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6.

01


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1.
1.1.
1.2.
1.3.
1.4.
1.5.
1.6. (DISPLAY)
1.7.
1.8. DEFORM-3D


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1.

1.1.
unix- DEFORM3 DEFORM-3D. Windows-

DEFORM-3D . (MAIN) DEFORM-3D,


.

>
.
.
DEFORM-3D ( )


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, Block

DEFORM-3D. , .
. , .
. -
:


.
.
,
.

(MAIN) .


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1.2.

.
Block. , English
( ).


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1.3.
,

Object 1 Block
.
(Plastic). DEFORM .

.

DEFORM-3D -.STL .
Block_Billet.STL DEFORM3D\V6.01\Labs.
DEFORM.
,
.
, , -
.

. ,
. ,
5000 ,
.


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1.4.
( , \,
) .
/
.
, .


, , ,
.
( : Shift + )
\

,
.
( : Alt + )

,

. ( : Ctrl +
Alt + )


. ( : Ctrl +
8


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X
Y
Z

)
X
.
Y
.
Z
.

, (

) XYZ
. , ,
,
X , Y , Z .
,
Use object coord for
rotation ( ).

YZ
XZ
XY

X (+) (-)
Y (+) (-)
Z (+) (-)

1.5.

.
.



.
.


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1.6.
:

.
.

.


.

.

.
.

1.7.
.
>
Block.KEY.

1.8. DEFORM-3D
2,
.
DEFORM-3D. 2,
, DEFORM-3D
>

10

. ,


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2.
2.1.
2.2.
2.3.
2.3.1.
2.3.2.

2.4.

2.5.

2.6.
2.7.
2.8.
2.8.1.
2.8.2.
2.8.3.
2.8.4.

2.9.
2.10.
2.11.
2.12. DEFORM-3D
11


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2.
2.1.
,
DEFORM-3D.

2.2.
DEFORM . ,
BLOCK BLOCK.KEY .
, , .
.

2.3.
.
12


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.
,
2 3.

2.3.1.
Object 2 Top Die.

. DEFORM3D\V6.01\Labs
Block_TopDie.STL. .
DEFORM ,
, .
. ,

. , , 1
, 0 , 0 ( ).
, 1 .

,
. ,
,
. , ,

.

2.3.2.
Object 3 .


13


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Bottom Die.

. Block_BottomDie.STL.

( ).
.

2.4.
- , .
..
Top Die .
.
.

.
1 /. .
1 in/sec.
- -Z .
?
- ,
. ( )
,
. , ,
.

14


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2.5.
, , ,
, ,
. ,
68F 20C, .
,
. , 68F .

2.6.
.
,
(flow stress). , (
), .
() ( ),
.

, .


AISI-1035.
. , , ,
. , AISI-1035
and, .
, AISI-1035, COLD.

.

e,

Flow stress.

.

, AISI-1035, COLD .
15


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2.7.

, .

. , -1.
, (
).
20. , 20 .
2. .
, .
(Top Die),
.
.
1/3
.

(
).

0.4". 0.4" 0.13".
0.13.

.

2.8.
. DEFORM-3D
:
,
.

16


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,
,
.
,
.

. .
,

.
.

2.8.1.

Block.
, +Z ,
. , +Z
. Top Die +Z
, , -Y
, .

2.8.2.
, .
17


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Block. -Z
.

2.8.3.
, ,

.
Top Die. :
1)
2) .
.

.
.
, .

18


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2.8.4.
.

.

. ,
Top Die. Block .
, Z.
.

19


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:



.

2.9.

.
, , ,
.
.
. DEFORM
. ,
.
, .
(
). ,
.
.

,
, .
, ,
( ) (Cold forming (steel dies)).
0.12.

20


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(Top Die) (Block) ,


(Bottom Die) (Block).
,
.
.
, 0.12.

.
, ()
21


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( )
. , .
,
, .
.

, DEFORM .
0.0112" .
,

.
,
.
:

,
.
, ,

.

2.10.
. FEM
( DEFORM ) . DEFORM,
( ,
, , ..) .

.


. :
(,
).
, , ,
.
,
, .
, (Volume Compensation).
,
.

.
.

2.11.
(Block.DB) , .
.
Block.KEY.
22


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DEFORM 3D.

2.12. DEFORM-3D
3, DEFORM3D. 3, DEFORM-3D

3.
3.1.
3.2.
3.3.
23


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3.4.
3.4.1.
3.4.2.
3.4.3.
3.4.4.

3.5. DEFORM-3D

3.

3.1.

DEFORM-3D.

3.2.
DEFORM , , .
BLOCK BLOCK.DB
.

3.3.

24


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.
.
( ).


.

, .

:

3.4.

DEFORM-3D

25


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3.4.1.
, .
.

(STEP LIST),

.
:


26


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3.4.2.

.

(StrainEffective)
.

.
(Scaling)
.
.
,
.

3.4.3.
DEFORM .
, .
.

.

. ( )

27


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(Tracking Option)
.
,
,
:

:
,
.
.

.

. -
.

28


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3.4.4.
DEFORM-3D
t. ,
Point Tracking
(Hide PointTracking).

.

. .
.
.

.

29


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.
(SLICING) P (Point) - N (Normal) - .
X, Y, Z
.
. X , ,
.

30


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3.5. DEFORM-3D
, .
, DEFORM-3D

31


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4.
4.1.
4.2.
4.3.
4.4.
4.5.
4.6.
4.7.
4.8.

32


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4.
4.1.
.
. ,
, .
.
, .
,
1/16 .

4.2.
unix- DEFORM3 DEFORM-3D. Windows ,

DEFORM-3D . DEFORM-3D

. ,

DEFORM-3D,
.

DEFORM ( ).
SquareRing
DEFORM-3D.

4.3.
.
33


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, .
1 2.
Object 1 .

Billet, .

. SquareRing_Billet.STL.

Object 2 .
Die.

Top

SquareRing_TopDie.STL.

4.4.
Billet

, ,

. ,
. ,
5000 .

4.5.
1/16 .
,
.

34


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.
(Symmetry plane) X (
). ,
(Plane Information) .

.

(1,0,0) .
.
, ,
. ,
:

35


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4.6.
.
. ,
,
.

( ) (Cold forming (steeldies)).

,

( 0.002),
.
, .

4.7.
:
36


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1) Top Die
/ -Z.

. 1

.
2)
AISI-1045, COLD .
3)

30
Square Ring.
2. Top Die.

,
.
0.06.
0.02 /, .. 1/3 .
.


.
. (Volume
Compensation) . ,


.

, ,

. ,

37


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, ,
.

4.8.

.
,
. 1/16
.

(SYMMETRY DEFINITION).
, .
. .
.

, (SYMMETRY
DEFINITION). , .
,
.

38


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,
.

DEFORM-3D

39


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5.
5.1.
5.2.
5.3.
5.4.
5.4.1.
5.4.2.
5.4.3.

5.5.
5.6.
5.7.
5.8.
5.9.

40


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5.
5.1.
, .
, ,
, . :
- 10 .
.
- 6 2
. .
- .
- 8 .
2D. ,
3D,
3D 1/4 .

5.2.
DEFORM-3D .
,

. , Spike
DEFORM-3D.

5.3.

. Spike
Forging Transfer from Furnace ( ). ,
English .
10 . ,
, . 50
, 0.2 .
. 50,

10.
0.2 . ,

5.4.
, .
, ,
( ,
).

5.4.1.
Object 1 ,

Billet, . ,
41


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2000F.

. Spike_Billet.STL.

5.4.2.
Object 2 , Top Die.
Spike_TopDie1.STL.

5.4.3.
Object 3 , Bottom Die.
Spike_BottomDie.STL.

5.5.
.
, . ,
,
, .
.
DEFORM (Relativemesh)
(Absolute mesh).
Relative Mesh ,
. ,
.
Absolute Mesh ,
. ,
.
(Weighting Factors)
.
.

- -
42


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.
, .
, .
,
. , ,
.
, , .
, ,
, .
, , -
, 2 (Spike_TopDie2. STL).


. 0.08".
, , 0.04".
. Top
Die 2 .
Blow 1 - Top Die
Blow 2 - Top Die

. .
Billet
0.04.
3.

.
43


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5.6.
,
. ,
, .
Heat Exchange with Environment

( ).
.
. ,
.
Heat Exchange with Environment ( ),
,
.
, - 68F,
.

, .
.

. , Heat Exchange
with Environment, ,
.

44


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5.7.

.

AISI-1025(1800-2200F) . .
.

5.8.
, , >
Spike_FurnaceTransfer.KEY. ,

, , .
.
,
, . ,
45


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.
. ,
.
,
.

5.9.
,

. DEFORM-

(Temperature)

3D.
. (Color Bar)
emperature () .
.

46


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State Variable menu

Temperature ColorBar Type

,
.
,

6.
6.1.
6.2.
6.3.
6.3.1.
6.3.2.

6.4.
6.5.
6.6.
6.7.
6.8.
6.9.
47


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6.
6.1.
5 .
2 .
. ( - )
.

6.2.
DEFORM-3D . Spike.DB

.
, 50
.

50 .
,
48


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, 68F,
1833 ~ 1989. ,

, Plot Variable ( )
,
(NodeTemperature)
.

6.3.
,
. DEFORM-3D, :
1) ,
. ,

2) , .
, .
.

6.3.1.
Top Die . ,
49


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68F 300F.
,

(Heat Exchange with


Environment). ,
, .
.

6.3.2.
Bottom Die . 68F 300F

. Top Die,

,
.
(Heat Exchange with Environment), ,
.

6.4.

.

AISI-H-13, . (MATERIAL LIBRARY)
50


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.
(Descriptions), ,
H-13. (1450F - 1850F)
, ,
.

H-13 .
.
,
H-13 .

H-13 .

6.5.
Bottom Die.

. Billet Bottom Die.


51


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-Z

6.6.
.

.
-

. Bottom Die - Billet

. ,

, .
(Free resting) .

,

Billet Bottom Die.

6.7.

.
Dwell () 2.
Bottom Die 2 . -0.2 -
, 10 .

10 5. ,
-51. ( -1 to 50),
Spike.DB, .
.

6.8.
, >
Spike_Dwell.KEY. ,

. Top Die

(Dwell),
.

52

.
.


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,
.

6.9.
,

(STEP LIST),
.
, Billet
(Single object mode)
.
. (Temperature)
(State Variable) (Color Bar),
Temperature .
. -51
.
51 60 . Bottom Die
. 2 .

.
53


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7. 1
7.1.
7.2.
7.3.
7.4.
7.5.
7.5.1.
7.5.2.
7.5.3.

7.6.
7.7.
7.8.
7.9.

54


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7. 1
7.1.
.
.

7.2.
DEFORM-3D . Spike.DB

. 60

7.3.

. Forging Blow 1
3. ,
.
,


. 0.06".
1/3 - 1/2 0.025".
0.75" . 30 .
:
.


30
5. Top Die, Top Die ,
0.025".

7.4.

.
55


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Top Die Billet. Z.

7.5.
. ,
. , ..
.

7.5.1.
Billet
.
(Symmetry plane) ,,
( ).

. . BCC
.

7.5.2.
, .
, , (Mesh).
, , (Geometry).
Top Die
.
, , , .

7.5.3.
Bottom Die
.
,
.

56


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7.6.
Top Die
-Z.

. 2

7.7.

.
, .
(Forming heat transfer
coefficient) (Free resting coefficient),
.
. ,

Hot forging ( ).
, , (Forming)
. .

. .

57


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7.8.
> Spike_Blow1.KEY. ,
.
(Volume Compensation warning)

,

. .

7.9.
,

. Billet ,


,
. , -61 90.
(Temperature) (Effective Strain).

. , /

Show Mesh ( ) (

Show Geo ( )
).
, , ,
, , .

58


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,
.
. ,
, Top Die, X , Y
Z Load.
Load-Stroke (-)

59


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, Load-Stroke
. ,
, .

60


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8. 2
8.1.
8.2.
8.3.
8.4.
8.5.
8.6.
61


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8.7.
8.8.
8.9.

8. 2
8.1.
, ,
.
.

8.2.
DEFORM-3D . Spike.DB ,

.
90.

8.3.
. Top Die ,

,
, .

Spike_TopDie2.STL.

.
62


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H-13.

8.4.
,
.
, ,
:
, .
:
(Heat
Exchange with Environment). ,

8.5.


. Top Die
.
Billet. -Z
:

8.6.
,
.
,

8.7.

. Forging Blow 2
4. , 0.25"
.
63


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10. ,
10 0.025 .

8.8.
> Spike_Blow2.KEY. ,
.
.

(Volume Compensation),
.
. ,

. .

8.9.
,

( )

.
, , -90 100.
, .

, .

64


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9.
9.1.
9.2.
9.3.
9.4.
9.5.
9.5.1.
9.5.2.
9.5.3.
9.5.4. 4
9.5.5. 5

9.6.
65


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9.7.
9.8.

9.
9.1.
.
,
. ,
, ,
.
, ,
.
.

9.2.

. DieStress.

9.3.

. Spike.DB (
( 5 - 8) ).
Problem\Spike). 90, 1.

9.4.

.
Die Stress 1. ,
English, , .
66


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, .
, ,
. -1,
6 1.
1 .

9.5.

( 4 5) .
.

9.5.1.
,

9.5.2.
.
(Symmetry plane),
1)
.
2) Vz = 0 (Velocity)
. .
3) (Force).

Spike.DB, 90,
. t, (Error
Tolerance) 0.1 ( ).

, ,
.
.
(Error tolerance).
, ,
. ,
.
67


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(
) .

9.5.3.
.
(Symmetry plane),
1)
.
2) (Force) ,
.

9.5.4. 4
4 Upper Support ( ) -
68


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UpperSupport.STL.
=
0.15 = 1.
H-13 .
(Symmetry plane)
1)
.
2) Vz = 0 (Velocity) ,
Z.
3) , ,
(Shrink Fit). ,
. , (0, 0, 0) - , Z -
. ,
. ,
. ,
0.004 (Interference).

,

.
, ,

69


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Displacement ()
.

9.5.5. 5
5 Lower Support ( ) .
LowerSupport.STL.
, =
0.15 = 1.
H-13 .
(Symmetry plane)
1)
.
2) Vz = 0 (Velocity) ,
70


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Z.

9.6.
,
.
.

9.7.

DieStress.KEY.


.
, .

9.8.
,

(User-Defined

Object Mode), .
,
.

,
. , ,
.
71


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, .
, .
.
(State Variable),
(Max Principal stress),
.
.

.
Top Die,

Eff. Stress.

Max Min . ,
, ,
.

72


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10.
10.1

10.2
10.3

10.4
10.5
73


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10.6
10.7
10.8
10.9
10.10
10.11
10.12
10.13
10.14
10.15

10.

10.1

. - - ,
.
, 1999 ,
. ,
- .
74


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- ,
.
:

1/2 .
:
DIN 41Cr4
:
1300C
:
90C
:
4
:
3.8e7 N-mm
:
3000 N-s2/mm
:
0.5
:
10% .
:
25% .
:
35% .
:
45% .
:

,
. ,
. , .
, ,
, ,
.
,
.

10.2
, Link.
: Steering Link
,

10.3
1: :
2: :
3: :
.

IDS_Link_Billet.stl
IDS_Link_Top.stl
IDS_Link_Bottom.stl
.

10.4

. ,
. ,
. , ,
, .
DEFORM-3D :
75


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1) .
, .
2) .
, ,
.
, , ,
,
, .
- ,
.

10.4.1
-
. , - ,
.
2. ,
1/2 , 1.
, , 1,
3 .
,
, , .
.
0.9 0.1
.
.
45 000 . ,
,
.

10.4.2
,
. ,
, , ...
2 .
3, 6.
10 000 .

10.5
1300C 90C.
, - 90C.
, .

10.6


76

(Target Volume).

.. ,


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, .
DEFORM
. DEFORM
. , .

10.7
, 150/
-Z. ,
.
.

10.8
. ,
+x
+x.

10.9
,
11 .


. ( ) .
11.0 .

10.10
77


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40. , 200
. ,
.
/ 0.2 /.
.

,
. ,
.
130 000 - 150 000 , 1GB RAM,
. , DEFORM
140 000
.
RAM 1GB ,
, SW2SP.DAT,
.

10.11
DIN41Cr4 . ,

.

10.12
.
0.3 ( ), 5 ( ,
). .

10.13
. ,
. .
.
.
, .
. DEFORM
.

10.14
. .
, .


.
,

.
.
, , .
78


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, .
,
.

"" .
.

10.15
,
.
.
1: . 4
2: . 10% 3.8e6. 1/2
(1.9e6), 1/2 (1500)
1/2 . 80%.
3: . , ,
1/2 .
4: . 25% (4.75e6), 1500.
5: - 3.
6: . 35% (6.65e6), 1500.
7: 3.
8: . 45% (8.55e6), 1500.
.
79


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(0.2mm),
0.1 /.

11.
11.1
11.2
11.3
11.4
11.5
11.6
11.7
11.8
11.9
11.10
80


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11.11
11.12
11.12.1
11.12.2
11.12.3

11.13
11.13.1
11.13.2
11.13.3
11.13.4

11.14
11.15

11.
11.1
- ,
1999 .
. ,
.

1/12 (30 ) :
:
- 31.5, - 67
:
DIN C35
:
1230C
:
80C
:
7
81


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:
:
:
:

0.7
9.5
3 seconds
.

11.2
-
. .
, , .
:
3D, , . ,
.
2D, 3D, 3D. 2D
. 3D
2D 3D, DEFORM. 3D simulation,
.
CAD- .
, ,
, ,
.
3D.

11.3
, Gear_Carrier.
: Gear Carrier
: Furnace Transfer ( )
r: 1

82


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11.4
1:
: IDS_GC_Billet.stl
2:
: IDS_GC_Upset_Top.stl
3:
: IDS_GC_Upset_Bot.stl
, - .

11.5
10 .
9,5 ,
1.
:

0.9

0.0

0.1

0.1
,
1mm. ,
= 1mm = 1.
,
.
, , 1
. ,
, 3, .
( = 3,
= 0.33mm, = 1mm)
,
.

11.6

:
.
: ,
.

11.7

1230C. 80C.

11.8

DIN-C15 ( ).

11.9

270 85 / (1.4
/). (67)
(9.5), 57.5. , , 1500.
, ,
.
83


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, , .

11.10
14 , 0.5 /. = 2.

11.11
.

11.12
11.12.1.
: Dwell ()
: 2
7 , 0.1 .

11.12.2.
,
.

11.12.3.
,
.
. ,
. ,
Free resting (1 )
- . .
.

11.13
84


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11.13.1
: Upset ()
: 3
, .
.
, 100 . 57.5mm.
120 , 0.5/ 10- .
, , 212.5mm 270mm
. - 57.5 , .
270 Z,
, .

11.13.2
, .

11.13.3
, Hot forging (lubricated) ( ) 0.3
Forming () 5.
.

11.13.4

(TargetVolume).
,
.

11.14
: Transfer2 ( 2)
: 4
, . - 3
. 6 , 0.5 /. .

11.15
: Finish ()
: 5
:
: IDS_GC_Finish_Top.STL
: IDS_GC_Finish_Bot.STL

.
.
85


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, 200 .
1.0e6 N.
.

().
.


, , .
, . 1.

1:


2 . ,
(cogging) ( 1),
. .
(. 2).
86


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2:
(Next).
(. 3).

3:
. (
87


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4).

4:
(, CogLab) Finish ().
. ( (Master Data File) MDT) - MST ( ) CogLab.MDT
CogLab.MST ( CogLab).


( , 5);
. ,
/ , {}
. .

88


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5:
( 6). ,
(
) .

89


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6:
( 7).

7():
7():
( ),
3D- , . ,
. ( QT,
Motif), " deform".

"USER_HT.KEY".
90


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,
"CogBilMaterial.KEY" .

. USER_HT.KEY ,
. -
.
,
USER_HT.KEY.
.
USER_HT.KEY " ".
( 7), round cornered rectangle (
) / 20, 60
2. ( 7) 100 , 1
14 . Generate Mesh.
, ( 7)
1500 F. (
8), ( 8) ( 8)
.

7():

7():

. ( 8),
25, 15, 15 2. ( 8), 100
, 1 7.

91


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8():

8():

92

8():

8():


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9():

9():

. 2
GFM (4 ).
X ( ) X.
(
). .
, ""
( ).
1 / 200 F. X 0,
(
. , 0.5
.)
( 9 -).

93


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9():

9():

200F 10
.
. ( X,

.) .
,
.
. ,
( 10).

10:
94


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"AddRH" (
). Reheat 1 ( )
( 11).
Heat In (HIn+)/ Furnace Reheat (Reheat+)/ Heat Out (HOut+) (Pass+)
.

11:
, ,
. "Pass +
", 1 (Pass1). (:
.
.)

12:
. Auto-calculation of bites (
) "Yes" Min. stopping distance ( )
18 . "-1"
X. . Bite Heat,
"BiteHT+". "Bite Heat", 10 of simulation steps, 500
( ).
95


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USER_HT.KEY.

5 . 0.004,

13():

13():

Bite Deformation ( 13), 10 , 20


500 (
). 0.1 0.4 .
. Advanced ()
. , , .
, .., Clamping
force( ) ( 0 . 13). ( 100
klbs) ,
, .

/ .
.
90 1.
, (. 14) (
).

.

96


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14:

15:


-. Finish () , (
Yes ). MDT-,
. (
BILLET.KEY DIE1-2-3-4.KEY NO
/ .)
, .


,
( ):
CogLab.MST, CogLab.MDT
BILLET.KEY
DIE1.KEY, DIE2.KEY (DIE3.KEY & DIE4.KEY ( 4
.)
MAN1.KEY, MAN2.KEY, MAN3.KEY, MAN4.KEY
SPRING.INI ( )


USER_HT.KEY
$DEFORM3_DIR/TOOLS/COG/LABS ( ).

97


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16:
, .
MDT ( MST) Start Simulation( ).
(. 16). "OK" .
"Command/DOS prompt" -.
, .
COG_CTRL3 COG_CTRL.COM UNIX
DEF_CTRL.COM Windows-NT/2000.
0 , Enter.
(CogLab) ,FEM .
, CogLab.DB.
DEFORM-3D .
, ,
Deform-3D, ,
.
( ) "OK".

98