Resistance Prediction of Fast Catamaran

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Resistance Prediction of Fast Catamaran

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Sverre Steenl,

Hans

J@-gen

Rambech],

Rong

Zhaol

and Knut

Catamarans

J. Minsaas2

Resistance prediction is usually carried out at several stages in the design process. At an early stage, a quick

estimate with a minimum of required input is needed, and when the design proceeds towards completion,

more exact methods are required to catch the effect of the important details. In this paper methods for early

estimates, as well as more detailed numerical estimates and the final prediction based on model tests are

presented. A novel form factor concept deriving the form factorfiom the resistance at high speed is presented.

It is found that the empirical method gives a good estimate of the resistance, and that the numerical method is

a valuable supplement for investigating the effect of smaller hull line changes that is not catched by the

empirical method.

INTRODUCTION

During the last two or three decades, fast displacement

catamarans have become an increasingly popular means

of passenger transport world-wide. However, fast ferries

have huge power consumption.

Thus, the optimisation

with respect to resistance and propulsion, as well as exact

knowledge of the required power is very important to any

fast ferry project. Through our work for numerous

Norwegian

and international

builders of high-speed

catamarans, MARINTEK has collected a very valuable

database of results and experience

in the field of

prediction

and optimisation

of resistance

for fast

displacement catamarans. In this paper we will present

our methods in the three stages of power prediction and

optimisation:

optimisation

.

Model tests for final optimisation and verification of

resistance and power consumption.

We will start with the experimental method, since that is

the reference and the basis for the empirical method.

the carriage. Thus, when the models are tested with

modelled super-structure, they will get the correct wind

resistance and wind-induced trim moment. The models

are tested free to heave and trim, but fixed in sway, yaw

and surge. In addition to resistance test, propulsion tests,

both with propellers and waterjets are carried out on a

routine basis. Propelled models are usually tested free to

surge, with application of tow rope to correct for the

larger viscous resistance in model scale. We will now

explain the method for prediction of full scale resistance

from measured model resistance.

The total resistance coefficient for model is given as:

=

TM

= cFm+CR tC&m

P.

m ~.v:.

sm

resistance

coefficient

is found:

(2)

is then:

The total resistance

coefficient

(1)

+ AcF)+CA + CAAS

CT,= cR + (cF,

(3)

co~dation line: CF =

0.075

(4)

(logRn - 2)2

EXPERIMENTAL

PREDICTION

OF RESISTANCE

wave

maker.

Since

1980,

about

40

displacement catarrwans have been tested.

carriage has a free-to-surge rig in front, This

slender structure to which the high-speed

connected. The free-to-surge rig enables the

tank with a

high-speed

The towing

is a light and

models are

model to be

which is the standard, then CM.=CM,, so that both can be

eliminated from the above formulas. ACF is an empirical

correction for the roughness

of the Ml scale hull,

expressed as:

ACF = ~ 10.31. (H . V$)O2403.33]. C:.

This method for scaling resistance from model

scale has been found to be reliable and satisfactory

Norwegian University of Science and Technology, N-7034 Trondheim, Nonvay

915

(5)

to

full

for a

that the absence of a form factor leads to large values of

the correlation coefficient CA. Depending on the vessel

size, Froude number and type of propulsion, C,4 is in the

range from -0.15.103--0.38-10-3.

The uncertainty of CA

is significant, since it is based on full scale measurement

results, which are known to be prone to uncertainties due

to lack of control of the test conditions. The well-known

form factors that are derived from the resistance at low

speed, seems not quite suitable, due to the effect of the

transom stern and the large difference in flow pattern

between the low speed regime used to derive the form

factor and the high speed regime of interest. Thus, an

alternative formulation has been derived that uses the fact

that the wave resistance will vanish (relative to the

viscous resistance) at very high speeds. The form factor is

found by assuming that CW is proportional to l% at high

Froude numbers. The exponent x is found as a leastsquares fit of the experimental data to the line given by:

CT.

- C.4A.

=~+(l+k)

(6)

CF.

in Figure 1. Then, the wave resistance coefficient is found

from model resistance as:

(7)

Cw = Crm(l+k). Cr. -CAAm

The form factor k is assumed to be equal in model and

full scale. The total resistance

coefficient

is then

expressed as:

CT. = Cw + (CE, + ACF). (1+ k)+ CA +Cfi,

(8)

The correlation

coefficient

CA to be applied in this

method will be significantly smaller than the CA of the

formerly referred method. Thus, the same percentage

error in CA will give smaller impact on the accuracy of

the final prediction.

This might be attractive if the

correlation material is scarce. However, this concept

should be further verified before the existing method is

replaced. A problem with the form factor method is that

because the exponent x for the Froude number is

determined by a least squares method, the form factor

will be quite dependant on the curvature of the (C~~CMJ-curve,

not only on the level at high Froude

numbers.

EMPIRICAL

y=

systematisation of the results from previous model tests

into a suitable format, and interpolating the results so that

all results gave data for the same five discrete Froude

numbers: 0.6, 0.7, 0.8, 0.9, and 1.0. The second stage was

an investigation of which parameters were giving the best

correlation. Three non-dimensional resistance parameters

were applied initially: C~$, CR, and CW, where the relation

between CR and Cw is expressed as: CR= CW+CFk, where

k is the high-speed form factor. These three resistance

coefficients were plotted as functions of length Froude

number

2.

125

and

the

non-dimensionalised

~n

and Froude number

Correlation on CR (where CR is computed in the

sense of the MARINTEK standard method for

high speed craft, as described in the previous

chapter).

CR is represented

as an empirical

function of L/V and Froude number

Correlation on CR with correction for Bfl-ratio,

s/L ratio and the ratio S/Vm

Correlation on CW. Cw = CT - (1+ k). C~ where

resistance coefllcient.

Correlation on Cw with correction for B/T-ratio,

5.

sIL ratio and the ratio SIVm

interpolation

and

The program

also incorporates

extrapolation functions, as well as calculation of total

resistance and power consumption

based on specified

efilciency,

1.3

0.5

3.

4.

0.1 OIX+l.32

1

0

Fn = V/@

ratio L/Vn

and wetted surface-displacement

ratio S/V2n. It was found

that UVB gave much better correlation than S/V2n. Thus,

Fn and L/Via are the primary variables of the method,

while S/Vm as well as WT-ratio (B is demi-hull beam)

and hull separation-length s/L-ratio have been included as

correction terms. The results were implemented

in a

computer program named Catres, with the following five

methods available:

1.

Correlation on total resistance coefficient Cr.,.

C~J is represented as an empirical function of

1,55

12

PREDICTION

early design stage resistance

predictions

and as a

representation

of the average level of resistance for a

vessel of given dimensions.

This latter aspect is of

importance for an operator of an experimental facility.

The empirical resistance prediction method presented

here was developed as a part of the strategic research

programme SKIPRO 2001. It is based on our database of

results from model tests with a large number of high

speed dk.placement and semi-displacement

catamarans.

1.6

RESISTANCE

1.5

1

2

of the above five resistance

prediction methods, it is clear that the most important

parameter for the resistance is the length-displacement

ratio. In fact, it is possible to give a resistance prediction

accurate

to a few percent

based on length and

disr)lacement

only,

.- as lorw as the hull has a reasonably

.

Fn==YcFm

Figure 1 Determination of form factor from experimental

results on a fast displacement catamaran

916

conclusion, since it shows that without going to exh-eme

measures like dynamic lift, foils or air cushions, there is

not very much that can be achieved in terms of reduced

resistance when length and displacement is fixed.

Figure

2 shows

the empirical

residual

resistance

coefficient of method 2 of the empirical method. It is seen

that there is a huge advantage of high slenderness,

especially at Froude numbers close to the main resistance

hump at Fn=O.5.

Method

3 Correlation

on CR with correction

got an additional correction

term that includes the

empirically calculated effect of draught, beam and wetted

surface. Thus, the total resistance coefficient is expressed

as:

cn$=c;m(

+d(k3+k4H

ki

-I- (CF$ +

ACF ) + CA

+ CAAS

are independent of Froude number, s is hull separation

and B is demi-hull beam. The expression for CRcmpis

equal to the one in method 2. This method give better

prediction when values of the values of S/Vm, B/T-ratio

or s/L-ratio are far from the mean values of the

regression.

The mean values of the regression

are

implemented in the program as default values, so that it is

easy to know when you are far from the centre of the

regression.

Method 4 Correlation

on CW

pressure resistance

subtracted.

The viscous pressure

resistance is expressed by the form factor k. In this case,

the form factor is found by assuming that Cw is

proportional to Fnxat high Froude numbers, as explained

in the experimental method above. The total resistance

coefficient is expressed as:

CT. = C~mp+ (CR, + ACF ). (1+ k)+ C~4,,

(12)

wave resistance coefficient, expressed by different fifth

order polynomials for each of the five Froude numbers

supported by the method. An empirical relation for the

form factor (l+k) is implemented. This empirical relation

is shown in Figure 3. Figure 2 Residual resistance coefficient

slenderness and Froude number.

as jimction

of

1.4.

1.2.

Method

Correlation

on CT,

coefficient

is expressed as:

(9)

where CT$mp is the empirically

calculated

value,

expressed by different fifth order polynomials for each of

the five Froude numbers.

Method

2 Correlation

$r

c

1.

~.~ -

22%

+

*

+

f

E 0.6.

8

- 0.4.

0.2.

Oq

on CR

coeftlcient

y=3.4 275xaW

,,

Jh-

is expressed as:

Lengthdisplecement

10

11

12

ratio L/Vw

(lo)

by different fifth order polynomials for each of the five

Froude numbers. The frictional resistance coefficient CF,

is calculated by the ITTC 57 correlation line, while the

roughness

correction

ACF is the same as for the

experimental procedure. The resulting regression formula

for CRMPis illustrated in Figure 2.

Method

5 Correlation

on Cw with correction

got an additional

correction

term that includes the

empirically calculated effect of drau~ht, beam and wetted

su~ace. Thus, the total resistance co~fficient is expressed

917as

Cr.

= a(k+ka(k+

C;mp.

predictions.

kl + kz

significantly

to improving

the

NUMERICAL

RESISTANCE

(13)

where kJ to k6 are empirically calculated coefficients that

are independent of Froude number. The values for ki are

different

for correction

of CRP and CWeW. The

expression for Cwew is equal to the one in method 4. In

the same way as method 3, this method is used for vessels

that are not quite typical for the regression material.

method

i CT,

2 CR

3

CR with correction

Cw

A DWL

4.7 %

3.970

3.7

B DWL

~0

4.8

5.0

5 Cw with correction

A WLl

4.470

?404.3%

~0 3.3 %

3.9 %

5.1 Y.

5.2

B WI

9.5%

13.3%

13.4%

5.7 %

6.5 %

5.9 Y.

6.4 k

the mean water surface when the forward speed

ship is zero. A velocity potential ~ = $ +

introduced. Here U is the forward speed of the ship

satisfies the 3D Laplace equation

model test based prediction. Include; extrapolated part of

resistance curve.

Computational

method

ADWL

AWLI

BDWL

4.47.

3.5 Y.

5.2 ZO 3.8 %

2 CR

4.7 %

0.9%

6.1 %

7.1 %

3 CR with correction

3.7 %

1.1 k

5.4%

7.2%

3.3 k

5.7 ~o

2.5%

5.9%

2.2 %

Cw

5 Cw with correction

5.0

~0

3.970

5.1

YO

v~=o

BWL1

1 cr.

WAVE

Theory

A potential theory is used to solve the wave resistance

problem since the viscous effects are neglected here. The

problem is solved as a steady problem.

A right-handed coordinate system that is fixed in the

yOt0.4%

9.9 v.

OF

Introduction

Since the viscous resistance of high-speed displacement

catamarans is quite well predicted by friction coefficients

or boundary layer theory, we are looking for a numerical

method to predict m

resistance of displacement ships

at high forward speed. The method should also be robust

and easy for an engineer to use. Since the demi-hulls are

slender for high-speed displacement vessels, the 2% D

solution may be used. The 21%D method means that one

use two-dimensional

Laplace

equation

and threedimensional free-surface conditions. The 2V2 D methods

have been much used in the seakeeping problem, see for

instance Faltinsen and Zhao (199 la, 1991 b). The 2Y2 D

solutions are valid for slender body at high Froude

number. The methods can be applied for predicting wave

resistance of high-speed displacement

ships. Since the

hull is slender and the linear solutions predict quite well

the wave resistance for relatively slender ships, our idea

is to introduce non-linear corrections to improve the wave

resistance prediction. We start with the linear problem

with linear free-surface conditions satisfied on the mean

water surface. The non-linear terms will be included in a

similar way as for the second order problem of mean

wave drift force. That means that the quadratic term in

the Bernoullis equation and a water line integral are

included.

Verifhmtion

Verification

of an empirical method is never really

completed. It will always be of interest to see how good it

is at predicting the resistance of another design. Thus, the

verification carried out in this study is only an example of

the accuracy of the prediction you get.

The verification example included here is for two vessels.

Both are passenger catamarans in the 30-40 m range.

Model A is driven by waterjets, while Model B is driven

by propellers. Both are run at two draughts, DWL and a

deeper draught (IVL 1). The model test results of these

vessels is not a part of the experimental material used to

make the empirical formulas in Catres. Note that the

values above Fn=l.0

in the Catres predictions

are

extrapolations.

The tables below show maximum deviation between

model test based predictions and Catres predictions. In

table 1, the entire speed range that has been model tested

is included, while in Table 2, only the speed range up to

Fn= 1.0 is included. The values are in % of total

resistance.

Computational

PREDICTION

= O is

of the

Ux is

and @

(14)

Following Newman (1976) the non-linear dynamic free

surface condition on the exact free surface can be written

as

Does

not include

model

test based

prediction.

extrapolated part of resistance curve.

on z = <(x,y)

The kinematic free surface condition is

conclusions, but on basis on the existing material one can

conclude that correlation on CW gives better results than

correlation on CR. The error of a prediction based on Cw

is less than 7% of total resistance for both test vessels on

both waterlines. For these two vessels the correction

(15)

The body boundary condition

SB can be written as

918

(17)

where

r = [(y~)z

+(z~)z~s,

ij = (q,;),

SB the body

where

The problem is solved by using a 2% D method. The

solution is based on the linear classical free surface

conditions

on the mean water surface. When one

calculates wave resistance,

non-linear

terms will be

included in a similar way as for the second order problem

of mean wave drift force,

Ogilvie (1977) showed that the linear 2Y2 D solution

represents the diverging wave systems caused by the ship

in the far-field. That means that the transverse wave

systems are neglected in the 2% D solutions. This is a

good approximation

for high-speed displacement ships

with Froude numbers in the order of one.

Here one assumes that the ship is fairly slender and

introduces a slenderness parameter e, which is the ratio

between the beam (or draught) and the ship length. One

assumes

that

~=

O(fEx),

$=

O(f&-*)

and

body in the region close to the body. Further one assumes

that nl = O(c) where nl is the x-component of a unit

normal vector to the wetted part of the body surface. The

assumptions follow the similar approach of Faltinsen and

Zhao (1991 a,199 lb) in solving the problem of ship

motion for high speed vessels. Based on the assumptions

the three-dimensional

Laplace equation (eq.(14)) will turn

into a two-dimensional

Laplace equation for each cross

section.

When neglecting the non-linear terms in the equation (15)

and (16), the linear dynamic and kinematic he surface

conditions to be satisfied on the mean water surface can

then be written as

(18)

I afb

&=__onz=o

ax

(19)

u dz

for each section. The velocity potential @ at a point (y,z)

in the fluid can be written as

2?r@(y,z) = ~ ,$,+~c logFn

[

alogr

f#(ti)~

is the derivative

+C* (x)

(y +Z)

919

(21)

(y+2)

which can be

obtained in the solution of equation (20).

equation (18) and (19) to st~p the solutions of the

surface elevation ~ and the velocity potential $ For

cross section a two dimensional problem is solved.

start conditions are ~ = O and $ = O.

use

free

each

The

number is in the order of O(l). Thus, this method can be

used for the whole ship for high speed vessels. It was

shown by matched asymptotic expansion by Faltinsen

(1983) that the linear 2% D solution is an approximate

solution for the linear 3D solution in the bow region of

conventional slender ships.

The pressure P on the wetted body

obtained by the following equation

P=-pu

~f

surface

can

be

+[[$J+HIPV

22)

RW=

(23)

~~Pn, dS

The total resistance is predicted from the numerically

computed wave resistance by addition of empirically

based viscous resistance, according to the formula:

(l+k)+cA

(24)

by Waveres, according to the method described above. A

correct determination

of the form factor (1+/c) is the

critical point for a good total resistance prediction. In

order to compare numerical calculations to model test

results presented as residual resistance, the following

expression is used to compute CR from CWW

1O!s(ij)

(20)

in the cross-

each section the contribution from the free surface far

away from the body can be rewritten. The velocity

potential $ for Iyl>b(xl), where b(xl) is large relative to

the cross-dimensions

of the hull can be expressed as a

vertical dipole (symmetrical

part) and a multipole

(asymmetrical part). t) can be written as (for Iyl>b(xl))

@= C,(x)

in a computer

program called Waveres, written in Fortran 90 as part of

the strategic research programme SKIPRO 2001.

CR =C;m+C~m.

(25)

3.OE-037

2.5E-03 .

3

Q

2.OE-03 .

~

s

C.R, ModelTest

c-w

...0...

QR kyrl.og

3.oE-03 -

~

al

o

2.5E-03 - h

v

1.5E-03 -

j

= 5.OE-04 %

K

O.OE+OO+

0.7

C.R, ModelTest

C.w

~

1.5E-03 -

:

=

#

1.OE-03 -

5.OE-04 -

8

W O.OE+OO0.8

0.9

Froude nutier

1.1

1.2

0.7

0.9

0.8

Fn [-]

1.1

1.2

Figure 4 Comparison

test and numerical calculations for Model A

and numerical calculations for Model B

by comparison between a number of experiments and

calculations.

particular speed.

TION METHODS

have been verified

by comparing

with analytical

solutions. The method has been verified by thin ship

theory of Michell integral (Tuck (1988)) for the wave

resistance of a parabolic strut.

PREDIC-

with

Catres

and

resistance

predictions

empirical

numerical predictions

by Waveres. On basis of the

examples, the use of the different methods is discussed.

model test results and calculations

of real slender

(semi)-displacement

catamarans. Results in terms of CR

and Cw are shown in Figure 4 and Figure 5 for model A

and model B respectively. It is seen that except for one

bad point, the trend is very well represented. To get the

absolute value correctly, the form factor must be correctly

estimated. In Figure 4 and Figure 5, the highest form

factor value is found from the experimental

data

explained in the first section of this paper. The lower

form factor value is found as the one that gives least

discrepancy between CR from model tests and CR from

the numerical calculations, using equation (25) to convert

from Cw to CR. The form factor derived from the model

test agrees well with the empirical relation given in

Figure 3. The form factor found by minimizing the

difference between computations and model tests is much

smaller, and agrees better with conventional form factor

formulas, like the one found from the Holtrop 84

resistance prediction method. The reason why model B

has larger form factors than model A is that model B is a

propeller

driven boat, tested with propeller

shafts,

brackets and rudders. When corrected for appendix

resistance, the form factor is similar to the one found for

model A, which is a waterjet propelled boat, model tested

without any appendices.

It is found from comparisons between model tests and

numericrd calculation that the sinkage, especially at the

stern, is very important for the results. Thus, it is

necessary to be able to predict the change of trim with

speed that is observed in the model tests in order to get

the slope of the resistance curve correct. It is found that

the hump in the computed resistance curves in Figure 4

920

three different models, derived from model tests, and

calculated with the empirical and numerical methods

described previously in this paper. The CW from model

test is co,mputed using equation (25) and a form factor

derived from the model test data as described in the first

section of this paper. The empirical predictions are made

with method 4 for models A and B, and method 5 for

model C. The method with corrections are used for model

C since that vessel is extremely slender, thus having

parameters

away from the centre of the empirical

material.

0.7

0.8

0.9

Froude nu~r

1.1

!A)del TW -.=.-.

/% Empirical

-Q-

R Numerical

B;

Mel

B; Emplrkel

-*-

B Numerical

~G,

-*-

C, Num*al

teat ..-*--

1.2

Fn [-]

numericrd and empirical calculations

predicting the relative differences in resistance between

different

designs.

In order to get good absolute

resistance predictions from a wave resistance calculation

it is necessary to get a reliable estimate of the form

resistance. This can be done empirically, by boundary

layer calculations or by use of a RANS code. The results

presented here indicate that the form factor (l+k) to be

added to the calculated wave resistance is in the order of

1.0-1.1, when effects of appendices are excluded.

30~

obvious weaknesses. The form resistance obtained by

this method

seems

to contain

other

resistance

components than viscous resistance. Furthermore,

the

estimation of the form factor from model tests is

sensitive to the curvature of the (C~~-CM~)-curve, IIOt

only the level at high speed. This seems not to be in

accordance with the principles on which the method is

based. One must be able to subtract more resistance

components,

like for instance

the transom

stern

resistance, in order to make this method practical for use

together with numerical methods.

O.OE+OO~

0.7

0.8

0.9

1.1

1.2

FroudenumberFn[-]

AA

~

C;

A Empirical

!Axtai teat -. +--

C; Empirical

---~

Numarkal

-+-B;

Numerical

-+--C;

Numerical

tests, numerical and empirical calculations

Figure 7 shows the residual resistance coefficient CR for

the same three models as in Figure 6. CR is computed

from the numerically calculated Cw by use of equation

(25) and the form factor found from the model test using

the method described previously. The empirical CR is

computed using method 2 for models A and B, and

method 3 for model C.

From Figure 6 and from Figure 7 it is seen that the

numerical method distinguish well between the different

models, predicting quite well the relative differences.

From Figure 7 it is seen that the empirical methods

predict the resistance level very well, but they have

difficulties dktinguishing

clearly between the models A

and B, since they have very similar main dimensions. The

reason why the prediction

of the wave resistance

coefficient

is not similarly

good seems to be the

uncertainty of the form factor. The form factor derived

with the method described in the first section of this paper

is too huge to give good predictions from the wave

resistance calculation. It seems that the form resistance

derived this way contains resistance components that are

already taken into account by the numerical method, like

for instance the transom stern resistance. The problem of

selecting a proper form factor is also believed to be the

reason for the less good prediction of the resistance level

by the numerical method.

REFERENCES

Faltinsen, O. Bow flow and added resistance of slender

ships at high Froude number and low wave lengths, J.

Ship Res., V01,27, pp. 160-171, 1983.

Faltinsen, O. and Zhao, R. Numerical predictions of ship

at

high

forward

speed,

Philosophical

motions

Transactions of the Royal Society, series A, 1991.

Faltinsen, O. and Zhao, R.Flow predictions

around

high-speed

ships in waves, M. P.Tulins festschrift

Mathematical Approaches in Hydrodynamics,

SIAM,

1991.

Hohrop, J., and Mennen, G. G. J., An approximate power

prediction method, International Shipbuilding Progress,

Vol. 29, No. 335, July 1982

Holtrop, J., A statistical re-analysis of resistance and

Shipbuilding

Progress,

propulsion data, International

Vol. 31, No. 363, November 1984

Newman,

J.N. Linearized

wave resistance

theory,

International seminar on wave resistance, Japan, 1976.

Ogilvie, T.F. Singular-perturbation

problems

hydrodynamics, Adv. Appl. Mech. 17, 1977.

CONCLUSIONS

Model tests are still the most reliable way of determining

the resistance of a high speed catamaran. The empirical

method presented here shows good results as long as the

design is not too far from the ones used to make the

resistance regression. But since the number of parameters

that go into the regression is limited in order to make it

useful in an early design stage, it is not that well suited to

study changes in hull lines and details in the hull design.

The numerical method for prediction of wave resistance

921

in ship

Displacement Catamarans Thesis, Inst. Marine

Hydrodynamics, Norwegian Institute of Science and

Technology, 1998 (in norwegian)

LIST OF SYMBOLS

SW!!X!

Explanation

B

Bdemi

CA

Cu

cj7

cR

cRev

Cv

Beam of hull

Beam of demi-hull

Correlation coefficient

Air resistance coeftlcient

Frictional resistance coefficient

Residual resistance coefficient

Empirically calculated residual resistance

coefficient

Total resistance coefficient

Empirically calculated total resistance

coefficient

Viscous resistance coefficient

Cv=(cF+dcF)

*(I+k)

CUJ Wave resistance coefficient

CwempEmpirically calculated wave

g

H

k

L

P

RAA

resistance

coefficient

Numerically calculated wave resistance

coefficient

Froude number. Fn=V/sqrt(g*L)

Acceleration of gravity

Hull roughness (in p)

Form factor (for high Fn)

Length of hull (in waterline)

Pressure

Air resistance

Rn

RT,

Reynolds number

Total resistance (full scale)

RW

Wave resistance

T

s

Draught

Hull separation (distance from centerline to

center of demi-hull)

Wetted surface

Water velocity

Speed

Increase of frictional resistance due to hull

roughness

Water density

Fn

u

v

ACF

Displacement

Velocity potential

Free surface elevation

Subscript m means model scale value

Subscripts means full scale value

922

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