Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 9



The main focus of image segmentation is concerned with the classification
of brain tumor in the brain MRI images. The proposed method is used to classify
the medical images for diagnosis. Steps involved in this system are: preprocessing, feature extraction, association with segmentation and classification.
Here, we present some experiments for tumor detection in MRI images. The preprocessing step has been done using the median filtering process and features have
been extracted using adaptive histogram equalization technique. This paper
presents a new approach to image segmentation using Pillar K-means algorithm.
This segmentation method includes a new mechanism for grouping the elements of
high resolution images in order to improve accuracy and reduce the computation
time. The system uses K-means for image segmentation optimized by the
algorithm after Pillar. The Pillar algorithm considers the placement of pillars
should be located as far from each other to resist the pressure distribution of a roof,
as same as the number of centroids between the data distribution. This algorithm is
able to optimize the K-means clustering for image segmentation in the aspects of
accuracy and computation time. This algorithm distributes all initial centroids
according to the maximum cumulative distance metric. Experimental results clarify
the effectiveness of our approach to improve the segmentation quality and
accuracy aspects of computing time. Classify the tumor from the brain MR images
using Bayesian classification. We are achieving diagnosis accuracy more than

Each cell in the human body has its special function and will grow and
divide in an order to keep the body healthy. When cells lose the ability to control
their growth the cell division starts without any order. The extra cells form as a
mass of tissue called as tumor. Tumors that originate within brain tissue are known
as primary brain tumors. Brain tumors will be differentiated by grade I to grade IV.
Cells from higher grade tumors are more abnormal and grow faster than grade I
tumors. The amount of drug to be pumped into the human body to cure the tumor
cells depends on the size of the tumor and this can be obtained accurately by
Magnetic Resonance imaging (MRI) scan or a CT scan (Computed Tomography).
However, in this paper, MRI scan images are used for the analysis. MRI is a very
powerful tool to diagnose the brain tumors. It gives pictures of the brain and
requires no radiation. The acquired image is analyzed using image processing
methods. Image segmentation and clustering procedure are introduced to estimate
the area of the tumor. Image segmentation is classified into Pixel based methods,
regional methods and edge based methods. In this paper the brain tumor images are
partitioned into multiple segments as sets of pixels using pixel based segmentation.
The MRI Image represents white and grey color pixel elements. White color pixel
data points are related to tumor cells and the Gray color pixel data points relate to
normal cells. Collection of data points of the pixels that belongs to the same color
will be quantified using Euclidian distance method. The clusters may contain large
number of pixels. The pixels may be either close or far from the cluster center. If
the cluster centers are known, allocate each pixel point to the closest cluster center.
Each center is the mean of the points allocated to that cluster. In order to estimate
the area of the tumor, Manual segmentation, Fuzzy C-Means, K-Means and Pillar
K-Means clustering algorithms are used to obtain the true area of the tumor.











1. Markov random field is used along with the CS algorithm to find the
optimum values for a function.
2. Threshold for the segmentation process is obtained by calculating centre
pixel intensity from the labels kernel.
The existing method is based on the threshold and region growing.
1. At the threshold based segmentation the image is considered as having only
two values either black or white.
2. In case of the region growing based segmentation it needs more user
interaction for the selection of the seed. Seed is nothing but the center of the
tumor cells
The regional growing method ignored the spatial characteristics. Normally
spatial characteristics are important for malignant tumor detection.
This is the main problem of the current system, due to that proposed
technique for brain tumor segmentation

1. K- Means clustering is applied after initial selection of centroid from pillar
algorithm which avoids optimum problems.
2. The K-means algorithm is an iterative technique used to partition the MRI
image into K clusters. The basic algorithm is:
1. Initialize K cluster centers, randomly.
2. Assign each pixel in the MRI image to the clusters that minimize
the distance between the pixel and the cluster center
3. Re-compute the cluster centers by averaging all the pixels in the

4. Repeat steps 2 and 3 until convergence is attained (e.g. no pixels

change clusters) the distance is the squared or absolute difference between
the pixel and cluster center. The difference is typically based on pixel color,
to estimate the tumor radius for MRI Images. K can be selected manually,
randomly. The quality of the result depends on the initial set of clusters and
the value of K.
This paper proposes a new approach for MRI brain tumor detection
and utilizes Pillar Algorithm to optimize K-means clustering. The Pillar
algorithm performs the pillars placement which should be located as far as
possible from each other to withstand against the pressure distribution of a
roof, as identical to the number of centroids amongst the data distribution. It
designates the initial centroids position by calculating the accumulated
distance metric between each data point and all previous centroids and then
selects data points which have the maximum distance as new initial
1. A new mechanism for clustering the elements of high-resolution
images in order to improve precision.
2. Computational time taken by applying pillar algorithm is very fast.
3. It can improve significantly performance of the information
extraction, such as color, shape, texture and structure.




Preprocessing Module
Binarization Module
Segmentation Module
classification Module

The preprocessing module does the basic processing regarding the image.
An image is given as input to the system. The image is filtered to reduce the
noise of the image. For that Median filter is used, so that the image is
filtered without much compression loss. Then the image is enhanced for
brightness. Adaptive Histogram Equalizations is used so that the contrast
is reduced and the brightness is adjusted. Then the image is given to the
segmentation module.
In signal processing, it is often desirable to be able to perform some kind of noise
reduction on an image or signal. The median filter is a nonlinear digital filtering
technique, often used to remove noise. Such noise reduction is a typical preprocessing step to improve the results of later processing (for example, edge
detection on an image). Median filtering is very widely used in digital image
processing because, under certain conditions, it preserves edges while removing




equalization (AHE)


computer image

processing technique used to improve contrast in images. It differs from

ordinary histogram equalization in the respect that the adaptive method computes
several histograms, each corresponding to a distinct section of the image, and uses
them to redistribute the lightness values of the image. It is therefore suitable for
improving the local contrast and enhancing the definitions of edges in each region
of an image. However, AHE has a tendency to over amplify noise in relatively
homogeneous regions of an image. A variant of adaptive histogram equalization
called contrast adaptive histogram equalization (AHE) prevents this by limiting the

The resultant image is then fed to the segmentation module. Here
Binarization of image is carried out using OSTU thresholding. Where the 0 th
to 127th bit is set as black pixels and the rest till 255th pixel are set as white
pixels. As the region of interest is already set to as white, it forms a cluster
of these pixels by comparing every pixel with the neighboring pixel.
The clustered image is then set up with pillars at the boundaries of the
cluster. Then the individual boundaries are joined to form the whole
segmented image. For this pillar algorithm and K means clustering
algorithm is used.
The system uses the real size of the image in order to perform high quality
of the image segmentation. It causes high-resolution image data points to be
clustered. Therefore we use the K-means algorithm for clustering image data
considering that its ability to cluster huge data, and also outliers, quickly and

efficiently. However, Because of initial starting points generated randomly,

K-means algorithm is difficult to reach global optimum, but only to one of
local minima which it will lead to incorrect clustering results. Barakbah and
Helen performed that the error ratio of K-means is more than 60% for wellseparated datasets. To avoid this phenomenon, use clusters optimization for
K-means using Pillar algorithm. The Pillar algorithm is very robust and
superior for initial centroids optimization for K-means by positioning all
centroids far separately among them in the data distribution. This algorithm
is inspired by the thought process of determining a set of pillars locations in
order to make a stable house or building.
Then the segmented image is then taken for final classification process. The
pillars at each cluster are joined and the most intersected pillar is kept
marked as the classified part. For this Bayesian Method is used. The
classified image is marked on the final image. For the whole process the
time is calculated and the values of RMS and PSNR are derived. It is found
that this method takes less time.
A Bayesian classifier is based on the idea that the role of a (natural) class is to
predict the values of features for members of that class. The idea behind a
Bayesian classifier is that, if an agent knows the class, it can predict the values of
the other features. If it does not know the class, Bayes' rule can be used to predict
the class given (some of) the feature values. In a Bayesian classifier, the learning
agent builds a probabilistic model of the features and uses that model to predict the
classification of a new example. A latent variable is a probabilistic variable that is
not observed. A Bayesian classifier is a probabilistic model where the classification

is a latent variable that is probabilistically related to the observed variables.

Classification then becomes inference in the probabilistic model.

Hardware Requirements

Core i3/i5/i7




500 GB

Software Requirements


Windows Xp/7/8

Front End

MATLAB R2013,image processing tool