
. 1988 -, . ., 1988.
.. 1996 - ( Atlas Linguarum Europae) //
. , 1996.
.., .. 1984 - . . II. . 1984.
.. 1987 - . , 1987.
.. 1959 - . ., 1959.
. 1987 - . . 2. ., 1987.
Benveniste E. 1969 Le vocabulaire des institutions indoeuropeennes. Paris, 1969.
Buck CD. 1979-A dictionary of selected synonyms in the principal Indo-European languages. Chicago, 1979.
Debus F. 1958 - Die deutschen Bezeichnungen fur die Heiratsverwandschaft // Deutsche Wortforschung in
europaischen Beziigen / Hrsg. von L.E. Schmitt, Giessen, 1958.
Kiparsky V. 1942 - Schwieghersohn als "Bekannter" // Neuphilologische Mitteilungen. XLIII. 1942.
Kruijsen ./.. Arhammar N. 1986 - ALE-QI: "Son-in-Law" and 470 "Daughter-in-Law" // Aspects of language. Studies
in honour of Mario Alinei, V.I. Geolinguistics. Amsterdam, 1986.

150

1998

1998 .

..


( )
Summumjus, summa injuria

-, , ( ). , . , -
-
, , . - "-" (
- "", .. "" , -
).

(*#<-, *ia-, *-, *-, *ei-, *je-, *eu-,


*ue(i)-, *ou-, *-, *oi-) ""

:
"" ( , ) ""
.
"-" > "-" , ,
.. [, "", "", "", "" (
), ", " ( " "), "" (
) "", "" ( ), "", "",
"" .], .
,
" " ( ) +
[
( )]. -: *ab-,
*bha-, *uah-\ *ad-, *dha-, *dau-, *uad-\ *ag-, *gha-, *uag-: *al-l*ar-, *lai-, *lau-, *ra-, *rai-,
*rau-, *uar-, *1-; *as-, *sai-, *sau-, *uas-.
(, i, , ).
, ,
( )

, () , ..
. .
"" :
1). . , .-. *- "" (< "" - );
. .-. *ag-, *og- "" > "", .-. *geu- "biegen, kriimmen, wo'lben" (von Feuer),
*geu-lo "Feuer, gluhende Kohle"; 2). .-. *(p)aus(on)- "", .-. *eus- "brennen", .
vis "() "; 3). . deus "", .-. *eus- ", ", . .-.
*dau- ""; 4). .-. *kabeiro ", ", . oibel "Feuer. Funke", *kab"bend, curve" (vom Feuer), *abher- "() , "; 5). . kermin- ",
151

", *ker- "". . .-. *aglog- ",",. rogus "",.;


. "", *- "brennen", . "",
"".
( - ) ,
. , ,
. , "" ""
, .. ""
. ;
,
(
) ,

(
) .
; ,
.

"" , , .

( , , , ) 1 ,
( , , , ),
(
) "" . ,
"" , ""
,
: ""
, , ""
"" . ""
, "" .
,
"" . ,
,
: ,
. .
(, ) ,
, " " , "". ,
, . , , -
.
. , ,
() . ,
"",
,
. 0-1-2, 0 , 1 - , 2 - ().
, -
"" "" ,
( )
,
""
. - , [. .-.
*- "", .-. *- ","; . A *war "; . .-. sprdcan
"", .-. feorh ", , ", . "()
", . parganu- "cleanse" ( ", ": . . mundus)]
, "" , .. .
152

"",
.
: . . , . ynas ", " (.
.-. *onos ", "); .-. *anas ""
(<""), .-. *anos ""; . : , kaitet "", .-. heitr
"", . kitas "" (. . . ""); .-. *dhem"", . damais "" (. . A tam ""); .-. *an(d)- "", .
"", . .-. and "", .-. adda- " ", .
*andjaz- "" "" ( ).
- .
, , , , , .
, , ..
, , , , , , .. , .
"" "" , , (-,
-, -, - .)
"" . , -? "", . . kisa ", ", . cessare "";
. A mask- ", ", - . . mu.sk- "".
"-", (.
. suh-stantia <*stha-"" <*dheg-"").
,
, , . - , . - ,
, , , 1, 3, 5, 7.

. ,
, ,
, - ("" ).
,
, "",
( ).

( , ).
- , ,
,
. ()
, , (
) ( ) ,
2. () -

2
, "" , - , "" .

153

, , ..
()
.
,
, .
,

, .
-
,
, .
, ,

, (
). (
) 3 ; ,


. .
( ),
( ).

"" . ,
, " ",
, ,
. , ,
, , .
, , , ,
,
- ,
"" - , , , . ,
"" ; , ,
"" , ""
" ".
,
( ),
(3
,
/ ,

. , -
. .
( ) ""
( ) ,
; , , ""
" " ,
, (" "), ,
.

154

, , ).
,
" ", , ..
, ""
. " " ,
,
,
, , ..
,
, - . , , ( -
).

[,
, ,
( ) ( ),
: ; () :
..],
( ). : , ( ) [Aivanhov 1988; Wrobel
1995; ME 1990]. - :
,
(., -),
, , -,
, , .
, ,
[., - "" > "" > "" >
> " , ";
: . . kietas ", ", . A kot- ",
"; . (.-. *ues-l*uer-), .-. *- "";
. vir ", " ( , ), . woes,us "" (, ,
); .-. Harva ", ", .-. *""; . totus "", . tundere "schlagen"; . all "", .-. *alejp"grind, pound, crush"]. . : . , . ; .-. *kes- ", ", . kisa ", "; , cina "", .-. *"" "", .-. *- "". ,
-
, , ..
()

. , , .
-
-
. .
I. - -
. , . -

155

( ), .. , (). [ , , ,
, (. ,
..), , , ].
, ,

, . ,
( ) - , , (..
),
,
.
() -
(, ),
( ) ,
, ()
().
. [,
, ( )
]: . .-. *<?/- "", *k-el-, *tn-el-,
*p-el-, *s-el- ""; , .: .-. *<?/- "", *p-ei- "":
""; "": ""; " ": "" < "".
- (-). ,
, "" ,
. ,
, ,
, .

- -
(): . . A. hi "-" [. -. hus-el "",
. -lo "", : . ! "dehors. au loin", . A ela "dehors". .
al- "tenir loin, ecarter"; .-. *- ": ", . A war "": .-. *al"": . . . "", . alas "the guardian bull" (
, ), . alwanzah "bewitch"]: . : .-. *("-" (. lepus ""), .-. *1- "" "": .-. *ag- "", .-. lieg "" < *dg- "", , sakt "" (
- ), . peihswo "", . Ding "" (
), -. easse ", ", .-. *as- ", ",
. asin " ( )", . -. lieg "", .
( ) . ---: -. tanih ", ",
. stair "": . s'an "" ( ,
), . san-titxt "".
. , .. ,
" "
(. , . ,
, ; . : -. diegan "", . ug
""; . "", .-. *- ""; .-. *- "", . A laute
" "; . look "", -. "": . ozvs "".
156

. ; . vohun "", . ""; . vagina, .


gaine "", .-. - "", .-. *- ""; . capillus, pilus
""; . littera, . tar ""). ""
,
, , ,
., .
III. .
(, , ) ,
(., ,
) [Zimmer 1964]4. ,
-, se-, ve-, /- (.
le), d- (. .-. "dhe- "hinschwinden", *dheu- "hinschwinden"), g- Cghe- "leer
sein, fehlen"). ,
-, , , , , , . , .
: 1) (
): ,
; 2) : , . , , -
( , ). - - (). , "
" ( ) .

: 1)
, ; ( ) ,
-5. .: . strong "" . rogus ", " . ? ", ", . ogi ", "; . ; , reng ""
( ); . ranted "" ( ) .; 2)
, ,
.
"" ,
( ) "" , .
(
, ) , :
, .

("; ; , " .).
: .-. *kuetuor- "" ( , , , , )
(", "); . siech, . sick "" . . -siech ", "; . A warto ", " ( ) -wards, -warts " 4

- , ,
- , , . .
' .
157

, "; . ill "" . ", "; .-. *"", . fur, . for "" (); Wasser "", was ""; .. waeter "", . what ""; .-. mah "", mah ", ", mi
"", mi ", "; . aqua "", . quis, quae, quo ", "; .
choui "", choui ", " [Fabre d'Olivet. 1962].
. : . . ysja "", . yss "" ( ), . is "" (< ";
"); .-. dysse "() ", . dis "-", .. dis ""; . da "bewundern", .-. ""; ""; ""; . 1 ", ", 1, lau "fort, ab"; . A su "her, herbei",
. A su "pleuvoir" ( ); . auis "", .-. *"herab, fort"; -. *ara- "that"; "far off", . aries "" (
").
IV. , .. , "",
.
, , .
, , :
. - ,
, . - ( ). .. , , -, , ( ).
, (resp. )
( ,
, ),
, (resp.
) 6.
(. .. )
. - :
, . , , . . , . ,
, .
: ,
, , - ,
.
-
, ,
(, , , , -, ,
-, .). -
, ,
: /
- ,
, ( , , 6

158

. "" . .. .

) ( ).
( ), ,
- ,
- , , , ,
,
- (, , , , .).
- ()
( )
,
/
, , ,
(). -
,
, , (
) . , ,
, .
, , - , .
, "" (),
"" (, ) "" () .
, , ()
"" . -
, .
, - , , , ,
, , . ,
( ),
( ) ().
, , ..
. , , ..
, (, );
(, .), , ,
.
(, ), ,
, , (). , ,
() ,
.
, ( , , ,
- ), ..
, , ""
.
" " - .

, ,
: . .-. *es-, . A Has ", , " - .-. *kes- "" - .-. *dhes- " " - .-. *ghes- "" ( . . Giesen "" - , ) - . les " , " (. .
159

- : - ) - . res ",
"; . : .-. *- "" (, : . "", .
, ", ", . "") - .-. *"" (.-. facg "" - ) .-. lac "": " " - .-. *sak- ""
"" ( ): .
, sakt "to begin" - . A tak "". .
, , ,
: . . Rieschen-Ruggen "", SchodelSchuggel "", RifenRiser
"" (. .-. waeser ""): Bard-Barg " ", "".
. " " : gras-: bhas-:
ghas-: vas- "verzehren"; nud-: ksud-: tud- "stossen"; da-: sa- "binden": chid-: bhid- "spalten":
gddatLvddati "spricht"; stu-: nu- "preisen"; hu-: ru- "rufen, schreien"; das-: hras- "kiirzer
werden"; as- "essen": das- "beissen"; pinu-: dhinii- "fett machen"': mrs-: sprs- "beriihren":
phdlati:ddlati "berstet"; har-: bhar- "tragen"; par-: tar- "ubersetzen"; kram-: gam-: dram
"gehen, laufen"; am-: sam- "sich miihen"; ra-: da- "geben"; mantra-: tdntra- "Zauberspruch";
van-; pan- "verkaufen"; dakini-: sakini- "Hexen", : ban: man: xan
"Dach, Terrasse des Hauses", "Haus"; bimar: timar "krank"; bih: kih: mill "gut"; "besser";
: cumulus: tumulus; celox: velox; pollex: (Ji)allex . ,

. , - , ,
,
. ,
,
;
, , .
.
:
. .

.
, (), (), (), . , . (
, , ,
, )
[. 1980: 1975:
1976; 1997; 1997; 1929; 1995; 1997: 1958;
Carozzi 1983; Clark 1979; Ellis 1943: Flemming 1974: Guerios 1956; Havers 1946: Leopold
1929; Meillet 1906; Paulhan 1953; Sims-Williams 1990; Zollitsch 1970; Vincenz 1956].
, - - - . .
, , , , ,
, . ,
, .
,
, :
. . , "" 160

""
.
-,
"" "" "" ,
. (
) , ,
"" "", "" . , " " ,
, ,
"" ( , ),
. , ""
"" , ..
. -
"" : "" "", "", ( ) , "" .

, -.
:
(.
), . , ,
, .
- , ()
, . ,
,
, , ,
, ()
.
, ""
. ,
.

( , ). , , ,
, ,
, , , , , , ,
(, ).
I.
()

1). . ga-Ieipan "", . .


2). . "", lacrima, dacrima.
3). .-. *ag- " ; ", .-. lac " ; ".
4). .-. *luig- "swearing", *ueg- "utter, swear".
5). . lammar ", ", . "".
6). .-. "ag- "", .-. langh "uberschreiten, iiberspringen".
7). .-. log "", . aqua ""; ..-. lieg "", "ag-, *eg- "".
6 , 4

161

8). . loquere "", .-. *ag-, "eg- "".


9). . laevus "", .-. "- ", , ", . . awan
" , " > ", ".
10). .-. *ah- ", ", . laborare, . .
11). .-. "lados "pleasure" (Mann, 657): . llawdd "delight", . lent "pleasure", . ande "pleasure".
12). . land "", . and "".
13). . apis "bee", . labous "injurious insect".
14). .-. ad ", ", . lodern "", . . .
" ".
15). .-. *ag-, "eg- ", " (. .-. *agher- "", *aghl- ""),
( /-) . lig ", " (. :
.-. "peig- "", .-. raga- "", .-. d'eag "").
16). . ogi ", ", . rog "" ( ).
17). . odi "", .-. lad "", . loathe "".
18). .-. "eg- ", ", . lack ", ".
19). .-. "leigo "evil, disease", .-. "ages "evil, sorrow".
20). . iodhan "pure", .-. ladian "reinigen. entschuldigen".
21). .-. "- ", ", . /, lau ", "; .-. "- "gern haben.
wofiir Lust haben", .-. *lau- "genie(3en"; .-. *- "sprechen", .-. *1- "
".
22). .-. lutka "", . vavata "" ( "aut-, '-).
23). . aevum ", ", . laveju (laveti) "develop,
unfold".
24). .-. *uet- "Zeit", . A laute "Zeit".
25). Tox. A sruk "", . , ug "".
26). "" .-. "ah- ", " (.
. ", ") . ,
d , daha "" (. ".
").
27). . . lingua-dingua "", . ignum "", lignum "" (
, ).
28). .
: .-. "hheudh- ", ", . 8
7
"" ; .-. *1- "", .-. ubbi "".
29). . . lesos "Geldmittel, Existenzmittel" < .-. *es- "" (. .-. *as"": . .-. oedel "", , eld "").
30). . .-. "derk- "" > "" . "" (, "":
.-. "- ", "); . .
dearg "".
31). . . adder ", ", ( ): . had "",
.-. made ", ", . . pad "", .-. "". .
. Leder "" ( ): . , ada "" ( - ,
); . adder ", " . leather "".
32). .-. *pret- "" (. . frapjan "", . prudts"pa.3yM").
. rapjo "" ( ,
, .-. ret- " ,
").
7

162

. . reve "", . rabies "".

33). .-. *reg- ", " (. , reng ""), , ikls "stockfinster", . aquilus "dunkel", . aklas "".
34). .-. *rei- "buntgestreift" (. . rainas "grau, buntgestreift", . raoban
"gestreift"), .-. *ei- "rotlich, bunt".
35). .-. "- "begreifen, verstandig sein", .-. *- "sinnlich wahmehmen, auffasen"
( ,
. avis "").
36). .-. *{o)nod- "schmahen; tadeln" (. . nadento "schmahende, lasternde", .
6v6acjacr6ai "tadeln"), .-. gandr "Zauberei", . gand "verhext, bezaubert".
37). .-. "perk- "aufreiben" [
: . .-. feoiii "Welt; Geist; Leben", .
preke "() "], .-. *erek-, erk- "aufreiben" (. .-. "areg"glanzend"; . ere "Himmel").
38). , mazgas "", .-. *ozgho "Knospe, Zweig", . . .
39). .-. *tner- "flechten, binden", .-. *uer- "flechten".
40). .-. "mozghos "junges Rind", . , . Ochs "".
41). .-. *molko "Ledersack, Ledertasche", .-. "orghi "Hode".
42). .-. *moguhila "" (. .-. mahila "", . mulier ""), . eg ""; . . ; . . Weib "", . wappu "".
43). .-. *mel- "verfehlen, triigen" (. . mairya- "betriigerisch", . mel "Siinde",
. mall "verderbt"), .-. *el- "verderbet" (. 6X\0p.L "verderben", . elern
"Ungliick").
44). .-. *egnis "" 8 . jega "" . eigen "" ( ), .
: . "", . . *mog- "", .
magan "", . "" (. .-. "").
45). .-. *auis "", .-. *meuos "" (. . mew "").
46). .-. "- ", ", .-. * "" (. .-. qnn "work,
business", . anuoti "do, perform").
47). . taurus "", . Auer "".
48). .-. *ei- ", ", .-. *mei- ", ".
49). .-. *- "leer", . A ami "leer".
50). .-. *ker- "Farbe", .-. "el- "Farbe"; . *kerebero "Farbe", .-. *ereb- "Farbe".
51). .-. *- "achten", .-. *- "achten, sinnlich wahrnehmen".
52). .-. *aueg- "vermehren, zunehmen", . daugs "; " (.
, daudz).
53). .-. "", . "".
54). .-. *- "sich abmuhen", . amla "sich abmiihen".
55). . alga "Lohn, Sold" (. .-. argha- "Wert", qrhati "ist wert"; .
elgt "aufdringlich bitten"), . A talke "".
56). .-. "lauros "basin, hollow", .-. *aulos "hollow" (Mann, s.v.).
57). .-. *- "like, favor" (Mann, s.v.), .-. *bhou- "joy, satisfaction", . .-.
"gauid "sich freuen".
58). .-. "-, *ou- "weave" > "construct", . bauen "".

59). .-. *bhoros (, barr "pine-needle", . , .-. borr, .-. beam),


8
. bhok- ", "; dheg- ", ", .-. lieg "", . sugyn "",
. sengen "".

6*

163

. aras "forest" (. *oruos "edge, side"); . , is "",


. ).
60). .-. *lug- "curse", "eugh- "curse, swear, vow" (Mann, s.v.). Cp. 4.
61). .-. *bhosos "", .-. "as- ", " ( "" ", , "): . . .
62). .-. *dabh- "harm, damage", . abbast "feindlich gegen jemand gesinnt sein".
63). .-. *dai-, *dei- "part, share", .-. "ai- "part, share".
64). .-. *dhreugo "harm, deceive", .-. "orghos "evil, wicked" (Mann, s.v.).
65). .-. *au- "sense" (. mas"Sinn, Vestand", . ), .-. " ghaumeio
"feel, sense, heed, notice" (. gaumjan "heed, notice", , gqumeju "observe").
66). .-. "mad- "na6, triefen", .-. "adu- "Wasserlauf' (. adu "Kanal, Bach").
67). .-. *loid- "direction, way, manner" (. . ga-leipan), .-. *oit- "way, passage".
68). liber ", , " : . . aber "frei von Schnee, leer", . A eprer "espace aerien".
. ebr "". ,
, (. .-. abal "strength"),
. - (. . liberi "", .
" " + . ""). . . liber ""; ", ". , , . liber .-.
*lei- "wollen" + . hairan ", " ( ) .-. 'lei- ",
" + .-. bereg " " (. . libamen ", "). , , //- liber
(. . 1 "-") + . hare ", " (,
, ).
69). .-. * eg- "" (. . ), . erek "", .
"", . riqis "" (. .-. *erk- "strahlen").
70). . manus "" (, " "), . ans "Stange".
71). .-. "las- "pleasant" (Mann, s.v.), .-. *isios "pleasure".
72). .-. kures "Geholz, Baum", , vera "". .-.
*ker- "" + .-. "res-lies-, . (
"ku-res).
73). .-. "kel- "betriigen", .-. "el- "betriigen".
74). .-. *kel- "treiben", .-. *el- "treiben".
75). .-. *kel- "verbergen", .-. *kel- "biegen, verbergen".
76). "ai-, "ei- "",
"" ( , ,
", "): . .-. heitr "", , kaitet ", ".
.-. *kei-to "" . sut ""; .-. lieg "", . liegen ""
. liigen ""; -. "ubba "", . cuhare "", . Ubel
""; . . dearg "": ", .-. 'derk- ", ", .
dergjem "" .-. droag- "".
77). .-. "guei- "", .-. - "": .-. "ai-,
*ei~, "- "".
78). .-. *kand- "gliihen", .-. "a(n)d- "Feuer: brennen".
79). .-. *kau-l "hohl", .-. "- "leer".
80). . , . ams "".
81). .-. *kam- "restrain", . amask "Anstoss nehmen. Unwillen fiihlen".
82). .-. "kei- "Farbe", .-. "ei- "Farbe".
83). . assus ", , ", . dassus ", ".
164

84). . , .-. eikinn "".


85). .-. *kago "Ziege", .-. *ag~, "aig- "Ziege".
86). .-. *- "", .-. *er- "auftrennen; auseinander gehen": . .-.
"auflosen, zerstoren", . ob-oriti "zerstoren", . - (
); . .-. *eres- "fliessen" (
: . . "") [Miller 1977; Schrijnen 1908; Schwartz 1947; Siebs
1904; Colinet 1979; Edgerton 1958; Hollander 1905; cp. Hansmann - Kriss-Rettenbeck 1977;
Wagner 1990; Kriss-Rettenbeck 1978].
.

- , -
. ,
. - , , , - , , , . ,
, , - . -
: -
, : .
- , ..
, , ,
, (, ), .
,
, ,
, - . , .
- . , : , , , , . - , , ,
, , , , .
.
. . . 9' "" -. 6|\(. "",
. tellus ", "; , , ( ): .
. telen "", - , : .
. teli "art", .-. *tel- "shape, form, figure" (Mann: 1376), .-. dala "Zweig";
.-. * dhalom "mark; end; matter; decision", . del "Arznei"; . .-. *dhel- "Wolbung",
"Hohlung" < "Biegung" (. .-.-. dola ", "); .-. *teul- "swing,
surge, verve, impetus"; *dhal- "bliihen, griinen". . . aqua "", . eg
"", .-. ankah "Biegung, Krummung"; .-. "agh- "trachtiges Tier", .
jega "Kraft", .-. ag "lutte" ( ) 9 ; .
uterus "", . water "", . uttar "word, reason"; . andera
"junges Weib", . .-.-. wadal "poor, empty", .-. waedl "poverty" (.
""), . otter "stack of cut peat" (, ""), . vetra
"" ( ); .-.
"kuetuor- "" ( , ): .
. wet ", ", - . A war ""
( , . . vor ", " < ""; .-. wip "",
. .-. eg- ", " ( ).
165

. A wip "etre humide, mouiller" 10 . ( ): . . 0r|XeLa


"", . ster "" . ster-ben ""; . mer-gele "" - . "" - .-. "- ""; . woes, us "", . aosa"".
, . . . ", ", . -,
-, .-. rinc ", "; .-. ear ",
", .-. *- ", ", .-. *- ", " (.
, arejs ""); . , -, , . swain "" (.
"coire") 11 ; . , . "".
, , " ",
: . .-. *enos "", . ynas ", "; .
-, , .-. snotr "klug"; . hrenda "", . breath ",
" (. . bird "": ). ,
, , : . . jashtem "",
. ; .-. *bhag- "", .-. bhagah "vulva"; . , ,
. "coire" (. [ 1973]).

, , , ,
( ).
, . u.-e.*vrk- "" .-. svargah ", " 12 ,
, . brech "", . . greek "the last and smallest of the
progeny"13.
- :
: . . lupus "", . 1 "" + .-. *- ", (.
puer, pubes); .-. *vrk- "", . wair ", " + .-. rinc ", " (. ""). . .-. wehslon "()" 14 .
(. .-. 'vrk- "", . folchaim "hide,
cover").
- , : . . wargan "Ubel", wargs
"bose", . vargas ", , ". ,
, , (. -
, - ,). . .
valgat ", ", .-. swelgan "".
10

. : .-. sarit "", .-. "sor- "". . . uterus "", . -.


" , .-. vdnam ". ":
. lauke "" . lauks "", .-. addha- "" . and" .".
12
" " ; ,
: ,
. . . wallahhi "praise".
13
.
(. . wallas "" < 'vrk-).
14
(. . wellcu "").
, , "-": . .-. *\- "", . vakars
""; ve- ,
.-. 'aregh- ", , ". . : . lupus "", .
; .-. "vrk- "", . warz "". ,
, (. , valgs "").
166

. warkussan "omen"; warkanza "fat" ( ,


, ,
). . . .
, : . . orcus " ", .. welisc "foreign", wealh, a foreigner" (. . . welsh "to abscond" -
, ) 1 5 . ""
: . . , , , , , .
, .
: .
alga " " (> "").
:
, , - , ,
: . . blaldd "", .-. bled
"Getreide, Spelt". , : . .. glida "Weih". , . A wra.v"haleine,
respiration" < *urask- (< *uark-) [ 1975].
- - -

" ", ,
, "" , .
, - " ", " ", , ,
" " ( ). - "-",
, , , ,
, . . west, . West "" 1 6
. waston "injure, sin": .
*suet- "foreign, apart, outside, by oneself"
(Mann: 1351). . waste ", , . Waste "".
, . east, . Ost "" *osth"". ,
, . ,
"", ", " (..
, , ): .
. -. '- "", .-. piTrvd- ", ". . lindje ""
. ladaha- "hiibsch, schon, lieblich", .-. lindi "Band, Gurtel",
lyndi "Gesinnung, Gemiit"; . *(/;)/?/ "hell, gliinzend"; .-. ge-lo5u
"Riickwirbel" ( ); , land "" ( , ,
). . : . airther "" (,
"", . . air- "" . iarthar "", . iar- "").
. airther "" .-. rta- "richtig, wahr", rtuh "Ordnung, Regel";
ret- "sperma"; . A ritk- "naltre"; . rietas "Dickbein, Oberschenkel"; . ^
" ". . A tak ", "
< .-. *dheg- ", ", *tek-, *tok- "", . -- .-. *pad- "". , - " ", " "; , , ,
, , - - , .
"-",
"-".
15
16

. . walhi "a sacrificial drink". . iipn.fciel "", . wal "".


. .-. "oust- "; : ".
167

.
, .
. , ,
, , , ,
, . - ,
, ,
- , , , ,
. - .
,
. "-" , ,
. ,
: "" .
, .
, ,
" ",
. ,
(-) ,
(-). . south.
. Slid "" . sut "", - . ug "". . .
- " , ", . /'<7"". . yaozaiti "in Aufregung geraten.
sich aufregen, in Unruhe, Verwirring geraten" ( ). , ""
.-. *not- "backside", . Not "", . noed ",
", ( -) .-. *od- "".
. . , ( se-) .-. '- ", "
(< "- ", "); . A wir ", "; .-. swir ", "
( , , ): , veris "" ( ,
: . . A warto "", .
-wards, . -wart " "). N-ord. n-orth
"" .-. 'ordh- ", " [Goldammer 1962].
: . . wintrus
"" ( ""), . venter ", " (
): . Merits "". . . ",
"; . . "" ( . . iarna "",
" ").
-

savya "" ,
.-. *seue-nos "sub-god, sun" (. . siunis. siwannis "god. sun-god").
, , .-.
*.VHH- "rain" (Mann, s.v.): . . A swase "rain".
"ablui, lustrari": . .-. savana "ablution purificatoire", ahhi-su "aspergere".
, , ,
, .
(purificanda abluende).
laevus "", , .-. "lei-. *lau- ".
"(. . lavare ""), . - "abschneiden. trennen. loslosen".
vama "" ,
.-. umah "helfend. schlitzend". "Glanz". tie, clitli, "" . xep8os "profit", .-. cred "skill, craft",
. kers "enjoyment, possession", . kerdan "() ", "k'ered
168

"horned animal, cow, bull, hart" (, ) 1 7 . ,


"" . clean
"", . A krant "bon". . linim "etre,
devenir". . A klin- "devoir". .-. "kerdhos "herd, crowd", .
. clean "the placenta of a cow" ( :
. .' "", . "" +.-. Hsto "
"; , , : . . ", " + , .-. eisa "Feuer", . aestus
"Hitze", , " ". tuaith ""
.-. "tuat- "beat, dash, crash" > "wash".
, . 8io? "", .-. daksha ", ",
. deszine " ", .
: . .-. dhakkayati "richtet zugrunde, vernichtet", dakini "em weiblicher
Kobold", . dykas "milpig, untatig, leer", . .-. takma"a certain disease".
.-. swibre "" .-. wite "Strafe, Pein, Elend, Leid".
. idalus "bad".
pravus ", , ; , ".
hb'ger "" .-. *- ", ,
", . cunctar "", . "torture", . ; -. , recht, . right "" .. raksas- "injury"; "demon". [Needham 1973].

,
, 18 . (.
.-. "", . caelum "", . : . scala " ,
"; .-. kalyah "", kalah ", ", .
seal ""), (
, )19, -
, , : . .. anika "", , " ". , - , , (. .
"", . ""; . erek ""), ,
(. drums ""),
(. .-. - ", "; *- ""). (. .
"", . "", . "") 20 . 17

: .-. "klitdio "clean, wash", "purify"; .-. *klud- "cover" (); ..-. hard "shoulderblade", .-, herde "shoulder", .-. herda "shoulders" ( -
,
). . .-. hrob "Trost, Freude, Wohltat"; .-. hlyd "laut, tonend: Stimme";
. lilutrs "hell", . . "" ( ); .-. scrud "" (
); . krod "matrix", .-. "Schar" ( );
.-. *kleudo "happen, chance, befall" ( ); .-.
krodhah "anger"; . , ( ). , . .
hirta "chastise"; . xraode(mi) "fear, tremble".
18
. . "", .-. aramali "Gottheit des rechten Sinnes", . ( s-mobile) gurm
""; . saiwa'na "", . sdnvece "forme d'existence".
19
. . ludja "", . . "", . wlits "", . vilt "";
. vaigs "", "", .-. waegan "".
20
. : . twarz "", . ; . fades "", . facere ", ".
169

(. . aruwa "bow before, worship": ,


: . . agad "", . agajyn
""). - : (
), ( ) ( ,
). (), ().
, , ,
(): . .-. ling ", ", .-. lieg "", log "" 21 . . :
. fades "", . A tak ", ", . tacere ",
"; . veidas "", . schwinden "" (
: . . e'iSoc "appearance")22.
- (. . "", . an- ",
").
- , ,
, , - (. .-. ciOra- "", . cestrum "", .
. caetra "skin-shield"). , (. fades "", .-. deag "").
, , - , " "" 2 3 ,
, ,
( , .),
; . . futurum "", . fytyre "", .
.. , .-. heill, . coel "": . twarz "",
-. tuar "";. fades "", .-. tacen ""; . " - . dem ""; .-. ciQra- "", . A sotrie
"".
- , . . . ", >
", . gerbin "" ( ): . *krah "", . . . . . mug ", ", . "() ". . . maiva "", . '- "" (
- ).
"", " (): . .
andwairpi""; . dem "" (. . A tarn ""). -
: . .-. anik "", . enoch "", . enigma "": .
eangach "obstacle"; . fades "", .-. deagol ""; . ",
", . ", ". . , . veidas
"", . schwinden; . "", .-. *er-/*el- "mangeln".
: - : .
. veidas "face", .-. vadha- "death"4; *aug- "to see" - . ug "death"; *uel- "to
see" - . A wal "to die".

21
Cp, , . "", . liallus, , kalns ", ": . A malan "HOC", .
! ""; - "", . aqua "" (. . eikja "Ruderboot"); . mouth "", . moat "":
.-. "", .-. karnaka "seitliche Hervorragen": . , . A lot "": . cheek
"", .-. cecin " ": . "", . "":
. , .-. ", ", . . " "; . ,
. zaihas "".
22
. : . "", .-. "kelo "" .-. kuel- ", ".
23
" ": . . "", . langa "";
. lungs (. . liigen "").

170

, :
() , ,
. * ekuo-s "". .-.
*agpeg- "" . aqua "" ( ).
"" (. "") "" (. "", ). "ekuo-s

"", : . .-.. page
"", . . Pagge "", , . kaukas ",
", .-. "- "", . huek ", , "; . ", , ",
.-. * ekuo-s "". :
.-. facen ", ", .-. faege " ; ",
.-. faha "", . Rache "", .-.-. lahhan ", ",
. plger "", .-. *- "" (. .-. wicg ""), .-. "bhok"brennen", "dhegh- "brennen". ,
", " ", " ,
, ", ". .-. *ei-k
", " ( ), .-. "peik ""
* "" ( . ""). .:
. juba "", . jubar ", , ", . juodas "",
, juods "boser Geist, Waldteufel". . . akkusa ", ". "" , "": .-. *ekuos "" > *{)- "" (. . ).
. . Pagge "", .-.-. page "", .-. baka "
". , . Hund "" . ; .
. "", .-.-. schele ""; . paras "", .
"" 24 .
, , : . .-. wicg "", . wing
""; . skirsti "", . horse ""; . paras "",
. .

:
. .
, .
, , , "".
, ,
"" , "" < "". . : .-. *dheg- ";
" - . pahan "" - . A tak ", ", . thing
"" ( ), . ( ) - .-. diegan
"" ( ); . : .-. *sueg- "" - .-.
24
. . k'ona ", ": , , , -
. . . sclwn "", ", ".

171

swigian "" - .-. "- ", " (. ) - . ""


( ); .-. "el-- "; " - . silere "" (.
: .-. *el- "")25 - .-. "er-- ", " (. . vara "") -. A wal ""; -. - "silent" (.
. . man "a conical pillar of stone erected on a top of a mountain" - cp.
, ) - .-. "- ", "
- . manes " ", . .-. *- "" ( ): .
minti. "" ""
" ":
, ,
(), : . :
. silere "", . sirais "", . Saule ", ", . sallis
", " (), . . . Seele "", . silva "" (,
, ). . : . tacere. .
pahan "", . stake ", " (. . peihsvo "", . peihs
" "); -. - "silent", . (idvoc ", "; .
(*nilek- > *-): . ""; .-. swigian "", .-. wah
"trabs"; .-. "kelo ", ", . (. .-. *kai-lo ",
", .-. *kei- ", "), . . ^'
"slacken, let
down".
, "" ,
" (), "" [.. " ", " ": . , kluset "",
. (. -/-: . hausjan ", ", . kisa
", ", . horen "", . . horen ",
", . . auflwren ", . . gehoren "": - )].
. : -. cujeti "", . (.. *- ",
"); . fyahan, . tacere "", . denken "" (. .-.
*{s)teg "Stange, Pfahl"); .-. swigian "", .-. "suek- ",
"; . :* teus- "", deu- "verehren".
< *{)1- . lag "; ", . legnac "to breed", . ^|) "coire", .-. lieg
26
"", . .-. "molkos "fuel; fire" ; . tyleti "" .
telen "" -. tal "": ii.-e.*(.?)f/zd"", , , , " ( ).
, "" : . .-. "el- ", .. *mel- "" (. ), .-. * sel- "" (. silere),
. tyleti "", .-. *kelo "".

: . , tacere "", . dangus "" (. .-. deag ""); .-. swigian "", .-. swegle ", ": . . vacca "25

. . A sul "", . solus "" ( ).


, .-. "mlek- "" (
); . .-. ksiro- "", . silere ",
"; .-. swigian "", .-. ( )sueidh- "".
, "" , "" (
): . . silere "", . silurus "COM". : .. ()1- "" - .-. {)1- "" - . 1 "".
26

172

" (, ), .-.-. wahan ", ", .-.


*- "" (); . silere "", . sol "" [Mensching
1926; 1963; 19931.

. , ( , , ): . . sid "", (
s-) .-. ides "", . , : .-. dis
"" (. , duzah ""). . : . draxt "", .-. drosin "". .-. qabala- " .
" . kohieta "",
.. ides ""; .-. sarameyd- " , " .-. *sor- "" (
. , meite "").
: . . , . rah "glitter": .-..
raios "splendor"; "blossem, thrive"; .-. "lai- "reichlich, iippig, frohlich" (.
/7: "ai- "brennen, leuchten").27 . . draxt "",
. trekte "grand" . A tarQom "tromperie,
imposture".
. : . annw(f)n " ", an- - +
, . dubba "". ,
"": . . hell "", . A kuli "";
. "]5 " ", .-. "gen- <*(s)ken(d) "", . .-. *kad"". .-. "-, "aues ". , , "
> " ", . woes, us "" (. . " ").
"
, ": . . in-fernus "
" < *in-kerdna (. kerdan "") .-. skord "".
, neorxna-wang " ",
"". ,
: .-. "- ", " (. -\ .. *- "") + , . eg "" (,
), + , .-. san "". , ,
.-. wang "" (
" "),
" , () () ". ,
(
-) , . ark "coire" . "" ("
") + . eg " - - ").
.-.
", " (
: . .-. deag "", .-. dieggan ""),
- . , "".


. "" <", ": . .
. rysja ", ", .-. hold-rosa " ",
. . r&g " ( ), . rroj "".
173

, rus ", ", . rus "" (


). . Zeiprjv "", . sirene ""
. sheer, . scliier ", " < *- ", ".

, ( : "" >"" >""). . .. rusant ", , ". -al
.-. */- ", " > .-. "al-l"ol- "" ("" >
"").
, ,
: . .-. " ( ), ".
.: . - .-. gala "" ( ) - .-. galinn "verzaubert,
behext" - .-. *gal- "" (> "") < .-. "ghel- "". ,
, ,
. . ross "": - 2** ( . . sirene "", . creipd "", . tverti "to seize
hold of"). , , , ,
, : . . . Riese "".
, ( ): . .
ruseti "", . . , ()
( ) ( ",
") 29 . . A rse "" + .. *\- "", , rysa " "; . . rusl " ";
. . ryseleg ", ", .-. rysel "" (
,
).
"": . . . Riser, Rusel
", "; . . sirene "", .-. sura- "".


, : , , , ,
. . . heart, . Herz "", .-. herpan
" , " 30 .-. *ker- "" (. cerebrum "").
-
(.. , .-. "kel- "", . . "",
, .-. *ker- ", ": . ).
,
, , [.
(. .. hro6 "")]. - , (. .-. *ker- "binden", . sari-k "Band, Schnur"), -
(. . "").
- , (. .-. hrodr "Sonne, Himmel"),
- (. .-. - ", ", . moon "").
(. . 8) "")
, 31 , (. ,
2il
29
30
31

174

. " ".
. , udens "", . yda "Hauptmangel": . aqua "", .-. (?.?- "Mangel".
. . crod "".
. . ceird "", . .

)32, , , : . cerddaf'v/andle".
- . : . .-. haruc
"", .-. hearh "".
, , - : . .-.
"make work; magic"; . keretis "completion";
(. .-. kartd
"") (. . skerdej'u "waste, squander").
- (. . karulis "ancient"; . kerdan ", "); - ,
(. . ceirt " ", .-. ceart "").
,
. : . . heart, . Herz "", .
hart "".
- (. . credere "", . ^; . scherzen "").
(. . hardj'e "lizard").
, - : . . cor "", .-. *"deaf'; "blind" (Mann, s.v.), , skurbs "drunk"34.

, ,
, ,
- ,
. , , , , , , , , , : ""
, "" . . Madly ""
: -: . -. "odhir "out of
sight", oddhara "cave, hiding place". . . blau sein "
". voir c/ue du bleu
" ".
" ", (

), , "" ( ): . , zqg "",
. ' "". , ,
.-. skegg "", "", , skagg "", .-. shag ", .
shaggy ", ". , ""
, "" ( -
: . .-. bel ", ", . spalva ""; .-. *kres" ", . ; . gaona- "", ""; . juha
", ", , jubai-'', , "; .-. grona "", .
green "").
32

. .-. *ker- "; "; . hearth; . Herd ", ".


. : . skriauda "wrong; offence, harm".
34
. - : ..-.. harti, .-. herde "shoulder". .
33

175

(. .-. kaharah "bunt", .-. *kaheiro ""),


(. ./ufrg "", . fairhvus ""), (. .
spalva "", . A pal ""), (. , sarkanas
"", . sarkus ""), [. .-. hwit "", .-.
*kuetuor- "": .-. .-. *- ",
, " < .-. *- ""; ,
- (
, ), (
) ( , , , );
"kuetuor- - ; . : .-.
*sem- "", .-. sama ""], (. .-. " ", ",
.-. giiei ""). , . .: .-. hiew "", .-. hiewan
" "; . gwen "", . "coire": . swarts. .
sort "", .-. serdan "coire"; , zag . ' "", .-.
higan, . . heijen "coire". .-.-. varwe "", , varle "testicle".
, , "" (. , .-. *sem- "",
"", - .-. *egnis "", . eg "", "ei-k
"").
(. . dub "" .-. dimhah "") (. . dearg "",
.-. *sterg- ", "). ,
(. .-.-. varwe "", . A wir ", ).
, (. . ater "", . atal
"", .-.-. varwe ", . vir "", . wair "", .
reng "", .-. riric ""), "" ( ): . .
swarts "", . A wario ""; . fitscus "", . bush "":
. coch "", .-. skogr "", -
(. . green "", , gren "").

, ()
.

(), , :
.: . "", .-. *kel- ""; . circulus "", .-. *""; . rund "", .-. "rud- "".

,
.

. .. , "
, ,
. ...
- , - , ...
,
. - - , ...
176

,
, -, " [ 1989: 62-63].
( ) , .-. *sor- "" + .-. rinc ", ", . Recke ""
(= ), .-. rekkr ""; . .-. surd- ", " (
), .-. sarjana "Schopfung, Erschaffung"; . A surm
"" 35 . , .: .-. '36 "Aufsteigen" (
), . rogus "" ( ); .-. ruh "Keim, SprofJ".
. . dyzet "", .-. dis "" + .-. eoten, ent
"-". , - " ": , ,
( ), -
( ).
, , . sar
"" + . ranka, . . . dyzet ""
. biz "", .-. *dous- "":

, , - ( ) (
) 3 7 , . , ,
. krah "".
, ,
: . .-. "- "",
""; *lei(t)- "biegen, flechten", "sterben"; . "",
*ker- ""; . leben "", *leb-, "1- ""; * guei- "" - *geu"""; . tarup "twist, twine", . sterben "".
,
, , , , , .
( 20 - )
, : . .-. diegan "",
. . Stieg ""; . sruk "", . ; . A wd'l
"", . veil, vol "". . : .-. tuc-,
tok- "", . TLKTEIV "", ""; . sarkus "strong"; .
valere "etre fort". , . .. , (, ) "" " ", " ", "
" [ 1975; 1993]. ""
, ,
.
"/"
"" (, "): . .-. "- "" (.-. "merjo ""),
.-. "- " : ", . . arm . Arm "", . ""
( ); .-. dhuk- "", .-. diegan "", . . Stieg
""; . (. ranka), . A sruk "" (. . );
35

. . surb "".
. .-. sar "" + roha "" ( ). , ,
. sacer ", ".
37
. .-. *ker- (.-. sar) "" + .-. *ik- "" (, "-") .
36

177

. A ale "paume de la main", . wdl ""; .-. leer "" (.-. ).


. ""; .-. as "", . aosa "" (. .-. """).

.., .. 1980 - // . 1980. 3.
.. 1975 - // . .
1975, 2 .
.. 1989.- . .. 1989.
1976 - () //
. ., 1976.
.. 1998 - . .. 1998.
.. 1997 - . .. 1997.
.. 1997 - . ., 1997.
.. 1975 - , //
. 1975. 5 .
.. 1929 - 1930 - . .. 1929-1930.
.. 1995 - . :
. ., 1995.
A.M. 1997 - . .. 1997.
.. 1958 - // . 3. ..
1958.
' .. 1964 - II .
- . . 1964.
.. 1973 - "/" //
- . .. 1973.
.. 1975 - // . 1975. 5.
.. 1993 - ( )
//. 1993. 5 .
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SchrijnenJ. 1908 - Praformanten//KZ. 42. 1908.


Schwartz B. 1947 - The root and its modification in Primitive Indo-European. Baltimore, 1947.
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179

1998

1998 .

..

,
, -
, ;
, ,

- "Etymological dictionary of the Kartvelian languages" (Berlin,
).
.. (,
), 1

, .
, 1971 . .
.. ,
,
, , ,
.


, "" [ 1988: 9. 197]. , , , , ,
"- . " [ 1997: 6], .-. .. 2
[. 1984; 1986; 1988];
, , . () "-
" ""
"- ",
[ 1997: 619-723].
92 .
,
1

, 60- .. "
" ( 36 ); 1971 .
.
2
,
96-04-16028.
180

, - , ,
;
(). 150 .
, , : ( )
, .

, . - -- , -, (
) , -,
.
- ,
. , , ,
"" - ,
"" , . [Rasonyi 1953: 328; Rasonyi 1964: 231].
.
- , .. [ 1974].
.. , ,
- - . ,
.. , "
, ,
. " [ 1967: 82-83].

. ,
, - ,
, .
I. . .
1)
.
. , ,
" ", :
) , , (farjn '', '',
'', a:j '', julduz '', ajaz ~ ajas ' ( )', '
', qayar ~ qar '', '', ''); ) ,
(temir ~ temiir '', altyn ~ altun '', kiimus '', tas
''); ) ( : arslan
'', bars '', qaban '', & ''; : buyra '', buqa ~ buya (~hoya) '-', taj '', qulun '',
tekq '', it ~ yt ''; : qus '', toyryl ~ toyrul '', 1: '',
turumtaj '', qaduyac ''; : ba.lyy~ ba.iyq '').
,
:
, , "" ,

181

- ,
, (. [ 1997:
702-723]).
, , ,
-
,
.
, -,
(. ,
). , ,
, , "" (
,
" " [ 1996: 135])3, , ,
(
, ),
. -, ()
, , .
,
(, ), ;
- .
2) -
, . ( ) , . " ,
, ,
" [ 1984: 519 . 75].
"" adyjoq (< ady d'oq ' ')
[ 1947: 207].
[ 1990: 123] . . " - " (1: 598).
4
"" - bdri, qurt '' , buya '', bars '' . - , " , - " [ 1967: 82], . , ,
- [ 1990: 136]. - .
, -, , , , , ,
3
""
.
, [ 1996: 131].
: ) ('', '',
''), ) ['', ', ()', '', ''.
'', ''], ) [' ()'], ) ,
('', '', '').
, . '', '', '', '', '', ' '.
4
' - ' [Tryjarski 1995: 55-69].

182

biirkit (< ''), lasin (< ''), arystan (< '') [ 1970:
200].
, , , ; .
huyra (< '-'), buqa ~ (< '-'), taj, qulun
[' ( )'], \qaban (< ''),
(< '')].
, ( - tdt)ri), , , -
" ", (kiin), (aj), (julduz) [ 1967: 78;
1990].
: -
, - , , [ 1990: 58]. ,
- bulut '', qar ~ qayar '',
jaymur '', boran '' - - . , , .
, .. , , aj ''
" ", .,
, tatjan-aj ( 1986: 313, 314). bulut ''
,
; qar jaymur -
..; ., ""
[Rasonyi 1953: 328]. tuman [ "
" (" ") ..
]. XX . .. ,
, , , ,
[ 1911: 269]. , ,
tuman, --
" " [ 1958: 58], .
'', '', '' [
. 1968: 81]. ,
, , , ,
. [ 1986: 305-306, 359 .].
-
, ,
-
. - , ,
. . , ;
: ata '', baba '', ' ( )', '', ' '
/ '', ' ()', '', ' ', oyul
'', qyz '', '', ~ ' ( )', jegan '', '' ( ).
3)
.
, - , , , 183

() .
, ,
(XIII .), .. [Houtsma 1894: 29, 31-32]. : aq taj '
' - qara taj ' ' - qonqur taj ' '; aqus
(< aq qus) ' ' - qara qus ' ' - ala qus ' ' - boz qus
' '; aq sunqar ' ' - qara sunqar ' '.
, " ", . [Houtsma
1894: 32-34]. , aq hoy '
' - qur buya ' ' .. , , ) , , , "": altunhoya
'-' - giinius boya '-' - timilr boya '-'; )
, : arslan boya '-' - taj boya '-'; )
: tir)giz boya '-' - il boya '-' [Houtsma 1894: 32, 33, 34], . el qus ', ' [ 1969:
169]. , ( ) . . taj timiir '-' - taj boya '' - taj bars '-'; er tasi '-' - er qus '-' - er toyrul
'-'.
.. , , ,
.

. ., , : qara taj [ 1989: 77] '
' - aq buya ' ', bars buya '-', buya arslan (> buyruslan)
'-' [ 1981: 29. 43, 50]. : . . kara kus ' '
. aq qo$ ' '.
.

. .
1) . - , ,
, . , , - (65 )
.
( 14)
( : aq '', qara '', sary ~ saryy ''.
'').
: (
, ), (: qara
' ' - ). , , .
, , , . .: aq '', '', ''; qara '', '', saryy '',
' ',
( '').

, : '2', alty '6', otuz '30', altmyS '60', jetmis '70'.


; : tur- '', '', toqta- '', tol- '
( )'.
2) .

.
) .
, , .
{-: tamyacy
' ' [ 1969: 530], samancy ',
' [ : 505] - {-clikl-cuq: jeganclik '' [ 1969: 253], ogaciik oga 1. , , 2. [ 1969: 379,
589], tekas '' [ 1969: 550]). , , . 1- .
-[1]5; .-. ogriinc taxjrim '--' [ 1969: 381].
"" () -""
3- . (. 1).
) , . ,
, [, uluy '', '', '', <7'';2'', '' ( ); iscdn ''].
, , (, meqlig
' ', toy/(^' , ', '').
) (alty
'', otuz '30'), - (altmyS '60',
jetmis '70'), .-. ikici ''.
) - , -/, -In [tola, tqlun ' ( )'], -mis (

3- . ).
.
-
, , ( - 3- . ),
5

,

1- .
. , XV-XVI . ""
, ,
1- . : aj bik-im " -', / bik-im ' (: ) ', xanzada bik-im " -', xanzada - ' -'),
,
(sultan-ym bik-im '- -', mah-im bik-im '- -') [ : 484, 495.
504. 507]. [ : 497. 500, 511] 1- .
: mir-im tarqan ' ', sah-im nasyr hek '- '. Sajx-im bek " '. .: [ 1970].

185

[ 2- . (.
) 3- . -sU{n)],
- .: [Rasonyi 1962]. : kiin toydy (< ' ',
.. ), beg turmys ( " "), qutad ' !', hotasun [ 115, ].
, . , , , [ 1996: 74]. - ,
, .
III. -
. ,

, " "
(.: [Houtsma 1894: 32-34; 1913: 33]),
, "", .
. [ 1996]. , " ",
[
1974: 85].
,
.
, -,
, - - , "
" : - ,
, ,
,
, .
" + ", .
1. " + ":
( ). , (
,
). (),
( ).
, .

, ,
. .: altun qayanlqanlxan '-/", beg
temiir '-', baj temiir '-'; arslan tegin '-', bars beg '', buyra xan '(-)-'. taj beg '-', beg
arslan '-', .-. idi quit '-', .-. baj huya "--()', .-. oyul bars '-', .-. er hori '(-)-'6.
, ,
6
:
.
: .-. - . .-. .
, . - , . . -
(), .-. -, .-. - . .-. .

: haba xan ' (~ )-\ tarqan


' -', oyul tarqan '-', jegan '-
{)\ . baj '- '. " ",
,
: bars buya '-(-)', .-.
bars tuyan '-', hilri bars '-'. .. ,
,
[Houtsma 1894: 33]; , -,
- [ 1913: 156, .
1977: 183].
" + " ;
,
, ,
, .
, .-. qorumcy oyul '-' '-'?
,
, .
1.
1. " + 3-
. -(s)I". , .
: .-. qut
tax)ri xatun-y '-- -', . . taqri qul-y [Ca 1935: 637] ' ', .-. jayan burqan qul-y '- ()-', .-. boq sad-u1 '-^-'.
,
:
3- .
. . ,

, . " "
(XI .) ,
[ 1982: 102 . 2].
2. " + ":
( )
.
: aq has ' ', aq buya
' ', aq qul ' (?) (> )', qara qan ' ' (.
[Gabain 1962: 114]), qara cur ' (: ) ', qara temir ' ', saryy saman ' ', .-. tas ' '.
.-. qutluq bek ' ', qutluy temiir ' ', esdn temiir ' ',
.-. mevjlig ser)iin '- '.
2. " + ": ( - )
. ,
.
qara '' (: '') ,
itttiy '', '' qutluy '',
.
7

Sad - - [
1969:5191.
187

, ( ) qara
, ,
, , ,
(. 26. , 4, 5). : baj qara '', qul qara ' (< [ 1967: 55]) - ", buy/a
qara xanlxaqan '-- /', es qara '', haS qara '-", .-. ogriinc qara '-", altun qara
'-'. /', ', qutluy ,
: . eran8 uluy '(-)-\ .-. alp qutluy '-'.
26. " + "
. : .y&r.javlaq sary ' '.
3. " + " (
) : .-. alty bars '-', alty huya
'-', . ,
( ) 6 X 12 , .. 72 (
), .. [Rasonyi
1961: 47-48]; .-. altmys qaja '-' ( 60 [, ] ?).
. " + " .-.
altmys qara ' - ' (-, ,
60 ), . ( 5) jetmis
qara acqy.
4. " + ", " + " (
), " + -mis
3- . ".
.. ,
- . durdy: "
, , , " [
1911:298].
, ,
, - turmys ( - '', ''), , toymys ( toy- '", '"). : beg turmys ' ', turmys ' ', .-. alp turmys ' ".

"" ( )
;
asyy bulmys ' ".
- .-. er toymys '(-) ( )", . aj toldy
' " -
.
aj toldy ( XI . " ")
: " + 8
. ercin [ 1962: 120]
. '(-)'. '".

3-
. ".
,

, ,
, . .,
, tursun baj, tursun bek,
tursun qul, tursun aly tursun aj, tursun biibii, tursun gtil, tursun qan
[ . 1980: 132].
4a. " + 3- .
-sU(n)" . : .-.
bersii ' ' ( ),
(.
tursun ). ,
"tursun + " "-": tursun muxammad sultan
: 506 ' '.
46. " -mis + ":
, . .-. qutadmys
bars ' -', .-. . ozmys tegin 'cnac-' - . . ,
742-755 . [ 1969:375], .-. jyqmys taz '-', .-.
turmys teniiir '-' (, , - ). -
, . ,
el: .-. el almys sar]un '-- ' .-. kiin hermiS sax)iin
'- '.
4. " -mis + qara": .-. qutadmys qara
' -'.
5.
.
"" , , ,
, ;
,
, .
, ,
. . : . aq has atyq
'--', . jas aq has '--', . anias tutuq
'-^- ', .-. buyra qara xanlxaqan '
(-)--/\ .-. erk arslan sai)un '-', .-. toi)a alp er ~ alp er tox)a '-- (-)' ~ ' (-)-', .-. toymys tarqan '- ( )'. ,
qara. : .. qylyc qara '--', .-. jetmis qara acqy '-9
aCqy' . qara ', ,
'
(. 2, 26. , 4)
.
' acqy - '', '', ''.
189

baj qara ,
qara 2- . , "" - ',
+ ' > ' ' [ 1973:42].
,
.

, . -,
(..
,
). -, -
(..
, , ).
, , , " " XVIII . [
1980].
, , . (. [ 1997])
,
,
.

, -
. , . , , .
, 87 .. [ 1911: 299].
, , , "" ( ) ,
, ,
.
,
,
.
, .
,
, ,
-
.

.. 1947 - - / . .., .. .. 1947.
.. 1970 - "-" // , , . ..
1970.
.. 1982 - - . ., 1982.
.. 1997 - //
. . III. M., 1997.
- // -. , 1958.
.. 1913 - // . . IV (. II). ., 1913.
.. 1967 - . .. 1967.
190

1 - . . . IV. .. 1955.
1969 - . ., 1969.
.. 1990 - . ., 1990.
. 1970 - - // ,
, . , 1970.
1977 - . ., 1977.
.. . 1980 - // :
. [. 14]. , 1980.
1989---. ., 1989.
.. 1958 - . -- . .; ., 1958.
1984- . . . I. M., 1984.
. . 1968 - ? , 1968.
.. 1911 - // . XX.
. II. 1911.
.. 1935 - . II. // . . VII . . .
. 1935. 7 .
.. 1973 - // . [. 2J.

,1973.

.. 1981 - . , 1981.
1984 - . . ., 1984.
1986 - - . . ., 1986.
1988 - - . . ., 1988.
1997-- . . ., 1997.
1988 - - .
. ., 1988.
.. 1980 - XVIII . //
: . [. 14]. , 1980.
1986 - . ., 1986.
.. 1974 //
. . 1. ., 1974.
.. 1996 - : . .,
1996.
.. 1911 -
// . XXX. . II. 1911.
.. 1974 - - // . 1974. 6.
A.M. 1962 - . .: ., 1962.
Gabain A.V. 1962 - Vom Sinn symbolischer Farbenbezeichnung // Hung. Budapest. T. XV. Fasc. 1-3. 1962.
Hoiitsma M.Th. 1894 - Ein turkisch-arabisches Glossar. Leiden, 1894.
Rdsonyi L. 1953 - Sur quelques categories de noms de personnes en turc // AL Hung. T. III. Fasc. 3-4. 1953.
Rdsonyi L. 1961 - Les noms de nombre dans 1'anthroponimie turque // Hung. T. XII. Fasc. 1-3. 1961.
Rdsonyi L. 1962-Les noms de personnes imperatifs chez les peuples turques//AO Hung. T. XV. Fasc. 1-3. 1962.
Rdsonyi L. 1964 - Der Frauenname bei den Tiirkvolkern // UAJb. Bd. XXXIV. Hf. 3-4. 1964.
Tryjarski E. 1995 - In confinibus Turcarum. Szkice Turkologiczne. Warszawa, 1995.

191

CONTENTS
Dedicated to the memory of G.A. Klimov: Y a . G . T e s t e l e c (Moscow). Georgij Andreevic
Klimov: an excerpt from Introduction to kartvelistics; G.A. 1 i m v. A fragment of the unfinished
monograph "A sketch of comparative grammar of the Kartvelian languages (from the section
"Phonetics"); M.E. Al e s e e v (Moscow). Problems of general and Caucasian linguistics in the
works of G.A. Klimov; M. A 1 i n e i (Florence). G.A. Kimov's role in the Linguistic Atlas of Europe;
T.V. G a m k r e l i d z e (Tbilisi). Proto-language reconstruction and prerequisites for comparativegenetic linguistics; Ya.G. T e s t e l e c , S . Y u . T o l d o v a (Moscow). Reflexive pronouns in the
Daghestan languages and typology of the reflexives; G.H. I b r a g h i m o v
(Makhachkala). The
category of aspect in the Daghestan languages; M.Sh. H a 1 i 1 v (Makhachkala). Chronological
stratification of Georgian lexical elements in the Daghestan languages; E.Yu. a 1 i n i n a (Moscow).
Delimitation of finite and non-finite verbal forms from a typological point of view; K.I. a z e n i n
(Moscow). Nominal modifiers in Tsakhur and locality constraints in syntax; D. B u y a n e r (Israel).
On the mediaeval Caucasian toponym Varsan and its preliminary localisation; V. Ci r i b a (The
Netherlands / Abkhazia). On the Abkhasian loans in the Megrel language; V.G. G a k . N.Z.
D n a d z e (Moscow), The names of the son-in-law according to materials of the Linguistic Atlas of
Europe; M.M. M a k o v s k i j
(Moscow). Metamorphoses of the word (taboo markers in IndoEuropean); G.F. 1 a g v a (Moscow). Types of early Turkic anthroponymes.

..

29.04.98
26.06.98 70 100 '/[
... 15.6 ..-. 23,1 . .-.. 18.8
.. 6,0
1460 .
. 3672

: 121019 , -19, . , 18/2. ,


201-74-42
"". 121099 . ., 6

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