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Basic Biology complete report with the title "Cara Menggunakan

Mikroskop" that arranged by:

: Amriani Anrah


: 1612441003


: International Class Program of Physics Education


: III (Three)

After checked by assistant coordinator and assistant so this report was accepted.
Makassar, November 28th 2016
Assistant Coordinator


Muhammad Afdal Fadli

ID : 1314440014

Aulia Azizah
ID : 1414440015

Known by,
Responsibility lecture

Drs. Hamka L, MS
NIP : 19621231 198630 0 015

A. Background
Development of science in the era of globalization to move fast. One of
example is biology. In the world is not all things can be seen with the naked eye,
because there is a limit of human vision. So that needed a tool, and the tool called
a microscope. Therefore, many problems concerning objects or organisms to be
observed and the observations can only be done by using the tools. One tool that
is often used in research or observations about organisms that can not be seen with
the eye, is a microscope.
The microscope is one of tool that is widely used in the laboratory or
process Biology lab activities. The person who first used the microscope in the
form of a simple though is Antony Van Leuwenhoek in the field of microbiology.
Then in 1600 Hans and Z Jansen has found a more advanced microscope with the
name of a compound microscope. Microscope comes from the word meaning
small and micro scopium (sight). Microscope is a tool that studies the structure of
the objects to be noticeable by the naked eye.
The microscope uses light called an optical microscope, the microscope is
generally used in laboratory school. There are two types of optical microscopes,
namely are biological microscope and stereo microscope. Microscope in principle
consists of two lenses are as objective lens and the ocular lens. Each objective
lens can be rotated into place in accordance with the desired magnification.
Magnification objective lens system provides early and produce a real image
which is then projected onto the ocular lens. The visual image was magnified by
the ocular to produce a virtual image that we see.
The microscope has a perishable components, such as lenses and mirrors,
these components need to be treated well and good care anyway, so we should
avoid treatments that can cause damage such as rubbing the lens with a rough
cloth. Therefore, practical introduction and how to use the microscope is very
B. Purpose

Students are skilled in using of the microscope with a fast and safe to see
the simple preparation
C. Benefits
Add knowledge and insight about how to use a microscope, knowing the
parts of the microscope and their respective functions, and then knowing the
structure of cell and tissues that exist in plants in accordance with the
experiments performed

The evolution of science have often been aligned with the discovery of
equipment that expands the human senses to be able to enter new boundaries.
discovery and initial studies about cells to make progress in line with the
invention and refinement of the microscope in the seventeenth century. Some
microscopes still become an indispensable tool in studying the cell.
The microscope was first used by scientists Renaissance, and also is a microscope

that is used to this day in the laboratory, is a light microscope (LM light
microscope) of visible light is passed through a specimen and then penetrate the
glass lens. This lens merefraksi (bend) light such that the specimen magnified
shadow shadow when it is projected into our eyes. (Campbell Neil. A. 2000)
Two important values is the magnification of a microscope and
decomposition, or resolution. Enlargement reflects the number of times larger than
the size of the object look real. The resolving power is a measure of the clarity of
the image, which is the minimum distance of two points which can be separated
and still be distinguished as two separate points. For example, what is visible to
the naked eye as a star might just break down into a binary star with a telescope.
Just as the power of the human eye is limited explained, the microscope is also
limited. The microscope can be designed to magnify objects as big as you want,
but never decipher microscope finer details. Decomposition or resolution is
limited by the wavelength of visible light is used to illuminate the specimen. Light
microscope can magnify effectively until approximately 1000 times the size of the
actual specimen. Magnification will increase the opaqueness. (Campbell Neil. A.
The microscope is one of the necessary equipment in the science
laboratory. This tool is typically used to conduct observations of objects that are
microscopic, both stationary objects or microorganisms that can move. Activity
using a microscope observation of the object / microorganisms either not moving
or moving, requires expertise, precision, patience and accuracy as well as high
concentrations. Trouble finding the object being observed, often makes an
observer to despair, thus terminating its activity without results in accordance with
the purpose of observation. (Sadina,2013)
Biological microscope has a maximum magnification of 1000x. This
microscope has the legs are relatively heavy and sturdy to be able to stand stably.
Light microscopy is also a three-lens system, the objective lens, eyepiece and
condenser. The objective lens and eyepiece located at both ends of the tube
microscope. Eyepiece on the microscope can be shaped single lens / monocular
and dual binocular. At the lower end of the light microscope, there are objective

lens holder that can be mounted 3 or more lenses with varying magnification.
Under the microscope tube contained dosage table which is where preparations
will be observed. Condenser lens system which serves to illuminate the
observation object and the lens of the microscope to another. In a conventional
light microscope, light source comes from sunlight reflected by a flat or concave
mirror located under the condenser. This mirror will direct the light from the
outside into the condenser. On a more modern light microscopy, the light source
comes from an electric lamp. (Sadina,2013)
Objective lens and eyepiece must be handled with special care. they must be
protected from dust and must do not rub the lens with a cloth or plain paper / rude
because that will make the lens is graze. And then after used, cleaning the
microscope and save in its place. The work table of the microscopy should be of
the large size. You will need the surface not only to set up the microscope, but also
to prepare the preparat, draw and perform many jobs of the practicum. The work
table must be near at a window. if you intend to work in daylight, the curtains
should be remove from the window because the inference with microscopy and
shut off an unbelievable amount of light. (Stehli Georg DR, 1970).
In the guide book of basic biologys practicum 2016, the optical microscope
can be divided into biological microscopes and stereo microscope. Biological
microscope is used for observation of thin transparent objects. Irradiation is given
from the bottom with natural light or lights. The biological microscope has two
lens, namely are ocular lens and objective lens with a magnification power as

4x objective with 10x eyepiece, magnification 40x

10x objective with 10x eyepiece, magnification 100x
40x objective with 10x eyepiece, magnification 400x
100x objective with 10x eyepiece, magnification 1000x
Objective of the most powerful optical microscope 100x objective emersi

called, because its use should the emersi oil, and how to use it with special
anyway. (Guide Book of Basic Biologys Practicum,2016).
Stero microscope used for the observation of objects that are not too large,
transparent or non-transparent. Irradiation can diataur from above or from below

with natural light or lights. Has two objectives and two ocular, in order to obtain
three-dimensional image with the observation of both eyes. Magnification power
of the lens is not too strong, generally as follows: 1x or 2x objective with the 10 x
or 15 eyepice. microscope has the components of the glass are easily damaged,
such as lenses and mirrors. avoid treatments that may damage these components,
such as avoiding conflicts. (Guide Book of Basic Biologys Practicum,2016).
A microscope is an instrument that magnifies an object. The optics of the
lenses of a light microscope changes the orientation of the image. A specimen that
is right-side up and facing right on the microscope slide will appear upside-down
and facing left when viewed through a microscope, and vice versa. Similarly, if
the slide is moved left while looking through the microscope, it will appear to
move right, and if moved down, it will seem to move up. This occours because
microscopes use two sets of lenses to magnify the image. Due the manner in
which light travels through the lenses, this system of lenses produces an inverted
image (binoculars and a dissecting microscope work in similar manner, but
include an additional magnification system that makes the final image appear to
be upright). Most student microscopes are classified as light microscopes. Visible
light both passes through and is bent by the lens system to enable the user to see
the specimen. Light microscopes commonly used in the undergraduate collage
laboratory magnify up to approximately 400 times. (Price Gareth, 2006).

A. Time and Place
: Monday, November 21th 2016
: 03.50 pm 05.30 pm
: Biology Laboatory 3 floor at FMIPA UNM
B. Tools and Materials
1. Tools provided by the laboratory
a. Biological Microscope
b. Toolbox contains :
1. Glass objects
2. Glass cover
3. Petri dish
4. Tweezers
5. Pipette hand
2. Equipment provided by student

a. New razor blade

b. New flannel fabric
c. Cotton cloth
d. Books and pencil drawings
e. Toothpick
3. Materials provided by the laboratory
a. Distilled water
b. Filter paper or paper suction
c. Cotton or cotton
4. Material provided by student
a. Leaves of hibiscus (Hibiscus Rosasinensis)
b. waru leaf (Hibiscus Tiliaceus)
c. leaf of pumpkin (Cucurbita Moschata)
d. Onion (Allium cepa)
C. Work Procedure
1. Preparing Microscope
1.1. Put the microscope on the desk right in front of you.
1.2. Cleaned the part of microscope with a flannel cloth. Do not rub the
lens with the cloth than flannel cloth.
1.3. Opened the toolbox, removed the cup containing the stained glass
objects and glass cover. Cleaning the glass body with cotton cloth or
filter paper.
1.4. At the top of your desk there is a microscope, toolbox with contents,
guide books and records, materials for practicum. Removed other than
at the other places that have been provided
2. Log set its light into tube
2.1. Consider the state of you practice space, where the direction of the
brighter light (from the front, left, or right). Navigate mirror
microscope to the light source. Open the diaphragm or rotary plate
being positioned holes. Microscope with condenser be positioned
close to the preparation table and use a flat mirror. For microscope
without condensers use a concave mirror.
2.2. Adjust the position of the objective lens revolver that most shortfacing until a click counter preparations.
2.3. Lower tube to distance objective by the end of the preparation table or
TUBE down 5 10 mm maximum.
2.4. Observe through the eyepiece with the left eye without squining (it
takes practice) will appear white sircular field. If the brightness is
uneven; moving slightly flat mirror until the explained. If glare,

narrow aperture or hole n the place. If the field of view is still obscure
means less incoming light, open the aperture and use larger holes on
the plate.
2.5. The microscope is used to observe the preparation ready.
3. How To Set The Distance Of The Lens With a Preparation.
3.1. Round the setting of rough hands or fingers macrometer toward
masters, tube down, distance objective with a smaller dosage table, do
the opposite. What happened? Microscope tubes other models can not
be titled up or down, then the dosage table moves up and down when
macrometer and micrometer rotated.
3.2. Pairs of glass objects containing preparation that is placed on the table
such that the material preparation is watched closely that placed in
hole center of the table, clipped object glass with clip so cant move.
3.3. Goal distance record with glass objects are not more than 10mm. if the
distance is loose, rotate the hand while low tube


objectively viewed from the side edge closer to the object glass to a
maximum of 5-10 mm.
3.4. Observed through the lens of the eye as his hand played tube
macrometer increased slowly. observe the field of view until the
shadows. If tube been appointed, semi-circular shadow macrometer
not yet emerged. means negligible, repeat back to 3.3. if there is a
shadow but still vague, then the binoculars and hold while turning
micrometer rise or fall to clear shadow line or boundaries.
3.5. Check the eyepiece (magnification how?) and


(magnification how?),calculate the magnification you can see the

3.6. If it is observed, the preparations were excluded.
4. Creating Simple Mixture
Observing cotton fibers / cotton
4.1. Take the glass objects that have been cleaned, hold serata possible.
4.2. Used as drops of clear water or distilled drops in the middle.
4.3. With tweezers, remove the crate material and place it in the middle of
the water droplets.
4.4. Hold your hand next to the cover glass between the master index
finger on the opposite side or edge.

4.5. Side of the cover glass on glass objects touched near the water
droplets with a slope of 450 and then release so that appropriate cover
water droplets. Excess water seeping absorbed by the glass filter
4.6. Install the preparation you made preparations at the table and watch as
step 3.2, 3.3, 3.4 and 3.5.
5. Viewing Magnification
5.1. If the observations are successful, the shadow that appears will be
raised again. Position preparations or tube not touched.
5.2. Rotate the objective lens in such a way that the longer (stronger)
perpendicular to the preparation table until you hear a click.
5.3. Observed turning the micrometer until the shadow of larger ones.
Observe shadow there!
5.4. If it fails to find a bigger shadow. Raise tube by turning the master
finger macrometer opposite direction. Turn back the revolver to get
objective lens position is weak (short) to its original position.
Observation of the materials
5.5. If you will observe that other materials,then raise tube. Remove the
preparations that has been observed to remove and clean the glass
objects and glass cover.
5.6. Created a new dosage coresponding to a new step 4.1 until 4.6.
5.7. At the end of activities that use a microscope,note the following:
a. Mixture should not be stored on the counter preparations,must be
b. Mixture should be cleaned with wet filter paper or cotton cloth
(glass object + glass cover). store in a petri dish and put in a gear
c. Cleaned the microscope body with a flannel cloth tube lowered as
low as possible.
d. Keep the box microscope.
e. All the equipment that has been cleaned with a cotton cloth and
stored in a box.
f. Your own equipment, kept them selvels to be used for the next
g. The remaining materials were not used again thrown in the trash

A. Observation Result

Picture comparison


1. Microscope


5. stage
6. stage clip
7. condenser
8. diaphragm
9. mirror
10. base
11. inclination
12. arm
13. fine focus
14. coarse


Comparison picture


2. Material : Allium cepa

Magnification : ok =

1. Nukleus
2. Sel wall

5X, ob = 10/0,25

3. Material : Cucurbita

1. Stomata

Magnification : ok =

2. Trikoma

5X, ob = 10/0,25

4. Material : Hibiscus

1. Stomata

Magnification : ok =
5X, ob = 45/0,65

5. Material : Hibiscus
Magnification : ok =
5X, ob = 45/0,65

B. Discussion

1. Trikoma

The microscope is an instrument used to observe objects small that appears to

the eye, the microscope has parts that help us see the micro-objects, the following
parts of the microscope and their functions:
1. Eyepiece : lens microscope located at the upper end of the tube, adjacent to the
eye of the observer. This lens serves to enlarge the image produced by the
objective lens. Magnification images forming ranged between 4-25 times.
2. Tube microscope = At the top of the tube is attached to ocular lens, with a
particular magnification (15X, 10X, and 15X). In the bottom of the tube there
is a tool called a revolver. In these revolvers are the objective lens.
3. Revolver = Players are used to change the magnification of the objective lens.
4. Objective lens = magnification weak and magnification strong.
5. Stage = stage is a place to put the preparations objects (preparations) which
will be seen. Objects placed on the table with clamped with the clamp. In the
middle there is a table for dilewat beam arm. In certain types of microscopes,
the position of the table can not be dinaik or lowered. In some microscopes,
especially the latest model, the table will be subject-down preparations
6. Stage clip = clamp glass object
7. Condenser : Lens that Collage the radiance from mirror and come to preparate
hole object.
8. Diaphragm = function controls the amount of incoming light by adjusting the
aperture iris. Location of the diaphragm attached to the diaphragm at the
bottom. In simple microscope only without condenser diaphragm
9. Mirror = Mirror has two sides, the flat mirror and a concave mirror side,
serves to reflect light and light source. Flat mirror is used when the source of
light is bright enough, and a concave mirror is used when the light source is
less. The mirror can be separated and replaced with light from the light source.
In the new model of the microscope, is no longer mounted mirror, because
there is already a light source mounted on the bottom (foot)
10. Base = fee function sustain and strengthen the position of the microscope. At
the foot attached to the arm with a sort of hinge, the simple microscope.
11. Inclination point : Controller the arm up and down.
12. Arm = With the hinge between the legs and arms, the arms can be enforced or
recline. The arm is also used to hold the microscope during the move

13. Fine focus = section used to drive (distance / close) objective lens to the
preparations slowly / smooth.
14. Coarse focus = section used to drive (distance / close) objective lens to the
rapid preparation
There are various types of microscopes and used in this lab is natural light
microscope that utilizes the light of nature, but because of the weather that does
not support the trial period then assisted with the light from the flashlight, the
absence of light, the diaphragm will reflect it and continue to the condenser so that
we can observe the preparations , in this experiment were observed in the material
or glass objects are :

Cells Onion (Allium cepa)

In the sample of onion cells, was observed with a magnification of objective
lens is 10/0,25 and eyescape is 5x. Visible onion shaped hexagonal cells and
which is visible from the observation onion are nukleus and sel wall


Leaves Pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata)

Pumpkin leaf samples were observed with a microscope using a magnification
of of objective lens is 10/0,25 and eyescape is 5x, which is observed in cells


pumpkin leaf trichomes is itch trikoma.

Leaf Hibiscus (Hibiscus rosasinensis)
Microscope observations on hibiscus leaf samples made with magnification of
objective lens is 45/0,65 and eyescape is 5x, which is visible from the


observation hibiscus leaves is stomata.

Leaves of hibiscus (Hibiscus tiliceus)
Microscope observations on hibiscus leaf samples made with magnification of
objective lens is 10/0,25 and eyescape is 5x. From the results obtained
trichomes star pattern.

A. Conclusion
Based on the test result that had be done, it can be concluded that :
1. The microscope is an instrument used to observe objects that are very

small (mikroscipic object), making it easy to study.

2. The most common microscope is an optical microscope comprising
biological microscope and stereo microscope.
3. Biological Microscope ocular lens and objective lens that has a certain
magnification strength.
4. There are parts of the microscope, each of which has the function that
helps the observation of small objects.
5. With observations using the microscope, we can see and observe the
nukleus, stomata, the cell wall and tricomes at the objects we have observe
B. Suggestion
In observing and making preparations, preferebly we are more throghhly
in order to obtain clearer date, and then more actively for asking about the
things that are not understandable to the assistant, so there is not error in
observing and making the final outcome of the procces praticum

Campbell Neil. A. 2000. Biologi. Jakarta : Erlangga
Price Gareth. 2006. An Illustrated Guide To Science. China : The Diagram Group
Sadina. 2013. Mengubah Mikroskop Cahaya Menjadi Mikroskop Digital
Multimedia Dengan Menggunakan Software Im Magician 4tech. Lampung
Stehli Georg DR. 1970. The Microscope And How To Use It.German :
Franckhsche Verlagshandlung, W.Keller &Co
Guide Book. 2016. Penuntun Praktikum Biologi Umum. Makassar : Jurusan
Biologi FMIPA UNM.

Questions and answers
1. Write the name of the optical parts of the microscope !
Answer :
- Ocular lens
- objective lens
- condenser
- mirror
2. Write the name of the mechanical parts of the microscope !
Answer :
- Eyepiece tube
- Revolver
- Clip
- Diaphragm
- Base
- Arm
- Sengkeling
- Desk supplies
- Micrometers
- Macrometers
- Condensor ruler
- Mechanic Controller

3. If the image in the field of view is shifted to the left front, toward which the
glass objects / stocks to be shifted ? Why it can be ?
Answer : When the shadow in look area, scrape to high, front of, so that the
object glass must be scrape with the shadow by opposite direction. Scrape by
opposite direction because ocular lens quality that receive with the objective
lens shadow. Is imagination, max and opposite. The shadow on the field view
of the slide to the right rear, then the object properties inventory is virtual,
inverted, in the larger.
4. Write the negative effect on the microscope when the lens is rubbed with a
cloth or plain paper / rude !
Answer : Negative effect to microscope is when we rub the lens with rough
cloth or paper, so that the microscope lens will be damage and be scratched.
Microscope cant be use again, when we use damage microscope lens. So will
be make another shadow to cause a shadow that we can saw isnt clear again