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2003

313 73-1
537, 538
261

. . : . / . -. , 2003. 267.

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c

c


, 2003

, 2003


. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.
1.1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
~ . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.4. E.
1.5. . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.6.
. - . . . . . . . . . .
1.7. . . . . . . . . . . . .
~ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.8. E
1.9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.10. .

1.11. .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.12. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.13. .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.14. . . . . . . . . . .
1.15. . .
1.16.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

.
.
.
.
.

9
9
10
11
14
18

.
.
.
.

20
22
25
29

. 30
. 35
. 41
. 49
. 52
. 58
. 62

2.
67
2.1. .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67
3

2.2. . .
.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.3. . . . .
2.4.
2.5. = div P~ . . . . . . . . .
2.6. . . . . . . . . . .
2.7. = div P~ . . . . . . . . . .
2.8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.9. . . . . . . .
2.10. , . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.11. . . . . . . . . . .

3.
3.1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.2. .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.3. . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.5. . . . . . . . .
3.6. . . . . .
3.7.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.9. . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.10.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.11. . 3/2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.
4.1. . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.2. . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.3. - . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.4.
. . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.5. . . . . . . . . . . .

.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.

69
72
74
76
78
81
83
86
89
96

101
. 101
. 104
.
.
.
.

106
110
112
114

. 116
. 120
. 121
. 125
. 132
137
. 137
. 139
. 142
. 146
. 150


4.6. . . . . . . . . . . .
4.7.
.
. . . . . .
4.8.
( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.9. ,
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.10.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.11. . . .
5.
5.1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
~ . . . . . . . .
5.2. ~jm = c rotM
5.3. - . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.4.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.5.
5.6.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.8. . . . . . . . . . .

5
. 151

. 155
. 163
. 167
. 171
. 173
177
. 177
. 180
. 181
. 186
. 190
. 194
. 197
. 202

6.
207
6.1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 208
6.2.
. . . . . . . . 210
6.3. . . . . . . . . . . . . 213
6.4. . . . . . 214
6.5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 218
6.6. . . . . . . . . . . 225
6.7. . - . . . . . . . 229
6.8.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 232
6.9.
. - . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 239
6.10. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 245

6.11. .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.12. , . . . . . . . .
6.13. . . . . . . . . .
6.14. . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.15. .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

.
.
.
.

247
253
256
259

. 261
. 267


. , , .

,
. . . . ,
. . , .-. . . , . . , . . , . . .
, .

. , , , , .
, ,
. , , , , , , ,
. , .
, , . ,
.
, .
,
, .


.-. . . .
. . .
, . .
. .
.

1.1.

,
,
q1 q2 ~r12
F~12 = 2
,
r12 r12

(1.1)

F~12 , q2 q1 , ~r12 =
~r2 ~r1 , ~r1 , ~r2 - (. 1.1).

q2
q1
F12
r12
, , r1
,
r2
.
, O
, . 1.1
1 , 1 .
(1.1) , ,
, . .
, . , q1 ,

10

1.

.
q2 ,
~ 1 (~r2 ),
F~12 = q2 E

(1.2)

~ 1 (~r)
E
, , (1.1),
~ 1 (~r2 ) = q1 ~r12 .
E
2 r
r12
12
, q, ~r0 , ~ r) (. 1.2)
E(~
~ r) =
E(~

~r ~r0
q
.
|~r ~r0 |2 |~r ~r0 |

(1.3)


(1.2) :
r0
r
,
O
.
. 1.2
(. . )
. ,
, , .

1.2.

E(r)

(1.3). ,
,

11

1.3.
, . .
~ r) =
E(~

X
i

~ i (~r) =
E

X
i

qi
~r ~ri
,
2
|~r ~ri | |~r ~ri |

(1.4)

qi , ~ri - i- .
, ,
.

1.3.

(. .
) : q
.
, 1- .
, ,

~
F~ = q E,
` :
I
I
~ d~`.
A = q E` d` = q E
,
I
E` d` = 0,
(1.5)

, .
,
~
E

~ = grad .
E
(1.6)

- , ,

12

1.

(1.6) .
~ . , , E
( )
P P0 (. 1.3). P0
, P x, y, z. RP
~ d~`, `,
P 0 E
x, y, z :
l2

P0

P (x,y,z)

~ d~` = (x, y, z)
E

(1.7)

P0
l1

- P(x,y,z)
. , . 1.3
,
, .
: P ,
, P0 P . ,
q, P ,
U (P ) = q(P ), P0 .
~
(1.7) , E
l
, P
P0
. ~ r), dl(dx,dy,dz)
E(~
? P (x, y, z)
P(x,y,z)
P 0 (x + dx, y + dy, z + dz) (.
1.4)
. 1.4
d~`(dx, dy, dz),
~
dA = E(x,
y, z) d~` = E` d`.
,
Z P0
Z P0
~ d~`
~ d~` = (P ) (P 0 ) = d,
dA =
E
E
P

P0

13

1.3.

d` = grad` d~`. (
d =
`

.) dA,
E` = grad` .
` ,
~ = grad .
E

, , , = const
(. 1.5). , , ~
E
.
. C E
, 1()=300 .
1.1. .
j = const
.
(

. 1.5
)
q
Er = 2 .
r
, . . P0 . P
Z P0
~ d~`,
E
P

.
, P ,

Z
q
q
q
(P ) =
d = |
r = .
2

r
r
,
(r) =

q
r

(1.8)

14

1.

r ,
, ,
.
. , ~r0 ,
q
(~r) =
,
|~r ~r0 |

X qi
.
(1.80 )
(~r) =
|~r ~ri |
i
~ = E1~ex + E2~ey +
1.2. . E
E3~ez , E1 , E2 , E3 . (1.6),

(x, y, z) = (E1 x + E2 y + E3 z).
; .

~ = E0~ez ,
E
z, = E0 z.
(r, ) = E0 r cos ,

(1.9)

1.4.

~
E.

~
, E
dS ~n
~ . .
E,
~ ~n)dS = En dS.
dN = (E
S,

Z
N = En dS.

15

1.4.

(). ~ E
Q, ,
4Q, . .
I
(1.10)

En dS = 4Q.

.
1. ,
q, ~
O, E
dS,
- ~r ~n (. 1.6).

dN =

q
q
(~r ~n)dS = 2 cos(~rd
, ~n)dS.
r3
r

(a)

dS

. 1.6
cos(~rd
, ~n)dS dS ,
~r + , . .
cos(~rd
, ~n)dS = dS 0 ,

dS 0 E
. ,
dS
n
dS
, ~r, ~n
~ ~n), . 1.7, dW
( E,
r
, ~r, dS, dS 0 - O
. ,
dS 0 . 1.7
r
d, .
dS; ,
1
, ~n)dS.
(b)
d = 2 cos(~rd
r

16

1.

, O dS,
, d > 0 ( cos(~rd
, ~n) > 0),
d < 0. (b)
(a)
dN = qd,
~
. . q E
dS , , , , O,
q.
2. S. , S :
Z
Z
N = En dS = q d = q.
, S ,
: 4, 0.
S, = 4, = 0.
. 1.8, .

n1

S1
O

dS1

S2

Er

dS2

n2

. 1.8

. 1.9

17

1.4.

S . ,
S.
, , S dS1 , dS2
~n1 ~n2 . , dS1
d1 > 0, dS2 d2 < 0, |d2 | = d1 .
,
, . , S
= 0 ( ). = 4 .
~ , , E
S N = 4q S; N = 0
.

I
N=
En dS = 4q,
S

q , S. ,
.
3. ,

. ,
I
X
En dS = 4Q, Q =
qi ,

.
1.3. . ,
~ = (q/r3 )~r r 0
E
.
. , q, ,
, a, .
~ .
, E
,
S1 , S2 (. 1.9), ,

(q/a3 )r r < a,
Er (r) =
(1.11)
(q/r2 ) r a,

18

1.

. . , ,
(. 1.9, ). :
Z
q
q
d =
( ),
(r) =
2

r
r
Z a
Z
q
q
3q
q
(r) =
d
+
d =
3 r2 ( ).
3
2

2 a 2a
r a
a

, .

1.5.


(1.10) V , S,
I
Z
~
En dS = div EdV.
, ,
V , S, . ,
S, .

= lim

V 0

q
.
V

dV dV ,

Z
Q = dV

I
Z
Z
~
En dS = div EdV = 4 dV.


V , , ,

1.5.

19

. .
~ = 4.
div E

(1.12)

, .
Ey
Ez
Ex
+
+
= 4(x, y, z);
x
y
z

,
.
. ~ (1.12),
(1.6) E

= 4,

(1.13)

.
= divgrad , ,
(1.13) ,
, ,
= 0
;
2 2 2
+
+
= 0.
x2
y 2
z 2

(1.14)

, .
. , (1.8) (1.14). , .

20

1.6.

1.


.
-

1. (~r), , ,
, (1.80 ) :
(~r) =

(~r0 )dV 0
.
|~r ~r0 |

(1.15)

~r, ~r0 - dV 0 , (. 1.10).


dV
z r
(1.15) , ,

r
(1.13).
y
(,
), x
(~r)
. 1.10
.
2.
. , (1.15) , , , (1.80 ),
. , - .
- (~r) = (x, y, z) :
) ~r 6= 0 (~r) = 0;
) ~r = 0 (0) = ;
R
) (~r)dV = 1;
R
) f (~r)(~r ~r0 )dV = f (~r0 ),
f (~r) , ~r0 -
.

1.6.

21

q,
~r = ~r0 ,
(~r) = q(~r ~r0 ).

(1.16)

(1.15),
-
Z
q(~r0 ~r0 )dV 0
q
(~r) =
=
,
(1.17)
|~r ~r0 |
|~r ~r0 |
, , (1.15)
(1.80 ).
,
(1.16), (1.17) (1.13):


1
= 4(~r ~r0 ).
(1.18)

|~r ~r0 |
( ~r 6= ~r0
, .)
3. (1.15)
. , , (1.15), (1.13), . .
Z
(~r0 )dV 0
= 4(~r).

|~r ~r0 |
, -, ,
, ~r, ~r0 . -, (1.18) -. :


Z
Z
(~r0 )dV 0
1
0

= (~r )
dV 0 =
|~r ~r0 |
|~r ~r0 |
Z
= 4 (~r0 )(~r ~r0 )dV 0 = 4(~r).

22

1.7.

1.

1. .
, ,
(. 1.11).
~ , E
,
dx
dy
dz
=
=
,
Ex
Ey
Ez
~ d~`(dx, dy, dz)
d~` E,
. , (r, , ), , :

dl

. 1.11

r sin d
rd
dr
=
=
.
Er (r, , )
E (r, , )
E (r, , )

(1.19)

2. ,
. -,
, .
, ,
, ,
; . -, ,
. ,
~ = 0.
, , E

z
3 .
q = q0

, r
. , 1.11.
. 1.12
,
, , (1.25)

1.7.

23

r2
r2 3 cos2 1
P
(cos
)
=

,
2
0
a2
a2
2
r, , 0 , a . r/a r,

(r, ) = 0

Er =

= E0 r(3 cos2 1),


r

1
3
= E0 r sin 2,
r
2

0
E0 =
.
a

, = 0 = arccos(1/ 3) Er (r, 0 ) = 0,
, , (. . = 0, , /2) E = 0. .

E =

dr
2 rd
=
,
2
(3 cos 1)
3 sin 2

(1.19)
.
3 cos2 1 =

1 d
(sin2 cos )
sin d



r3 sin2 cos = C,
z = r cos ,
r0 = r sin ( r0 )
zr02 = C.
C = 0 ( z
r0 , , , . 1.12, .
, = 0 ; ,

24

1.

,
.
(1.24),

rm
(r, ) = 0 m sin m.
a
~ = grad
E
Er = E0 rm1 sin m,
E = E0 rm1 cos m,

(a)

, m = 2; 3; . . . ( ) , j = (/2m)(1 + j), j = 0; 1; . . . 2m 1
E = 0; , 2m
.
dr
rd
=
Er
E

1 d cos m
dr
=
,
r
m cos m

rm | cos m| = C
, . 1.13 ( m = 2) .
1.14 ( m = 3).

. 1.13

. 1.14

~
1.8. E

25

, m = 3 , m = 2, .
,
~ m = 3
E,
~
, E,
~ .
E

q O

-q O

. 1.15

. 1.16

4.
(. 1.15)
(. 1.16). ,
. , ,
, .
,
. 1.12.

1.8.

~
E

1. .
, ,
~ = 4
div E
~ =0
rotE

= 4

~ = grad
E

26

1.

(1.13)
(~r) =

(~r)0 dV 0
.
|~r ~r0 |

~ = 0 . ( rotE
~
E .) ,
,
,
, (1.13). , ,
. . -,
, ,
, (1.13). ,
, , , ,
. (
.)
2. . S, 1 2.
, S ,
q
,
S0 S

= lim

q , S.
; .
~ E
d`,
S (. 1.17).
S S 0 , .
( + d`)S 0 , .
~
, E

~
1.8. E

27


N=

En dS = 4S 0 ( + d`).

~n1 , ~n2 (. 1.17)


:
\
0
0
~ 1 ) + E2 cos(~n\
~
N = [E1 cos(~n1 , E
2 , E2 )]S + N .
~ 1, E
~ 2 E
~ , N 0
E
.
, n2
n
~n2 S
~n, 1
dl S

2, ~n1 2
~n. ,
1
n1
\
~ 1 ) = E1n , E2 cos(~n\
~
E1 cos(~n1 , E
2 , E2 ) = E2n ,
. 1.17
~ 1, E
~ 2 E1n , E2n E
~n. ,
N = (E2n E1n )S 0 + N 0 = 4S 0 ( + d`).
d` N 0 ,
d` d` 0 . , S 0
:
E2n E1n = 4.

(1.20)

,
; , ~ .
, E
, (1.20), ~n 1 2,
. 1.17.
3. .
~ , , S, ~n .

28

1.

~n, ~ ( . 1.18 ), S L,
`, p1 p01 , p2 p02 ,
L (. 1.19), l,
~
h. E

n
L

p2
2
L

. 1.18

1 p1

l
t
Dl

p2
dh
p1

. 1.19

:
=

E` d` = 0.

:
=

p01

p1

~ 1 d~` +
E

p2

p02

~ 2 d~` + 0 ,
E

0 p1 p2
~
p01 p02 . h 0; 0 0 - E,
Z

p01

p1

E1 l,

p2

p02

E2 l,

~ 1, E
~ 2 E1 , E2 E
~ ~ . , E


~ 1 = E
~ 2 .
E
(1.21)
( , ~ , .)
4. . , ,

29

1.9.

~ , E,


I
~ = 4,
div E
En dS = 4Q
E2n E1n = 4,

I
~ =0
~ = grad),
rotE
(E
E` d` = 0
~
~
E1 = E2 .
~ , E
, .

1.9.


, . , . , ,
. ,

_0
Ei =

. 1.20

~ i 0,
E

(1.12)
i =

1
~ i 0.
div E
4

, . ,
,
~ E
En .
,
~ = grad .
E
(1.20),
(1.21). ~n , ,

30

1.

~ 1 (1.20), (1.21) E
~i 0
E
~
(. 1.20), E2 , ,
~ = 0.
En = 4, E

(1.22)


. . . ,
(1.22)
, . . .
, -
~ i = 0.
E

1.10.

, ,
= div grad = 0.
2- (
(1.14))
, , 2- . ,
, ,
.
.

.

(r, , z) ,

1.10.

31

z. (. 1.21)
1

~er +
~e ,
r
r


1

1 2
div grad (r, ) =
r
+ 2
r r
r
r 2
grad (r, ) =





1 2
= 0.
r
+
r
r
r 2

, .
1. ,

y
ea
r
a

er

. 1.21

(1.23)

(r, ) = f (r)()

()

2. (a)
(1.23).


d2
d
df
1
()
()
r
+ f (r) 2 = 0.
dr
dr
r
d

3. ,
() ,
r, . ,
() r
f (r)().


df
1 d2
r d
r
+
=0
()
f (r) dr
dr
() d2
4. ,
r ,
, . .


r d
df
1 d2
=
r
= C.
() d2
f (r) dr
dr
f (r) ()
d2
C() = 0,
d2

()

32

1.


d
df
r
r
+ Cf (r) = 0.
()
dr
dr

5. , () 2,
() . () , , C .
C = m2 , m . () = cos(m + 0 ) 2/m, 0 .
, () C = m2
f (r) = rm , . . f (r) f (r) = Arm + Brm .
,
(r, ) = (Arm + Brm ) cos(m + 0 )

(1.24)

A, B, 0 m
.
, .
, , , ,
. , (r, ) .


B`
`
(r, ) = A` r + `+1 P` (cos ) (` = 0; 1; 2 . . .),
(1.25)
r
, 0
, P` `- .
:
P0 (cos ) = 1,
P1 (cos ) = cos ,
3 cos2 1
,
2
, P` (1) = 1. , , ` = 0, . = const
= B0 /r( (1.8)), . , ` = 1, A1 r cos
P2 (cos ) =

33

1.10.

(1.9), (B1 /r2 ) cos . , ` = 2;


P2 (cos ) .
. , , (x, y),
y,
(x, y) = (A exp(x) + B exp(x)) cos(y + 0 ),
A, B, , 0 .

,
.
1.4.
~ 0 = E0~ex ,
E
, a , z.
~
, E.
y
,
~ i 0,
E
E
r
a
.
a
x
. _0
E=
,
. 1.22
. : ,
, -, ,
-, ( ) ,
.
(r, ), (r, ) (. 1.22),

a, . . r > a, < < . ,
0

34

1.

(r, ) = 0.

~ E
~ =E
~ 0 . E.
E0~ex E0 x. ,
| = E0 r cos .

()

(1.22)

Er |r=a = 4(), E |r=a = 0.

(r, ), , r = a

|r=a = 4();
r

()

|r=a = 0 = const.

()

() , , 0 , . ,

(r, + 2n) = (r, ),
()
n .
E
-

++
+
++

. 1.23

,
() .
.
,
(r, ), .
, (1.24),
m = 1

0 = 0 :
(r, ) =

B
Ar +
r

cos .

1.11.

35

().
() A = E0 , () , Aa + (B/a) = 0; |r=a = 0, . . 0 = 0, B = E0 a2 .
,


a2
(r, ) = E0 r
cos ,
r
~
E


a2

= E0 1 + 2 cos ,
Er =
r
r


a2
1
E =
= E0 1 2 sin .
r
r
~
E , . 1.23.

E0
E0
1
Er |r=a =
2 cos =
cos ,
4
4
2
.
~
, . 1.23. , E,
~
, E0
.
~ 0 , ,
, E
.
() =

1.11.

1. ,
Z
I

( + grad grad)dV =
dS.
n

Z
I
div ~a dV =

an dS,

36

1.

~a = grad
,
div(grad ) = div grad + grad grad .
= :
Z
I

2
dS.
()
[ + (grad ) ]dV =
n
2. , ~ E
. ,
. .
, (
I), ( II).
, , , .
, ( V )
, Si (. . S1 , S2
. .), V , . 1.24 .
:
|Si = oi ( I),

|Si = const

(),

qi i-

(/n)dS = 4qi ,
Si

( II)

: ~n
Si ( V , . 1.24)
~

H , E Si Si En dS 4qi , . .
qi
. I II .
, 0
:
= 0 .

1.11.

37

V ,
Si .
= 0 = 0,

Z
XI
(grad )2 dV =
V

Si

dS.
n

()

I Si :
|Si = |Si 0 |Si = 0,

()

() ,
Z
(grad )2 dV = 0.
,
V grad = 0, . . =
= 0 = const. ()
V
;
.
II |Si =
n
= constconstH= const
Si
. Si (/n)dS = 0. ,
() .
. 1.24
, = 0 = const,
. . II . ,
| = 0, 0 .
, . , - , , ,
.

, .

38

1.

1.5. q, h
. ,
q .
x
. r
r
~ i 0
E
V
n
z
q
O
S q
, V
z > 0 (. 1.25). , z = 0
. 1.25
S
q.
1

= 0

|z=0 = 0,

En dS = 4q.

()

()

(1.22)
~
E,
. , , ~ .
E
()
,
S .
(), () . ,
, q z = 0, g 0 = g.
, q g 0 ,
q
q
= .
r r1
,
V ,

39

1.11.
C

q
O

r*

r*

r0

O x q

r
q

. 1.26

V . -, |z=0 = 0, r r1 .
-, , q 0 , S
, ( ),
q ().
, .
. , , (1.22)
/z|z=0 = 4(x, y),
(x, y) =

q
h
,
2 (h2 + x2 + y 2 )3/2

h q .
1.6. .

, .
S A A0 (. 1.26, ), , , ,
r , r0 , . .
r /r0 = k = Const.
()
OA, OA0 `, x,
() r2 = k 2 r02 ,
OA0 C, OAC,
[`2 + a2 k 2 (x2 + a2 )] 2a(` k 2 x) cos = 0,

()

40

1.

C. () cos , , cos . , x, k
:
x = `/k 2 ,
(k 2 1)(`2 a2 k 2 ) = 0.
: k 2 = 1, x = ` , A0 A .
k = `/a,

x = a2 /`.

, ,
a, ,
x` = a2 ,

r /r0 = `/a.

()

. A
q, .
P
(P ) =

q q0
+
r r0

()

q 0 = qa/`,
()

A0 (. . 1.26, ). ,
() ,
q
( r r0 r, r0 )
(),() .
~
() , E
, S, 4q 0 . , q 0 ,
().
q ,
Q ( ). q, q 0

41

1.12.

q 00 = Q q 0 = Q + q(a/`),
,
(P ) =

q q0
q 00
+ 0+ .
r r
r0


(P ) = |S =

q0
q 00
r
+ 0 +
r
r
a

()


|0 =

q 00
Q q
=
+ ,
a
a
`

()

() .
() .
, (Q/a) q, ` .
, , . .
.
,
.

1.12.

, , , , (1.15) ( , )
!
Z
X q
(~r0 )dV 0
,
(~r) =
.
(1.15)
(~r) =
|~r ~r0 |
~r ~r0

42

1.

. , , (1.15)
.
,
dV
z

r(x,y,z)
r(x,y,z)
a a
- -r
O
y
, . 1.27. |r-r|
x
- ~r0 - ~r
. 1.27
, (1.15),
r0 a, r  a,
. 1/|~r ~r0 | (1.15).
x x0 , y y 0 , z z 0 , x, y, z. ( . 1.27
.)

1
1
=
=
0
0
|~r ~r |
r(x x , y y 0 , z z 0 )
 
 

1
1
1
1 2
0
+
=
(xi ) +
x0i x0j + . . .
r(x, y, z) xi r
2 xi xj r

(1.26)

x0 , y 0 , z 0 x, y, z x0i ,
xi (i = 1, 2, 3).
() .
(1.26)
1
1
1 ~r0 ~r
1
0
=
+
(~
r
)

grad
=
+ 3
|~r ~r0 |
r
r
r
r

43

1.12.
(1.15)
(~r)

Q d~ ~r
+ 3 ,
r
r

Q=

d~ =

Z
Z

(~r )dV

Q=

d~ =

~r0 (~r0 )dV 0

q~r0

(1.27)

(Q , d~ );
.
,

Q
(0) =
r
. , ~ Q,
E
.
,
d~ ~r
,
(1.28)
r3
, . ,
. , d~

(1) =

(1) =

d cos
,
r2

(1.29)

d~ ~r. ,
(1.29) (1.25)
.
~
d.
(1.27) , . O O0

44

1.
0 ~
OO = b - ~r0
~ d~0 ~b +~r0 , , d,
P
0
0
d~ = q~r = Q~b + d~ . , Q = 0
. Q 6= 0
~
~b = d/Q,
d~0 = 0. ,
.
1.7. e, e.
0
0
d~ = e(~r+
~r
) = e~a, . . ,
(. 1.28).
z

-e
r-

r+

. 1.28

. 1.29

.
Q = 0,
~ . (1.28)
d,
!


2~
~
~ ~r
d
~ ~r)grad 1 + 1 grad(d~ ~r) = 3(d ~r)~r r d .
~ r) = grad
=

(
d
E(~
3
3
3
5
r
r
r
r
(1.30)
~n = ~r/r,
- ,
~
~
~ r) = 3(~n d)~n d .
(1.300 )
E(~
3
r
~ , E
~
d, , . 1.29.

1.12.

45

,
. Q = 0 ~ r).
d~ 6= 0, E(~
,
a `,
.
~r,
Z
Z
~
~
~
~ r)]dV
F = (~r)E(~r)dV,
N = [(~r)~r E(~
,
O (
), . .
~ r) = E(0) + (~r )E,
~
E(~

~ ( (~r )E
~
E ~r) O.
V
F~
~
~
~
~ = dx E + dy E + dz E
F~ = (d~ )E
x
y
z

(1.31)

~
( E(0)
- Q = 0 ). ~
E(0)

~
~ = [d~ E].
N

(1.32)

, (1.31), ,
~ ,
d.
. (1.32), , ,
~ (. 1.30).
E
, (1.31), (1.32) .
~ = grad , E

~ = 0,
rotE
(1.33)

46

1.

, ,
F~ = gradU,
U . .
,
E
d~ d
, .
grad(~a ~b) = (~a )~b + (~b )~a + [~a rot~b] + [~b rot~a]

N
. 1.30

(1.33) d~ = const
~ = (d )E
~
grad(d~ E)

, , (1.31)
~
F~ = grad(d~ E),

(1.34)

~
U = (d~ E),

. .

d~ = const.
.
~
, E,
(, ).
~
d~ = E,

= const.


~ = grad(E
~ E)
~ = 2(E
~ )E
~ = 2(d~ )E,
~
grad(d~ E)
~
~ = 1 grad(d~ E).
(d~ )E
2
(1.31)
. .

1
~
F~ = grad(d~ E);
2
,

1
~
U = (d~ E),
2

~
d~ = E.

(1.35)

47

1.12.

(2) (1.26) (1.15):


 
Z
1
2
1
0
0
(2)
0 0
=
xi xj (~r )dV
.
2
xi xj r

Qij =

x0i x0j (~r0 )dV 0


(2) =

1
2
Qij
2
xi xj

 
1
.
r

Qij = Qji . , , ,
Z
2
(1.36)
Dij = (3x0i x0j r0 ij )(~r0 )dV 0 ,

, . ( ij ; ij
). ,
( ) , . .
ij Dij = Dii = 0.

(1.37)

, 1/r(x, y, z)
 
 
 
1
1
2 1
2

=
=

= 0,
ij
r
x2i r
xi xj r
,
 
 
2
1
2
1
1
1
(2)
= Qij
= Dij
.
2
xi xj r
6
xi xj r
, 1/r, ,
 
1
3xi xj r2 ij
2
=
xi xj r
r5

48

1.

, ,
(2) =

1
3xi xj r2 ij
Dij
.
6
r5

(1.37),

(2) =

xi xj
1
Dij 5 .
2
r

(1.38)

, r (2) 1/r3 ,
1/r2 , 1/r.
, , , .
.
1.8. , . . ,
. 1.31.
z a z = 0. , Q = 0
d~ = 0. x, y, z Dij , z ,
(1.37) ,

z
D11 = D22 = D,

q
a
-2q
x

y
a

. 1.31

D33 = 2D,

. . Dij
D33 . , 2q D33
q

D33 = 2q(3a2 a2 ) = 4qa2 .

,


D
1
1 2
2
2
2
2
2
(2)
= 5 (D11 x + D22 y + D33 z ) = 5 (x + y ) + z
2r
r
2
(r, , )


D
1
D 3 cos2 1
D
2
(2)
2
= 3 cos sin = 3
= 3 P2 (cos ),
r
2
r
2
r

1.13.

49

. 1.32
. . (1.25) , ` = 2.
. 1.32
(); , .
, .
, .

1.13.

. ,
W, A :
A = dW.

()

() , r12
.
, , q1 , q2
P2 P20 (. 1.33).

50

1.

q1 q2
A = q2 [2 (P2 ) 2 (P20 )] = q2 d2 ,
2 q1 q2 . , (),

dW = q2 d2 ;
, ,
W = q 2 2 =

q1 q2
.
r12

()

, , , q1 q2 .
P2
q2

. ,
q1
W
()

, P2
, q1 r12 q2 .
. 1.33
,
, (
).
N , ,
,
W =

1 X X qi qj
1 XX
=
qi ij ,
2
rij
2
i6=j

(1.39)

i6=j

ij qj qi . 1/2 ,
.

N

W =

1X
q i i ,
2 i=1

(1.390 )

P
i = j6=i ij , qi , qi .

51

1.13.

. , ,
,
c, ~
d.
,
,
.

()
, .
, , , ; , , ,
.
,
(~r). , ,
Z
W = (~r)(~r)dV,
(~r) (~r)dV . , ,
( a  ` a `, (1.31), (1.32),
(~r)
~
(~r) = (0) + ~r grad = (0) ~r E(0).
,
Z
~
~
W = (~r)~r dV E(0)
= d~ E(0),

. .

(~r)dV = 0.

,
~
W = (d~ E)

(1.40)

d~ (~
) E

52

1.

.
~ r), d~ E
~ E(~
.

~
F~ = grad(d~ E),

~ = [d~ E]
~
N

(1.41)

, ,
, ( (1.32), (1.34)).
.
(1.40) (1.41).

1.14.

, , (~r). dV
dq = (~r)dV,
(1.390 ) :
Z
1
(~r)(~r)dV.
W =
2

(1.42)

(1.390 )(1.42). , ,
(~r)0 (~r),
0 (~r) , dV . dV
~r (~r). 1.3 ,
(3/2)(q/), q = (4/3) 3 , , ,
0 (~r) = (~r) 2(~r) 2 .

1.14.

53

, 0 0 (~r) 0 (~r) (~r),


, .
(1.42), , (1.13), (1/4)

div( grad ) = + (grad )2 ;

Z
I
Z
1
1
1
2
W =
[div( grad ) (grad ) ]dV =
En dS +
E 2 dV,
8
8 S
8 V
S , V, .
, S
R, R
I
0,
SR

En
, 1/R 1/R2 (, ,
), R2 .
, (1.42)

Z
E2
W =
dV
(1.43)
8
, ,
(1.39) , ,
, ,
E2
.
(1.44)
w=
8
(1.39) (i 6= j), (1.42) (1.43)
. , (1.42), (1.43)
, (1.39)
.
,
(1.44),

54

1.

. (1.44)
. .
, .
, q
dS E0 = 4psn
~ E

_0
~
F~ = q E,
Ei =
~ , E
, q.

,
. 1.34
~
, , , E
,
. , ,
, (. 1.34). , ,
, , . ,
, .
. , , ,
, ,
, , , ,
.
, . 1.34 dS
. , , .
x
, , [0, ] (. 1.35).
~ , E
y, z x- Ex (x),

55

1.14.

(x).
( ). , Ex (x)
dEx
= 4(x),
dx

()

E(0) = 0
Z x
()d.
Ex (x) = 4
0

, ,
Z
~
(x)Ex (x)dx,
f = fx~ex , fx =
0

.
(x) (*),
Z
Z
1
1
d
dEx
fx =
dx =
[Ex (x)]2 dx,
Ex (x)
4 0
dx
8 0 dx
. .

fx =

1 2
E ,
8 0

R
E0 = Ex () = 4 0 (x)dx = 4
.
, ,
, R
= 0 (x)dx,
x
,
0
d
(x). ,
, . . ~ 0 , f~
E
, . .
. 1.35

E2
f~ = 0 ~n.
8

(1.45)

, (1.45) ,
.

56

1.

,

E2
w=
.
8
1.9. R q.
R + dR,
.


q/r2 r > R,
Er =
0 r < R,

Er =

q/r2
0

r > R + dR,
r < R + dR.

. 1.36.

q
1 2
E , E0 = 2 .
fr =
8 0
R

A = fr 4R2 dR =

1 2
E 4R2 dR.
8 0

()


r > R + dR , (R, R + dR)
, . .

dW = w 4R2 dR,
()
w .

A = dW,
. . A
. () (), 4R2 dR .
. : , w ,

57

1.14.

fr ,
. .
R (1.11):
Er =

q/r2
q/R3 r

r R,
r < R.

(1.43)
1
W =
8

1
q2 2
r 4r2 dr +
6
R
8

f
R

R+dR

Er

q
r2

0

R R+dR

3 q2
q2
2
4r
dr
=
.
r4
5R


.
, W m = W/c2 . , m
q ,

rq =

q2
,
mc2

. 1.36


(
3/5 ).
,
re =

e2
' 2, 8 1013 .
mc2

, , .

58

1.

1.15.

, ,
.
, ,
r . ,






1
r2
+ 2
sin
(r, ) = 2
r r
r
r sin

,
(1/r)( 2 /r2 )(r).


1

(r) + 2
(r) = 0,
()
sin
r2
r sin


r(r, ) = U (r)P ().

()

() (),


1
dP
d2 U
d
P () + 2
sin
U (r) = 0,
dr2
r sin d
d
, r2 [U (r)P ()]1 ,


1
dP
r 2 d2 U
d
+
sin
= 0.
U (r) dr2
sin P () d
d
r,
. `(` + 1), U (r), P () :
`(` + 1)
d2 U

U (r) = 0;
dr2
r2
1

()

1.15.


1 d
dP
sin
+ `(` + 1)P () = 0.
sin d
d

59
()

, () `

U (r) = Ar`+1 + Br` ,


()
A, B . ()
x = cos ,


 dP
d
1 x2
+ `(` + 1)P (x) = 0.
()
dx
dx

P (x), , ,
1 x 1. ( ), , `
, () . `-
`
`
d`
Pe` (x) = ` x2 1 .
dx

()

( () .)
, Pe` (x) ().
(x2 1)` =

`
X

C`k (1)k x2(`k)

k=0

, ` ,
Pe` (x)
[`/2]

Pe` (x) =

k=0

C`k (1)k

(2` 2k)! `2k


x
.
(` 2k)!

()

`!
`
k!(` k)!
k; k [`/2]

C`k =

60

1.

`/2. ()
, 0! = 1.
(),
"
#
 e
dPe`
d2 Pe`
d2 Pe`
d
2 dP`
2x
x2 2 =
=
1x
2
dx
dx
dx
dx
dx
[`/2]

C`k (1)k

k=0
[`/2]

C`k (1)k

k=0

(2` 2k)!
(` 2k)(` 2k 1)x`2(k+1)
(` 2k)!

()

(2` 2k)!
(` 2k)[2 + (` 2k 1)]x`2k .
(` 2k)!

s = k + 1 .
, - (` 2k)(` 2k 1)
k [`/2] 1.

[`/2]
X
(2` 2s + 2)! `2s

C`s1 (1)s
x
=
(` 2s)!
s=1
[`/2]

C`s (1)s

s=0

(2` 2s)!
2s(2` 2s + 1)x`2s .
(` 2s)!

s
.)
`s+1
(),
s k, ,
( C`s1 = C`s

[`/2]

`(` + 1)

k=0

C`k (1)k

(2` 2k)! `2k


x
= `(` + 1)Pe` (x),
(` 2k)!

.
,
1 d` 2
(x 1)` ,
()
P` = `
2 `! dx`
Pe` (x) .
-

1.15.

61

, , (),
P` (1) = 1.
( ` .) ,

.
, ` (r, ) = (1/r)U` (r)P` ().
()


B`
` (r, ) = A` r` + `+1 P` (cos ) (` = 0; 1; 2; . . .),
r
A` , B` .
, 1 x 1.
(). P` (x), P`0 (x)
(-1, +1):
 


Z 1
d
2 dP`
P`0 (x)
(1 x )
+ `(` + 1)P` (x) dx = 0.
()
dx
dx
1
() ` `0 , ,
Z 1
[`(` + 1) `0 (`0 + 1)]
P`0 (x)P` (x)dx = 0.
()
1

` 6= ` () ,
` = `0 . , . ;
P` (1) = 1, .
P` (x) 1 x 1
,
r = const ,
[0, ],


X
B`
(1.46)
A` r` + `+1 P` (cos ).
(r, ) =
r
`=0

62

1.

A` , B`
.

1.16.


(r, ),
, R.

(r, ) =

X
B`
P` (cos ),
r`+1

()

`=0

, ,
, A` (1.46)
. () 1/r. , ,
B` ( ) (r, ).
, ,
, (1.46),
,
. . = 0. ,

P

Ck rk
k=

r . , , , (1.46),


X
B`
(z = r) =
A` r` + `+1
r
`=0

( z), , r,
A` = C` ,

B` = C(`+1) .

63

1.16.

z
z

q
r
g

q r

. 1.37

. 1.38

~r, q, ~r0 , :

P
r`

q
r < r0 ,

0 `+1 P` (cos )

`=0

q
=
()
|~r ~r0 |

r `
P

q
P (cos ) r > r0
`+1 `
`=0 r

, ~r ~r0 . , , ~r0 , (~r) , z 0 ,


~r0 (. 1.37),

q
q
r

= 0 (1 0 )1 r < r0 ,
0
q
r

r
r
r
=
|z0 =
q
r0 1
q
|~r ~r0 |

=
(1

)
r > r0 .
r r0
r
r

X
1
=
xk ,
1x
k=0


r 1/r :

64

1.

|z0 = q
|

z0

=q

X
r`
0 `+1
r
`=0

X
`=0

r < r0 ,

r > r0 .

r`
r`+1

= 0 , ().
.
z, r0 , 0
(. 1.38), q.
dq,
z d, () q dq 0 .
z
:

0
r `
P

q
P (cos 0 )
( r > r0 ),

`+1 `
r
`=0
(z = r) =

P
r`

q
( r < r0 ).
0 `+1 P` (cos )
`=0 r

(r, ) P` (cos ), . .

(r, ) =

0
r `
P

P (cos 0 )P` (cos )


q

`+1 `

r
`=0

r,

. . r > r0 ,

P
r`

q
0 `+1 P` (cos )P` (cos )

`=0 r

r,


. . r < r0 .

()

, , ,
`

B` = qr0 P` (cos 0 ),

()

65

1.16.

r0 , 0 .
.
2

dq = (r0 , 0 )2r0 sin 0 dr0 d0


()
`

dB` = dq r0 P` (cos 0 ).


B` =

0`

r P` (cos )dq = 2

(r0 , 0 )r `+2 P` (cos 0 ) sin 0 dr0 d0 .

()

, ` = 0, 1
Z
B0 = dq = Q,
B1 =

r0 P1 (cos 0 )dq =

r0 cos 0 dq =

z 0 dq = dz

, , ,

Z
2 0
0 3 cos 1
0
0
1
1
B2 = r 2
dq = (3z 2 r 2 )dq = Dzz
2
2
2
D33 = Dzz
.
( 1.12 (0) , (1) , (2) ), ,
, `-

B`
(`) = `+1 P` (cos )
r
(, ) B` ().

66

1.

, R.
, , B` (1.46)

(r, ) =

A` r` P` (cos ).

`=0

A` ()
:
Z Z
Z
dq
(r0 , 0 )
0
0
0 0
0
P
(cos

)
=
2
A` =
`
0 `+1
0 `1 P` (cos ) sin dr d .
r
r
0
R

.
,
, E 0,

~ = 4, E
~ = grad
div E
.
, . . , , ,
.

2.1.

.
.

~ ,
1. E

, .
,
.

68

2.

2. ,
( ), ~ ,
d.

~
P~ = nhdi
(2.1)
1
~
, n
3 , hdi . , P~

.
3. ,
~ = 0 (d~0 ). - E
~
~
P = nhd0 i = 0,
~ , E
P~ .
4. , (
~ ),
E
,

~ = 4 , E
~ = grad ,
div E

(2.2)

( ,
)
. ,

.
,
.
V 106 3
(. . 102 ) .
, V .
.
:
~ = hE
~ i,
E
(2.3)

2.2. .

69

, ,
Z
~ 3 ;
~
~ r) = 1
~ (~r + )d
E(~
E
V
V

~ E
~r.

2.2.

.
.
.

~ 1. , E,
(2.2)
V , , , . .
h

i=
hi.
`
`

(2.2)
~ i = divhE
~ i = 4h i,
hdiv E

. .

~ = 4(+ )
div E

(2.4)

~ i = hgrad i = gradh i,
hE
~ = grad .
E

(2.5)

h i + , () , ,
, . .

70

2.

2. , (2.1) P~
= div P~ .

(2.6)

( , (2.6) .
.) , (2.6) : , . . P~ = const,
.
; .
, (2.6) . , , ~ (2.4), (2.5).
E
, ~ . .
E,
~ r),
P~ (~r) = E(~

(2.7)

. (2.6) (2.4),
~ = 4 4div P~ , . . div(E
~ + 4 P~ ) = 4.
div E

~ =E
~ + 4 P~ .
D

(2.8)


~ = 4.
div D

(2.9)

~ , (2.7) D
~
E :
~ = E,
~
D
(2.10)

= 1 + 4.

(2.11)

2.2. .

71

(2.9), (2.10) (2.5), ,


:
~ = 4,
div D
~ = E,
~
D
~ = grad .
E

(2.12)

~ = E
~ + 4 P~ (2.8) D
. ~ (2.3);
. E
, , ,
. , (2.11) = 1 + 4
.
3. (2.12) ,
, .
~
= (1/4)div[( 1)E],

(2.13)

(2.6), (2.8) (2.10).


, (
),
. , = 0, ~ = div E
~ = 0, = Const (2.13)
(2.12), div D
= 0.
(2.12) ,
,
:
~ = 4,
div E
(2.14)
~ = grad .
E
4. .

div grad = 4,

72

2.


= 4/.
(2.15)

5. . (. (2.5)), ~ 1.8, :
E,
~ 1 = E
~ 2 .
E

(2.16)

~ = 4,
(2.9), div D
~
E
I
Dn dS = 4Q
S

~ D,
Q, S. , 1.8,
~
D
D2n D1n = 4,

(2.17)

2.3.

(2.14)
~ = 4/.
div E
,

~ , , (, E)
, .

2.3.

73

: , ,
= const, ,
~ 0 (~r), E(~
~ r) = (1/)E
~ 0 (~r).
E
, , n S

2

Q
(~r) =

4(~r)
, | = 0,

(2.15)
. ,
V
, ,
. . 2.1
, , , .
,
, . . 2.1 S1 ,
Q. S2 . S1 S2 ~
V E.
,
V

S1

(~r) = (1/)4(~r),
|S2 = 0, |S1 = C,
H
dS = (1/)4Q
S1 n

( )

0 (~r) = 4(~r)
0 |S2 = 0, 0 |S1 = C0 ,
H 0
dS = 4Q
S1 n
( = 1)

, (~r) 0 (~r)
(~r) = (1/)0 (~r),
( C = (1/)C0 ), .

74

2.4.

2.

, , , . ,
.
R
E~0 . E ,
, .
( 1 2) ,
r, (. 2.2):
~ 1,2 = grad 1,2 (r, ).
E

(r, ) (2.15),

1,2 (r, ) = 0,

) 1 = 2 |r=R ; )

2
1
=
|r=R ; ) 2 | = E0 r cos .
r
r

, ~ D
~ ;
E
~ 0 E
. , , 1 r = 0

) 1 |r=0 .
(1.25)
C1 r cos , C2

cos
,
r2

. , r cos = z, , z. ,

2.4.

75

,
1 (r, ) = E1 r cos ,
2 (r, ) = E0 r cos +

d cos
,
r2

~ 1 ,
. . E
~ 0 , , E
~0
E
d~ . E1 , d , ,

~1 =
E

3 ~
E0 ,
+2

E0

1~ 3
d~ =
E0 R .
+2

r
e

(2.18)

1
2

. 2.2

. 2.3

~ 1 E
~ 0 ;
, > 1 E
, - . >> 1 ; ,
( 81) E1 1/28E0 .
, , (2.25):
E2n E1n = 4( + ).
= 0
, ,


1 1
2
3 1
1
=
(E2r E1r )|r=R =

|r=R =
E0 cos .
4
4 r
r
4 + 2

76

2.

> 1 ~
E
~ 0 . ,
E
~0
~1 E
~0 = 1 E
E
+2
,

3 1~
E0 ,
P~ =
4 + 2
d~ = (4R3 /3)P~ . , P~

~ P = 4 P~ .
E
3

(2.19)

. . 2.3 D ( E, )
= 81.

2.5.

= div P~

V
.

,
r
r
V , .
y
O
P~ , x
, ,
. 2.4
.
- ~r.

dV
P(r)
R

2.5. = div P~

77

, ,
(1.15)
Z
(r~0 )dV 0
.
()
(~r) =
R
V

~ 3 ) (. 2.4)
(1.28) d(~r) = dP~ (r~0 ) (R/R
0
0
~
~
~
~
dP (r ) = P (r )dV 0
(r) =

Z ~ ~0 ~
~
dP~ R
P (r ) R 0
=
dV .
R3
R3

()

~ R = |~r r~0 |,
, R
(), ~r r~0 , . . () dV 0 .

. , r~0 , ,
. ()

~
1
1
R
= grad
= grad0
,
0
~
R3
R(~r, r )
R(~r, r~0 )
#
"
~
1
P~ (r~0 ) R
1
0 1
0
0
0
~
~
~
~
div 0 P~ (r~0 ).
= P (r ) grad
= div
P (r )
3
0
~
R
R
R(~r, r )
R(~r, r~0 )
() ,
S,
V . ,
(~r) =

I
S

Pn
dS +
R

div 0 P~ (r~0 ) 0
dV .
R(~r, r~0 )

Pn |S 0,
(~r) . (), .

78

2.

, .

2.6.

, .
) . (, N2 , H2 , O2 , CO2 , CH4 . .) ~ , E
~ . E
, ~ :
, E
~
d~ = E,
.
)
, +e
a

r
+e
O

O

E=0
, ,
Er
, CO, SO2 ,
HCl ,
a
r
0
. ,
e
e
-a r
E = 0 - r
P = 0
. 2.5

~
E.
, , , .
~ , E

a, .
~
, E
E

79

2.6. .

, ,
r0 ,
. 2.5. Er (r)
.
r0 : ~ , E,
,
r0 er0 /a3 . ,
E = (e/a3 )r0
Ea3
.
()
r0 =
e

r0 , a = 1 A= 108 ,
E = 100 . . = 3 104 /.
Ea2
102 1016
r0
=

2 105  1.
a
e
4, 8 1010
, .
() ,

da r0 e = Ea3 , . . a3 .
()
,
~ = n, a3
P~ = E,

( a30 ),

(2.20)

a0 = 0, 53 108 , , ,
(2.11)
1 4na30 .

(2.21)

n 1/`3 , ` ,
a0 /`  1. ,
1 4

 a 3
0

 1.

,
2 (, C6 H6 = 2, 28, = 2, 24). (2.21)
-

80

2.

; .
, da d0 . ,
Ea e/a2 , () ()

 
E
E
r0
, . . da d0
.
da er0 = ea = ea
a
Ea
Ea
, ,E/Ea  1,
, da  d0 , d0 ea .
.
n 1 3 . E = 0
, d~0
, . . dn = Cd dn = C sin d.
L
n 1
0.8
, 0.6
+ d,
0.4
0.2
d~0 . b
~ 0
5
10
15
20
E
(1.40):
. 2.6
~ = d0 E cos
U = d~0 E

~ ( E)

~
. E
dn = CeU/kT sin d = Ce cos sin d, = d0 E/kT

Z
Z
P = d0 cos dn = Cd0
e cos cos sin d,
0

C
Z
n=C

e cos sin d.

2.7. = div P~
,

81

R cos
e
cos sin d
P = nd0 0 R cos
.
e
sin d
0

, ; (2/) sh .

P = nd0 L(),
(2.22)
L() = cth (1/) , . 2.6.

d0 E
1
=
kT

L() (1/3) (2.22)

d0 E
nd20
P = nd0
=
E.
(2.23)
3kT
3kT

. , T = 3000 K, d0 = ea0 , E = 100 . . (4,81010 0,5108 100) : (1,381016 300)
0,5 102 , (2.23). ,
2
~ . = nd0 , d0 = ea0 .
P~ = . E,
3kT

(2.20) na30 ;
,
e2
.

3kT a0
T = 3000 K 102 .

2.7.

= div P~


. , .

82

2.

V , . , V ,
, .
V 0, S ,
, V .
V, , e +e,
~` (. 2.7).

dS. ~`
,
l +e
_e
dS. , ~`
P~
.
P~ = nd~ = ne~`, ~` =
ne

, dS ,

S
lcos( n,l )

d
` cos(~n, ~`),

dS

Q=

+e

_e

d
n` cos(~n, ~`)dS e = Pn dS.

Pn dS =

. 2.7
div P~ dV ;


Q=

dV.

V , .
, . . , .

2.8.

83

, S P~ , P~ ,
. ,
P~
= (P2n P1n ).

(2.24)

(, ,
~n 1
~ (2.8) (2.17)
2.) D
(2.24)
E2n E1n = 4( + )

(2.25)

.
,
~ P~ .
E,

2.8.

(2.20),
(2.23)
~ = n, = 1 + 4n, a30 ;
P~ = E,
2
2
~ = n d0 , = 1 + 4n d0
P~ = E,
3kT
3kT
. , , ,
~ , , . E.

, , ; ~ 0 . , : E
~
E
, ~ 0
, E
. ,

84

2.


.
~ E
~ 0 ,
E,
. ,
, ~ 0 , .
E
. ,


~0 = E
~1 + E
~ 2,
E
~ 1 S, . .
E
, , ~ 2 , S,
S, E
~ 1,
. E
~ . E.

P~ (
), , (2.19),
~ P = 4 P~ ,
E
3
~ 1 . ,
, . . E
~ = 4 P~ + E
~ 1,
E
3

~1 = E
~ + 4 P~ .
E
3

~ 2 , . . , ,
E
S, , , ~ 2 n, , E
~
, , E
~
. , E2 :
) , ~ 2 = 0;
, E
) ( ).

85

2.8.

,
~ 2 = 0.
E
~0 = E
~ + 4 P~
E
3
(2.20)


4 ~
0
0
~
~
~
~
~
~
P .
d = E , P = nd = nE = n E +
3

P~ =

n
~
E,
1 (4/3)n

=1+

4n
~
E
1 (4/3)n

. 4n,
4n
1
=
,
+2
3
, n ,
M N0 ,
4 N0
1
=
.
+2
3 M

(2.26)

(2.26) , ( 1)/( + 2) . , ,
,
, .
, (2.26) , ~2 = 0
. , E
.
~ 2 = 0
(2.26) , E
- .

86

2.9.

2.

1. , .
, , .
dq
A0 = V dq,
V . V = Eh, dq = Sd.
D = 4,
dW = A0 dW = (EdD/4)Sh, S, h .
, ,
dw = EdD/4.
~ = E
~ EdD = (1/2)d(E
~ D)
~
D
~ D)/8
~
w = (E
= E 2 /8 = D2 /8.
2. . (~r) , , , (~r) = h (~r)i
, (~r) ,
. , ,
(~r) , 1/r.
A0
(~r).
:
Z
A0 =

(~r)(~r)dV.

(2.27)

(~r)
, .

2.9.

87


, ()
. ,
,
,
- . (,
.) A0
, . .
A0 = W.
(2.27) , , (~r)
~ . .
D,
(~r) =

1
~ r),
div D(~
4


h
i
1
~ = 1 div( D)
~ grad D
~ =
(~r)(~r) =
div D
4
4
h
i
1
~ +E
~ D
~ .
=
div( D)
4
,
Z
1
~ r) D(~
~ r)]dV.
W =
[E(~
(2.28)
4
~ = E.
~ ,
, D
,
T, . ~ E
~ D(~
~ r) = (~r)E(~
~ r) D
(2.28)
Z
1
~ r) D(~
~ r)]dV.
W =
[E(~
8

88

2.

, . ,
Z
1
~ r)dV,
W =
E(~r)D(~
(2.29)
8

w=

1 ~ ~
E 2
D2
(E D) =
=
.
8
8
8

(2.30)

,
(1.42)
Z
1
(~r)(~r)dV,
(2.31)
W =
2
(~r) (~r) ,
, . ,
Z
Z
1
1
~
~ div DdV
~ ;
(grad D)dV =
[div(D)]
W =
8
8
, ~ = 4 .
div D
3. , (2.29), (2.31) .

. (2.29) ,
,
(2.30). , (2.31)
,
. .

? ,
. , , .

2.10. ,

89


. ,
.
.
, . , ,
, , .
, , . (2.31) . (2.29), (2.30),
, . ,
,
.

2.10.

( .)
1.
, ( )
.
~q(~r) (. . , ~r, ). , ~q(~r) ~r. ,
(~r):
. ,
(~r).
, ~q(~r) f~dV , dV , ~q f~dV ,

Z
A = ~q f~dV

90

2.

, .


Z
W = (~q f~)dV.
()

. (), , . , , , ,
. , ; ,
.
2. . ()
f~, W

Z
W =

[ ] ~qdV.

()

, (),
f~. , W (2.29), (2.31):
Z
1
(~r)(~r)dV,
W1 =
2
Z
1
W2 =
(grad )2 dV.
8

W1 =
1
W2 =
8

1
2

( + )dV,

1
(grad ) dV +
4
2

( grad grad )dV.

W2
~ grad = div( D)
~ + div D,
~
D

~ =
, div D

91

2.10. ,
= 4 W2
Z
Z
1
W2 =
E 2 dV + dV.
8

, W ( W1 ), . (~r) (~r) ,
,
~q(~r) (. (), ()). (~r) ; (~r) ~r
-
~q(~r). W1 W2
(), W

W = 2W1 W2 ,

W =

1
dV
8

E 2 dV.

()

3. , , ,

= div(~q).
()

, ,
V S ~q(~r)
,
qn ,
H
qn dS
= limV 0
V

.
= div( ~q).

()

(~r) , ,

92

2.

( , ; , ). (~r) ~r ,
, -, - , ~r
, ~r ~q(~r), -,
,
; ,
= ~q grad +

|T d.


d ,
. d V,
S. , -
, . S S 0 V 0 .
, V 0 = V +V div ~q.

V = ( + d )(V + V div ~q)

d = div ~q.

,
= ~q grad

|T div ~q,

()

.
4. . (), () ()


Z 
1 2
1 2
E |T div ~q +
E grad ~q dV.
div(~q) +
W =
8

8
().
-

2.10. ,

93




1
2
grad ~q
grad E |T ~q,
8

,
W (),


1
1 2
2
~
grad E |T +
E grad .
[ ] = E
8

8
, :


~ + 1 grad E 2 |T 1 E 2 grad .
(2.32)
f~ = E
8

8
f~(1) , f~(2) ,
~
f~(1) = E
, ,



1 2
1
grad E 2 |T
E grad ,
f~(2) =
8

(2.33)

(2.34)

/ grad ,
.
(2.33) , f~(1)
, , , , .
, ,
.
(2.23) . , -
 1 (2.23)
1 = C,
C .

= C = 1

(2.35)

94

2.

(2.34)
1 2
1
grad[( 1)E 2 ]
E grad .
f~(2) =
8
8
, ,
, , ,
1
f~(2) =
grad E 2 ,
8
,
.
, ,
(. 2.8). E0 , 0 (,
E = E0 /0 ). (2.34).
(x),
. 2.8.

Dx = (x)Ex = E0 ,

()


(2.34)
E 2 d
1 d
()
fx = x
+
( Ex2 ),
8 dx 8 dx
p , ,
Z 0
p =
fx (x)dx.

(), ()
Z
E 2 0 1 d
1
p = 0
dx +
( Ex2 )|0x= .
8 2 dx
8
, , . .
x = 0, 1, (/ )

2.10. ,

95

(2.35) . ,
p =

E2

E02

(0 +
),
8
8

(2.36)

E = E0 /0 .
(2.36)
h
E0
E0
. D

.
e0
, h
h. p ,

e(x)
, A = p h
x
. -d 0
,
. 2.8

p h = W,

()

W ,
, W1 , W2 .
W1 = (

D2
D2

)h
80
8

h,
W2 =

D2
D2
(
)h =
(
) h
8
8

h,
. h = (h + h)( + )
=
,
W2 =

h
.
h

D2 1
h,
8 20

96

2.
2

W = W1 + W2 =

D 1
1
( 1+ 2
)h
8 0
0

() (2.36).

2.11.

, f~, , .
V,
S, , , V,
Z
~
F = f~dV.
,
,
S, . .
I
Z
~
f dV = T~n dS.
(2.37)
V

, dS ~n, T~n dS, T~n


, ,
~n. n T~n , , T~ ~n,
, ,
dS, ,
.
. , V, .
,
.

2.11.

97

Tik ( i Ti1 , Ti2 , Ti3


i- ), i-

Z
I
fi dV = Tik nk dS,
(2.38)

xa
V
Tn
Tab
S. Tik .
, T ,
n
(2.38), -xb
, ,
. 2.9
x (. 2.9).
(2.37), (2.38) , i- T~n , . . Tin ,
~n
Tin = Tik nk .

(2.39)

,
, , . ,

Tik = Tki
( ).
(2.38) ,
Z
Z
Tik
fi dV =
dV,
xk

, ,

Tik
.
(2.40)
fi =
xk

98

2.

(2.32),
, .
~ (1/8)E 2 grad ,
f~0 = E
~
(1/4)div D
fi0 =

Dk
1 2
1
Ei

E
=
4 xk
8
xi

1
Ei
1
E 2
[
(Ei Dk )
Dk ]
[
(E 2 )
].
4 xk
xk
8 xi
xi
,
E 2

Ek
Ek
Ei
=
Ek Ek = 2
Ek ,
=
xi
xi
xi
xi
xk
~ = 0). ( rotE
,
1
1
fi0 =
(Ei Ek ik E 2 )
4 xk
2
(2.40),
0
=
Tik

1
1
(Ei Ek ik E 2 ).
4
2

f~00 =
grad(E 2 )
8

fi00 =

( E 2 ) =
( ik E 2 ),
8 xi
xk 8

1 2
E ik .
8
, (2.39) T~n ~n. i- T~n0
00
=
Tik

0
Tin
=

1
1
1
~ 1 ni E 2 ];
(Ei Ek ik E 2 )nk =
[Ei (~n E)
4
2
4
2

99

2.11.

e7

n
dS

n e^
dS

dS

E = -En

. 2.10

1
1 ~
(EEn ~nE 2 ).
T~n0 =
4
2

1 2
1 2
E ik nk =
E ni ,
8
8
1 2
E ~n.
T~n00 =
8
,
00
=
Tin

1
~ 1 E 2 ( )~n.
T~n =
En E
4
8

(2.41)

, T~n ,
, dS
~n. ,
~
E
~
(. 2.10, ), . . E = E~n, En = E, (2.41)

E2

~
T~n =
( + )~n
(~n k E).
(2.42)
8

, dS .
(2.42) (2.36) p . ,
E02 /8, ,

) .
E 2 /8(0 +

100

2.
~n (. . 2.10, ), En = 0,

E2

~
T~n = ( )
(~n E)
(2.43)
8


dS .
T~n , , ~ :
~n, E,
~ E.
~ ~e|| , ~e ,
(~n, E)
dS , . 2.10, .

~ = E~e|| , En = E(~n ~e|| ), ~n = ~e|| (~n ~e|| ) + ~e (~n ~e );


E
T~n (2.41)
1 2

E2

T~n =
E ( +
)(~n ~e|| )~e||
(
)(~n ~e )~e .
8

, T~n dS, dS,


, ~ek ~e , (2.42), (2.43),
dS = (~n ~e|| )dS, dSk = (~n ~e )dS,
~
E.
, , ,
, . , , V, , S, ,
. ,
. . ,

, V, , ,
.


3.1.

vd
t

1. , . ,
, .
,

, .
n
2. v
dS
~j.
,
dS
. , . ~r N 1/3 ,
. 3.1

f (~v ). , ~v d~v , dt
dS
qN f (~v )(~v ~n)dSd~v dt

102

3.

(. 3.1), q , ~n , ,
, . . dS,
Z
dI = qN ~v f (~v )d~v ~ndS.

dI = (~j ~n)dS = jn dS,

(3.1)

~j,
~u =

~v f (~v ) = N 1

~j = q

N
X

~vi

i=1

N
X

~vi = qN~u,

(3.2)

i=1

. (3.1)
, ,

, j ,
j
q
[j] = [q] 2 1 .
, ,
X
~j =
qi Ni ~ui .
i

V ,
S, ,
V ,
I
jn dS
(3.3)
I=
S

( S); ~n S.

103

3.1.

3. , ~j, ,
~i. , ( ) ,
, (,
).
~j ,
,
~i. ~i
h~ji , . .
~i = h~ji.

(3.4)

`
~n, , , ,
I = (~i ~n)` = in `

(3.5)

,
S = ` `,
(3.4)
in ` = hjn i` = hjn iS.
3.1. R h , :
= + = Const,

= + = Const.

. (~j) (~i) , .
(r, , z) (. 3.2)
-
~j = j~e ,

~i = i~e .

104

3.

j
drdz = Const, dI = rdrdz. (3.1)
j = r.


dr, , ,
1 , v = r (
. 3.2 ). ,
dI = rdr (3.5), i = r ( |z| = h/2).
dz, ,
i = R r = R.

3.2.

z
_h w
dr
2
dz
R
O
r
_
h
2

r dr
wr

. 3.2

, , ,
, ,
, .
, .
, ,
.
. , . , ,
, ; , , -

105

3.2.

. .
, ,
.
( ) ~j ( ), . , ,
V , S. ,
V S, (3.3). V

Z
Z

dV = ( )dV.

t
t
,
Z
I

dV = jn dS,
t
S

(3.6)

.

,
Z

+ div~j)dV = 0.
(
V t
V ,
, . .

+ div~j = 0.
(3.7)
t
.
.
,
, (3.6), (3.7)
I
jn dS = 0;
(3.8)
S

div~j = 0.

(3.9)

106

3.

3.3.

. .

1. ~j
~ E.

~
~j = E,

(3.10)

, 1/c, .
(3.8) .
2. . ,
. ,
,
.
, .
. ,
, ~u. ~v
~v = ~v + ~u ,
m

d~v
d~u
d~v
~ + F~ ,
= m(
+
) = eE
dt
dt
dt

~ , eE
, , F~ = F~i + F~e
.

3.3. .

107

, . . . ,
F~ hF~i i
. ,

, P
m(~v +~u) , ~u.
hF~i i , u 6= 0
, , u  v ( , , ),
~u ,

~u
(3.11)
hF~i i = m ,

, . (,
s
.)

m

d~u
~u
e ~
+ m = E,
dt

eN
~j = N e~u:
~j
N e2 ~
~j
+
=
E.
t

(3.12)

,
u
~
u
, d~
u )~u -
dt = t + (~
~
u
u t .
~ , (3.12)
E

2
~
~j = N e E,
m
(3.10),

N e2
=
.
(3.13)
m

108

3.

(3.12) ,
. ,
, . .


~j




 ~j .
t

(3.14)

, ,
T .
3.
s . ( - ),

. ~ s /m, eE

~ s /(2m), ~j = N e~u = N e2 s /(2m)E.
~ ~u = eE
,
=

N e2 `s
N e2 s
=
2m
2m v

(3.15)

( `s )
(3.13) = s /2.
4. (3.15),
`s , s , ,
; , = 5 1017 1/.
, , ,
kT . , v 108 / .

. , ,
, . N = N0 /A (N0 , , A

3.3. .

109

)
N

1
6 1023 8,9
8,5 1022
.
63
3

s `s (3.15) ,
e2 /m re = e2 /mc2 = 2,8 1013 .

N c2 re
N c2 re
=
s =
`s
2
2v

`s =

2v
2 108 5 1017

4 106 , s 4 1014 .
N c2 re
8 1022 1021 3 1013

5. u  v
(3.11) . , ,
~
p, m~u. hF~i i = ~
p,
, ~
p `s /|~v + ~u|. u  v
, , .
, (3.11) .
, , ,
, . ,
, ,
eEs  mv .

(3.16)

mv
104 . . = 1,5 108 .
es
2

.
: . ,
.
.

110

3.

6. ,
. , j I = jS.
S , j = const.
,
U = E`, ` . j = I/S,
E = U/` (3.10),
U=

`
I = RI.
S

(3.17)

R = `/S .
(3.17) 1826 .
. 1 .
,
1 1 , . .
=

=
. .

9 1011

( )1 =
= 9 109 1/c.

3.4.

. , , S1 , S2 ,
1 = const, 2 = const, . 3.3. I,
1 2 U = 1 2 . dI = jdS,
.
dV dS d` dQ = qN dV, q .
~u = ~j/qN (3.2). dt dV

111

3.4. -

~ ~u)dt = (E
~ ~j)dV dt. ,
dA = dQ(E
, , ,
~ ~j)
p = (E
(3.18)
.
S2
dI
, j2
j1
dI =
S1
= jdS = const,

dS1
. 3.3

dP = dI

Ed` = dI U.

:
P = IU.
-.
, , , P
.
. , , R,
P = IU = RI 2 = U 2 /R

(3.19)


. (3.18)
~ ~j) = E 2 = j 2 /.
p = (E

(3.20)

(3.19), (3.20) .

112

3.5.

3.

. .

, . , ,
,
, . , ,
. ,
I
. 1
; ,
Ri
R

2
. , (. 3.4).
, . 3.4
.
,
() E , ,
I=

E
,
R + Ri

(3.21)

R, Ri .
E, U12
1 2, . 3.4.
(3.21) (3.17),
U12 = 1 2 = RI =

R
E.
R + Ri

, . . R ,
U12 |R = E,

(3.22)

3.5. . .

113

. .
.
,
. .
~ , E
, .

~ +E
~ ),
f~ = e(E

~ +E
~ ).
~j = (E

(3.23)

, , :
, , . ,
,
. , ,
~
, E
, . .
I
~ d~`.
(3.24)
E= E

I. ,
S ,
jS = I . (3.24)

I

~ d~` =
E

~ +E
~ )d~` =
(E

I ~ ~
I
j d`
d`
=I
= IR = E,

(3.25)

(3.24).
~ (3.23). E,
(3.21)
.

114

3.

, ~ , E
E
(3.22). , (3.25)


Ei .
,
. ,
.
, , ,
X
Ik = 0,
k

. . , , .
,
(3.8).
X
X
Ei
Rk Ik =
k

, .
(3.25) , .
.

3.6.

1.8, ,
, (
). (3.6), . , ~ ~j, 4
1.8, E

3.6.

115

/t, ~j

j2n j1n =

,
t

(3.26)

. (3.26) jn :
j1n = j2n ,

(3.27)

1 E1n = 2 E2n .

(3.28)

E2n E1n 6= 0, . . (3.28)


. Dn . ,
,
, (3.28).
, , ,
D1n = D2n . , , , (3.28), , ( = /4,
).

, (3.28) ,
, .

~ 1 = E
~ 2 ,
E
1.8 , . , ,
H
Ee d` 6= 0, .

116

3.7.

3.

1. ,
, , . , ( )
~ =0
div D
~
~
D = E
D1n = D2n

(div~j = 0),
~
(~j = E),
(j1n = j2n )

,
~ = grad ,
E

~ 1 = E
~ 2
E

. ,
(~r), (~r) ~ ~j ( E
)
.

n
.
Q
-Q
,
S
n
S
(. 3.5). ,
e = const
, . 3.5
~ = grad
Q Q. E
V S1 , S2

2

= 0,
| = 0,

|S1 = 1 = const,
H

dS = 4Q,
S1 n

|S2 = 2 = const,
H

dS = 4Q.
S2 n

(3.29)

117

3.7.

1 , 2 ( ),
. , , U = 1 2 , Q, .
C = Q/U .
.
, . S1 , S2
( ) , .
, ,
S1 , S2 . , (~r)
, V .
,

.
0 
(0 ), .
1 = const, 2 = const,
U1 = 1 2 .
~j = grad
|S1 = 1 = const,
H
4Q1
dS =
,
= 0,
n

S1

= 0,
|

|S2 = 2 = const,
H
4Q1
dS =
, 1 2 = U1 ,
n

S2

(3.29); , (3.29),
1 , 2 , Q1 ,
1 2 = U1 . ,

, ,
Q1
Q
=
=C
U
U1

(3.30)

118

3.

()
.
R
S1 , S2 .
I
I

4
dS =
Q1
I = jn dS =
n

S1

S1

(3.30) I = (4/)CU1 . , R = U1 /I
C = Q1 /U1

RC =
,
(3.31)
4
. , .
2. ,
.
: -
?
, ,


( , , ).
I
I

4
dQ
= jn dS =
Q
Dn dS =
dt

S1

S1


dQ 4
+
Q = 0,
dt


Q = Q0 e(4/)t .
,
= /4

(3.32)

3.7.

119

.
= RC, (3.31).
3. ,
. ,
,

. (3.27) , , , En = 0 . ,
.
.
,
.
,
.
, ,
= 0 .
E
3.3.
1 , 2
r
e
a
q
O
e
a, . 3.6.
~ 0 ,
E
. 3.6
. ~ 0 ,
E
.
~ . ( D
.) , ,
( ), 0

120

3.

, , ~ ~j ,
E
. , (r, , ),
~ 0 , E
= 0, = ,
r > a, 0 < < , 0 < < :
(r, , ) = 0,

|r=a = 0,
|=0; = 0, | = E0 r cos
r




1 a3
(r, ) = E0 r +
cos ,
2 r2
.
.

3.8.

, .
,
(~r, t) , ,
, ,
.

+ div~j = 0,
t

~
~j = E,

~ = 4
div E

div~j ;
(~r, t)
4
+
= 0.
t


(~r, t) = 0 (~r)et/ ,

= /4,

3.9. .

121

0 (~r) = (~r, 0) , , , ,
(3.32), , .
. .
10 ,
15 ,
. , 5 1017 1/, (1/2)1018 , . .  s
(s 4 1014 )
, (3.14) .

3.9.

.
.


,
, . ( )
, , ( )
. ,
, ,
.
,
. , , 1 3
103 ,
, . ,

122

3.

,
(210) 3 1 .
, . . , N 0 ;

N + = N .

(3.33)

, , ,
, . . (3.33) N 2 . ,
dN
= N 0 N 2 ,
dt
.
,
.
q
Np = N 0 /.
(3.34)
: Np = 103 3 , N 0 =(210) 3 1
t, , Np /t N 0 , . . Np /t = N 0 .
t = Np /N 0 100 . , , ,
. ,
.
:
, .
N + , N 103 104 1 .
, ,
, (). , ,
.

3.9. .

123

1010 1 . , ,
4 1010 1 ,
(1 2)1010 1 , 1011 1 .
,
, ,

.

.
u = bE,

(3.35)

b (, , (3.16), u E, . . b
).
j = E = N eu = N ebE;
,

= N eb.
:
j = N + eu+ + N eu = N + e(b+ + b )E;
= N + e(b+ + b ), b+ , b
N + = N .

2 /( )
10 100 , b+ , b 0,5
5,0, . : H + (b+ = 0,0033), OH (b = 0,0018),
K + (b+ = 0,00067), Cl (b = 0,00068). ,
.

124

3.

,
. , , .
. ,
. ,
(3.34).
,
E 1 /, , .

:
j = e(N + u+ + N u ) = eNp (b+ + b )E.

(3.36)

b+ , b
, . . j E,
,
, .
E j
j
,
j
.

E
.
O
. ,
. 3.7

, E ,
. , ,

js = eN 0 d,
(3.37)
s

d ; , .
E, . .

125

3.10.

109 /2 , , 1020 . ,
,
. ,
;
.
, j E, j E , .
,
. , . ,
, . 3.7
, .

3.10.

.
(3.36). ,
N + = N = N,

E = const,

(3.38)

(3.36), N eb+ E, N eb E,
, .
N 0 d ,
. ,
(3.38)
, .
1

126

3.

,
(. 3.8), U .
1 3 N 0 .

d .

u
E

u
b+ , b , (
b+ < b ), , x
d
0
.
~ E,
. 3.8
~
~
j+ , j ,
~j x.
E(x), j+ (x), j (x), j, (3.35)
-

j+ (x) = eN + (x)u+ (x) = eb+ N + (x)E(x);

(3.39)

j (x) = eN (x)u (x) = eb N (x)E(x);

(3.40)

j = j+ + j .

(3.41)

,
,
j = const

(3.42)

.
:

N +
= N 0 N + N + b+ (N + E);
t
x

(3.43)

= N 0 N + N b (N E)
t
x

(3.44)

( -
). /t 0. (3.44) (3.43), , (3.42).

3.10.

127

(3.39) (3.40) (3.43) (3.44)


,

dE
= 4e(N + N ),
dx

(3.45)

N + (x), N (x),
j+ (x), j (x), E(x).
(3.39), (3.40) N + (x), N (x)
j+ , j , E , ( (3.41)) j =
= j j+ , j+ , E j. N + , N
(3.43),
dj+
j+ (j j+ )

= eN 0 ,
dx
eb+ b
E2

(3.46)

N + , N (3.45)
 


1
1
j
dE 2
= 8 j+
+

dx
b+
b
b
, j+ ,


b+ b
dE 2
8j
j+ =
.

8(b+ + b ) b
dx

(3.47)

(3.46), 2-




dF
dF
d2 F
8j
8j
b+ + b

+
F =0
F 2 +
8eN 0
dx
8e(b+ + b ) b
dx
b+
dx
b+ b
(3.48)

F (x) = E 2 (x).

(3.49)

, (3.49) (3.48),
j.
.
Z dp
F (x)dx = U
(3.50)
0

128

3.

.
j = j+ (0),

(3.51)

j = j (d),

(3.41)
j+ (d) = 0,
. , (3.47), (3.49), F , (3.51)

dF
8j
dF
8j
(0) =
,
(d) =
.
(3.52)
dx
b+
dx
b

, F (x) j 2-
(3.48) (3.50), (3.52);
.
,
q

F , j, x E02 , e N0 (b+ +
+b )E0 d, E0 = U/d. x, F , j ,

0
N
j.
(3.53)
F = E02 Fe, j = e
(b+ + b )E0 e

(3.48), (3.50), (3.52)

!2
2e
e
e
d
F
b

b
d
F
d
F

+
2
Fe 2 p
= 0;
(3.480 )
+ e
j+ p
+ 2 Fe 2e
j+
dx
dx
b+ b dx
Z

dFe
(0) = e
j+
dx
p=

8e(b+ + b )

Fedx = 1;

(3.500 )

b dFe
,
(1) = e
j+
b+
dx
s

= 8e

b+
,
b

N 0 d b + b+
p
E0 b + b

(3.510 )

, ,
p ,

129

3.10.

, d, E0 N 0 .
p . , ,
1
1
6 3

Np = 103
3 , N0 = 2 3 , 3.9, = 2 10
;
2
=
300
.
.,

b = 1

p=

2 106
1
= .
10
8 4,8 10
600
4

0 .
(3.480 ) p, . .
 1 ,

s
N 0
d.
E = 8e

.

e
j = I0 + I1 2 + I2 ( 2 )2 + ...,

Fe(x) = Fe0 (x) + Fe1 (x) 2 + Fe2 ( 2 )2 + ...

2 Fe(x) e
j, , -,
e
j
e
j , -, (3.48)
.
,
p


b+ b
1
e
1 p2 2 + O( 4 ) ,
j = p
b+ + b
6


Fe(x) = 1 + p/2 (x x )2 C0 2 + O( 4 ),

x =

1
b
> ,
b+ + b
2

1
C0 = x (x 1) + .
3

130

3.

E(x) j
q
p




E(x) = F (x) = E0 Fe(x) = E0 1 + (p 2 /4) (x x )2 C0 + O 4 ,
s


N 0
1
j=e
j = eN 0 d 1 p2 2 + O( 4 ) ,
(b+ + b ) E0e

6
. . E0  E js
(3.37) E0
, (E /E0 )2  1. ,
(3.45), : 0 < x < x , x > x
.
 1 E0  E (3.48) , , 2 :
d2 Fe
Fe 2 p 2 (Fe e
j 2 ) = 0.
dx


!2
dFe
= 2p 2 (Fe e
j 2 ln C Fe)
dx

(3.54)

(3.55)

, . , C
.
, ,
(3.54)
1 e d2 Fe
F
(Fe e
j 2 ) = 0,
p 2 dx2

, . ,
Fe0 = e
j 2 = const

(3.56)

131

3.10.

(3.510 ) . .

.
. (3.54) , ,
(3.510 ), (3.56). , -  1, Fe = Fe0 . , dFe/dx,
(3.510 ), (3.55) x
q
p
dFe
= 2p Fe Fe0 ln C Fe.
dx
C dFe /dx 0 Fe Fe0 ,
ln C Fe0 = 1,
s
q
dFe
Fe
Fe
1 ln .
= 2pFe0
e
dx
F0
Fe0

s q
dFe
b e
(0) =
F0
dx
b+

Fe(0)
Fe(0)
1 b
,
ln
=1+
2p b+
Fe0
Fe0

Fe(x) x = 0.
()
1 b+
Fe(1)
Fe(1)
ln
=1+
.
e
e
2p
b
F0
F0

p 1, b > b+ , ,
Fe(0) & eFe0 ,

Fe0 < Fe(1) < Fe(0).

132

3.

Fe0 .
( (3.500 )) Fe(x), .
(. 3.9).
~
,
F
~
e
e
e
F (0), F (1) F0 , - F(0)
~
1/, ,
F(1)
_1
Z 1q
1
O( )
e
e
F (x)dx = F0 [1 + O(1/)],
0

(3.50 )
q
Fe0 = 1 O(1/), e
j = Fe0 = 1 O(1/).

. 3.9

, E0  E
j = eNp (b+ + b )E0 [1 O(E0 /E )]
,
. (3.45),

.

3.11.

. 3/2

1.
, . 3.8,
. ,
, : ,
,
. , , .

133

3.11. . 3.2

, ,

, . . `s  d.
.
2.
. T1 ,
. , , ,
( ) .
, U
js , (. 3.10). js

. , T2 ,
j(U ) ,
.
: j
U0 - j
T >T
j
T
(
),
U
U
- O
? : . 3.10


j (U ), .
.
j ,
. 3.10 .
3. ,
,
U0
.
(. 3.11).
*

134

3.

(. . j = 0) , . ,
, :
, , , , . . 3.11
j1 . ,
, .

j

,
U0


j=0
( . 3.11),

j1
j*
, ,
x
d
0
( . 3.11
j ). ,
,
.
:
, . .
E(0) = 0 j = j (U ).
(3.57)
j(U )
. , ,
j , , (3.57), . ,
.
4. .
x-, , (3.9), djx /dx = 0 , ,
jx = j = const,
. . j x. (x) = eN (x) -

135

3.11. . 3.2

N (x),
0 < x < d
d2
= 4(x) = 4eN (x).
dx2

(3.58)

, j = eN (x)u(x)
,

(m/2)u2 (x) e(x) = const = 0,


(3.58) (x):
4eN (x) =

4j
4j
1
p
.
=p
u(x)
2e/m (x)

,
r
d2
m
A
=
(3.59)
,
A
=
4j

dx2

2e

|x=0 = 0,

|x=d = U,

d
|x=0 = 0.
dx

(3.60)


, (3.57).
(3.59), , A,
, , j.

(3.58) d/dx
d
dx

d
dx

2

= 4A

d
,
dx

d
dx

2

p
= 4A (x) + C.

136

3.

C = 0
(3.60).

d
= 2 A1/4
dx
(0) = 0,

4 4/3

= 2 Ax,
3
(3.60)

4 U 3/2
.
A=
9 d2
, :
r
 x 4/3
2e 1
U 3/2
(x) = U
.
, j= 2 , =
d
d
m 9

, 3/2, .
, j = 0, U = 0
: (0,0). ,
,
.


4.1.

.
.

, , . , , ,
. : ) ) ,
. ,
;
, .
~ B.
~
B
~
, H,
~ D
,
.
~ B.
~
; B
~
B.

138

4.

~
, B
, , .
, .
, . ,
, ,
~
F~ = kq[~v B].

k ~ 1/c, c,
B.
, . , , ( ),
~ + (1/c)[~v B]}.
~
F~ = q{E

(4.1)

~ E
~
, B
.
, ~j I. dV . ,
,
X
~
df~ = (1/c)[(
ei~vi ) B].

(3.2)

~
df~ = (1/c)[~j B]dV.
(4.2)

, ,
~j,
~
f~ = (1/c)[~j B].
(4.3)

I, ,
, , d`,

~
df~ = (I/c)[d~` B],

(4.4)

4.2. .

139

(4.2) ~jdV = (I/S)Sd~` = Id~`.

~jdV Id~`

(4.5)

, , , .

4.2.

.
.

1. , ~j(~r0 )dV 0
- ~r
~ r) =
dB(~

~
1 [~j(~r0 ) R]
dV 0 .
3
c
R

(4.6)

Id~` (4.5)
~ r) =
dB(~

~
I [d~` R])
.
c
R3

(4.7)

~ = ~r ~r0 -,
R
(. 4.1). ,
~ ~j(~r0 )dV 0
dB

j(r)

dV
R
z
dB
~j(~r0 )
r
, ,
r
y
- O
x
. ,
. 4.1
,

140

4.

:
~ r) = I
B(~
c

~
[d~` R])
,
R3

Z ~ 0
~
[j(~r ) R]
1
~
dV 0 .
B(~r) =
c
R3

(4.8)

, : (4.6) ~
B
, (4.2). , (4.2), (4.6)
~ B.
,
, . . ,
.
4.1. .
,
`,
r ,

r
O

q
R

dl

r0  r  `,

r0 .

I,
(. . 4.2)
d~` = dz~ez ,

. 4.2

~ =
dB

~
~
I [~ez R]
I sin
I [d~` R]
=
dz =
dz~e
c R3
c R3
c R2

4.2. .

141

.

z = r ctg ,

R=

r
sin


Z
I
sin d.
B (r) =
cr 0
,
~ = 2I ~e
B
cr

(4.9)

, z = const, . 4.2.
2. I1 , I2 . , ,
2I1 /cr12 , r12 . ` I2 ,
(4.4)
F =

2I1 I2
`.
c2 r12

F , c. : c .
,
.
3. c . q (m) = q/c , (4.4), (4.7)
c:
~
df~ = I (m) [d~` B],

~
[d~` R]
.
R3
( ) c

~ = I (m)
dB

142

4.

.
CGS, CGSM. CGSM- , . . ( ,
, c 3 1010 /.)
~
B,
.
~
f~ = q (m) [~v B],
~
, B
CGSM- , 1 /. ,
0,4 ( ) 0,7 (
).
CGSE : ; ; ; ; .
CGSM, ,
: , , - .

. , , .
CGSE,
CGSM.

4.3.

1. .
~
B,
, , .
-

4.3. -

143

(4.8) ~r. ,
~ r, ~r0 )
R(~
1
= grad ,
R3
R
,
(4.8) :


~
~j(~r0 ) R
~j(~r0 )
1 ~
1
0
=
grad

j(~
r
,
~
r
)
= rot
rot~j(~r0 ).
3
R
R
R
R
grad rot ( )
, . . ~r; .
,
~
~j(~r0 ) R
~j(~r0 )
=
rot
;
R3
R
rot ,
Z
~ 0
~ r) = rot 1 j(~r ) dV 0 .
B(~
c R(~r, ~r0 )

( , ~j(~r0 ) .) , :
~ r) = rotA(~
~ r);
B(~
Z ~ 0
j(~r )
~ r) = 1
A(~
dV 0 ,
c
R(~r, ~r0 )

(4.10)
(4.11)

(4.11) (4.5)
I ~
d`
I
~
.
(4.12)
A(~r) =
c ` R
~ -
B
~
~
A, A .
~ : - A,
(4.11) (4.12),
~ = 0.
div A

(4.13)

144

4.

, (4.11)
~ r) =
div A(~

1
c

div

~j(~r0 )
dV 0 .
R(~r, ~r0 )


div

~j(~r0 )
1
1
1
= div~j(~r0 ) + grad ~j(~r0 ) = grad0
~j(~r0 ),
R(~r, ~r0 )
R
R
R(~r, ~r0 )

, grad(1/R)
grad0 (1/R).





1
1
1
0
0
0
0
0~ 0
~
~
grad
j(~r ) = div
j(~r )
div j(~r ) =
R(~r, ~r0 )
R(~r, ~r0 )
R(~r, ~r0 )
= div


1
~j(~r0 )
R(~r, ~r0 )

( div 0~j(~r0 ) = 0
),


Z
I
1
jn
1
1
0
0
0
~
~
j(~
r
)
dV
=

dS
div
div A(~r) =
0
c
R(~r, ~r )
c
R
S, . , ~ (4.13).
jn 0 div A
~ 2. - A.
~ r) B
~ (4.10) A(~
~ r), , . , B(~
(4.10) -
. ,

~0 = A
~ + grad f (x, y, z),
A
rot grad 0
~ 0 = rotA,
~
rotA
~0 A
~ B.
~
. . - A

145

4.3. -

,
~ r), , A(~
. , (4.13) ( ). ,
-, (4.11),
.
~ = B0~ez , 4.2. B
, -, .

~ = B0~ez ,
rotA

~ = 0.
div A

(4.14)

~ , A
.
~ 1 = A1~ex ,
A
x-.
~1 =
rotA

A1
A1
~ey
~ez ,
z
y

~1 =
div A

A1
x

(4.14)
A1
= B0 ,
y

A1
= 0,
z

A1
= 0,
x

A1 = B0 y. ,
~ 1 = B0 y~ex
A
.
~ 2 = B0 x~ey
A
y-.
(4.14) ,
~ = A
~ 1 + (1 )A
~ 2
A
. ,
= 1/2, . .
~ 3 = 1 B0 (x~ey y~ex ) = 1 B0 [~ez ~r],
A
2
2

146

4.

~r = x~ex + y~ey - . r~e , , , , -


~ 3 = 1 B0 r~e
A
(4.15)
2
- .
(4.15) (4.14),
rot div ; .
, - . , ~2 A
~1 =
; , , A
= B0 grad(xy).

4.4.

(~r)
1.5, 1.6. ,
(1.13):
= 4

( ) , , , (1.13) ,
(1.15):
Z
(~r0 )dV 0
,
(~r) =
R(~r, ~r0 )
R(~r, ~r0 ) = |~r ~r0 | ( ).
(4.11).
(x, y, z),
~
A:
Z
Z
0
0
1
1
jx (~r )dV
jy (~r0 )dV 0
Ax (~r) =
,
A
(~
r
)
=
y
c
R(~r, ~r0 )
c
R(~r, ~r0 )

4.4.

147

Az . (1.15). , Ax , Ay , Az

4
4
4
jx , Ay = jy , Az = jz ,
c
c
c

~ = 4 ~j.
A
c
, ,

Ax =

~ = Ax~ex + Ay ~ey + Az ~ez =


A

~
~
~
2A
2A
2A
+
+
.
x2
y 2
z 2

(~
, A
Ar (r, , ), A (r, , ), A (r, , )), , . rot rot.
rot ~ ,
A,
:
~ = grad div A
~ A,
~
rot rotA

, .

~ [ ( A)]
~
, rot rotA
,
~ = [ ( A)]
~ = ( A)
~ ( )A
~ = grad divA A,
~
rot rotA

. . ; , ~ :
A
~ = grad div A
~ rot rotA.
~
A

~ . - A,
~
div A = 0,
~ = 4 ~j,
A
(4.16)
c

148

4.

(4.11):
~ r) = 1
A(~
c

Z ~ 0
j(~r )dV 0
R(~r, ~r0 )

, , (4.12):
~ r) = I
A(~
c

d~`
.
R

4.3. (4.9)
~ = A(r)~ez .
- A
~ = rotA.
~
B
~
~
B rotA = (dA/dr)~e -;
,
2I
dA
= ,
dr
cr

r
2I
A(r) = ln
c
r0
(r0 , A = 0)

2I
r
~
A(r)
= ln ~ez .
c
r0

(4.17)

,
(4.12)
Z
I
dz
~

A(r)
=
~ez ,
2
c r + z 2

. , (4.11), (4.12) ,
.
4.4. (4.12), , .
a I
z = 0
P (r, ) (. 4.3).
P

4.4.

149

P 0 . P 0 , ,
, d~`1 , d~`2 ,
, R P . d~`1 + d~`2 , OP 0 2a cos 0 d0~e , ~e
, 0 d~`1 ( K . 4.3). , (4.12)
(2a cos 0 d0 /R)~e - P :
Z
cos0 d0
~ ) = 2Ia
A(r,
~e .
c 0
R
R (. . 4.3 KP ) KP 0 P
p
KP 0 = a2 + r2 sin2 2ar sin cos 0 , P P 0 = r cos .

, R = r2 + a2 2ar sin cos 0


z

cos 0 d0
~e .
r2 + a2 2ar sin cos 0
0
dl
(4.18)
q
K
r/a
a
P
O
.
r/a  1, r/a  1
dl
(. .
) . 4.3

r/a a/r:

0
2

cos [1 + r sin cos 0 + O( r )],


0
cos
a 0
a
a22

r2 + a2 2ar sin cos 0


cos [1 + a sin cos 0 + O( a )]
r
r
r2
~ A

r

~ ) = 2Ia
A(r,
c

h
i
~ ) = 1 r sin B0~e 1 + O( r ) ;
A(r,
2
a

(4.19)

150

4.
h
i
~ ) = m sin ~e 1 + O( a ) .
A(r,
r2
r

(4.20)

B0 = 2I/ca, m = Ia2 /c , B0 ,
~ , B
, z. (4.15)
, (4.19) B0~ez . m, (4.20), , , (4.20)
- .

4.5.

(4.10)
~ = rotA
~
B
div rot 0
~ = 0.
div B
(4.21)
(4.10)
~ = rot rotA
~ = grad div A
~ A,
~
rotB
(4.16), ~ = 0, divA
:
~ =
rotB

4 ~
j.
c

(4.22)

(4.21), (4.22) .
~
B
~ = 0, rotB
~ = 0.
div B
, (4.9)
~ = (2I/cr)~e
B

151

4.6.

r > 0
.

4.6.

(4.21), (4.22)
. , (4.21)
V , S,
Z
~
div BdV
= 0.

(4.21)
I
Bn ds = 0,
(4.23)
s

~ , B
. ~
, B
, . , , ,
, ,
.

. 4.4

. 4.5

152

4.


~ (. 4.4) B
, (. 4.5).
, ,
, , ,
.
.
I1 ( ) I2 ( ) , ,
.

.
~ ( E
), .
~ 6= 0,
, - . rotB
~
, B .
~ ` B
,
~ `
B
I
Z
~
B` d` = rotn Bds
n

. 4.6

~ S,
rotB
`.
`
~n S (. 4.6). (4.22) ,
I

B` d` =

4
c

jn ds,

, `. ,
, `,
(3.8) ~j

153

4.6.
z

i
L1

L2

n
l1
l2

L3

r1

r2

. 4.7

. , , ,

I
4
B` d` =
I
(4.24)
c
,
, , 4/c.
, ~ ,
E
(4.23), (4.24) .
4.5. . I,
N , a. (r, , z) z, . . 4.7
, z;
. ,
,

~i = N I~e ,
a.

154

4.

~ , B
r, . .
Br = Br (r),

B = B (r),

Bz = Bz (r).

~
, B 0. B
`1 , `2 (r1 < a, r2 > a,
. . 4.7, ). z. `1 `2 , (4.24) ,
, . .
2r1 B (r1 ) = 0,

2r2 B (r2 ) = 0

, , B = 0 , .
, Br 0.
~ B
(. . 4.7, ). ,
Bz (r) z . ,
(4.23)
Br = 0, ,
.
, z-
. L1 , L2 ,
L3 , , . 4.7, . L1 , ,
, H Bz = B0 = const r. L2 B` d` = 0 ,
B = const. (4.23), (4.24), . . , B 0. ,
L3 .
, , hN I
( h . 4.7, ). (4.24)
I
B` d` = h(B B0 ) = (4/c)hN I,
L3

B0 = 4N I/c. ,
~ = B0~ez ,
B

B0 = 4N I/c.

(4.25)

4.7.

155

, , , . , , .

4.7.

1. (4.23), (4.24) ,
~ B
. (4.23)
(1.10) . ~
, B
:
Bn1 = Bn2 .
(4.26)

N
i
l

t
n

t
N

i
. 4.8

t n
N
. 4.9

156

4.

(4.24). ,
S
~i, (3.4), (3.5).
~ `, . 4.8. B
. 1.18 . 1.19 . 1
~ = [~n ~ ], ~ , N
~
S. N
` I, , ~ )
iN = (~i N
~ ; , , I , N
, `,
h (. . 1.19) . ,
(1.21), ,
I
B` d` = (B 2 B 1 )`.
`

, (4.24) (4/c)iN `. , :
B 2 B 1 =

4
iN .
c

(4.27)

, 1 2
S, ~n
1 2.
,
,
~ . . 4.9 ~i N
~i S ( ~n )
~ . a ~
~ , N
~
i , iN = max;
B 2 , B 1 , B 2 > B 1 .
~ ||~i, iN = 0, , , ~
~ , . . B 2 = B 1 .
B
~ (4.27) B
h
i
~ ~n .
. , ~ = N

4.7.

157

i h
i

h

~ ~n = ~n B
~ N
~,
~ ~ = B
~ N
B = B


~ .
iN = ~i N

(4.27),

h
i
h
i 
~ ~n B
~
~ = 4~i N
~.
~n B
N
c
2
1

~ ,
N

h
i
h
i
~ = 4~i
~ ~n B
~n B
(4.28)
c
1
2
,
~ .
B
~ (,
2. B
, )
(4.21),(4.22) (4.26), (4.27). , , (. 4.10, ).
, , . 4.10, ,
~ ( . B
1 2 ) z

~ 1,2 = 0,
div B

~ 1,2 = 0.
rotB

,
S z = const.
~
B
Bn1 = Bn2 |
. Bz Bt , ~t

158

4.

, z = const, ~ez . 4.10, . Bt Bz (4.27)


~n, ~ . 4.8
. 4.10, .
y
~t n
t
-
e
~ ,
i
~ = [~n
(4.27). N
1 2
~ ] = [~n ~t] x
z
~ez .
G
, iN = iz = 0, ,
z
(4.27), t-
~
B
y
:
z

dl

Bt1 = Bt2 | .


~ez ~ ;
~ = [~n ~ ] = [~n ~ez ] = ~t, iN =
N
i 6= 0 (4.27)
B1z B2z = 4i/c.
( ,
, (4.27) . 4.10
.)
(x, y),
~ 2 | = 0,
B

( ).
.
~ = const , , B
~ 1,2 =
; , B

4.7.

159

= B1,2~ez z, Bn | 0, Bt | 0 Bn , Bt .
B1 = 4i/c,

B2 = 0,

. ,
(4.25), .
, , , , ,
. ,

, . , d` ,
. 4.10, . -
.
. ,
. 4.11, N  1 I,
.
= const z,
.
(4.24)
`1 , `2 , , - ( 1) ( 2)

B1 = 2N I/cr, B2 = 0.
, ,
,
. ,

~ 1 = (2N I/cr)~e , B
~2 = 0
B
(4.21), (4.22) (4.26),
(4.27) .
3. ,
,

160

4.

~ r) (~r) .
E(~
~ r) - A(~r),
. B(~
z
,
.
a
I
: ,
r0
-
, ea
I
; ,
- .
r
, , z
,
,
( z) . . 4.11
(4,9)
~ = Bx (x, y)~ex + By (x, y)~ez
B
~ = Br (r, )~er + B (r, )~ez
B

( ),

( ),

z, (4.17)

~ = A(x, y)~ez A
~ = A(r, )~ez ,
A
. ,
~ A(x, y) = const.
B
, ,

By (x, y)dx Bx (x, y)dy = 0,

161

4.7.
-
A
A
dx +
dy = dA = 0,
x
y

, , .

,
~ = Br (r, )~er + B (r, )~e , B
~ = Br (r, z)~er + Bz (r, z)~ez .
B
,
-, (4.18)(4.20), A (r, ) A (r, z).

4.6.
a
iz () = i0 sin m,
y
i0 = const , m = 1; 2; 3; . . .
, r
(. 4.12). ( 1)
a
( 2), 1 O
. 2
iz ()d, z.
. 4.12
, Br (r, ), B (r, ) A(r, )

~ 1,2 = rot[A1,2 (r, )~ez ] = 1 A1,2 ~er A1,2 ~e .


B
r
r
, (4.16)
A1,2 (r, ) = 0.

(4.29)

A2
4
A1

|r=a =
i0 sin m
r
r
c

(4.30)


A1 = A2 |r=a ,

162

4.

m=4

m=1
. 4.13

(4.26), (4.27) Br
~ r = a. ,
B B
~ 1 , (r = 0) B
~ 2 0.
(r ) B
A1 , A2 r = 0 r , . .
A1 |r=o 6= ,

A1 |r 6= .

(4.31)

(4.29)(4.31)
(1.24), . (4.31)
A1 (r, ) = C1 rm sin m,

A2 (r, ) = C2 rm sin m.

(4.30) C1 , C2 ,
A1 (r, ) =

2i0 a r m
( ) sin m,
cm a

A2 (r, ) =

2i0 a a m
( ) sin m.
cm r

~
B
m = 1 m = 4, . 4.13.

163

4.8.

4.8.



( )

1. , ~j , a. , ,
Z ~ 0
j(~r )dV 0
~ r) = 1
A(~
c
R(~r, ~r0 )
V

1/R(~r, ~r0 )
1
1 ~r ~r0
=
+ 3
R(~r, ~r0 )
r
r
(1.26), -, r  a ,

Z
Z
1
1
0
0
~ 0 (~r) + A
~ 1 (~r). (4.32)
~
~
j(~r )dV + 3 (~r ~r0 )~j(~r0 )dV 0 = A
A(~r) =
cr
cr
V

~0, A
~ 1 A

. (4.5),
dI, dl=dr
. 4.14,
-
x
I
I
~ 0 = dI
~ 1 = dI
dA
d~`, dA
(~r~r0 )d~`.
cr
cr3

H d~` = 0, ,
Z
~j(~r0 )dV 0 = 0
V

dV R
j(r)
r

z
r

O
dI
. 4.14

(4.33)

164

4.

(4.32)
~ 0 0.
A
~ 1 ,
, dA
0
~
d` d~r (. . 4.14).
I
~ 1 = dI
(~r ~r0 )d~r0 ,
dA
cr3
, ,
~r, , . , -,

(~r ~r0 )d~r0 = [[~r0 d~r0 ] ~r] + ~r0 (~r d~r0 ).


(4.34)

(4.34) , :
~r0 (~r d~r0 ) = d0 [~r0 (~r ~r0 )] (~r ~r0 )d~r0
(4.35)

( d ).

, (4.35)
.
I
I
dI (~r ~r0 )d~r0 = (dI/2)[ [~r0 d~r0 ] ~r]
, ,
Z
Z
1
0 ~ 0
0
(~r ~r )j(~r )dV = [ [~r0 ~j(~r0 )]dV 0 ~r].
2

(4.36)

, -
~ ~r]
~ 1 (~r) = [m
A
,
r3
Z
1
m
~ =
[~r0 ~j(~r0 )]dV 0 .
2c

(4.37)
(4.38)

m
~ . , ( ),

165

4.8.

~
m
~ B
. (4.37) ,
m
~ 6= 0; , (4.33)
m
~ .
~ = rotA
~ 1 . 2. B
(4.37) ,

1
1
~ ~r]
~ = rot [m
= 3 rot[m
~ ~r] + [grad 3 [m
~ ~r]].
B
r3
r
r

, m
~ = const, div ~r = 3, (m
~ )~r = m,
~
rot [m
~ ~r] = mdiv
~
~r ~rdiv m
~ + (~r )m
~ (m
~ )~r = 2m.
~
grad 1/r3 = 3~r/r5 ,
~ r
m
~
~ r) = 3(~r m)~
B(~
3
r5
r

(4.39)

~n = ~r/r,
- :
~ nm
~
~ r) = 3(~n m)~
.
B(~
r3

(4.40)

(4.39), (4.40) (1.30),


(1.300 ) d~
m.
~ , , . 1.29.
4.7. .
I
I
I
m
~ =
[~r0 d~r0 ].
2c

, [~r0 d~r0 ] = 2dS~n, dS (. 4.15), ~n


. ,
m
~ = (IS/c)~n

(4.41)

166

4.


.
4.8. dr
. r  a
z, y
, a = S r
S.
x
dz, O
dI = idz = IN dz, i = IN
. . 4.15
dm
~ = (dI S/c)~ez
-
~
dm
~ R
dm sin
=
~e
3
R
R2
( . 4.16),
-
r, , z.
, 0
z .

~=
dA

dm q
R

R sin = r,

z = rctg

dA =

. 4.16

sin
iS
iS
dz 2 =
sin d,
c
R
cr

iS
dA (r) =
cr

sin d =

2iS
,
cr

. . -

~ = ~e , = const,
A
r

4.9. ,

167

~ = rotA
~ 0. , B|
~ = 0, B
4.6, 4.7, .
~ , B
.

4.9.

1. ~j, , ,
~ , ,
F~ N
(4.2) ,
,
Z
1 ~ 0
~ r0 )]dV 0 ;
F~ =
[j(~r ) B(~
(4.42)
c
~ =1
N
c

~ r0 )]]dV 0 .
[~r0 [~j(~r0 ) B(~

(4.43)

2. , V a, ~ r) ( ) F~ N
~
B(~
m.
~
~ r) ,
B(~
a , , V
~
B

~ r0 ) = B(O) + (~r0 )B(~


~ r)|O ,
B(~
(4.44)
O ( . 4.17).
, - ~r,
(4.44) ~r0 . ,
~ r) , V rotB
~ 0,
B(~
~ r) = grad(~r0 B(~
~ r)).
(~r0 )B(~

(4.45)

168

4.

,
~ = (~r0 )B
~ + (B
~ )~r0 + [~r0 rotB]
~ + [B
~ rot~r0 ];
grad(~r0 B)
, (4.45) (4.44)

~ r0 ) = B(O) + grad(~r0 B(~
~ r))|O .
B(~
3. (4.46) (4.42), (4.33),
Z
1 ~ 0
~ r))|O ]dV 0 =
[j(~r ) grad(~r0 B(~
F~ =
c

(4.46)

B(r)
z

dV
r j(r)

Z
1
~ r))~j(~r0 )dV 0 ]|O
= rot[ (~r0 B(~
c

x
( ,
0
~j(~r ) rot ). ,
. 4.17
(4.36) ~ r). ~r B(~
,
Z
Z
1
1
0 ~
0
0
~ r)] = [m
~ r)]
~
~ B(~
(~r B(r))j(~r )dV = [ [~r0 ~j(~r0 )]dV 0 B(~
c
2c
V


m
~
~ r) m]|
F~ = rot[B(~
~ O.
O

~ m],
F~ = rot[B
~

~ m],
, [B
~ m
~ , .

4.9. ,

169

.
~ = 0,
, div B
m
~ = const,
~
F~ = (m
~ )B

(4.47)

, (4.45) ~r0 m,
~

~
F~ = grad(m
~ B).
(4.48)

(4.47), (4.48), ,
.
.
, (1.31), (1.34) .
:



~

~ E)
~
~
(
d

)
E
grad(
d




F~ =
=
~
~
grad(m
(m

~ B)
~ )B.

, ,
,
.
~ 4. N
~ r0 ),
(4.43) (4.44) B(~

Z
Z
1
1
0
0
0
~
~
~
~
~
~j(~r0 )dV 0
[~r [j(~r ) B(O)]]dV =
(~r0 B(O))
N=
c
c
V

1~
B(O)
c

(4.49)
(~r0 ~j(~r0 ))dV 0 .

~
(4.36) ( ~r B(O))

(4.38), ,
~
(4.49) [m
~ B(O)].
, ,
. .
I
I
I
(~r0 )2
= 0,
I (~r0 d~r0 ) = I d0
2

170

4.

. . . , V , , .
,
~ = [m
~
N
~ B],

(4.50)

,
~
, B.
~
5. (4.48) F
F~ = grad U
,
~
U (m
~ B).
(4.51)

U ,

~ Umin = mB
m
~ B;
, ~ .
B
, , U
~ m
B.
~
~j, m.
~
.

.
,
, , .
, ,
. . , , , . .

171

4.10.

4.10.

,

. , q
mq , (. 4.18),
m
~ J~ ,
.
,

I = q (v/2r) .
(4.41)

v r2
qvr
IS
~n = q
~n =
~n
c
2r c
2c
.

J
m

m
~ =

J~ = [~r mq ~v ] = rmq v~n

q,mq
v

. 4.18

. ,
, . .
q ~
m
~ =
J,
2mq c

v, r. ,
- e,
e ~
J ( ).
m
~ =
2me c
, . (), . m
~ J~

172

4.

, :
m
~ =

e ~
J ( ).
me c

, , ,
.
- (
) . e/2me c e/me c; -
, .

m
~ = g

e
2me c

~
J,

(4.52)

g (g-) .
,
.
, :
m
~ =g

e
2mp c

J~

( ).

mp , g g-. ,
g- 2,
. 5, 6 = 2 + 3, 6, 2
, 3,6 .
, .
g ' 3, 8. , .
,
.

4.11. .

4.11.

173

,
,
.
.
(4.48) ,
~ (4.50), m
N
~ ,
~
B.
~
, N
~ ,
B,
~
, B.

Jsinq

m
~ = g0 J~

[JB]
B q

. 4.19

(|g0 | ).
~

dJ/dt
=
h
i
~
m
~ B

h
i
dJ~
~ ,
= g0 J~ B
(4.53)
dt

, J~
,
~ . J~ , |J|
~ (. 4.19)
B
~
p , , ~ . . J sin p , g0 JB sin ,
J,
(4.53).
~ p = g0 B.
~

(4.54)

. .
,

174

U0

4.

U
j=1/2
jz=+1/2
jz=-1/2

U
j=1
wp
B U0

jz=+1
jz=0
jz=-1

wp
B
wp

. 4.20

,
.
, , . , , j
(
, ) ,
( Jz )
Jz = j~, (j 1) ~, . . . , j~
(2j + 1) , ~ = 1,054 1027
.

mz = g0 Jz .
(4.55)
, m
~ ~ = mz B. U = m
~ B
, ,
U = mz B
B. 1/2, 1 . 4.20, jz

4.11. .

175

Jz /~. ( (4.52),
.) (4.55) mz = |g0 |Jz , Jz = ~, ,
U = ~p ,
p = |g0 |B,
p , (4.54)
.
, U ,

,
~ = U.
.

. , , (4.52), |g0 | = g (e/2me c) fp = p /2



4, 8 1010

1
1 e
fp =
gB '
gB '
2 2me c
2 2 9 1028 3 1010


M
' 1, 4
gB.

g = 2, B = 104 fp 2, 8 1010 , 1.


1 e

fp =
gB
gB ' 0, 76
2 2mp c

g = 5, 6, B = 104 fp 4 107 103 .


;
. ,
, ,
, . . ,
p ( ), .

176

4.

, .
,
, . . g(e/2m0 c).

5.1.

1. ,
, , .
.
. , , , -
~ B
~ dV ,
dm
~ =M
~ = N hmi
M
~

(5.1)

,
. N , hmi
~
.
~ ,
2. B
~ ,
B
(4.21), (4.22):
~ = 4 ~j ,
rotB
c

178

5.
~ = 0.
div B

,
D
E
~
~ = B
B

:
~ =
rotB

E
4 D~
j ;
c

~ = 0,
div B

(5.2)
(5.3)

.
(5.2)
D
E
~j = ~j + ~jm
(5.4)

(5.2)
~ =
rotB

4 ~ ~ 
j + jm ,
c

(5.5)

~j ,
,
, , .
~jm . ,
(5.5), ~j, ,
,
~jm .
3. , ~jm - , . . ~ . , :
M
~,
~jm = c rotM

(5.6)

~ = const, . . , , , M
,
( ).
(5.6) ,

179

5.1.

(5.5) ~jm

~ = 4 ~j
(5.7)
rotH
c

~ =B
~ 4 M
~,
H

(5.8)

~ .
D
(. . ~ (5.1) B,
~
) M
:
~ (~r) = B
~ (~r) ,
M

(5.9)

~ B.
~ H

~ = H
~
B

(5.10)

.
4. (5.3), (5.7), (5.10) .

~ = 0,
~ = 0,
div B
rotE
rotH
div D
~ = (4/c) ~j,
~ = 4, ,
~ = H
~
~ = E
~
B
D

. , ~ D
( ), ~ H
~jm .
~ (5.5) (5.7), (5.10),
B,


~ .
~jm = c rot 1 B
(5.11)
4

, V = const, ~j

180

5.

~ = 0 rotB
~ = 0), V (. . rotH
, ~jm = 0,
(5.11).
~im , .
~ H
~
5. (5.8), B
. . ~ .
B
~ ,
H,
.

5.2.
z

O
x

~
~jm = c rotM
~ (~r) M
. , r
S,
~ 0. - A(~
~ r)

M
r
- ~r, y
(. 5.1). dV 0
~ (~r)dV 0 , M
. 5.1
(4.37) -
h
i
Z M
~ (~r0 ) R
~ (~r, ~r0 )
~ (~r) =
dV 0
(5.12)
A
R3 (~r, ~r0 )

dV
M(r)
R

V , S.

~
R
1
= grad0
,
R3
R (~r, ~r0 )


~ (~r0 ) R
~ (~r, ~r0 ) 
M
0
0 1
~
= M (~r ) grad
=
R3
R

5.3. -
181


1
1
~ (~r0 ) +
~ (~r0 ) .
= rot0
M
rot0 M
R (~r, ~r0 )
R (~r, ~r0 )

V , , ( ),
(5.12)
Z
~ (~r0 )
rot0 M
~ (~r) =
dV 0 .
A
R (~r, ~r0 )
V

(4.11) -
Z
1 ~j (~r0 ) dV 0
~
A (~r) =
c
R (~r, ~r0 )
V

,
~ (~r0 ) .
~jm = c rot0 M
, .
,
Z
rot~a dV = 0,
V

~a V ,
S.
, ~e = const:
Z
Z
~e rot ~a dV = (~e rot ~a) dV =
=

div [~a ~e] dV =

[~a ~e]n dS = 0.

~e , .

5.3.

(5.9), ,
~ , M
~
B, . .
~ = B.
~
M

182

5.

~ (5.8)
H
~
~
H = (1 4)B, , ,
= 1/(1
4),  1
1 = 4.

N
B

. 5.2

:
1) ~ (,
M
) ~ . . < 0, B,

< 1;
~
2) M

~ > 1.
B,
, . 1 :
| 1|  1,

. ,
, . 5.2,





~ BV
~
~ BV
~
F~ = M
= B
= grad(B 2 /2)V.
, (. .
), , , . .

1
106
4

0, 72
0, 20

1, 38 
0, 65
1, 10

183

5.3. -

.
, , ,
. ,
, ~ B.
,
. , , ~
r , B,
,

m
~ =

e2 r2 ~
B.
4me c2

(5.13)

,
~ B.
~ , 1 B

n'

6 1023
,
2


Ne = n,
3
~
, M = Ne m
~ = nm.
~

| 1|
M
e2 r2
=
= n
4
B
4me c2
( r = 0, 5 108 ):
2
2
3 1023 4,8 1010 0,5 108
3
| 1|
=
'
0,5 106
.
27
20
4
4 0,9 10
9 10

.
,
. , .

184

5.

, , .
. , . , ,
~ = 0. (4.51) M
~ m
~
U = m
~ B
~ B.

~ B
~
~
. M = B
~
B > 0.
, ,
4.11, ,
. ,
. , .

.
, . (4.51) (1.40).
2
~ = N m0 B,
~
M
3kT

(5.14)

m0 B/kT  1 , (2.20) . ,
, , m0 . ,
,

185

5.3. -
z-
Jz : j~, (j 1) ~, (j 2) ~, ..., j~,

~ (2j + 1) j . B
; z-
(4.52):
mz = g

e
Jz .
2me c

, z, mz U = mz B, eU/kT .
j = 1/2.
:
Jz =

1
e 1
1
~, mz = g
~ = g mB , U = m B,
2
2me c 2
2

1
e 1
1
~ = g mB , U = m B.
Jz = ~, mz = g
2
2me c 2
2

M
Nm*

mB =

e~
1
, m = g mB ;
2me c
2

mB , .
mz = m

N = Ce

. 5.3


= m B/kT .

(5.15)

C N = N+ + N ,
C(e + e ) = N. ,
M = (N+ N )m
M = N m

e e
= N m th.
e + e

186

5.

. 5.3 M () . ,
(. .  1)
,
~
B.
 1 (, T = 300 K, B = 104 , m = mB =
= 0,93 1020 / (5.15) ' 0,2 102 ) th
~ B
~
, M
:
2
2
~ = N g 2 mB B.
~
~ = N m B
M
kT
4kT
j = 1/2. :
2
~ = N g 2 j (j + 1) mB B.
~
M
3
kT

(5.14) ,

m0 mB = 0, 93 1020 /.

5.4.

1. ,
~ rotH,
~
(5.3), (5,7) (4.21), (4.22), rotB
. ,
~ (4.23) B
Bn
B1n = B2n

(5.16)

. (4.24)
I
`

H` d` =

4
I
c

(5.17)

187

R
~ ,
~ I =
~j dS
H,
`, ,
5.4.

4
iN ;
(5.18)
c
i
i h
h
~ 1 = 4~i.
~ 2 ~n H
~n H
(5.19)
c
~ (5.5),
B,
I + Im , :
I
4
(I + Im ) .
(5.20)
B` d` =
c
H 2 H 1 =

(5.20), (5.17)
I
I
4
(B` H` ) d` = 4 M` d` =
Im ,
c
`

. .
Z 

~
~jm dS
Im =

~ H
~ = 4 M
~ . ` B
,
I
(5.21)
Im = c M` d`

(5.6).
2. (5.6) , , . .
~jm = 0. ,
.
~ 0 = M0~ez , . M
`, , ~ M0 h.
. 5.4, , M
, Im = im h, , (5.21) im h = cM0 h , . .
:
~im = cM0~e .

(5.22)

188

5.

,
~ 0 V , Im = im h, h V = Sh, m
~ =M
h.
m
~ = (Im S/c) ~ez
(5.22) m
~ 0 V.
(5.22) . 5.4, . , , l
h
.
M0
, ,

im , .
im
3. (5.16), (5.18) (5.3), (5.7), (5.10)


im
.
-
: , , = const,
~ r)
B(~
~
B0 (~r), . 5.4
. (
, 2.3.) , , , , (5.3), (5.7), (5.10), = const

~ = 0,
div B

~ = (4/c) ~j,
rotB

~ ~j(~r).
B
V , , , -

5.4.

189

~ 2 0,
, S, B
~ 1 6= 0. B
V ,
~ (5.16) Bn ,
B.
~ H.
~ ,
B
~1
~
S i ( ), H
S (5.19),
~ 2 0
H
i
h
4~i
~1 .
= ~n H
c
~
~
, B1 , H1 V ,
~ 0 (~r) :
B

~1 = 0
~0 = 0
div B
div B

~ 1 = (4/c) ~j
~ 0 = (4/c) ~j
rotH
rotB

~
~
B1 = H1
.

B
=
0
Bi1n = 0
0n

h
i


h

~ 0 = 4~i/c
~ 1 = 4~i/c
~n B
~n H

,
~ 1 B
~ 0 ,
H
~ 1 (~r) = B
~ 0 (~r). , V ,
~j ~i, . . H
,
~ 1 = H
~ 1 = B
~0
B
~ 0 (~r). , B
. ,
,
. 4,
, ,
.
,
~i; ,
~im = ( 1)~i.

, , , 104 .

190

5.

,
.

5.5.

~ (~r) = B
~ 0 (~r), , B
~
~
B(~r), H(~r)
. ,
,
, , .

, , .
5.1. I l1
r
m1
a
I
1 , 2 . ~ 1, B
~ 2 1, 2,
B
m2
l2
r > 0, 0 < < (
1) r > 0, < < 2 ( 2),
r, , . 5.5. . 5.5

,
~ 1,2 = 0, rotB
~ 1,2 = 0.
div B
(1)
= 0, =
B1 = B2 ,

(1/1 ) B1r = (1/2 ) B2r

(2)

~ B
~ r = 0 ( z), I, H.

I
H` d` = (4/c) I,

5.5.

191

~ `, H
z, . ` `1 , `2 , 1 2 (. 5.5),

Z
Z
1
4
1
B1` d` +
B2` d` =
I.
(3)
1
2
c
`1

`2

(2) ,
(4.9)
kI, . .
~ 1,2 = k 2I ~e ,
B
(4)
cr
(1). (2)
. k


2I
1
1
4
k r
+
=
I,
cr
1
2
c
k = 21 2 / (1 + 2 ).
~ (4), , B,
~ 0 = (2I/cr) ~e , B
, . .
~ (r) = k B
~ 0 (r) ,
B

(5)

k, ,
, 1 , 2 . (5) ,
, kI.
, = 0, = ,
~ H
~ , B,
; 1, 2
, . 4 5.1.
5.2. a (),
~ . I, . B
~ ,
B
~
B

192

5.

~0, B
~1 :
B
1
~ = kB
~ 1 + pB
~0,
B
1
~
~
B = k B1 ,

(6)

~ 0 I,
B
1
~ 1 I. ( , B
. 5.6 .)
p, k, (6), , Bn
~ 1 k B
(6). H
, ,
~ 1,
(6) B
.

B1

B1
B1

r
b
O a

I
G

. 5.6

. 5.7

~ 1 : B
a ,
B1 = I/ca,

(5.23)

. ,
~ 1 B1 = 2I/(c),
(. 5.7) B
B1 =
= B1 cos = 2I cos /(c). = 2a cos , (5.23).

5.5.

193

, H , p, k (6)


2I
I
k I
1
p +k
=
, . . 2p =
1 k.
(7)
ca
ca
ca

~ , I.
H
, ,
~ 0 , . 5.6. B
1

I
I
0
~ 1` d` = 4 I.
~
p B1` d` + k B
c
`0

`0

4I/c.
,
p + k = 1.

(8)

(7), (8), p, k a . (, ,
, , , , , ~ 1 ,
B
a.
k = 2/( + 1).)
:
~ =
B
~ =
B

1 ~0
2 ~
B1
B
+1
+1 1
2 ~
B1
+1


~ = 2B
~1 B
~0 ,
B
1


~ = 2B
~1 .
B

(  1.)
~ I, , B
2/( + 1) .
, ( 1)/( + 1) I.
5.3.
, . , , ,

194

5.

. 5.8. (
)
~ =
B

2 ~
B0
+1

I
m
~ 0,
B
-I
, 2/( + 1) .
5. 1,
,
2/(+1) (
 1). ,
. 5.8
, .

5.6.

~ , ,
A.
~ 0, ,
, rotH
~ = grad
H

(5.24)

.
, , , , , ,
. (
.)
~ 0 = const, B


~ 0 ~r ,
, (~r) = B
. = const -

195

5.6.

, .
,
,
.
~ 0
5.4. B
a = const.
~ .
B
, ~ . 2. , H
(5.24). = const
( 1), = 1 ( 2) . ~ Bn . H
~2 = B
~ 2
H
~
~ B
~
B0 . , H,

~ D
~ , E
~ 0 B
~ 0 E,
, 2.4.
,
~1 =
H

3 ~
B0 ,
+2

~1 =
B

3 ~
B0 ,
+2

~2 = H
~ 2 B
~ 0
B

1~ 3
d~ =
B0 a ,
+2
 
~ 2 = grad2 , 2 = B0 r cos + d r2 cos .
. .
B

,
- B2 B1 . H1 = H2 = B2 , B2
B1 = H1 H1 = (1 ) H1 , ,
im =

c
c
3
(1 ) H1 =
( 1)
B0 sin .
4
4
+2

 1. -

196

5.
3 r/a
B

2
1
0

Bz/B0

. 5.9

~ , B
~ . 5.9, . B,
,
. 5.9, ,
~ 0 .
B
 1
B

3B
,

1
i 0
h
3
Bz = B ( = /2) B0 1 (a/r) , . .

, r = 3 2a B0 /2,
B0 . ,
~  1
B
~
H .
5.5. B0
r

m a
q
~ 0 . B
~ .
B
z
1 b
 1,
2
3
. , . 5.10
~ (5.24),
H
(. 5.10) 1,2,3 = 0
:

5.7.

197

r = a 1 = 2 , 1 /r = 2 /r;
r = b 2 = 3 , 2 /r = 3 /r;
3 = B0 r cos ;
r = 0 1 (r, ) .

1 (r, ) = B1 r cos ,
 
2 (r, ) = H2 r cos + d r2 cos ,
  
3 (r, ) = B0 r cos + D r2 cos ,

B1 , H2 , d, D r = a,
r = b. B1 , ,
"
#1
2
a3
9
2 ( 1)
B1 =
1
B0 ,
(2 + 1) ( + 2)
(2 + 1) ( + 2) b3
 1 (a/b)3  1
B1 (9/2) B0  B0 .
,
.

5.7.

1. , ,
, , ,
- .
, .
,
,

198

5.

( ) . ,
, , , 102 .
. , ,
, . ,
, ,
.
,
,
MS = mB N,
mB , N ,
. , , , H 1,
B 104 , . .
104 . ( , H, . 3, 4 .) , ,
B(H)
.
B H M B , .
2. , (5.3), (5.7), (5.8)
~ = 0,
div B
~ = (4/c) ~j,
rotH
~ =B
~ 4 M
~
H
, . ~ = H;
~
B

199

5.7.

~ H
~ M
~
B
~
B.
, ,
, , . ~ (~r) M
,
~ r). ,
B(~
~ (B)
~ . , M
,
. ,
~, B
~ (, H)
~
M
:
~ ||B
~
M

~ H.
~
B||

(5.25)

~ B
~
M
~
~
B H .
, ~ ,
H
~ B
.
3. , . 3
5.4. , , ~ 0 , .
B
= const, ~ , B
~ 0 ,
H
.
,
(5.25), . ,
. 2 4.7. ,
~ H
~ , B
, . .
~ = (2N I/cr) ~e .
H
(5.26)

200

5.

(5.7)
h
i
~ = (4/c)~i.
(5.19), ~n H
~ B
~ H
~
H,
~ . ,
(. . H)

~ = B (r) ~e ,
B
(5.3), (5.16)
Bn = 0 . , ~ (5.26) B H H
. , ,
,
B(H).
, ,
.
B , , H , .
B
( ) , , , . B. B H , B H
.
(5.26), , , . .
a  r0 , a, r0 . 4.11.
, H = 2N I/cr0 , B
.
4. . 5.11 .
, B H
1, . B H; ,
B, H (. .
). B ,

201

5.7.
B,

B,

15000
10000

15000
2

5000 1
-2

-1

10000
3
1

H,

-2

-1

H,

-5000
-10000

-10000

-15000

-15000

. 5.11

. 5.12

(, B = H). , , M ,
,
. H B ;
. H
MS
B = H + 4MS 4MS = BS
. B H , B BS .
, B
2. H , B ,
. .
Br . H = Hc (Hc
) B
2 ,
. 3 2. 2 3
.
, B = f (H), B
H , . , , . 5.12, B(H)

202

5.

B
l=l+l

I
l

. 5.13


~ = H.
~
B
.
, , .

5.8.

. ,
, . 5.13.
` ~ .
B
,
:
~ =H
~ =B
~ .
B

(5.27)

203

5.8.

,
~ .
Bn H
H , B ( , B
) I, N
.
~ `, ` ` (. 5.13):
H
(5.28)

H ` + H` = (4/c)N I,
(5.27)
B = H

`
4
1
+
NI .
`
c
`

(5.29)

, . 5.14. (5.29), . .
(5.29)
B
, (5.29)
H , B (. .
Br b a
5.14). ,
I d
, , 4p NI
H
-Hc 0
c l
. , I,
a. ,
. 5.14
I,
H , B
b . ,
(5.29) H H = (4/c)(N I/` ), H `  ` B0
. H
` /` . , H > (` /` )Br b (5.29) ,
, B = B Br . , ` /` = 102 ,
B = Br = 104 , ,
B0 = 102 .

204

5.

,
100 .

B =
H . B = B
(5.29)
B=

4N I
1
.
c ` + (` /)

(5.30)

,  ` /` , (5.30)
B = B0 ` /` ,
, .
, ( ).
(5.29) , ,
B = B , d.
: (, ), , . . .
,
Br Hc ( , ).
. . 5.15 ( ) ,
( A, B)
().
, d
B = H (` /` ),
. 5.14 , . , ` /`  1, d
B , , Br . B = B Br : B < Br . ,

205

5.8.
F

(5.32)

12000

8000
6000

B,

10000

4000

B
8000

7000

6000

5000

C
4000

D
3000

2000

A - Co5Sm -
B - Co3,3Fe0,5Cu0,25Sm0,75
C - CoPt
D - c
E - 9
F - 5

2000
1000

H,

. 5.15

B = Br , .
H ,
, (5.28)
I = 0, , ~ ` = ` + ` (.
H
. 5.13). B,
H = (` /` )B,

(5.31)

- B = B Br .
,
(5.31) ,
. 5.15,
Br . , , , . 5.15,
104 (1 ) . ,
,
. , ,

.
, , . ,

206

5.

, .
, .
z . ~ 1, H
~ 1 , B
~ 1
, B
~ ; H
~ 1 M
, . .
~ 1 = B1~ez ,
B

~ 1 = H1~ez .
H




D
~
~
B2 = H2 = grad
cos .
r2
~ = 0,
, rotH
~ = 0,
div B
Br , H r = a:
2D
D
cos , H1 sin = 3 sin .
3
a
a
D,
B1 cos =

H1 =

1
B1 ,
2

(5.32)

~ . H
, (5.32)
B1 , , (. .
5.15, (5.32) , ). , (5.31),
B . . 5.15,
Hc 5 103 .
, A . 5.15
; , Br = 104 Hc = 9, 5 103
.

, ,
.
.
,
.
,
, , , .
, , ,
.

208

6.

B(t)
I(t)
. 6.1

6.1.

, ,
1831 . , .



Z
1 d
E =
= Bn dS ,
(6.1)
c dt
E .
~ S, `,
B
~n
S .
(6.1) E , ,
( ). , ,
(. 6.1),
,
, .
,

209

6.1.

.
(,
).

( ).
,
.
, ,
,
. , , (. 6.2). B~0
, ~v , ,
B~0 .
, (3.24)
I
v
E = f~ d~`
a

B0


, l
,
. 6.2
. ( )
, h i . , ~ 0
, f~ = (1/c) ~v B
. ,
1
E = vB0 a,
c
(1/c) (d/dt), d/dt =
= vB0 a.

210

6.2.

6.

, ,
, .
, ? .
,
()
.
.
.
. ~ E

!
Z
Z
I
~
1
1
B
Bn
~n dS =
dS.
(6.2)
E` d` =
c
t
c
t
. , . . , , , .
, .

~
E,
~
. E
, ,
, . .
6.1. .
(5.13),
5.3 -

211

6.2.

. ,
(. 6.3). , ~ B B1 .
B.
. , ,
~
. E
, , . 6.4,
~ ,
E
. hE` i ~
E
2r < E` >=

1 d
r dB
, hE` i =
.
c dt
2c dt

B(t)
n
r

-e,m

v
. 6.3

. 6.4

,
e hE` i
me

e dB
dv
= e hE` i = r
dt
2c dt

( ,
v/c e2 /~c
1/137). B 0 B1
v =

e
rB1 ,
2me c

212

6.

m
~ = (evr/2c) ~n

er
e2 r2 ~
m
~ = v~n =
B1 .
2c
4me c2
, .
(6.2) . (6.2)
, ,
I
I
~
E` d` = rotn EdS,

(6.2)
~ =
rotE

~
1 B
.
c t

(6.3)

. , (6.3) ~ = 0.
rotE
(6.3) ,
div rot 0

~ =0
div B
t

(6.4)

~ .
div B

~ = 0,
div B

(6.5)

(6.4) , (6.5) .
(6.3), (6.5)
~
~ = 1 B ,
rotE
c t
~ =0
div B
.

6.3.

6.3.

213

(6.3),
~ E
~
. B,
. , (4.10)
~ = rotA,
~
B
(6.6)
(6.5), (6.3)
!
~
1 A
~
rot E +
= 0,
c t

~
~ = 1 A drad .
E
c t

(6.7)

~ E
~
, B,
(6.6) (6.7).
, , ,
~ -
B
.
:
~
, A
~0 = A
~ + grad f (~r, t), 0 = 1 f ,
A
c t
~ E
~ f (~r, t)
B,
~
( ). , A
. , , ,
. , -,
~=0
div A

(6.8)

( ). ,
~+
div A

1
= 0,
c t

(6.9)

214

6.

.
- .
(6.6) ,
Z
Z
I
~
= Bn dS = rotn AdS = A` d`,
S

(6.10)

A` d`,


- .

6.4.

(6.3), (6.5),
. ,
, , . (5.7)
~ =
rotH

4 ~
j
c

(5.17)
I
Z
4
4
I=
H` d` =
jn dS
c
c
`

. (5.7), (5.17) , . -, (5.7)

+ div~j = 0,
t

6.4. .

215

(5.7) div~j = 0. -,
(5.17) , ,
,
, S2
S1
. 6.5, . , j
l j
, `,

S1 , , I = a2 j
(a );

S2 , S e -S

E
E
, I = 0.
D
,

. 6.5
(5.17) .

, ( ,
).
;
j=

.
t

(6.11)

(2.17) D E
(. . 6.5, ):
D E = 4.

, (6.11)
E, D
1 D
1 E
j=

,
4 t
4 t

j+

1 D
1 E
=
.
4 t
4 t

(6.12)

, , ,
~
(1/4) D/t,
.

216

6.

, ,
~
~j = 1 D
(6.13)
4 t
(5.7)

~
~ = 4 ~j + 1 D .
rotH
(6.14)
c
c t
,
~
~j = ~j + ~j = ~j + 1 D ,
4 t
,
div~j = 0.
,
; , . 6.5
(6.12),

.
,
1
~ = 0;
div~j +
div D
4 t

~ = 4
div D

(6.15)

. ,
(6.13) ,

.
, (6.14). (6.14)
(6.15) .

217

6.4. .
, :
~ =
rotE

~
1 B
,
c t

~ = 0;
div B
(6.16)

~
~ = 4,
~ = 4 ~j + 1 D , div D
rotH
c
c t

(2.12) (5.3), (5.7) .
,
(j = 0) ( = 0) , :
~ =
rotE
~ =
rotH

~
1 B
,
c t

~
1 D
,
c t

~ = 0,
div B
~ = 0.
div D

, .
4~j/c 4 (6.16), ,
, . , , -
. ,
.
.
~
(1/4) E/t,
, .

j =

~
~
1 D
1 E
P~
=
+
4 t
4 t
t

, ( ), ,
~
P~ (2.1),
P P /t

ei~vi

218

6.

, . ,
~
~j = 1 E + ~j,
4 t
~
~j = P ,
(6.17)
t
. . ~j .

6.5.

1. , , (
).
( ), ( ).
, , . . ,
.
.
. ,
.
.
( ) . (6.14) , , .
= 2/ :
~j = 1 D 1 E E, j = E.
4 t
4
, j  j
 .

(6.18)

6.5.

219

1016 1018 1/c.


(6.18) , , ,
.
( 1012 1/c) < 1010 1/c
.
,
.
, .
, (6.18)
.
, , , ~ . , B,
(4.8). ,
~j(~r, t),
, (4.8), . .
h
i
Z ~j (~r0 , t) R
~
1
~ (~r, t) =
B
dV 0 ,
(6.19)
c
R3
. ,
~ , . . ~r
B
~ r, t) ,
t B(~
. , , ,
, . , ,
.
, ` ,
,
,
`  c

(6.20)

220

6.

(, `
). , c
, , (6.20)
`  , = c,
(6.21)


, .
2. (6.18), (6.20) ,
, , .
-,
:
I
4 ~
~
~
j div j = 0 jn dS = 0
rotH =
c


I(t) , .
~
-, (3.23) ~j = (E+
~
+E )
(. . 2 3.3), I(t)

RI(t) = E(t).

(6.1) . ,
: ,
,
E , , - , ( E ),
.

RI = E + E
(6.22)
E .
, (6.19)

6.5.

221

(4.5)
I ~ ~
I(t)
d` R
~
B (~r, t) =
.
c
R3
, ,
, I(t)
( ).

=

L
I.
c

(6.23)

L/c,
c , L ,
. , L
.
, , (L = const) :
E =

L dI
1 d
= 2 ;
c dt
c dt

(6.24)

.
(6.24) (6.22) ,
L R
L dI
+ RI = E (t).
c2 dt

(6.25)

, , , I0
I(t) = I0 et/

(6.26)

= L/Rc2 .
, , , =
= c2/. , 50
6 . . , ,

222

6.

.
,
.
3.
, . (6.26)
(6.25),
, ,
.
, ( z = 0) ,

~i = i0 (r)~e ,

. 6.6

(6.27)

, . 6.6. , , , , i0 (r) 6= 0
r < R0 . ,
(6.27) , -
~ 0 (r, z) = A0 (r, z) ~e ,
A

-,
r, z (. (4.18)). ,
~
~i = E,
(6.28)

~ ~i B
t > 0.
, ;
~ (r, z, t) = A (r, z, t) ~e .
A
A (r, z, t), i (r, t)
A (r, z, t).

6.5.

223

,
A (r, z, t) z = 0,

z > 0. Br = A/z, Bz = (1/r)(rA)/r
~
B
Br (r, z, t) = Br (r, z, t) ,
Bz (r, z, t) = Bz (r, z, t) .

(6.29)

A(r, z, t)
rot rot [A (r, z, t) ~e ] = 0,



A
A
2A
1
2 = 0.
r
+
2
r r
r
z
r

(6.30)

( , A0 (r, z)
.) Bz z = 0 (6.29). Br = Hr (6.29) Br
2Br (r, 0, t) = (4/c)i (r, t), . .

A
2
|z=0 =
i (r, t).
z
c

(6.31)

(6.28) i (r, t) = E (r, 0, t)


E (r, z, t) =

1 A (r, z, t)
,
c
t

(6.7) 0, (6.31)
2 A
A
= 2
|z=0 .
(6.32)
z
c
t
, ,

A(r, z, 0) = A0 (r, z).

(6.33)

(6.30), (6.32), (6.33) .

224

6.

(6.32) , A0 (r, z) (6.30),


A(r, z, t) = A0 (r, ), = z + V t

(6.34)

, z ( )
V =

(6.35)

, 2 A/z 2 =
= 2 A0 / 2 A(r, z, t) (6.34)
(6.30);

B0

c2
.
2

A
A0
A
A0
=
V,
=
,
t

,
(6.35).
(6.34) ,
z

t , z > V t.
0 < z < V t B(t )
~ 0 (r, z)
B
O
r
,
Vt {
, . 6.7.
. 6.7

i0 (r), 6.8, ~ , B,
z. . 6.7, , , (~
) . t1 > 0 B
V t1 , .
6.7, .
1

6.6.

225

(6.34) ,
~ 0 (r, z), (6.27),
B
` z, t,

V t = `,
.
V, (6.35), , , (3.4),
= . ,
t = 2`/c2

(6.36)

, , , , .
( , R0
, , ` .) ,
t > 0
(6.31)
(6.34)
i (r, t) =

c A
c A0 (r, z)
|z=0 =
|z=V t .
2 z
2
z

(6.37)

(6.36) , (6.21)

 1.
c
, ( = 5 1017 1/c) = 0, 1
106
.

6.6.

,
.

226

6.

,
.

~ =
rotE

~
1 B
,
c t

~ = 0.
div E

(6.38)

~ r, t)
, B(~
~
E (6.38) ,

~0 = E
~ + grad (~r, t),
E
~ E
, (6.38), div grad = 0.
,
4.3 6.3. (6.38) ~ r, t)
, B(~
;
,
~ , , .
E
~
,
H E ,
1.8 E` d` = 0,
~
(6.2), E
0 0
p1 p1 p2 p2 (. . 1.9)
.
~ , B

. , ~ .
E
, ( )
z:
~ = B(t)~ez .
B
(6.39)
~
E
~ = (1/c)B(t)~
ez , div E
~ =0
rotE

(6.40)

227

6.6.

(4.14)
~ 0 , - B
. 4 ( 4.2).
:
~ 1 = r B(t)~
e ;
E
2c

(6.41)

ey .
~ 2 = x B(t)~
(6.42)
E
2c
6.7 , , , - .

, (6.41), (6.42),
(6.39).
6.2 .
, , . 6.8.
d  (b, `), `  a.

r
d
c
0 =
a b

i(t
)

=
p
= c2/ = 2a b/d  a. , l
, ,
a
d
i(t)

b
a
(6.39), B(t) = 4i(t)/c.
. 6.8

, ~
B(t).
,
. , -

228

6.

~ E,

r = a:
(6.43)

E (a, t) = 0.
y

ea
r
eb r
a
O

b
O

. 6.9

. 6.10

(6.43) (6.40) . .
(6.41), (r, ) (. 6.9),
(6.40), r = a E1 = (a/2c)B(t)
(6.43). , ~ = 0, div E
~ = 0,
rotE
-.
, . 5
5.2 ( (5.23)). ,
r = a
r = a x. 00 ~
(, ) (. 6.9), E
~ = 2(t) ~e
E
c

E |r=a= =

(t)
,
ca

5.2. ,
~1 + E
~ ,
(t) = (a2 /2)B(t),
E

6.7. . -

229

(6.40) (6.43), :


2

~ = B(t) r~e + 2a ~e ;
E
2c

,
. 6.10. , r < a, 00 ,

.

6.7.

.
-

, .
.
, (6.22), (6.1)
I=

1
1 d
E =
.
R
cR dt

, d/dt,

, . , , , , ,
, . , , , ,
,
. ,
, . , , .
.

230

6.

. , (-),

.
,
~ 0 , v
B
E
. (
, , , B(t)
.) , . 6.11, , . 6.11
;
.

.
R(t)
R2
~
(6.44)
B(t)
= B0 2 0 ~ez ,
R (t)
R0 .
-
( )
.
.
, -, 28 ,
-16. 400
. ( )

.

6.7. . -

231


- ,
. 6.12. ( y = b = const, y, .) a(t)

a0
~
~ez .
B(t)
= B0
a(t)
, , .
.

v
B(t)

x
0 a(t)
(6.2)
r < R(t).

dB
1
,
2rE (r, t) = r2
c
dt

. 6.12

. . E (r, t) = (r/2c)B(t),
(6.41).
B(t) (6.44),
E (r, t) =

r dR/dt
B(t),
R(t) c

(6.45)

, E
|v|
B(t)
c
.
(6.40), : Ex = 0 y = b; Ey = 0 x = 0.
~ = (x/c)B(t)~
ey , (6 42).
E
B(t)
Ey (x, t) =

x da/dt
B(t).
a(t) c

(6.46)

232

6.

~ , E
,
. , (6.45), (6.46)
.

6.8.

1. , , ,
.
,
,
(-).
2.
~ =
rotH

4 ~
E,
c

~ =
rotE

~
1 B
,
c t

(6.47)

(6.16)

.
, , ,
~ . , (6.47) E,
~
B:
2
~
B
~ = c rotrotH,
~
= c rotE
t
4
. .
~
c2
B
~
=
rotrotB.
t
4

~ = rotrotB
~ + graddiv B,
~
B

6.8.

233

~ = 0,
4.4, div B

~
c2
B
~
=
B.
(6.48)
t
4

~
c2
E
~
=
E
t
4

(6.49)

~ ,
(6.47) B,
= 0.
(6.48), (6.49)
.
3. i
j(r)
i, (. 6.13).
t = 0
,
Bz = 4i/c,
. 6.13
.
t = 0 (
, ) . ,

, , .
,
,
.
, , ,
,
t > 0 .
, Bz (r, t)
r a t > 0


c2 1
Bz
Bz
=
r
,
(6.50)
t
4 r r
r

234

6.
T

Bz
t=0

T0
t2 > t1

t1 > 0

t=0

B0
t2 > t1

a r

t1 > 0

a r

. 6.14

Bz (a, t) = 0 ( t > 0)
Bz (r, 0) = B0 = 4i/c.
.
T , . 6.14.
Bz r ,
.
, (6.50)
,
.
,
2a (. 6.15).
Bz (x, t)
c2 2 Bz
Bz
=
,
t
4 x2
Bz (a, t) = Bz (a, t) = 0
Bz (x, 0) = B0

(|x| < a, t > 0) ,


( t > 0),
(|x| a) .

(6.51)

Bz (x, t) = f (t) F (x),


(a)

235

6.8.

, 1.10, f (t), F (x)


f 0 (t)
F 00 (x)
=
= k 2 .
f (t)
F (x)

()

= c2 /4 k 2 (k ),
,
. () (),
2

ekn t (Cn cos kn x + Dn sin kn x).

()

(6.51)
( ,
x), kn = (n 21 ) a :
Bz (x, t) =

Cn ekn t cos kn x.

()

n=1
z

x = a .
B (x,t)
- i
i
.
x
, -a
a
O
|x| a
B0 ,
|x| = a, 3a, 5a, . . . . Cn . C1 =
. 6.15
= (4/)B0 .
() , , .
t >
z

Bz (x, t) =

x t/
4
B0 cos
e
,

2a

4 (2a)
.
2 c2

236

6.

, x
, .
, , ( ) ` (

`) (6.48), (6.49)
c2 1
1
=
.
(6.52)

4 `2
, ( = 5 1017 1/c) R = 0,5 102
4R2 /c2 .
(6.52)
. (6.36),
, :
` , ;
(6.36)
, , .
,
. ,
, .
6.3 . .
(6.27) . ,
h  r0
(. 6.16). I0 . ,
- ,
(6.27).
, ,
(6.52), 0 4 2 /c2 . ,
, 0 , .

6.8.

237

, t = 0 I0 , z = 0 i0 (r)~e ,
.

z
t > 0
r0

I0
.
h
1
. 3 6.5,

2
-. A (r, z)~e
- I0 ,
. , . 6.16
: A(r, z)~e z > 0 -
-, ; A0 (r, z)~e
z < 0 - , . z = 0 (. . 6.16),
.
I0 . A(r, z), A0 (r, z)
z = 0.
, - 1,2 (. .
6.16)
:
A1 = A (r, z) + A (r, z) ,
A2 = A (r, z) + A0 (r, z) .
~ 2
, B
I0 - ~ 2|(t=0) =
, . , B
0
0 A (r, z) 2
i0 (r). , A(r, z), A0 (r, z)
z = 0, .
, A(r, z), A0 (r, z), ~
, B,

238

6.

z
V

r0

I0

r0

I0

h+Vt

h
h+Vt

. 6.17

i0 (r)~e . (6.34)
:
A1 (r, z, t) = A (r, z) + A (r, z + V t) ,
A2 (r, z, t) = A (r, z) + A0 (r, z V t) ;
V , (6.35). ,
,
( . 6.17 ,
) I0 , I0 , . 6.17 .
- h + V t .
. , h
r0 h  r0


m
~ = I0 r02 /c ~ez .

, i (r, t), ( 1) (

6.9. . -

239

2), . 6.18. t = 0 ~ , . 6.7


z = h. B,
~ 0 .
B
~
r- B:
B1r|z=0 = B2r|z=0 = h

:
i (r, t) =

3m (h + V t) r
i5/2
2
(h + V t) + r2

c
3mc
(h + V t) r
B1r|z=0 =
i5/2 ;
h
2
2
2
(h + V t) + r2
i0 (r) = i (r, 0).

r = (h + V t)/2,

3
Vt
24
I0 r02

i (r, t)max =
= i0max 1 +
.
h
25 5 (h + V t)3
, ; , V = h,
(6.36), `
h.
z


h+Vt m
0 . , = 0 (h/2)  0 . , 1
0
2

-(h+Vt) m
,

.
. 6.18

6.9.


. -

1. ,
-

240

6.

. , .
, ,
f (~r, t) = f (~r) eit ,

(6.53)

f (~r) ,
eit ,
. , ,
(6.53). , , , , ,
.
, . (, )
(
).
(6.53), , |f (~r) |ei(~r) .
,




f (~r, t) = Ref (~r) eit = f (~r) cos [t + (~r)] ,
(6.54)

, . ,

.
, (6.54),
, . .
2

2
1

f (~r, t) = f (~r) .
(6.55)
2

2. (6.48), (6.49).

~ (~r, t) = B
~ (~r) eit , E
~ (~r, t) = E
~ (~r) eit
B

6.9. . -

241

( ), ,
=

c
2

(6.56)


~ 2i B
~ = 0, E
~ 2i E
~ = 0.
B
2
2

(6.57)

, , ,
.
- (. . 6.15), .

i0 eit ,
. z-
(x) eit ;
Bz (x, t) = B

(6.58)

(x)
B

2i
d2 B
2B
= 0.
2
dx

(6.59)

, , 2a  , . . ; ,
,
x = 0, , ( ). x = 0

(0) = B0 , B
() = 0 (B0 = 4i0 /c) ,
B
(6.60)
x > 0. (6.59)

e 2ix/ = e(1+i)x/ ,
, (6.60), :
(x) = B0 e(1+i)x/ = B0 ex/ eix/ .
B

242

6.

(6.58)

x
.
Bz (x, t) = B0 ex/ cos t

, , ,
(6.54),




B (x) = B0 ex/ ,






. B
(x) iwt
i0e
^
|B(x)|
e , (. 6.19).
2a  , , x
0
2a
x = 0,
x = 2a, . 6.19
, . ,
. 6.19
.
,
-. -.
~
B
(6.47).
z

y (x) =
E

c 1+i
c dB
=
B0 e(1+i)x/ ,
4 dx
4

Ey (x) =
B0 ex/ ei/4 eix/ .
4

6.9. . -

243

, , , . ,
- ,
e .
(6.56), . , ( = 1, = 5 1017 1/c) 50 ( = 100) 1 ,
100 = 0, 1 .
3. , , .
, ,
.
, , ,
.
I0 eit a
(r) eit .
jz (r, t) = Ez (r, t) = E
(r)
E

1 dE
2i
d2 E
+
2E
= 0,
2
dr
r dr

(6.61)

(6.57) , r = 0, r = a:
(0) , E
(a) = E0 ,
E

(6.62)

E0 , I0

Za
(r)2rdr = I0 .
(6.63)
E
0

(6.61)(6.63) .
a  ,
(r) E
r = a, (6.61),

244

6.

E0 /(a), E0 / 2 (6.61)

2i
d2 E
2E
= 0,
2
dr

(6.59).
(r) = E0 e(1+i)(ar)/ ,
E
= a r
.
E0 I0 , (6.63).
- , r a
0 . (6.63)

Z
2aE0 e(1+i)/ d = I0 ,
0

E0 =

1+i
2
I0 =
I0 ei/4 .
2a
2a

,
(r) =
E

2
I0 e(ar)/ ei/4 ei(ar)/ .
2a

(6.64)

R , `. , , (3.19),


hQi = R I 2 (t) = (1/2)RI02 .

-

(3.20) Ez2 (r, t) , , (6.55)
(6.64),
1 2

2/
E (r) =
.
2 I0 e
2
(2a)

245

6.10.

hQi = 2a`

2
2 I0

(2a)

e2/ d =

` 1 2
I .
2a 2 0

(6.65)

,
R=

`
.
2a

, a 
2a.

6.10.

1.
.
, I. .
W , .
, , E I.
, dt
dW = E (t)I(t)dt
(6.25) R = 0
dW =

L
IdI.
c2


,
2
LI 2
.
(6.66)
W = 2 =
2c
2L
,
mv 2 /2 = p2 /2m;

246

6.

(6.66) L, I/c,
p = mv LI/c = .
2. , (6.66) , (),

Z 

1
~ ~j dV
W =
A
(6.67)
2c
V

. (6.10)

H
~
~
=
A d` , ,
(6.66), (6.23)
Z 
I 


1
1
1
~
~ ~j dV.
~
A
W = I = I
A d` =
2c
2c
2c
`

, (6.67), (4.5),
,
Id~` ~jdV .
3. (6.66) ,

. , (6.23), . ,
B = 4N I/c`, ` ,
N . 0 = BS
, , (1/c)d0 /dt.
E N ,
= N 0 , . .
4N 2 S
LI
= N 0 =
I.
c
c`

4N 2 S
,
`
(6.66)
L=

W =

LI 2
4N 2 S 2
=

I
2c2
2c2 `

(6.68)

247

6.11. .

B, H , V = S`

W =

B2
H 2
V =
V.
8
8

,
w=

B2
BH
H 2
=
=
8
8
8

(6.69)


( , B = H).

6.11.

1.
(6.66), L , (6.23)
.
n ,

, .
, , .
, n
, ,
(6.22), E +E = 0.
t


1 di
(i)
Ii = W
E Ii t = t
c dt
W . ( 1 n.) i-, , (

248

6.


)
i = (1/c)Lik Ik ,
Lik (i 6= k) i k, Lii
. ,
, Lik
.
di
1
dIk
= Lik
dt
c
dt

1
dIk
dW
= 2 Lik Ii
.
dt
c
dt

(6.70)

2. ,
Lik .
,
1, 2, , . dW/dt
(6.70)
W dI1
W dI2
dW
=
+
=
dt
I1 dt
I2 dt
1
= 2
c

dI1
dI2
dI1
dI2
L11 I1
+ L12 I1
+ L21 I2
+ L22 I2
dt
dt
dt
dt

W
1
W
1
= 2 (L11 I1 + L21 I2 ) ,
= 2 (L12 I1 + L22 I2 ) .
I1
c
I2
c
W I1 , I2 , L12 = L21 ,
Lik = Lki .

(6.71)

, I, i,
k, ,
k, i .

249

6.11. .

6.4.
,
, (6.71).
1 2, r1  r2 . ~n, . 6.20.
12 1,
I2 , ,

~ 2 = 2I2 ~n.
B
cr2
12 r12 B2 , . .

12 =

2 2 r12
I2 .
cr2

21 I1
1
(6.10).

m
~ = r12 I1 /c ~n, -
. 6.20
~ 1 = [m
A
~ ~r] /r3 2 A1 = m/r22 . , (6.10),

21 = 2r2 A1 =

I2

2 2 r12
I1 .
cr2

, I1 = I2 = I
12 = 21 = .
3. . (6.71)
(6.70)


dW
dIk
1
dIk
1
dIi
,
= 2 (Lik + Lki ) Ii
= 2 Lik Ii
+ Ik
dt
2c
dt
2c
dt
dt
dW
1
d
= 2 Lik (Ii Ik ) .
dt
2c
dt
, , W = 0,

W =

1
Lik Ii Ik ,
2c2

(6.72)

250

6.

(6.66) n .
4. , (1.39) ,
, .
, , (6.72)
Z 

1
~ B
~ dV
H
(6.73)
W =
8


W , .
(6.72) (6.67):
Z 

1
~ ~j dV
W =
A
2c

, n . ( (6.67).) ~ ~j (c/4)rotH,
(6.14) ,
Z 

1
~ rotH
~ dV,
W =
A
8
h
i
~ A
~ = A
~ rotH
~ H
~ rotA
~
div H
~ = rotA
~
B
W =

1
8

Z 

~ A
~
H

dS +

1
8

Z 


~ B
~ dV.
H

,
W (6.73), (6.69) ,
.
6.5.
V . , , (. .
). ,
.

6.11. .

251

,
(4.51):
~0
U = m
~ B

.
1
~ 0,
U = m
~ B
2

(1)

,
5.3.
,
:
Z 

1
~ H
~ B
~0 H
~ 0 dV,
W =
(2)
B
8
()

~ 0 (~r) = H
~ 0 (~r) , B
~ (~r), H
~ (~r) B
. ,
(2) :
Z
1 ~ ~ 
W =
(3)
M B0 dV,
2
V

~ (~r)
M
.
(3), ,
~ 0 ).
a  ` ( ` B
~
B0 -
Z

1
~ dV,
~
~ = M
(4)
W =
m
~ B0 , m
2
V

m
~ , .
(1)
~ 0
B
U = W.

(5)

252

6.

, W U .
: > 1 (
~ 0 )
m
~ B
W , , ,
~ 0 (. . U ),
B
. , ,
.
,
, ~ .
, B,
0
A

A0 + U = W,
. .
.
(5),
A0 = W U = 2W.
, , .
, .
(3).


 
~ H
~ B
~0 H
~0 = B
~ H
~0 B
~0 H
~ + B
~ +B
~0 H
~ H
~0 .
B

~ = rotH
~0 =
, rotH
~
~
~
~
~
= 4 j/c , , rot(H H0 ) = 0, H H0 = grad.

 



~ +B
~0 H
~ H
~ 0 = grad B
~ +B
~0 =
B
h 
i
~ +B
~0 ,
= div B



~ +B
~ 0 = 0, 0:
div B
I
Z 



 
~ +B
~ 0 dS = 0.
~
~
~
~
B + B0 H H0 dV =
B
n

()

SR ,R

6.12. ,
,
1
W =
8

Z 

()

~ H
~0 B
~0 H
~
B


~ H
~0 B
~0 H
~ dV.
B

253

(6)

~ = H,
~ B
~0 = H
~ 0 , 0 B

, (6) V ,
.
Z 

1
~ H
~0 B
~0 H
~ dV,
B
W =
8
V

~0 = B
~ 0, B
~ H
~ = 4 M
~ H
(3).

6.12.

(6.72)
. ,
, i- , d.
, , , d.
F d, F , .
: `, ; , ;
- , ,
. , ,
6.6, 6.7.
, d Ii = const (i = 1, 2, ..., n).
, Lik ,
n
i = (1/c) Lik Ik ,

254

6.

.
(i)
E = (1/c)di /dt,
(i)

E
i A0i = (1/c)Ii i ( i). ,


A0 = (1/c) Ii i = 1/c2 Lik Ii Ik .
(6.74)



A0 = W + F ;

(6.75)

(6.72)
1
(6.76)
W = 2 Lik Ii Ik .
2c
(6.74) (6.76) , ,
,
A0 = 2W,

(6.77)

. . . , (6.74), (6.75),

F =

W
1 Lik
|I=Const = 2
Ii Ik .

2c

(6.78)

i , . .
.

W |=Const = F ,

W
|=const .

,
i (i = 1, 2, . . . , n).
n
F =

i = Lik (Ik /c)

6.12. ,

255

Ii /c
Ii /c = L1
ik k ,
L1
ik

(6.79)
Lik L1
kp

, .
= ip .
(6.79) (6.72) Lik L1
ik
W = (1/2)L1
ik i k
, ,


1
L1 i k .
2 ik
6.6. .
,
, , . .
= R. R R p
p2R`R, FR = p2R`.
(6.78) (6. 68) L ( = 1)
F =

p2R` =

1 L 2
4N 2
I , L=
R2 ,
2
2c R
`


2
1 4N I
B2
.
=
8
c`
8
,
. B = 5 103 = 0,5,

25 106
H
p
10 2 .
8 2

6.7. , .
`.
p=

I 2 4N 2
B2
I 2 L
=

S
S
=

2c2 `
2c2 `2
8
. , , , B 2 /8,
.
F` =

256

6.13.

6.

, , (6.72). , ( ),
(6.73), .
, , (
), 2.10
,
.
. ~q(~r) . , ~j(~r) (~r) ~r.
, , , , . ,
,
. , , . ,
~j S,
`, :
I
I = jn dS = 0.
(6.80)
S

, , , (6.77),
A0 .

A0 = W + A,
A =

R


f~ ~q dV , -

6.13.

257

f~,
Z 

f~ ~q dV.
W =
f~,
W
Z
W = [ ] ~qdV ;
(6.81)
f~.
W
(6.67), (6.73). W
Z 
Z 


1
~ ~j dV,
~ ~j dV + 1
W1 =
A
A
2c
2c
 
Z
Z

1 ~
1
1
1
2
~ dV.
W2 =
B
dV +
B B
8

~ = rotA
~ = rot A,
~ W2
B
~ ,
A,

 

h
i 

~ B
~ = H
~ rot A
~ = div A
~H
~ + A
~ rotH
~ ,
(1/) B
,
~ = (4/c)~j. , rotH

 
Z
Z
1
1  ~ ~
1
2
B
dV +
A j dV.
W2 =
8

, W ,
 
Z
1
1
1  ~ ~
2
A j dV
B
dV,
W = 2W1 W2 =
c
8

(6.82)

~j, (1/), q(~r).


~j (6.80). , I

258

6.

` ~q(~r) , , ~j S , , `,
. d` ,
~ = [~q d~`] (. 6.21)
~q dS
~ S dS.
,
Z
I  h
i
~j ~q d~` .
I = jn dS +
S

,
I  h
i I h
h
i
 Z
i
~j ~q d~` =
~j ~q d~` = rotn ~j ~q dS.
`

(6.80) I = 0,
S
h
i
~j = rot ~j ~q .
(6.83)

(1/)
n
S
2.10, 1/ (2.41). ,
 
 
dl
1
1
1

= ~q grad
div~q.


q dS
(6.84)
(6.83), (6.84) (6.82)
. 6.21
 
Z
Z
h
i
1

1
~ rot ~j ~q dV + 1
W =
A
B2
div~qdV +
c
8



Z
1
1
2
+
B grad ~q dV.
8

(6.81).


  
i
1 h~
1
1
2
~
j ~q rotA
grad B
~q =
c
8

6.14.
259
  

i
h
1
1 ~ ~

1
j B ~q
=
~q,
grad B 2
c
8

, W (6.81).
:
 


1 h~ ~ i
1 2
1
1
1
2
~
f=
jB +
|T .
B grad
grad B
c
8
8

,
1 h~ ~ i
jB ,
(6.85)
f~(1) =
c
,

  
1 2
1
1

1
f~(2) =
B grad
grad B 2
,
8
8

. ,
~ H
~
B
,



1 2
1
grad H 2
H grad,
(6.86)
f~(2) =
8

(2.44) , : (6.86) ~ H
~ .
(2.44) E

6.14.

, . 2 ,
.

, f~(1) , f~(2) ,
~
f~(1) (6.85), ~j (c/4)rotH

h
i 

H2
~ rotH
~ + H
~ H.
~
= H
grad
2

260

6.


i
h
i
1 h
~ B
~ = rotH
~ H
~ =
rotH
f~(1) =
4
4
=


1 ~
~ 1 gradH 2 .
B H
4
8

(6.86),





1 ~
1
1
2
~
~
f=
grad H

grad H 2 .
B H +
4
8

(6.87)



~ H
~ (6.87)
i- (1/4) B
~ = Bk /xk = 0
div B
 i
1 h ~
~ = 1 Bk Hi = 1 (Hi Bk ) ,
B H
4
4
xk
4 xk
i
(6,87)
fi =

xk

1
1

1
Hi Hk
ik H 2 +
ik H 2
4
8
8

(2.53),
. ,
Tik





1
1
2
2
H
Hi Hk ik H
=
4
2

(6.88)

(2.54), (2.55) ~ , H.
~ ,
, E



1
1 2

~
~
Tn =
Hn H
H
~n,
(6.89)
4
8

(2.56) ,
.

261

6.15.

6.15.

,
, -
. ,

. ,
(2.33), (6.73)
~ B,
~ , E,
E 2 /8, H 2 /8 .
,
, , , , , . , ,

.
,
, . (3.18), ,


~ ~j .
p= E
(6.16),
, , p
w=

H 2
E 2
+
.
8
8

(6.90)

(6.14)
!
~
1

D
~
~j =
c rotH
4
t

262

6.

p
!


~
1
c ~
c

D
~
~
~
E rotH
H

E ~j =
4
c t
4

~
~ + 1 B
rotE
c t

,
(6.3).
!




~
~
c
1

D
~ ~j =
~ rotH
~ H
~ rotE
~
~
~
E
E
+H
E
,
4
4
t
t
~ H]
~
- div[E



w
~ ~j ,
~= E
+ div S
t

(6.91)

i
h
~= c E
~ H
~ .
S
(6.92)
4
, (3.7):

+ div~j = 0,
t
, ,
, .
(6.91) , ,
~j = 0, w ,
- .
(3.7) ~j,
~ (6.92),
S,
~ H.
~ , ,
E,

,
.
, , ,
~
S

263

6.15.

~ , 10
(6.92). S


. . (1874).
V ,
S:

I
Z 
Z

W
~ ~j dV W = wdV ,
+ Sn dS =
E
(6.93)
t
S

(6.91) V . ( S , . ,
n, .)
.
) V .
N . ,
Z 
N



X
~ ~j dV =
~ i ~vi
E
ei E
V

i=1

~ i i- ),
(E
(6.93),
dE /dt. ,

i. 
h
~ i + ~vi B
~i c
f~i = ei E
i- , ,
dP~i /dt = f~i ,
!1
r
 
 dP~

2
dE
v
i
i
~ i ~vi = f~i ~vi =
.
~vi =
, Ei = mi c2
1 2i
ei E
dt
dt
c

Ei2 /c2 = Pi2 + m2i c2 ,

264

6.

.


1/c2 Ei dEi dt = P~i dP~i /dt , P~i =
= Ei~vi /c2 ~vi dP~i /dt = dEi /dt.
,
Z 
N

X
dE
~ ~j dV = d
Ei =
E
dt i=1
dt
V

(6.93)
I
d
(W + E ) = Sn dS.
dt

(6.94)

, V ,

,
, V . (,
.)
)
 V ~ ~ +E
~ , E
~
(3.23) j = E



2
~
~ = j E
~ ,
~ ~j,
~ ~j = j E
E
E

R 2 
, Q =
j / dV V

V ,
Z 
I

dW
~ ~j dV Sn dS.
= Q +
E
(6.95)
dt
V

, ,
.
, dW/dt = 0, (6.95),
,
Z
Z 


~
~
j 2 / dV,
(6.96)
E j dV =
()

()

265

6.15.

. , . ( (6.94) ,

.)
(6.96), I
,
~ ,
, E
. , , ,

S
l
E
.
B
` a,
I (. 6.22).
~ =H
~ B

a
(4.9):
H =

2I
.
ca

, ~ = 0, E
~ = ~j/. E
~
E .

. 6.22

Ez =

I
.
a2

, ,
, :
Sr =

c I 2I
c
Ez H =
.
4
4 a2 ca

266

6.

,
|Sr | 2a` = I 2

`
= I 2 R,
a2

(3.19),



R = ` a2 .
~ = 0,
, , E
, . ,
, ,
.
6.8. hQi I0 eit , 6.9
(. (6.65)), .
~ r- S

2I0 it
H (a, t) =
e ,
ca

2
Ez (a, t) =
I0 ei/4 eit
2a
( (6.64)).
Sr (a, t) =

c
Ez (a, t) H (a, t)
4

c
2I0 2I0
cos t cos (t + /4) .
Sr (a, t) =
4 2a ca

hcos t cos (t + /4)i = 2/4, ~ `


S
|hSr i| 2a` =
hQi (6.65).

`
I 2,
4a 0


. ., . . . :
. . -, 1987. . 1.
. . . .: , 1978.
. . . .: , 1996. . 3. . 1.
. . / . ,
. , . . .: , 1966. . 57.
. . .: , 1965.
. . . .: . ., 1983.
. ., .. . .: , 1982.
. ., . . . .: , 1970.
. ., . . . : , 1990. . 1, 2.
. . . /
. . , . . , . . . : ,
1986.

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