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NCTTE - Automotive Department

- "Transmission and drive trains"

Synchronizing Mechanism
1. Equalization of rotating speeds of two different gears, which shall be shifted.
2. Enable fast and silent shifting of gears
both is only possible if the two gears are at more or less the same speed
Different kinds of synchromesh units:
1. Synchromesh with internal synchronization (Borg-Warner)
The gear-shift sleeve has at its internal side the shift dogs which slide at the synchromesh body (hub).
Three inserts fit into the gaps at the hub. By the insert springs they are pressed outward against the shift dogs and keep the
shift sleeve in central position.
The hub is firmly fixed against rotation so that it cannot rotate on the shaft.
The synchronizing ring has a striking (friction) surface at its inner diameter and locking gears at its circumference. Three
gaps limit the turn (rotation) of the ring in reference to the inserts (and therefore to the hub).
The gear has at its synchronizing side a conical striking surface and after this it has its lock gears on which the shift dogs
have to slide on in order to get a firm connection ready to transmit forces.
2. Synchromesh with external synchronization
The rings have their conical shape with the striking surface at their outer side whereas the lock gears are at the inner side.
The corresponding striking surface is not at the gear but at the inner side of the gear shift sleeve.
Three stops at the ring sit in the gap of the gear and limit the turn of the ring in reference to the gear.
3. Synchromesh with double synchronization
For each side two synchronizing rings are used with one intermediate ring in order to increase the friction (rare, no picture)

(type Borg-Warner)

1. Neutral Position:
The inserts keep the gear-shift sleeve in its normal position in the middle of the synchromesh body (hub).
No sliding force is applied.
No connection between the shaft and the gear.
Hub and gear can run on different speeds.
Synchronizing ring runs with equal speed as hub and sleeve (and inserts with their springs). Insert is in released position in
the gap on the ring.
2. Locked Position
By the force of the sifting fork (= drivers force) the sleeve moves towards the gear. Due to this, the inserts are pressed
against the synchronizer ring, which again is pressed against the conical striking surface of the gear - friction occurs.
The inserts are kept in their position below the center of the sleeve by the locking springs and due to their shape.
The friction torque results that the synch ring moves (distorts) towards the end of its gap till the inserts stop it. In this
position it is kept (forced) as long as both gear and hub rotate with different speeds. It is not possible to move the sleeve
further towards the gear since the lock gears of the synch ring and the shift dogs do not correspond - the lock gears of the
synch ring block the shift dog.
The friction force is higher than the sliding force applied by the driver.
3. Gear Shifted
As soon as gear and hub have the same speed (speed adaptation), no more sliding friction occurs between hub, synch ring
and gear. The synch ring gets released due to the fact that the force that keeps it in locked position is decreased and is so
overcome by the force of the driver. The shift dog can now distort the synch ring back to its centered position and can pass.
The shift dog enters the lock gear section of the gear - the gear is now shifted.
At this time the inserts are pressed inward by overcoming the locking spring force, therefore they leave their centered
position below the shift dog and sit below the "shoulder" of the shift dog.