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RADIOGRAPHIC
EXAMINATION PROCEDURE

Page

Pro.No.

INDT-QCP-RT-HJ-05N

Rev.No.

1
14
0

Controlled (C1)
Uncontrolled

Prepared by
Y.J.Park


Reviewed by
U.T.Kim
Level

Level

2008 . 12 .04.

Rev. No. Date
2008.
0
12.04.


Approved by
Y.C.Lee
Level

2008. 12 .04.

Description

Issued First

2008 . 12 .04.

Prepared

Reviewed Approved

Y.J.Park

U.T.Kim

Y.C.Lee

Remarks :
I hereby certify that this procedure meets the requirement of ASME B & PV
Code Sec. T-150.
Certified by

Date

Demonstrated to the satisfaction of AI


Date
Authorized Inspector
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Pro. No. : INDT-QCP-RT-HJ-05N


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RADIOGRAPHIC EXAMINATION PROCEDURE

- CONTENTS 1.0

Scope

2.0

References

3.0

Radiation Safety Requirements

4.0

Qualification Statements

5.0

Equiremnet and Materials

6.0

Technique Requirements

7.0

Evaluation

8.0

Record

9.0

Acceptance Standards

Fig1-12 Shooting Method


Report of Radiographic Examination (A, B)

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RADIOGRAPHIC EXAMINATION PROCEDURE


1.0

Scope

1.1

This

procedure

describes

the

general

requirements

for

safety,

materials,

equipment, personnel, technique and acceptance standards.


1.2 This procedure applies to the radiographic examination for the body, bonnet and
cover of ANSI valves , and metallic castings, high-temperature alloy steels.
2.0

References

2.1 ASME/ANSI B 16.34 Valves-Flanged, Threaded, and Welding End(`04 Ed.)


2.2 ASME Code section.V : Nondestructive examination (`07Ed.)
2.3 ASNT,SNT-TC-1A(`01 Ed.)
3.0 Radiation Safety Requirements
All radiography shall be performed in accordance with INDT1)'s procedure "Standards
for Radiation Safety Control" which meets the requirements of the ordinance for
control of radioactive isotope and protection against radiation issued by MOST(Ministry
of Science & Technology).
Note: 1) INDT:InternationalNondestructiveTestingCo.,Ltd.
4.0

Qualification Statements

4.1 Procedure Qualification


This procedure meets the requirements of above references.
4.2 Personnel Qualification
Personnel performing the radiographic examination shall be qualified

NDT Level

minimum, in accordance with INDT's procedure "INDT-QCP-PQ-01T" which meets the


requirements of ASNT Recommended Practice No. SNT-TC-1A.
5.0

Equipment and Materials

5.1 Radiation Source


5.1.1 X-ray units, 600kVp maximum, and -ray(Ir-192) may be used as a source for
all radiographic examination provided they have adequate penetrating ability.
5.1.2 Co-60 shall only be used as a radiographic source when the steel being
radiographed exceeds 2.5 in. in thickness.
5.1.3

Source Size shall be as specified in ASME V Article 2. T-261.

5.2 Film
Radiographs shall be made using industrial radiographic film as described in ASME
Sec. ,Article 2 t-231.2 . The following specific films or equivalent shall be used :
TYPE : FUJI-#50, TYPE : FUJI-#80, #100
5.3 Screen

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RADIOGRAPHIC EXAMINATION PROCEDURE


Lead intensifying screen may be used, however fluorescent shall not be permitted.
The minimum thickness of the front screen and back screen shall be 0.005in.(0.13)
for X-ray(Ir-192) and 0.010 in.(Co-60) used.
5.4 Penetrameter
Penetrameters

shall

be

manufactured

and

identified

in

accordance

with

the

requirements or alternates allowed in ASME Sec., SE-747(Wire image quality


indicators) and SE-1025 (Hole-type image quality indicators).
5.5 Film Identification
Identification and location symbols shall be sufficient thickness for good radiographic
contrast(minimum thickness 1/16 in., height 1/4 in.).
5.5.1 The following as a minimum will be shown on the radiograph;
1) The manufacturer's symbol or name (if necessary).
2) The project No. or contract No. of manufacturer (if available).
3) Item or component No. (if available).
4) Date as Month-Day-Year (Ex 1-30-98).
5) Weld identification numbers.
6) If required, sub-contractor's name (INDT, etc.) will be indicated.
5.6 Densitometer
Densitometer shall be used for assuring compliance with film density requirements and
densitometer calibration shall be calibrated in accordance with ASME Sec., Article 2
T-262.
5.7 Cassette
Flexible P.V.C or rubber type cassette shall be used.
5.8 Film Viewing Illuminator
Film viewing illuminator shall be used which will produce sufficient light density so that
all portions of the radiography of the castings will transmit sufficient light for
comportable viewing. Film viewing illuminator should provide sufficient light intensity to
penetrate 4.0 density.
6.0

Technique Requirements

6.1 Surface Preparation


6.1.1 The surface of casting shall be visually inspected for surface irregularities which
may interfere with proper radiographic interpretation. Any such irregularities which are
revealed through the above visual examination shall be removed prior to making and
exposure.

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RADIOGRAPHIC EXAMINATION PROCEDURE


6.1.2 The casting surface irregularities on both the inside and out side shall be
removed by any suitable process to such a degree that the resulting radiograph image
due to any irregularities can not mask or be confused with the image or any
discontinuity.
6.2 Radiographic Technique
6.2.1 Single(or Double) film technique may be used for each exposure in accordance
with owner's written approval.
6.2.2 Gamma ray sources, regardless of size, shall be capable of meeting the
geometric unsharpness limitation of para. 7.5.
6.2.3 The typical radiographic shooting sketches and extent of examination for
radiography provide in Fig. 1 through 12 in this procedure.
6.3 Penetrameter(IQI) Selection
6.3.1 IQIs shall be used either the hole type or the wire type.
6.3.2 The thickness of penetrameter and the essential hole shall be as specified in
ASME, Boiler & Pressure Vessel Code, Section ,Art. 2, Table T-276 "IQI Selection".
A smaller essential hole and/or a thinner penetrameter may be selected by the
contractor provided all other provisions for radiography are meet.
Nominal Single Wall
Material Thickness
Range, in.(mm)
Up to 0.25, incl.(6.4)
Over 0.25 through 0.375(6.4-9.5)
Over 0.375 through 0.50(9.5-12.7)
Over 0.50 through 0.75(12.7-19.0)
Over 0.75 through 1.00(19.0-25.4)
Over 1.00 through 1.50(25.4-38.1)
Over 1.50 through 2.00(38.1-50.8)
Over 2.00 through 2.50(50.8-63.5)
Over 2.50 through 4.00(63.5-101.6)
Over 4.00 through 6.00(101.6-152.4)
Over 6.00 through 8.00(152.4-203.2)
Over 8.00 through 10.00(203.2-254.0)
Over 10.00 through 12.00(254.0-304.8)
Over 12.00 through 16.00(304.8-406.4)
Over 16.00 through 20.00(406.4-508.0)

IQI
Source side
Hole-Type
Designation
12
15
17
20
25
30
35
40
50
60
80
100
120
160
200

Wire-Type
Essential Wire
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
16
17
18
20
21

Film Side
Hole-Type
Designation
10
12
15
17
20
25
30
35
40
50
60
80
100
120
160

Wire-Type
Essential Wire
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
16
17
18
20

IQI Selection
6.4 Use of IQI (Penetrameters) to Monitor
6.4.1

Radiographic Examination

Placement of Penetrameters

1) Source Side Penetrameter(s)


The penetrameters shall be placed on the source side of the part being examined

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RADIOGRAPHIC EXAMINATION PROCEDURE


except for the condition described in 2) below. When it is not practical to place the
penetrameter(s)

on

the

casting,

separate

block

may

be

used

to

facilitate

penetrameter positioning. There is no restriction on the separate block thickness,


provided the penetrameter/area-of-interest density tolerance requirements of 7.2.1) are
met.
a) The penetrameter on the source side of the separate block shall be placed no
closer to the film than the source side of the casting being radiographed.
b) The separate block shall be placed as close as possible to the casting
radiographed.
c) The block dimensions shall exceed the penetrameter dimensions such that the
outline of at least three sides of the penetrameter image shall be visible on the
radiograph.
2) Film Side Penetrameter(s)
Where inaccessibility prevents hand placing the penetrameter(s) on the source side, it
shall be placed on the film side in contact with the part being examined. A lead letter
"F" at least as high as the penetrameter identification number(s), shall be placed
adjacent to or on
6.4.2

the penetrameter(s) but shall not mask the essential hole.

Number of Penetrameters

1) For castings where one or more film holders are used for an exposure, at least
one penetrameter image shall appear on each radiograph.
2) More than two penetrameter may be necessary in case of heavy density
variations(see para 7.2.2), one shall be representative of the lightest area of interest
and the other, the darkest area of interest; the intervening densities on the radiograph
shall be considered as having acceptable density.
7.0

Evaluation

7.1 Quality of Radiographs


All radiographs shall be free from mechanical, chemical, or other Blemishes to the
extent that they do not mask and are not confused with the image of any
discontinuity in the area of interest of the object being radiographed. Such blemishes
include, but are not limited to:
7.1.1 Fogging
7.1.2 Processing defects such as streaks, watermarks, or chemical stains.
7.1.3 Scratches, finger marks, crimps, dirtiness, static marks, smudges, or tears.
7.1.4 False indications due to defective screens.
7.2 Radiographic Density
7.2.1 Density Limitations
Density Limitations, shall be as specified in ASME B 16.34.
(a) single film viewing - 1.5 minimum, 4.0 maximum

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RADIOGRAPHIC EXAMINATION PROCEDURE


(b) superimposed viewing of double film, each single film 1.0 minimum, 2.5
maximum, with a double film 4.0 maximum
7.3 IQI Sensitivity
7.3.1 Radiography shall be performed with a technique of sufficient sensitivity to
display the penetrameter image and the specified hole, which are essential indications
of the image quality of the radiograph. The radiographs shall also display the
identifying numbers.
7.3.2 The radiographic sensitivity shall be 2-4T for thickness up to and including 0.75
in. and 2-2T for thickness greater than 0.75 in.
7.4 Excessive Scatter
If a light image of the "B" as described in 7.6 appears on the darker background of
the radiograph, protection from backscatter is Insufficient and the radiograph shall be
considered unacceptable. A dark image of the "B" on a lighter background is not
cause for rejection.
7.5 Geometric Unsharpness
Geometrical unsharpness of radiograph shall not exceed the following.

Where

Material Thickness in.(mm)

Ug Max.in.(mm)

Under 2 (51)

0.020(0.5)

2(51) thruogh 3(76)

0.030(0.76)

Over 3(76) through 4(102)

0.040(1.0)

Greater 4(102)

0.070(1.8)

Ug = FT/D

Ug : Geometrical Unsharpness
F : Source size in inches
D : Distance in inches from source of radiation to object being radiographed
T : Thickness of section being radiographed
7.6 Backscattered Radiation Check
To check of backscattered radiation, a lead symbol "B", 1/2inch (12.7mm)height,1/16
inch (1.6mm) thickness shall be attached to the back of each film cassette.
7.7 Film Identification
7.7.1 Job number, Item number, Contractor's name, Owner's name, Date, Thickness,
Location and system abbreviation shall be plainly indicated on each film.
7.7.2 Repair welds, when welding was performed, shall have letter R1, R2, R3 etc., as
applicable, placed directly behind the higher location number.

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RADIOGRAPHIC EXAMINATION PROCEDURE


8.0

Record

8.1 Each radiograph shall be documented on the formal radiographic examination


report form. The report shall be signed and dated by the qualified and certified Level
(RT),

and

approved

by

Level

(RT)

who

evaluate

the

results

of

the

radiographs.Reporting requirements, shall be as specified in ASME V, Article 2.


paragraph T-291.
8.2 A radiographic examination report shall be furnished to the client. "Report of
Radiographic Examination" (Attachment.1) will be used unless otherwise specified by
client.
9.0

Acceptance Standards

9.1 For Valve Body, Bonnet and All Other Components(ANSI B16.34)
Accept shall be based on the following.
9.1.1 Wall Thickness Less Than 2 in.(51mm)
The following comprative plates of ASTM E 446 define acceptable indications as
follows.
Acceptable
Discontinuity Type

Category

Comparative Plate
ASTM E446

Gas

A2

Sand

B3

Shrink. Type 1

CA2

Shrink. Type 2

CB3

Shrink. Type 3

CC3

Shrink. Type 4

CD3

Hot Tears and Cracks

D&E

None

Inserts(chills, chaplets)

None

Standard Reference Radiographs for Steel Castings up to 2 in.(51mm) in Thickness.

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RADIOGRAPHIC EXAMINATION PROCEDURE

9.1.2 Wall Thickness 2 in.(51mm) to 4in.(114mm)


The following comprative plates of ASTM E 186 define acceptable indications as
follows.
Acceptable
Discontinuity Type

Category

Comparative Plate
ASTM E 186

9.1.3

Gas porosity

A3

Sand and slag inclusions

B3

Shrink. Type 1

CA3

Shrink. Type 2

CB3

Shrink. Type 3

CC3

Crack

None

Hot Tear

None

Insert

None

Wall Thickness 4in.(114mm) to 12 in.(305mm)

The following comprative plates of ASTM E 280 define acceptable indications as


follows.
Acceptable
Discontinuity Type

Category

Comparative Plate
ASTM E 186

Gas porosity

A3

Sand and slag inclusions

B3

Shrink. Type 1

CA3

Shrink. Type 2

CB3

Shrink. Type 3

CC3

Crack

None

Hot Tear

None

Insert

None

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RADIOGRAPHIC EXAMINATION PROCEDURE

Fig 1. Gate Body(Pressure Seal Bonnet) Shooting Method

Fig 2. Gate Body(Flanged Bonnet) Shooting Method

Fig 3. Glove Body(Flanged Bonnet) Shooting Method

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RADIOGRAPHIC EXAMINATION PROCEDURE

Fig 4. Y-Pattern Glove Body(Pressure Seal Bonnet) Shooting Method

Fig 5. Angle Body(Pressure Seal Bonnet) Shooting Method -Bonet same as Y-Pattern
Glove

Fig 6. Elbow Down(Pressure Seal Bonnet) Shooting Method

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RADIOGRAPHIC EXAMINATION PROCEDURE

Fig 7. Butterfly Body Shooting Method

Fig 8. Plug Valve Shooting Method

Fig 9. Dished Cover Shooting Method

Fig 10. Flat Cover Shooting Method

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RADIOGRAPHIC EXAMINATION PROCEDURE


Report of Radiographic Examination (A, B)

REPORT OF RADIOGRAPHIC EXAMINATION

I N

()



Customer

Project No.


Const & MFR

Item Name

Report No.

Page

OF


Project Name


MaterialThickness

mm

Item No.

Dwg. No.

Rev.

Material Farm

X-Ray Equip.


Cast
No.
Actual:


Other

kvp

ID

I.Q.I
mA


Radioisotope


I.Q.I Placement
Sensitivity

Film

Focal size

mm


Screen

Exposure Time

Sec

Shim Thickness


Density

SOD :

mm

Single Double

EXP.TECHNIQ
SWSV/
UE
DWDV/


Ident No. Accept

Blow
Reject Hole Slag

F.Side
Type

F:
B:

mm

Temp.

DWSV /
PANORAMIC /
SHRINKAGE

Sand
Incl.

Level

REMARKS/

Mott
Hot
Crac
In Sert Ling
k Tear

Level

Witnessed by
Approved by

INDT / RT-02-A

Level

Reviewed by

INTERNATIONAL NONDESTRUCTIVE TESTING. CO., LTD

REPORT - A

Min

Rev
.

Procedure

Date of Examination
Examined

Size

Thickness

Type

Development
Condtition

OFD :
mm

KS

S.Side

Brand

Ci

Min SOD/OFD

ASME

Grade Remarks

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RADIOGRAPHIC EXAMINATION PROCEDURE


REPORT OF RADIOGRAPHIC EXAMINATION


Ident No. Accept

INDT / RT-02-B

Blow
Reject Hole Slag

I N

()

SHRINKAGE

Sand
Incl.

Report No.

Page

Mott
Crac Hot
In Sert Ling
k Tear

INTERNATIONAL NONDESTRUCTIVE TESTING. CO., LTD

REPORT - B

OF

Grade Remarks