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PROCEDURE

RESULTS
EXPLANATION
CONCLUSION
A. SOLUBILITY
1. To 2 mL each of the following solvents: water, ethyl alcohol and ether, add a pinch of benzoic acid and shake.

(Benzoic Acid in Water)

(Benzoic Acid in Ethyl Alcohol)

(Benzoic Acid in Ether)


Benzoic Acid is insoluble in water.

Benzoic Acid is soluble in ethyl alcohol.

Benzoic Acid is soluble in ether.

Organic compound such as benzoic acid is insoluble to inorganic solvents. However, organic compound is readily soluble to organic solvents.
2. Repeat no. 1 using common table salt instead of benzoic acid.

(Table Salt in Water)

(Table Salt in Ethyl Alcohol)

(Table Salt in Ether)


Table salt is soluble in water.

Table salt is insoluble in ethyl alcohol.

Table salt is

BENZOIC ACID
SODIUM CHLORIDE

WATER
insoluble
soluble

ETHYL ALCOHOL
soluble
insoluble

ETHER
soluble
insoluble

insoluble in ether.

Inorganic compounds are readily soluble in water which is an inorganic solvent. Its insoluble to organic solvents such as ethyl alcohol and ether.
3. Tabulate your results as follows indicating if benzoic acid and table salt are soluble or insoluble in the solvents used.

PROCEDURE

RESULTS
EXPLANATION
B. MELTING AND BOILING POINTS

1. In a dry pyrex test tube,


place gram of benzoic
acid and heat directly over
the flame.
Benzoic acid melts directly.

(Benzoic acid in Mel Temp


Apparatus)

CONCLUSION

Organic compounds have a high


melting point.

2. Do the same with the table


salt.
Table salt didnt melt in the heat. It
leaves a moist inside the test tube.

(Table salt after heating)


3. In a 250 mL beaker, warm
100 mL of tap water.

(100 mL tap water)


4. Place three test tubes
containing 1 mL each of
ether, ethyl alcohol and
water.

(Three test tubes containes in a


beaker)

Inorganic compounds have a low


melting point.

5. Slightly increase the flame


until the water in the beaker
boils.

(Increase of flame in the bunsen


burner)
6. Observe which of the three
liquids will boil first, second
and last.

The first one to boil is ether


because it has a boiling point of
34.6C.

(Ether)

(Ethyl Alcohol)

The second to boil is ethyl alcohol


because it has a boiling point of
78.37C.

Organic compounds have a high


boiling point. But it depends on the
compounds
because
every
compounds has various boiling
point. The ether was the first to boil
because it has higher boiling point
that ethyl alcohol. However, water
is an inorganic compound, which
has low boiling point. Therefore,
organic compounds have a higher
boiling
point
than
organic
compounds.

(Water)

PROCEDURE

The last to boil is water which is an


inorganic solvent that has a boiling
point of 100C.

RESULTS
EXPLANATION
C. STABILITY TOWARDS HEAT

CONCLUSION

1. Heat a pinch of table salt in


a clean, dry test tube for two
minutes.

(Heating table salt)


2. Cool the product and
observe for changes (if any)
that occurred.

There arent any changes when


the table salt is subjected to the
heat.
(Cooled table salt)

3. Heat a pinch of cane sugar


in a dry pyrex test tube.

(Heating sugar)

Inorganic compounds when heated


has a slower reaction rate because
of the table salt showing no signs
of changes.

4. Do the same test with


benzoic acid in place of
cane sugar.
The sugar caramelizes when it is
subjected towards the heat.

Organic
compounds
when
subjected to heat have a higher
reaction rate evident when the
sugar quickly caramelizes.

(Cooled sugar)

PROCEDURE

RESULTS

EXPLANATION
D. COMBUSTIBILITY

CONCLUSION

1. Place three drops of ethyl


alcohol in an evaporating
dish.

2. Place a lighted match stick


near the alcohol.
Ethyl alcohol ignited when the
match stick was subjected into the
alcohol.

Since ethyl alcohol is an organic


compound, it is highly combustible.

3. Repeat the combustion test


with ether.

4. Repeat the test using


carbon tetrachloride or any
organic halide.

Ether is combustible. It also


produced larger flames.

Ether is more combustible than


ethyl alcohol because it produced
larger flames.

CCL4 is not combustible when we


tried to ignite it.

Even though CCl4 is organic


compound, it didnt ignite so it is
not highly combustible.

PROCEDURE

RESULTS

EXPLANATION

CONCLUSION

E. IONIZATION
1. To 1 mL of sodium chloride
solution add 2 drops of
silver nitrate solution.
The reaction of sodium chloride
and silver nitrate left a precipitate
that settled at the bottom.

Silver nitrate will react with the


sodium chloride in tap water to
make silver chloride (AgCl). Silver
chloride is the white precipitate.
The reaction showed the dissolved
sodium chloride ions reacting with
the dissolved silver nitrate ions.

(Sodium chloride with silver


nitrate)
2. Repeat the test using
carbon tetrachloride instead
of sodium chloride.

The reaction also formed silver


chloride.
CCl4 + AgNO3
(Carbon tetrachloride with silver
nitrate)

C(NO3)4 + AgCl

The reaction showed the dissolved


carbon tetrachloride ions reacting
with the dissolved silver nitrate
ions forming silver chloride.

PROCEDURE
Place 4 pieces each of blue and
red litmus papers on the convex
side of a clean dry watch glass.
Moisten the tip of a stirring rod with
the solutions given below, using
only one solution at a time. Rinse
the stirring rod each time before
touching the next solution as
strong acid, weak acid, strong
base, weak base, based on the
degree of the change in color of
the litmus paper.

RESULTS
EXPLANATION
F. ACIDITY AND ALKALINITY
RED LITMUS PAPER
DILUTE HCL STRONG ACID
A. DILUTE HCL
DILUTE ACETIC ACID WEAK
ACID
DILUTE NH4OH STRONG BASE
ANILINE WEAK BASE

B. DILUTE ACETIC ACID

C. DILUTE NH4OH

D. ANILINE

CONCLUSION
Hydrochloric acid, a strong acid,
and ammonium hydroxide, a
strong
base,
are
inorganic
compounds.
Thus,
inorganic
compounds are strong acids and
strong bases.

Acetic acid, a weak acid, and


aniline, a weak base, are organic
compounds. Therefore, organic
compounds are weak acids and
strong bases.

PROCEDURE
Place 4 pieces each of blue and
red litmus papers on the convex
side of a clean dry watch glass.
Moisten the tip of a stirring rod with
the solutions given below, using
only one solution at a time. Rinse
the stirring rod each time before
touching the next solution as
strong acid, weak acid, strong
base, weak base, based on the
degree of the change in color of
the litmus paper.

RESULTS
BLUE LITMUS PAPER
A. DILUTE HCL

B. DILUTE ACETIC ACID

C. DILUTE NH4OH

EXPLANATION
DILUTE HCL STRONG ACID
DILUTE ACETIC ACID WEAK
ACID
DILUTE NH4OH STRONG BASE
ANILINE WEAK BASE

D. ANILINE