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56th IMO 2015 at Chiang Mai, Thailand

Problems

1. Let ABC be a non-isosceles triangle with incenter I whose incircle is tangent to BC, CA, AB at D, E, F , respectively. Denote by M the midpoint

of BC. Let Q be a point on the incircle such that AQD = 90 . Let P be

a point inside the triangle on line AI for which M D = M P. Prove that

either PQE = 90 or PQF = 90 .

Evan Chen

2. Prove that for every n N, there exists a set S of n positive integers such

that for any two distinct a, b S, a b divides a and b but none of the

other elements of S.

Iurie Boreico

3. A physicist encounters 2015 atoms called usamons. Each usamon either

has one electron or zero electrons, and the physicist cant tell the difference. The physicists only tool is a diode. The physicist may connect the

diode from any usamon A to any other usamon B. (This connection is

directed.) When she does so, if usamon A has an electron and usamon B

does not, then the electron jumps from A to B. In any other case, nothing

happens. In addition, the physicist cannot tell whether an electron jumps

during any given step. The physicists goal is to isolate two usamons that

she is 100% sure are currently in the same state. Is there any series of

diode usage that makes this possible?

Linus Hamilton

1. Prove or disprove: if f : Q Q satisfies

f (x + y) f (x) f ( y) Z

for all rationals x and y, then there exists c Q such that f (x) c x Z

for all x Q. Here, Z denotes the set of integers, and Q denotes the set

of rationals.

Victor Wang

2. A tournament is a directed graph for which every (unordered) pair of

distinct vertices has a single directed edge from one vertex to the other.

Let us define a proper directed-edge-coloring to be an assignment of a

color to every (directed) edge, so that for every pair of directed edges

uv

and vw (with the first edge oriented into, and the second edge oriented

out of a common endpoint v), those two edges are in different colors.

and

to be the

Note that it is permissible for edge pairs of the form

vu

vw

and

to be the same

same color, as well as for edge pairs of the form

uv

wv

color.

The directed-edge-chromatic-number of a tournament is defined to be

the minimum total number of colors that can be used in order to create a proper directed-edge-coloring. For each n, determine the minimum

directed-edge-chromatic-number over all tournaments on n vertices.

Po-Shen Loh

3. Let ABC be a non-equilateral triangle and let Ma , M b , Mc be the midpoints

of the sides BC, CA, AB, respectively. Let S be a point lying on the Euler

line of ABC. Denote by X , Y , Z the second intersections of each of Ma S,

M b S, Mc S with the nine-point circle, respectively. Prove that AX , BY , C Z

are concurrent.

Recall that the Euler line is the line through the circumcenter and orthocenter, and the nine-point circle is the circumcircle of Ma , M b , and Mc .

Ivan Borsenco

Problem 1

Assume without loss of generality that AB < AC; we show PQE = 90 .

S

E

N

F

I

Q

P

well-known that the three lines M N , DE, AI are concurrent at a point (see for

example problem 6 of USAJMO 2014). Let P 0 be this intersection point, noting

that P 0 actually lies on segment DE. Then P 0 lies inside 4ABC and moreover

4DP 0 M 4DEC

so M P 0 = M D. Hence P 0 = P, proving the claim.

Let S be the point diametrically opposite D on the incircle, which is also the

second intersection of AQ with the incircle. Let T = AQ BC. Then T is the

contact point of the A-excircle; consequently,

MD = MP = MT

and we obtain a circle with diameter DT . Since DQT = DQS = 90 we have

Q on this circle as well.

As S D is tangent to the circle with diameter DT , we obtain

PQD = S DP = S DE = SQE.

Since DQS = 90 , PQE = 90 too.

3

Problem 2

The idea is to look for a sequence d1 , . . . , dn1 of differences such that the

following two conditions hold. Let si = d1 + + di1 , and t i, j = di + + d j

for i j.

(i) No two of the t i, j divide each other.

(ii) There exists an integer a satisfying the CRT equivalences

a si (mod t i, j ) i j

Then the sequence a + s1 , a + s2 , . . . , a + sn will work. For example, when n = 3

we can take (d1 , d2 ) = (2, 3) giving

5

z

}|

{

10 |{z} 12 |{z} 15

3

a 0 (mod 2)

a 0 (mod 5)

a 2 (mod 3).

But with this setup we can just construct the di Q

inductively. To go from n to

n1

n + 1, take a d1 , . . . , dn1 . Let M be a multiple of i=1 di , and p a prime not

dividing M . Then we claim that d1 M , d2 M , . . . , dn1 M , p is such a difference

sequence. For example, the previous example extends as follows.

1507

}|

{

907

z }| {

a |{z} b |{z} c |{z} d

600

900

The new numbers p, p + M dn1 , p + M dn2 , . . . are all relatively prime to everything else. Hence (i) still holds. To see that (ii) still holds, just note that we can

still get a family of solutions for the first n terms, and then the last n + 1th term

can be made to work by Chinese Remainder Theorem since all the new p + M dk

are coprime to everything.

Problem 3

The answer is no. Call the usamons U1 , . . . , Um (here m = 2015). Consider

models Mk of the following form: U1 , . . . , Uk are all charged for some 0 k m

and the other usamons are not charged. Note that for any pair theres a model

where they are different states, by construction.

We can consider the physicist as acting on these m+1 models simultaneously,

and trying to reach a state where theres a pair in all models which are all the

same charge. (This is a necessary condition for a winning strategy to exist.)

But we claim that any diode operation Ui U j results in the m + 1 models

being an isomorphic copy of the previous set. If i < j then the diode operation

can be interpreted as just swapping Ui with U j , which doesnt change anything.

Moreover if i > j the operation never does anything. The conclusion follows

from this.

Problem 1

The statement is false. To show this, we will construct explicitly a function

f : Q Q such that

f (x + y) f (x) f ( y) Z

(1)

for all x, y Z but such that there is no c Q with f (x) c x Z for all x Q.

For a rational number x, denote by {x} the fractional part of x (that is, the

number x bxc). Let Q Q be the set of rational numbers whose denominator

is a power of 2, and let R Q be the set of rational numbers whose denominator

is odd. The sets Q and R are both closed under addition and additive inverse.

We have the following lemma:

Lemma 1. Every rational number x can be expressed in the form q + r, where

q Q and r R. Furthermore, if x = q + r and x = q0 + r 0 are two such

expressions (where q, q0 Q and r, r 0 R), then q q0 is an integer.

Proof. First, we show that x can be expressed in the desired form. Write x =

m/n, where m and n are relatively prime integers. Then, write n as a product

n1 n2 , where n1 is a power of 2 and n2 is odd. Since n1 and n2 are relatively

prime, there are integers a, b such that an1 + bn2 = 1. Take

q=

mb

n1

r=

ma

.

n2

and

We compute

mb ma

+

n1

n2

m(an1 + bn2 )

=

n1 n2

m

=

n

=x

q+r =

as desired.

to show that q q0 is an integer. Since Q contains both q and q0 and is closed

under addition and additive inverse, we conclude that q q0 Q. Similarly, we

have r 0 r R. But q q0 = r 0 r, so it is in Q R. That is, the denominator

of q q0 is both odd and a power of 2. The only odd power of 2 is 1, so q q0

has a denominator of 1; in other words, it is an integer, as desired.

Define the function f as follows: for x Q, let f (x) = {q}, where x = q + r

is a decomposition with q Q and r R. By Lemma 1, this uniquely defines

the function f .

We check property (1). Let x, y Q; we wish to show that

f (x + y) f (x) f ( y) Z.

By Lemma 1, we can write x = q+ r and y = q0 + r 0 where q, q0 Q and r, r 0 R.

Adding these two equations, we obtain a decomposition

x + y = (q + q0 ) + (r + r 0 )

and q + q0 Q and r + r 0 R. By the definition of the function f , we have

f (x) = {q}

f ( y) = {q0 }

f (x + y) = {q + q0 }

so

f (x + y) f (x) f ( y) = {q + q0 } {q} {q0 }

is an integer, as desired.

Now, assume for the sake of contradiction that there is c Q such that

f (x)c x Z for all x Q. Fix an odd integer ` > |c|. We have a decomposition

1

1

=0+

`

`

and 0 Q and 1/` R, so

Since

1

f

= 0.

`

1

c

c

f

=

`

`

`

other hand, the decomposition

1 1

= +0

2 2

with 1/2 Q and 0 R yields

1

1

= ,

f

2

2

so this is a contradiction.

Problem 2

Let f (n) be the answer to the problem. We claim that f (n) = dlog ne for all

n 1. The proof is divided into showing that this quantity is both an upper and

a lower bound.

Lower Bound. We show that every tournament on n vertices has directededge-chromatic number at least dlog ne. We prove this by strong induction on

n. As our base case, if n = 1, then clearly f (1) 0 = dlog 1e. Now, for n

2, assume by the strong inductive hypothesis that f (k) dlog ke for all k <

n. Consider any proper directed-edge-coloring of an n-vertex directed graph

(vertex set V ) with f (n) 1 colors. Pick an arbitrary color, and let U1 be the

of that color, and let U be

set of vertices u for which their exists an edge

uv

2

Clearly since

the set of vertices u for which their exists an edge of the form

vu.

the coloring is proper U1 U2 = ;. Thus, there exists i {1, 2} such that Ui

has size at most n/2. Notice that V \ Ui has size at least n/2 and also has no

edges of the originally chosen color. Thus, the graph induced by V \ Ui has a

proper directed-edge-coloring of f (n) 1 colors. By the inductive hypothesis,

this implies that

f (n) 1 f (|V \ Ui |) dlog |V \ Ui |e dlog(n/2)e = dlog ne 1.

Therefore, f (n) dlog ne.

Upper Bound. We exhibit a proper directed-edge-coloring with dlog ne colors of a tournament with n vertices. Consider the tournament with vertices

0, . . . , n 1 such that there is a directed edge from i to j if and only if i > j.

Label our colors 0, . . . , dlog ne 1. Color the edge i j the largest k such that i

has a 1 and j has a 0 in the 2k th place of their binary representations. Such a

k always exists and is at most dlog ne 1 because i > j and n 1 requires at

8

most dlog ne digits in its binary representation. Assume for sake of contradiction

that this is not a proper directed-edge-coloring. Then, there would exist edge

i j and jk of color `. Thus, j would have both 0 and 1 in the 2` th place of its

binary representation, contradiction. Hence, this exhibited coloring is proper

so f (n) dlog ne.

Thus, the minimal directed-edge-chromatic number among tournaments on

n vertices is dlog ne.

Problem 3

Hc

Ta

Hb

Mc

Mb

N

Tc

Tb

S

Z

B

H a Y Ma

H a , H b , H c be the feet of the altitudes from A, B, C, respectively, and let TA, TB ,

TC be the midpoints of AH, BH, C H respectively.

Let P = Mc H b M b H c . Pascals theorem on hexagon M b Tb H b Mc Tc H c gives

that P is collinear with M b Tb Mc Tc = N and Tb H b Tc H c = H. So P is on the

Euler line N H. Then Pascals theorem on M b Y H b Mc Z H c gives that H b Y H c Z

is collinear with M b Y Mc Z = S and M b H c H b Mc = P, so H b Y and H c Z

meet on the Euler line. By symmetry H b Y also meets H a X on the Euler line, so

H a X , H b Y, H c Z concur.

Using trig Ceva, the concurrence of H a X , H b Y, H c Z gives

Y sin H H X

c a

= 1,

sin H b H a X

9

Y sin M M X

c a

= 1.

sin M b Ma X

Thus

Y sin M AX

Y Mc X sin AMc X

c

AX

=

=

Mb X

sin CAX

sin M b AX

AX sin AM b X

Y sin H H X

Y sin AM X Y M X

c

c a

c

=

=

sin AM b X

Mb X

sin H b H a X

Y sin M M X

Y sin M M X

c b

c b

=

=

sin M b Mc X

sin M b Mc X

Y sin M M X

c a

=

= 1.

sin M b Ma X

Y sin BAX

10

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