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SKrishna

An Introduction

to Modelling of

Power System

Components

123

SpringerBriefs in Electrical

and Computer Engineering

http://www.springer.com/series/10059

S Krishna

An Introduction

to Modelling of Power

System Components

123

S Krishna

Department of Electrical Engineering

Indian Institute of Technology Madras

Chennai, Tamil Nadu

India

ISSN 2191-8112

ISSN 2191-8120 (electronic)

ISBN 978-81-322-1846-3

ISBN 978-81-322-1847-0 (eBook)

DOI 10.1007/978-81-322-1847-0

Springer New Delhi Heidelberg New York Dordrecht London

Library of Congress Control Number: 2014933281

The Author(s) 2014

This work is subject to copyright. All rights are reserved by the Publisher, whether the whole or part of

the material is concerned, specifically the rights of translation, reprinting, reuse of illustrations,

recitation, broadcasting, reproduction on microfilms or in any other physical way, and transmission or

information storage and retrieval, electronic adaptation, computer software, or by similar or dissimilar

methodology now known or hereafter developed. Exempted from this legal reservation are brief

excerpts in connection with reviews or scholarly analysis or material supplied specifically for the

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work. Duplication of this publication or parts thereof is permitted only under the provisions of

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Copyright Clearance Center. Violations are liable to prosecution under the respective Copyright Law.

The use of general descriptive names, registered names, trademarks, service marks, etc. in this

publication does not imply, even in the absence of a specific statement, that such names are exempt

from the relevant protective laws and regulations and therefore free for general use.

While the advice and information in this book are believed to be true and accurate at the date of

publication, neither the authors nor the editors nor the publisher can accept any legal responsibility for

any errors or omissions that may be made. The publisher makes no warranty, express or implied, with

respect to the material contained herein.

Printed on acid-free paper

Springer is part of Springer Science+Business Media (www.springer.com)

Preface

The book is based on the notes prepared for the courses taught by the author at

Indian Institute of Technology Madras. The book gives the derivation of the model

of power system components such as synchronous generator, transformer, transmission line, DC transmission system, flexible AC transmission systems, excitation system, and speed governor. The model of load and prime movers are given

without derivation. The book can serve as a text for a short graduate course on

power system modelling, or as a supplement for graduate courses on power system

stability and flexible AC transmission systems.

Chennai, India, December 2013

S Krishna

Contents

Synchronous Generator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1.1 Construction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1.2 Model with Three Damper Windings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1.2.1 Voltage, Current, and Flux Linkage Relationships. .

1.2.2 Expression for Inductances. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1.2.3 Equations of Motion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1.2.4 Expression for Electrical Torque. . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1.3 Parks Transformation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1.4 Transformation of Rotor Variables. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1.4.1 Transfer Function Id s=Wd sjvf 0 . . . . . . . . . . . .

1.4.2 Transfer Function Vf s=Wd sid 0 . . . . . . . . . . . .

1.4.3 Transfer Function Iq s=Wq s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1.5 Tests for the Determination of Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . .

1.5.1 Determination of d-Axis Parameters . . . . . . . . . . .

1.5.2 Determination of q-Axis Parameters . . . . . . . . . . .

1.6 Time Domain Model with Standard Parameters. . . . . . . . .

1.7 Time Constants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1.7.1 Short-Circuit Time Constants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1.7.2 Open-Circuit Time Constants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1.8 Model in Per Unit Quantities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1.9 Other Models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1.9.1 Model in the Absence of Zero Sequence Variables

00

and with Tdc

Td00 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1.9.2 Model with Stator Transients Neglected. . . . . . . . .

1.9.3 Two Axis Model. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1.9.4 One Axis (Flux Decay) Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1.9.5 Classical Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Transformer, Transmission Line, and Load

2.1 Transformer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

2.1.1 Single-Phase Transformer . . . . .

2.1.2 Three-Phase Transformer . . . . . .

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1

1

1

3

4

20

21

22

26

28

28

29

29

29

32

33

36

36

37

38

39

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40

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43

43

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45

45

45

47

vii

viii

Contents

2.2

Transmission Line . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

2.2.1 Inductance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

2.2.2 Capacitance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

2.2.3 Transmission Line Model. . . . . . .

2.3 Krons Transformation . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

2.3.1 Definitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

2.3.2 Application to Transformer . . . . .

2.3.3 Application to Transmission Line .

2.4 Load . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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50

50

56

60

65

65

68

69

71

72

3.1 Power Semiconductor Devices . . . . . . . . . . .

3.2 DC Transmission System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

3.2.1 Line-Commutated Converter. . . . . . . .

3.2.2 12-Pulse Line-Commutated Converter .

3.3 FACTS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

3.3.1 SVC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

3.3.2 TCSC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

3.3.3 VSC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

3.3.4 STATCOM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

3.3.5 SSSC. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

3.3.6 Multi-Converter FACTS Controllers . .

References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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73

73

74

75

83

86

86

94

98

111

112

114

114

4.1 Prime Movers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

4.1.1 Steam Turbine . . . . . . . . .

4.1.2 Hydraulic Turbine . . . . . . .

4.2 Torsional Dynamics . . . . . . . . . . .

4.3 Speed Governor. . . . . . . . . . . . . .

4.4 Excitation System . . . . . . . . . . . .

References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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117

117

117

117

118

119

121

123

with Constant Coefficients . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

125

127

129

131

Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

133

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Chapter 1

Synchronous Generator

1.1 Construction

The synchronous generator converts mechanical energy into electrical energy. It has

a stationary component or stator, and a rotating component or rotor. The stator is

an annular structure made up of iron and has slots. Insulated coils are placed in

the slots, and these coils are connected to obtain a three-phase winding. The rotor

has electromagnets which are known as field poles. The rotor is placed within the

stator. The cross section of a synchronous generator with two field poles is shown

in Fig. 1.1. a, b, and c are the three stator windings which are 120 apart. f is the

field winding. A dot indicates that positive current flow is out of the paper/screen,

while a cross indicates that positive current flow is into the paper/screen. If the field

winding is excited by a DC source, then as the rotor rotates, an emf is induced in the

armature winding according to Faradays law.

The number of field poles depends on the speed of the prime mover. If the number

of field poles is p f , then one rotation of the rotor induces p f /2 cycles of emf in the

armature winding. The hydraulic turbines operate at low speed. Therefore, to obtain

the rated frequency, the synchronous generator driven by a hydraulic turbine has a

large number of field poles. On the other hand, steam and gas turbines operate at

high speeds; hence, the synchronous generator driven by these turbines has two or

four field poles.

The rotors often have amortisseur or damper circuits in the form of copper or

brass rods. These rods are short-circuited and are intended to damp out oscillations

in speed.

The model is initially developed for a synchronous generator having a pair of field

poles; generalization to any number of field poles is done later. An axis is defined

for each stator winding as shown in Fig. 1.2. Two axes, namely direct axis (d-axis)

S Krishna, An Introduction to Modelling of Power System Components,

SpringerBriefs in Electrical and Computer Engineering,

DOI: 10.1007/978-81-322-1847-0_1, The Author(s) 2014

1 Synchronous Generator

generator

a synchronous generator

d axis

b axis

a axis

q axis

c axis

and quadrature axis (q-axis), are also defined. The d-axis is along the field pole.

The q-axis lags the d-axis by 90 [1]. a-axis, b-axis, and c-axis are stationary, and

d-axis and q-axis rotate at the speed of the rotor. The rotor is assumed to rotate in the

counterclockwise direction, and is the angle by which the d-axis leads the a-axis.

The amortisseur circuits and the eddy current effects in the rotor are represented

by two equivalent sets of short-circuited damper windings [13]. One set of windings

is oriented such that the flux in the rotor due to current in these windings is along

d-axis; these windings are said to be on the d-axis. The other set of windings is

oriented such that the flux in the rotor due to current in these windings is along

q-axis; these windings are said to be on the q-axis. The damper winding 1d is on the

d-axis, and the damper windings 1q and 2q are on the q-axis.

winding

i

+

+

d

dt

The circuit diagram of a synchronous generator winding (a, b, c, f, 1d, 1q, or 2q) is

shown in Fig. 1.3 [1]. , R, i, and are flux linkage, resistance, current, and voltage,

respectively.

By Kirchhoffs voltage law,

da

dt

db

dt

dc

dt

d f

dt

d1d

dt

d1q

dt

d2q

dt

= Ra i a va

(1.1)

= Ra i b vb

(1.2)

= Ra i c vc

(1.3)

= R f i f + v f

(1.4)

= R1d i 1d

(1.5)

= R1q i 1q

(1.6)

= R2q i 2q

(1.7)

The flux linkages, currents, and inductances are related as follows:

La

a

b Mba

c Mca

f = Mfa

1d M1da

1q M1qa

2q

M2qa

Mab

Lb

Mcb

Mfb

M1db

M1qb

M2qb

Mac

Mbc

Lc

Mfc

M1dc

M1qc

M2qc

Ma f

Mb f

Mc f

Lf

M1d f

M1q f

M2q f

Ma1d

Mb1d

Mc1d

M f 1d

L 1d

M1q1d

M2q1d

Ma1q

Mb1q

Mc1q

M f 1q

M1d1q

L 1q

M2q1q

ia

Ma2q

ib

Mb2q

Mc2q

ic

M f 2q

if

M1d2q

i 1d

M1q2q i 1q

L 2q

i 2q

(1.8)

1 Synchronous Generator

magnetic field intensity

Closed

path

a axis

The stator windings are assumed to be filamentary. Let each stator winding have N

turns. The permeability of the stator core and the rotor core is assumed to be infinite.

Therefore, the magnetic field intensity is nonzero only in the air gap. If is the angle

measured from the a-axis in the counterclockwise direction, the air gap length g is

a periodic function of which satisfies the condition

g( + ) = g()

(1.9)

g is small compared to the inner radius of the stator. Therefore, it is assumed that

the magnetic field intensity in the air gap is radial [4]. From (1.9), it follows that the

magnetic field intensity Ha due to i a , in the air gap, in the radial outward direction,

satisfies the following equation:

Ha ( + ) = Ha ()

(1.10)

The expression for Ha is obtained from Amperes law applied to the closed path

shown in Fig. 1.4. The closed path consists of a semicircle in the stator core and a

straight line passing through and perpendicular to the rotor axis of rotation.

Therefore,

N ia

if 2 < < 2

Ha = 2gN ia

(1.11)

2g if 2 < < 3

2

A quantity called air gap magnetomotive force (MMF) is defined as the product of

air gap magnetic field intensity and air gap length. The air gap MMF due to i a is

Fa Ha g

(1.12)

Fa

Nia /2

Nia /2

120

60

60

120

(degree)

180

240

300

Let the air gap MMF be approximated by its fundamental component with peak

value 2N i a / [4]. This approximation can be done even for a practical stator winding

placed in the stator core having many slots and not restricted to six slots as in Fig. 1.1.

In fact, the air gap MMF for a practical stator winding is closer to a sinusoidal waveform than that for the one shown in Fig. 1.1. In order to establish a sinusoidal air gap

MMF waveform, it will be shown that the equivalent winding must be sinusoidally

distributed. Suppose the number of turns per radian at any location is

na =

2 N sin if 0

2

N sin if 0

(1.13)

The winding distribution is shown in Fig. 1.6. The current i a in the turns for

< < 0 is into the paper/screen, whereas the current in the turns for 0 < <

is out of the paper/screen. The number of turns of the equivalent sinusoidally distributed winding is

Na =

n a d =

4

2

N sin d = N

(1.14)

na =

N2a sin if 0

Na

2 sin if 0

(1.15)

1 Synchronous Generator

na

2N/

0

180

120

60

0

(degree)

60

120

180

The air gap magnetic field intensity Ha1 in the radial outward direction, due to i a

with a winding distribution given by (1.15), is obtained from Amperes law applied

to the closed path shown in Fig. 1.4. For 0,

Ha1 =

1

i a

2g

0

n a d + i a

n a d

+

0

Na

1

Na

sin d

=

sin d + i a

i a

2g

2

2

Na i a

cos

=

2g

(1.16)

Since Ha1 ( + ) = Ha1 (), the expression for Ha1 given by (1.16) is applicable

for any . The air gap MMF due to i a with the winding distribution given by (1.15)

is

Na i a

cos

(1.17)

Fa1 = Ha1 g =

2

The variation in Fa1 with is shown in Fig. 1.7. Hence, the winding distribution

given by (1.15) results in the air gap MMF equal to the fundamental component of

Fa .

The distribution of the other equivalent windings (b, c, f, 1d, 1q, and 2q) and the

air gap MMFs are given by

Fa1

Naia/2

Naia/2

180

120

60

0

(degree)

60

120

180

2

Na

2

5

if

nb =

sin

2

3

3

3

2

2

Na

sin +

if

nc =

2

3

3

3

Nf

nf =

sin ( ) if +

2

N1d

sin ( ) if +

n 1d =

2

N1q

n 1q =

cos ( ) if +

2

2

2

N2q

n 2q =

cos ( ) if +

2

2

2

Na

2

i b cos

Fb1 =

2

3

Na

2

i c cos +

Fc1 =

2

3

Nf

Ff 1 =

i f cos( )

2

N1d

i 1d cos( )

F1d1 =

2

N1q

i 1q sin( )

F1q1 =

2

N2q

F2q1 =

i 2q sin( )

2

(1.18)

(1.19)

(1.20)

(1.21)

(1.22)

(1.23)

(1.24)

(1.25)

(1.26)

(1.27)

(1.28)

(1.29)

1 Synchronous Generator

The air gap length is a periodic function of satisfying (1.9). If the higher-order

harmonic components are neglected [4], then

1

= a0 + a2 cos(2 2 )

g

(1.30)

where a0 > a2 > 0. The flux density in the radial outward direction in the air gap

due to i a is

Fa1

(1.31)

Ba = 0 Ha1 = 0

g

where 0 is the permeability of free space; permeability of air is almost equal to

that of free space. The air gap flux, due to i a , linking a turn of winding a whose

sides are at = and = , is Ba rld; l is the length of the stator

and the rotor, and r is the inner

radius of the stator. The air gap flux linkage of

winding a, due to i a , is

na

Ba rld d. The ratio of this flux linkage to

i a gives the self inductance of winding a due to the flux crossing the air gap. The total

self inductance of winding a is obtained by adding to this, the leakage inductance

due to the leakage flux. If the leakage inductance of winding a is L al , the total self

inductance of winding a is

L a = L al +

Na

sin

2

Na

2

= L a0 + L a2 cos (2 )

where

L a0 L al +

(1.32)

Na2

0 rla0 ,

4

L a2

Na2

0 rla2

8

(1.33)

Mab =

0

Na

sin

2

Na

2

cos

2

3

2

= Mab0 + L a2 cos 2

3

Mac =

0

Na

sin

2

{a0 + a2 cos (2 2 )} rl d d

(1.34)

Na

2

cos +

2

3

{a0 + a2 cos (2 2 )} rl d d

2

= Mab0 + L a2 cos 2 +

3

Ma f =

Na

sin

2

(1.35)

Nf

0

2

= Ma f 1 cos

Ma1d =

(1.36)

Na

sin

2

N1d

2

= Ma1d1 cos

Ma1q =

(1.37)

Na

sin

2

N1q

2

= Ma1q1 sin

Ma2q =

(1.38)

Na

sin

2

N2q

2

= Ma2q1 sin

5/3

Mba =

(1.39)

Na

2

sin

2

3

2/3

Na

2

2

= Mab0 + L a2 cos 2

3

5/3

L b = L al +

2/3

Na

2

sin

2

3

(1.40)

10

1 Synchronous Generator

Na

2

cos

2

3

{a0 + a2 cos (2 2 )} rl d d

2

= L a0 + L a2 cos 2 +

3

5/3

Mbc =

(1.41)

Na

2

sin

2

3

2/3

Na

2

cos +

2

3

{a0 + a2 cos (2 2 )} rl d d

= Mab0 + L a2 cos (2 )

5/3

Mb f =

Na

2

sin

2

3

2/3

(1.42)

Nf

2

2

= Ma f 1 cos

3

5/3

Mb1d =

2

Na

sin

2

3

2/3

(1.43)

N1d

2

2

= Ma1d1 cos

3

5/3

Mb1q =

2/3

2

Na

sin

2

3

(1.44)

11

N1q

2

2

= Ma1q1 sin

3

5/3

Mb2q =

(1.45)

2

Na

sin

2

3

2/3

N2q

2

2

= Ma2q1 sin

3

/3

Mca =

2/3

Na

2

sin +

2

3

Na

2

2

= Mab0 + L a2 cos 2 +

3

/3

Mcb =

2/3

(1.46)

(1.47)

2

Na

sin +

2

3

2

Na

{a0 + a2 cos (2 2 )} rl d d

cos

0

2

3

= Mab0 + L a2 cos (2 )

(1.48)

12

1 Synchronous Generator

/3

L c = L al +

2/3

2

Na

sin +

2

3

Na

2

{a0 + a2 cos (2 2 )} rl d d

0

cos +

2

3

2

= L a0 + L a2 cos 2

3

/3

Mc f =

2/3

(1.49)

2

Na

sin +

2

3

Nf

2

2

= Ma f 1 cos +

3

/3

Mc1d =

2/3

(1.50)

2

Na

sin +

2

3

N1d

2

2

= Ma1d1 cos +

3

/3

Mc1q =

2/3

2

Na

sin +

2

3

(1.51)

N1q

2

2

= Ma1q1 sin +

3

(1.52)

/3

Mc2q =

2/3

2

Na

sin +

2

3

N2q

2

2

= Ma2q1 sin +

3

Mfa =

Nf

sin ( )

2

= Ma f 1 cos

Mfb =

Na

2

(1.54)

2

Na

{a0 + a2 cos (2 2 )} rl d d

cos

0

2

3

2

= Ma f 1 cos

3

Mfc =

(1.53)

Nf

sin ( )

2

13

(1.55)

Nf

sin ( )

2

2

Na

{a0 + a2 cos (2 2 )} rl d d

cos +

0

2

3

2

= Ma f 1 cos +

3

(1.56)

14

1 Synchronous Generator

+

L f = L fl +

Nf

sin ( )

2

= L fl +

M f 1d =

N 2f

8

0 rl (2a0 + a2 )

(1.57)

Nf

sin ( )

2

Nf

2

N1d

2

N f N1d

0 rl (2a0 + a2 )

8

+

M f 1q =

Nf

sin ( )

2

(1.58)

N1q

2

=0

(1.59)

M f 2q =

=0

Nf

sin ( )

2

N2q

0

2

(1.60)

+

M1da =

N1d

sin ( )

2

15

Na

2

= Ma1d1 cos

M1db =

(1.61)

N1d

sin ( )

2

Na

2

{a0 + a2 cos (2 2 )} rl d d

0

cos

2

3

2

= Ma1d1 cos

3

+

M1dc =

(1.62)

N1d

sin ( )

2

2

Na

cos +

2

3

{a0 + a2 cos (2 2 )} rl d d

2

= Ma1d1 cos +

3

M1d f =

(1.63)

N1d

sin ( )

2

Nf

2

N f N1d

=

0 rl (2a0 + a2 )

8

(1.64)

16

1 Synchronous Generator

+

L 1d = L 1dl +

N1d

sin ( )

2

= L 1dl +

2

N1d

0 rl (2a0 + a2 )

8

M1d1q =

(1.65)

N1d

sin ( )

2

N1d

2

N1q

2

=0

(1.66)

M1d2q =

N1d

sin ( )

2

N2q

2

=0

(1.67)

+/2

M1qa =

/2

N1q

cos ( )

2

Na

2

= Ma1q1 sin

(1.68)

+/2

M1qb =

/2

17

N1q

cos ( )

2

Na

2

{a0 + a2 cos (2 2 )} rl d d

0

cos

2

3

2

= Ma1q1 sin

3

+/2

M1qc =

/2

(1.69)

N1q

cos ( )

2

2

Na

cos +

2

3

{a0 + a2 cos (2 2 )} rl d d

2

= Ma1q1 sin +

3

+/2

M1q f =

/2

(1.70)

N1q

cos ( )

2

Nf

2

=0

(1.71)

+/2

M1q1d =

/2

N1q

cos ( )

2

=0

N1d

2

(1.72)

18

1 Synchronous Generator

+/2

L 1q = L 1ql

/2

2

N1q

= L 1ql +

+/2

M1q2q =

/2

(1.73)

N1q

cos ( )

2

N1q

2

0 rl (2a0 a2 )

N1q

cos ( )

2

N2q

2

N1q N2q

0 rl (2a0 a2 )

8

+/2

M2qa =

/2

N2q

cos ( )

2

Na

2

= Ma2q1 sin

+/2

M2qb =

/2

(1.74)

(1.75)

N2q

cos ( )

2

Na

2

{a0 + a2 cos (2 2 )} rl d d

0

cos

2

3

2

= Ma2q1 sin

3

(1.76)

+/2

M2qc =

/2

N2q

cos ( )

2

19

Na

2

cos +

2

3

{a0 + a2 cos (2 2 )} rl d d

2

= Ma2q1 sin +

3

+/2

M2q f =

/2

(1.77)

N2q

cos ( )

2

Nf

2

=0

(1.78)

+/2

M2q1d =

/2

N2q

cos ( )

2

N1d

2

=0

(1.79)

+/2

M2q1q =

/2

N2q

cos ( )

2

N1q

2

N1q N2q

=

0 rl (2a0 a2 )

8

(1.80)

20

1 Synchronous Generator

+/2

L 2q = L 2ql

/2

= L 2ql +

N2q

cos ( )

2

2

N2q

N2q

2

0 rl (2a0 a2 )

(1.81)

where

Na2

0 rla0

8

Na N f

0 rl(2a0 + a2 )

8

Na N1d

0 rl(2a0 + a2 )

8

Na N1q

0 rl(2a0 a2 )

8

Na N2q

0 rl(2a0 a2 )

8

Mab0

(1.82)

Ma f 1

(1.83)

Ma1d1

Ma1q1

Ma2q1

(1.84)

(1.85)

(1.86)

It is to be noted that the order of the subscripts in the notation for mutual inductances

does not affect the expression for mutual inductance. For example, Mab = Mba .

In general, the number of field poles is p f . If the total number of turns in a winding

is N , the number of turns per field pole pair is 2N / p f . The inductance of the part of a

winding with 2N / p f turns is equal to 2/ p f times the expression derived above, if

is the electrical angle. The total inductance is obtained by multiplying this expression

by p f /2. Hence, the inductance expressions derived above are valid even if p f > 2.

The mechanical angle m is related to the electrical angle by

=

pf

m

2

(1.87)

If friction and windage losses are neglected, by Newtons law,

J

d2 m

= Tm Te

dt 2

(1.88)

where J is the combined moment of inertia of the rotor and the prime mover, Tm is

the mechanical torque, Te is the electromagnetic or electrical torque, and m is the

position of the rotor in mechanical radians. Equation (1.88) in electrical angle is

21

2 d2

J

= Tm Te

p f dt 2

(1.89)

Multiplying by 2/ p f gives

2

pf

2

J

d2

2

2

=

Tm

Te

2

dt

pf

pf

(1.90)

2

Defining J 2/ p f J , Tm 2Tm / p f , and Te 2Te / p f and substituting in

(1.90) give

J

d2

= Tm Te

dt 2

(1.91)

J , Tm , and Te are the moment of inertia, mechanical torque, and electrical torque,

respectively, of an equivalent synchronous generator with two field poles [1].

Equation (1.91) can be written as the following two first-order equations.

d

=

dt

d

1

= (Tm Te )

dt

J

(1.92)

(1.93)

Let We be the total electrical energy supplied to the magnetic field of all windings.

From the circuit diagram in Fig. 1.3,

d f

d1q

d2q

dWe

da

db

dc

d1d

= ia

+ ib

+ ic

+if

+ i 1d

+ i 1q

+ i 2q

(1.94)

dt

dt

dt

dt

dt

dt

dt

dt

T

ia

ib

ic

1

if

Wf =

2 i

1d

i 1q

i 2q

La

Mba

Mca

Mfa

M1da

M1qa

M2qa

Mab

Lb

Mcb

Mfb

M1db

M1qb

M2qb

Mac

Mbc

Lc

Mfc

M1dc

M1qc

M2qc

Ma f

Mb f

Mc f

Lf

M1d f

M1q f

M2q f

Ma1d

Mb1d

Mc1d

M f 1d

L 1d

M1q1d

M2q1d

Ma1q

Mb1q

Mc1q

M f 1q

M1d1q

L 1q

M2q1q

ia

Ma2q

ib

Mb2q

Mc2q

ic

M f 2q

if

M1d2q

i 1d

M1q2q i 1q

L 2q

i 2q

(1.95)

22

1 Synchronous Generator

dWm

dm

d

= Te

= Te

dt

dt

dt

(1.96)

dW f

dWe

dWm

=

dt

dt

dt

(1.97)

T

ia

ib

ic

1

if

Te =

2

i 1d

i 1q

i 2q

La

Mba

d Mca

d M f a

M1da

M1qa

M2qa

Mab

Lb

Mcb

Mfb

M1db

M1qb

M2qb

Mac

Mbc

Lc

Mfc

M1dc

M1qc

M2qc

Ma f

Mb f

Mc f

Lf

M1d f

M1q f

M2q f

Ma1d

Mb1d

Mc1d

M f 1d

L 1d

M1q1d

M2q1d

Ma1q

Mb1q

Mc1q

M f 1q

M1d1q

L 1q

M2q1q

Ma2q

ia

Mb2q

i b

ic

Mc2q

M f 2q

i f (1.98)

i 1d

M1d2q

M1q2q i 1q

L 2q

i 2q

In the model obtained in the last section, there are inductances which are timevarying since they depend on , and varies with time. The model can be simplified

by transformation of stator variables. Let

f

if

a

ia

va

1d

i 1d

s b , is ib , vs vb , r

1q , ir i 1q

c

ic

vc

2q

i 2q

(1.99)

Equations (1.1)(1.3) and (1.8) can be written as

ds

= Ra i s vs

dt

s = L s i s + Msr ir

T

r = Msr

i s + L r ir

(1.100)

(1.101)

(1.102)

where

L a0 Mab0 Mab0

L s Mab0 L a0 Mab0

Mab0 Mab0 L a0

cos(2 )

cos(2 2/3) cos(2 + 2/3)

(1.103)

cos(2 )

+ L a2 cos(2 2/3) cos(2 + 2/3)

cos(2 + 2/3)

cos(2 )

cos(2 2/3)

23

Ma f 1 cos

Ma1d1 cos

Msr Ma f 1 cos( 2/3) Ma1d1 cos( 2/3)

Ma f 1 cos( + 2/3) Ma1d1 cos( + 2/3)

Ma2q1 sin

Ma1q1 sin

Ma1q1 sin( 2/3) Ma2q1 sin( 2/3)

Ma1q1 sin( + 2/3) Ma2q1 sin( + 2/3)

L f M f 1d 0

0

M f 1d L 1d

0

0

Lr

0

0

L 1q M1q2q

0

0 M1q2q L 2q

(1.104)

(1.105)

dq0 TP s , i dq0 TP i s , vdq0 TP vs

(1.106)

dq0

d

id

vd

q , i dq0 i q , vdq0 vq

0

i0

v0

(1.107)

TP1 dq0 = L s TP1 i dq0 + Msr ir

(1.108)

Pre-multiplying by TP gives

dq0 = TP L s TP1 i dq0 + TP Msr ir

(1.109)

Let TP be chosen such that TP L s TP1 is a diagonal matrix [5]; then, the transformation

is known as Parks transformation. The columns of TP1 are right eigenvectors of

L s .TP is given by

TP1

kd cos

kq sin

k0

= kd cos ( 2/3) kq sin ( 2/3) k0

kd cos ( + 2/3) kq sin ( + 2/3) k0

(1.110)

are the eigenvalues of L s .

The power at the synchronous generator terminals is

T

T

TP1 TP1 i dq0

P = vsT i s = vdq0

(1.111)

24

1 Synchronous Generator

T

The matrix TP1 TP1 is diagonal, given by

TP1

T

TP1

3kd2 /2 0

0

= 0 3kq2 /2 0

0

0 3k02

(1.112)

T i

The transformation is said to be power invariant if P = vdq0

dq0 [1, 2]. Power

invariance is satisfied if TP1 = TPT . The values of kd , kq , and k0 for power invariance

are

2

2

1

, kq =

, k0 =

(1.113)

kd =

3

3

3

1

TP =

2 sin 2 sin ( 2/3) 2 sin ( + 2/3)

3

1

1

1

(1.114)

if

Ld 0 0

Md f Md1d 0

id

d

0

i 1d

q = 0 L q 0 i q + 0

0 Mq1q Mq2q

i 1q

0

i0

0

0

0

0

0 0 L0

i 2q

(1.115)

where

L d L a0 Mab0 +

Md f

3

Ma f 1 ,

2

3

L a2 ,

2

Md1d

L q L a0 Mab0

3

Ma1d1 ,

2

Mq1q

3

L a2 ,

2

L 0 L a0 + 2Mab0

3

Ma1q1 ,

2

Mq2q

(1.116)

3

Ma2q1

2

(1.117)

L d , L q , and L 0 are called d-axis inductance, q-axis inductance, and zero sequence

inductance, respectively. From (1.102) and (1.106),

f

Md f

0

1d Md1d 0

=

1q 0 Mq1q

2q

0 Mq2q

if

0

0

L f M f 1d 0

i

d

0

0

0

i 1d (1.118)

i + M f 1d L 1d

0

0

L 1q M1q2q i 1q

0 q

i0

0

0

0 M1q2q L 2q

i 2q

25

d TPT dq0

= Ra TPT i dq0 TPT vdq0

dt

(1.119)

Pre-multiplying by TP gives

ddq0

= Mdq0 Ra i dq0 vdq0

dt

(1.120)

where

010

M 1 0 0

000

(1.121)

From (1.98),

Te

1 T T dL s /d dMsr /d

is

= i s ir

T /d

i

dM

O

2

r

sr

(1.122)

where O is a null matrix. Substituting TPT i dq0 for i s in (1.122) and simplifying give

dL s T

dMsr

1 T

T

T i dq0 i dq0

ir = d i q q i d

TP

TP

Te = i dq0

2

d P

d

(1.123)

= o t +

(1.124)

is the angular position of the rotor in electrical radian with respect to a reference

rotating at speed o .

With the transformation of stator variables and use of instead of , the equations

governing the synchronous generator are

dd

dt

dq

dt

d0

dt

d f

dt

d1d

dt

= q Ra i d vd

(1.125)

= d Ra i q vq

(1.126)

= Ra i 0 v0

(1.127)

= R f i f + v f

(1.128)

= R1d i 1d

(1.129)

26

1 Synchronous Generator

d1q

dt

d2q

dt

d

dt

d

dt

d

= R1q i 1q

(1.130)

= R2q i 2q

(1.131)

= o

(1.132)

1

Tm d i q + q i d

J

= L d i d + Md f i f + Md1d i 1d

(1.133)

(1.134)

q = L q i q + Mq1q i 1q + Mq2q i 2q

f = Md f i d + L f i f + M f 1d i 1d

(1.135)

(1.136)

1d = Md1d i d + M f 1d i f + L 1d i 1d

1q = Mq1q i q + L 1q i 1q + M1q2q i 2q

2q = Mq2q i q + M1q2q i 1q + L 2q i 2q

(1.137)

(1.138)

(1.139)

0 = L 0 i 0

(1.140)

Parks transformation results in constant inductances. It is apparent that Parks transformation results in the replacement of the stator windings by three windings whose

voltage, current, and flux linkage are vdq0 , i dq0 , and dq0 , respectively. From (1.134)

to (1.139), it is apparent that one winding is on the d-axis and one winding is on the

q-axis; hence, the voltage, current, and flux linkage have notations with the subscripts

d and q. However, the presence of the first term on the right-hand side of (1.125)

and (1.126) suggests that this is not true [6]. The quantities having a notation with

the subscript 0 are zero sequence quantities.

In order to obtain a model whose parameters can be determined, the model obtained

in the previous section is partitioned into three parts as shown in Fig. 1.8.

An equivalent synchronous generator model is shown in Fig. 1.9. Parts 2 and 3 in

Fig. 1.8 are replaced by the following equations in Fig. 1.9.

Id (s) = G 1 (s)d (s) + G 2 (s)V f (s)

Iq (s) = G 3 (s)q (s)

(1.141)

(1.142)

where Id (s), d (s), V f (s), Iq (s), and q (s) are Laplace transform of i d , d , v f ,

i q , and q , respectively, and G 1 (s), G 2 (s), and G 3 (s) are transfer functions. The

following three transfer functions are derived below.

G 1 (s) =

Id (s)

d (s) v f =0

(1.143)

27

vf

vd

vq

v0

d f

Tm

dt

d 1d

d d

dt

d q

dt

d 0

dt

d

dt

d

= q R a i d v d

f = M df i d + L f i f + M f 1d i 1d

id

Part 1

d 1q

= o

dt

J

0 = L 0 i0

= R 1d i 1d

1d = M d 1d i d + M f 1d i f + L 1d i 1d

= R a i0 v0

Part 2

d = L d i d + M df i f + M d 1d i 1d

= d R a i q v q

dt

= Rf if + vf

dt

d 2q

Tm d i q + q i d

dt

iq

Part 3

= R 1q i 1q

= R 2q i 2q

q = L q i q + M q1q i 1q + M q2q i 2q

1q = M q1q i q + L 1q i 1q + M 1q2q i 2q

2q = M q2q i q + M 1q2q i 1q + L 2q i 2q

vd

d d

dt

d q

dt

d 0

dt

d

dt

vq

v0

Tm

= q R a i d v d

= d R a i q v q

vf

d

Id ( s)= G 1 ( s) d ( s)+ G 2 ( s)V f ( s)

id

= R a i0 v0

= o

1

Tm d i q + q i d

=

dt

J

0 = L 0 i0

Iq ( s)= G 3 ( s) q ( s)

iq

V f (s)

G 1 (s)

=

G 2 (s)

d (s) id =0

Iq (s)

G 3 (s) =

q (s)

(1.144)

(1.145)

28

1 Synchronous Generator

With v f = 0, the Laplace transform of equations in part 2 of Fig. 1.8 gives

s f (s) = R f I f (s)

s1d (s) = R1d I1d (s)

d (s) = L d Id (s) + Md f I f (s) + Md1d I1d (s)

f (s) = Md f Id (s) + L f I f (s) + M f 1d I1d (s)

1d (s) = Md1d Id (s) + M f 1d I f (s) + L 1d I1d (s)

(1.146)

(1.147)

(1.148)

(1.149)

(1.150)

Since the purpose is to obtain a transfer function, f (0) and 1d (0) do not appear

in (1.146) and (1.147), respectively. Elimination of I f (s), I1d (s), f (s), and 1d (s)

from (1.146) to (1.150) gives

L f L 1d M 2f 1d + (L f R1d + L 1d R f )/s + R f R1d /s 2

Id (s)

=

2

d (s) v f =0

L d L f L 1d L d M 2f 1d L 1d Md2 f + 2Md f M f 1d Md1d L f Md1d

2 R )/s + L R R /s 2

+(L d L f R1d + L d L 1d R f Md2 f R1d Md1d

f

d f 1d

(1.151)

This transfer function can be written as

1 + sTdo

1 + sTdo

Id (s)

=

d (s) v f =0

L d 1 + sTd 1 + sTd

1.4.2 Transfer Function V f (s)/d (s) i

(1.152)

d =0

s f (s) = R f I f (s) + V f (s)

s1d (s) = R1d I1d (s)

d (s) = Md f I f (s) + Md1d I1d (s)

(1.153)

(1.154)

(1.155)

1d (s) = M f 1d I f (s) + L 1d I1d (s)

(1.156)

(1.157)

Elimination of I f (s), I1d (s), f (s), and 1d (s) from (1.153) to (1.157) gives

L f L 1d M 2f 1d + (L f R1d + L 1d R f )/s + R f R1d /s 2

V f (s)

=

(1.158)

d (s) id =0

(Md f L 1d Md1d M f 1d )/s + Md f R1d /s 2

29

1 + sTdo

R f 1 + sTdo

V f (s)

=

d (s) id =0

Md f 1 + sTdc

(1.159)

Laplace transform of equations in part 3 of Fig. 1.8 gives

s1q (s) = R1q I1q (s)

(1.160)

q (s) = L q Iq (s) + Mq1q I1q (s) + Mq2q I2q (s)

(1.161)

(1.162)

2q (s) = Mq2q Iq (s) + M1q2q I1q (s) + L 2q I2q (s)

(1.163)

(1.164)

Elimination of I1q (s), I2q (s), 1q (s), and 2q (s) from (1.160) to (1.164) gives

2

L 1q L 2q M1q2q

+ (L 1q R2q + L 2q R1q )/s + R1q R2q /s 2

Iq (s)

=

2

2 + 2M

2

q (s)

L 2q Mq1q

L q L 1q L 2q L q M1q2q

q1q M1q2q Mq2q L 1q Mq2q

2 R M 2 )/s + L R R /s 2

+(L q L 1q R2q + L q L 2q R1q R2q Mq1q

q 1q 2q

1q q2q

(1.165)

This can be written as

1

+

sT

1

+

sT

qo

qo

Iq (s)

=

q (s)

L q 1 + sTq 1 + sTq

(1.166)

The parameters in (1.152) and (1.159) are called d-axis parameters, and those in

(1.166) are called q-axis parameters. These parameters can be determined by tests.

This section describes one type of tests known as standstill frequency response tests

in which the rotor is standstill at a certain position.

There are two tests to be conducted to determine the d-axis parameters. The circuit

diagram for the first test is shown in Fig. 1.10 [1, 6]. The rotor position should be

30

1 Synchronous Generator

i

A

ib

+

v

vb

vc

+

va +

ia

f

ic

Fig. 1.10 Circuit diagram for the first test for the determination of d-axis parameters

such that = 0. Since the rotor is at standstill, = 0. From the circuit diagram in

Fig. 1.10,

v = va vb

(1.167)

vb = vc

i = i a = i b + i c

(1.168)

(1.169)

vf = 0

(1.170)

Hence,

2

v

3

3

id =

i

2

Id (s)

3 I (s)

=

Vd (s)

2 V (s)

(1.172)

dd

= Ra i d vd

dt

(1.174)

vd =

(1.171)

(1.173)

d (s)

Ra

Vd (s)

=

Id (s) v f =0

s Id (s)

s

From (1.173) and (1.175),

(1.175)

Fig. 1.11 Circuit diagram

for the second test for the

determination of d-axis

parameters

31

vf

+

+

vb

V

a

vc

+

va

Id (s)

1

=

d (s) v f =0

[2/(3s)]V (s)/I (s) Ra /s

(1.176)

The magnitude and phase angle of this transfer function are obtained at different

frequencies.

The circuit diagram for the second test is shown in Fig. 1.11 [6]. The rotor position

should be such that = 0. From the circuit diagram in Fig. 1.11,

vd =

id = 0

2

v

3

(1.177)

(1.178)

dd

= vd

dt

(1.179)

V f (s)

3 V f (s)

s

=

d (s) id =0

2 V (s)

(1.180)

The magnitude and phase angle of this transfer function are obtained at different frequencies. From the values of the magnitude and

the phase angle of the two transfer

functions Id (s)/d (s)|v f =0 and V f (s)/d (s)i =0 at different frequencies, the vald

, T , T , T , R /M , and T are estimated.

ues of the d-axis parameters L d , Tdo

f

df

do d

d

dc

, and T are real and positive, and

It can be verified from the tests that Td , Td , Tdo

do

is positive. The notations are such that T > T and T > T .

Tdc

d

d

do

do

32

1 Synchronous Generator

the test for the determination

of q-axis parameters

i

A

ib

+

+

vb

ia

va +

vc

+ c

ic

The q-axis parameters are determined by conducting a test, the circuit diagram for

which is shown in Fig. 1.12 [1, 6]. The rotor position should be such that = 90 .

Since the rotor is at standstill, = 0. From the circuit diagram in Fig. 1.12,

2

v

3

3

iq =

i

2

Vq (s)

2 V (s)

=

Iq (s)

3 I (s)

(1.182)

dq

= Ra i q vq

dt

(1.184)

vq =

(1.181)

(1.183)

q (s)

Vq (s)

Ra

=

Iq (s)

s Iq (s)

s

(1.185)

Iq (s)

1

=

q (s)

[2/(3s)]V (s)/I (s) Ra /s

(1.186)

From the values of the magnitude and the phase angle of this transfer function at

, T , T , and T

different frequencies, the values of the q-axis parameters L q , Tqo

qo q

q

33

are estimated. It can be verified from the test that Tq , Tq , Tqo

qo

positive. The notations are such that Tq > Tq and Tqo > Tqo .

From (1.141) to (1.145), (1.152), (1.159), and (1.166),

1 + sTdo

1 + sTdo

Md f 1 + sTdc

d (s)

V f (s)

Id (s) =

L d 1 + sTd 1 + sTd

R f L d 1 + sTd 1 + sTd

(1.187)

1 + sTqo

1 + sTqo

q (s)

Iq (s) =

(1.188)

L q 1 + sTq 1 + sTq

By partial fraction expansion,

Id (s) = r1 +

Iq (s) = r6 +

r2

r3

+

1 + sTd

1 + sTd

r7

r8

+

1 + sTq

1 + sTq

Md f

d (s) +

Rf

r4

r5

+

1 + sTd

1 + sTd

V f (s)

(1.189)

!

q (s)

(1.190)

where

r1

T

)(T T )

)(T T )

Tdo

(T Tdo

(T Tdo

do

d

do

d

do

, r2 d

(1.191)

, r3 d

L d Td Td

L d Td (Td Td )

L d Td (Td Td )

r4

T

Td Tdc

Tdc

d

, r5

L d (Td Td )

L d (Td Td )

r6

T

Tqo

qo

L q Tq Tq

, r7

)(T T )

(Tq Tqo

q

qo

L q Tq (Tq

Tq )

(1.192)

, r8

)(T T )

(Tq Tqo

q

qo

(1.193)

Equations (1.189) and (1.190) can be put in the block diagram form shown in

Figs. 1.13 and 1.14 where

Ef

Md f

vf

Rf

(1.194)

variables associated with the rotor windings. The time domain model will be obtained

in terms of the inductances L d and L q and other inductances defined below, instead

of the residues r1 to r8 .

34

1 Synchronous Generator

r1

1

1 + sTd

1

1 + sTd

1D

+

+

r2

id

r4

r2

Ef

r5

r3

+

+

r3

r6

1Q

r7

1 + sTq

iq

2Q

r8

1 + sTq

Ld =

1

,

r1 + r2 + r3

Lq =

1

r6 + r7 + r8

(1.195)

An inductance L d called d-axis subtransient inductance and an inductance L q called

q-axis subtransient inductance are defined [4] as

L d

d (s)

lim

,

s Id (s)

v f =0

L q lim

q (s)

Iq (s)

(1.196)

35

L d =

1

,

r1

L q =

1

r6

(1.197)

q-axis transient inductance are defined as

L d

1

,

r1 + r3

L q

1

r6 + r8

(1.198)

These inductances satisfy the inequality relations: L d > L d > L d > 0 and L q > L q

> L q > 0.

, T , T , and T

Td , Td , Tq , and Tq are called short-circuit time constants. Tdo

qo

do qo

are called open-circuit time constants. These time constants and the inductances

L d , L d , L d , L q , L q , and L q are called standard parameters [2, 6]. The synchronous

generator model with standard parameters is given by the following equations:

dd

dt

dq

dt

d0

dt

d F

dt

= q Ra i d vd

(1.199)

= d Ra i q vq

(1.200)

= Ra i 0 v0

L (T T )

1

= F + d + d dc d E f

Td

(L d L d )(Td Td )

T )

L d L d (Tdc

1

d

= 1D + d +

Ef

Td

L d (L d L d )(Td Td )

1

= 1Q + q

Tq

1

= 2Q + q

Tq

(1.201)

d1D

dt

d1Q

dt

d2Q

dt

d

= o

dt

1

d

= Tm d i q + q i d

dt

J

1

1

1

1

1

i d = d +

F +

1D

Ld

Ld

Ld

L d

Ld

!

!

1

1

1

1

1

i q = q +

1Q +

2Q

Lq

Lq

Lq

L q

Lq

i0 =

1

0

L0

(1.202)

(1.203)

(1.204)

(1.205)

(1.206)

(1.207)

(1.208)

(1.209)

(1.210)

36

1 Synchronous Generator

b

a

vf

1.7.1 Short-Circuit Time Constants

Td , Td , Tq , and Tq are called short-circuit time constants since these are the time

constants during short circuit at the synchronous generator terminals. Suppose the

synchronous generator is run at = o , and then, its terminals are shorted by closing

the switch shown in Fig. 1.15. During this condition, vd = vq = v0 = i 0 = 0. If Ra is

neglected, the equations governing the synchronous generator during this condition

are

dd

= o q

dt

dq

= o d

dt

L (T T )

1

d F

= F + d + d dc d E f

dt

Td

(L d L d )(Td Td )

T )

L d L d (Tdc

d1D

1

d

= 1D + d +

Ef

dt

Td

L d (L d L d )(Td Td )

d1Q

1

= 1Q + q

dt

Tq

1

d2Q

= 2Q + q

dt

Tq

(1.211)

(1.212)

(1.213)

(1.214)

(1.215)

(1.216)

The eigenvalues of the system during this condition are 1/Td , 1/Td , 1/Tq ,

1/Tq , jo , jo . Hence, Td , Td , Tq , and Tq are called short-circuit time constants.

37

b

a

+

f

vf

, T , T , and T are called open-circuit time constants since these are the time

Tdo

qo

do qo

constants under open-circuit condition. Suppose the synchronous generator is run at

= o , and then, the switch shown in Fig. 1.16 is closed. During this condition,

i d = i q = i 0 = 0. The equations governing the synchronous generator during this

condition are

T )

L d (Tdc

1

d F

d

= F + d +

Ef

dt

Td

(L d L d )(Td Td )

T )

L d L d (Tdc

d1D

1

d

= 1D + d +

E

f

dt

Td

L d (L d L d )(Td Td )

d1Q

1

= 1Q + q

dt

Tq

1

d2Q

= 2Q + q

dt

Tq

1

1

1

1

1

0 = d +

F +

1D

Ld

Ld

Ld

L d

Ld

!

!

1

1

1

1

1

0 = q +

1Q +

2Q

Lq

Lq

Lq

L q

Lq

(1.217)

(1.218)

(1.219)

(1.220)

(1.221)

(1.222)

The last two equations imply that d and q are not independent and can be

expressed in terms of state variables. Using (1.191), (1.193), (1.197), and (1.198),

it can be shown that the eigenvalues of the system during this condition are

, 1/T , 1/T , 1/T . Hence, T , T , T , and T are called open1/Tdo

qo

qo

qo

do

do do qo

circuit time constants.

38

1 Synchronous Generator

It is convenient to analyze the equations governing a power system, if the values of

the quantities (variables and parameters) are normalized by dividing them by their

respective base values. The normalized value is said to be in per unit of the base

value. The base values of some quantities can be chosen independently, and from

these values, the base values of other quantities are obtained. If the base values of

angular frequency, power, and voltage are chosen, the base values of other quantities

can be obtained. Base angular frequency and base power are same for the entire

power system, whereas base voltage is different on the two sides of a transformer.

The obvious choice for base angular frequency B is the rated or nominal angular

frequency. A choice for the base power S B is the rated voltamperes of the largest

synchronous generator in the system. Base voltage VB is taken as the rated rms value

of line-to-line voltage. The base values of other quantities are obtained as follows:

Base current,

IB

SB

VB

VB

IB

VB

Base flux linkage, B

B

B

Base inductance, L B

IB

SB

Base torque, TB

B

Base impedance,

ZB

(1.223)

(1.224)

(1.225)

(1.226)

(1.227)

The quantities in per unit are denoted by a bar over the notation; for example,

d d / B . Dividing (1.199)(1.205) by B gives

d d

=

dt

d q

=

dt

d 0

=

dt

d F

=

dt

d 1D

dt

q B R a id B v d

(1.228)

d B R a iq B v q

(1.229)

B R a i0 B v 0

T )

X d (Tdc

1

d

F + d +

E f

Td

( X d X d )(Td Td )

T )

X d X d (Tdc

1

d

= 1D + d +

E f

Td

Xd ( X d X d )(Td Td )

1

d 1Q

= 1Q + q

dt

Tq

(1.230)

(1.231)

(1.232)

(1.233)

39

d 2Q

1

= 2Q + q

dt

Tq

(1.234)

L d , X d = L d , and X d = L d .

Equation (1.207) can be written as

d

SB

=

dt

J B

q i d

Tm

d i q

+

TB

B IB

B IB

(1.235)

H

J 2B

2S B

(1.236)

d

B

=

(T d iq + q id )

dt

2H m

(1.237)

1

id = d +

Xd

1

1

Xd

Xd

1

iq = q +

X q

1

1

X q

X q

1

0

i0 =

X0

!

F +

!

1Q +

1

1

Xd

Xd

1

1

X q

X q

1D

(1.238)

!

2Q

(1.239)

(1.240)

noted that X q = L q , X q = L q , X q = L q , and X 0 = L 0 . Equations (1.206),

(1.228)(1.234), and (1.237)(1.240) form the synchronous generator model in per

unit quantities.

The equations obtained in the last section give a detailed model of the synchronous

generator. The choice of the model depends on the application. Some applications do

not need a detailed model. The simpler models in the order of decreasing complexity

are given below.

40

1 Synchronous Generator

Tdc = Td

= T ,

If the zero sequence variables are equal to zero and if it is assumed that Tdc

d

the equations governing the synchronous generator are

d d

= q B R a id B v d

dt

d q

= d B R a iq B v q

dt

!

X d

d F

1

E f

= F + d +

dt

Td

X d X d

1

d 1D

= 1D + d

dt

Td

d 1Q

1

= 1Q + q

dt

Tq

1

d 2Q

= 2Q + q

dt

Tq

d

= o

dt

B

d

=

(T d iq + q id )

dt

2H m

!

!

1

1

1

1

1

F +

1D

id = d +

X d

X d

X d

X d

X d

!

!

i q = 1 q + 1 1 1Q + 1 1 2Q

X q

X q

X q

X q

X q

(1.241)

(1.242)

(1.243)

(1.244)

(1.245)

(1.246)

(1.247)

(1.248)

(1.249)

(1.250)

If high-frequency transients are not of interest, stator transients are neglected by

neglecting the terms d d /dt and d q /dt in (1.241) and (1.242), respectively. Then,

these equations become algebraic equations.

0 = q B R a id B v d

0 = d B R a iq B v q

(1.251)

(1.252)

41

generator model is given by the following equations:

1

d F

=

dt

Td

F + d +

X d

X d X d

E f

(1.253)

d 1D

1

= 1D + d

dt

Td

d 1Q

1

= 1Q + q

dt

Tq

1

d2Q

= 2Q + q

dt

Tq

d

= o

dt

B

d

=

(T d iq + q id )

dt

2H m

0 = q R a id v d

0 = d R a iq v q

!

!

i d = 1 d + 1 1 F + 1 1 1D

X d

X d

X d

X d

X d

!

!

1

1

1

1

1

iq = q +

1Q +

2Q

X q

X q

X q

X q

X q

(1.254)

(1.255)

(1.256)

(1.257)

(1.258)

(1.259)

(1.260)

(1.261)

(1.262)

The time constants Td and Tq are set to zero, and hence,

1D = d

2Q = q

(1.263)

(1.264)

1

d F

=

dt

Td

F + d +

1

d 1Q

= 1Q + q

dt

Tq

X d

X d X d

!

E f

(1.265)

(1.266)

42

1 Synchronous Generator

d

= o

dt

d

B

=

(T d iq + q id )

dt

2H m

0 = q R a id v d

0 = d R a iq v q

!

1

1

1

F

id = d +

X d

X d

X d

!

1

1

1

iq = q +

1Q

X q

X q

X q

(1.267)

(1.268)

(1.269)

(1.270)

(1.271)

(1.272)

The time constant Tq is set to zero, and hence,

1Q = q

(1.273)

1

d F

=

dt

Td

F + d +

X d

X d X d

d

= o

dt

B

d

=

(T d iq + q id )

dt

2H m

0 = q R a id v d

0 = d R a iq v q

!

i d = 1 d + 1 1 F

X d

X d

X d

1

q

iq =

X q

!

E f

(1.274)

(1.275)

(1.276)

(1.277)

(1.278)

(1.279)

(1.280)

43

Td is assumed to be infinite. This implies d F /dt = 0, i.e., F is constant. It is also

assumed that R a = 0 and X q = X d . Since R a = 0, q = vd and d = v q . The

synchronous generator model is given by the following equations:

d

= o

dt

B

d

=

(T v q iq v d id )

dt

2H m

E

1

id = v q

X

X

d

1

iq = v d

Xd

(1.281)

(1.282)

(1.283)

(1.284)

where E ( X d X d ) F / X d is a constant.

References

1. K.R. Padiyar, Power System Dynamics: Stability and Control, 2nd edn. (BS Publications,

Hyderabad, 2002)

2. P. Kundur, Power System Stability and Control (Tata McGraw-Hill, Noida, 1994)

3. P.W. Sauer, M.A. Pai, Power System Dynamics and Stability (Pearson Education, Singapore,

1998)

4. P.C. Krause, Analysis of Electric Machinery (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1987)

5. P.M. Anderson, B.L. Agrawal, J.E. Van Ness, Subsynchronous Resonance in Power Systems

(IEEE Press, New York, 1990)

6. A.M. Kulkarni, Power system dynamics and control (2012), http://www.nptel.iitm.ac.in/courses/

108101004/

Chapter 2

2.1 Transformer

2.1.1 Single-Phase Transformer

The single-phase transformer consists of a core and two or more windings. Figure 2.1

shows a transformer with two windings.

Let the transformer be ideal: the windings have zero resistance and the core has

infinite permeability [1]. Infinite permeability means that there is no flux outside the

core.

N1 and N2 are the number of turns in the windings. If the flux in the core is ,

the induced emfs in the windings are

d

dt

d

e2 = N2

dt

e1 = N1

(2.1)

(2.2)

e1

N1

=

e2

N2

(2.3)

The relation between i 1 and i 2 is obtained from Amperes law. Due to infinite

permeability, the magnetic field intensity in the core is zero. Application of Amperes

law to the closed path in the core, shown in Fig. 2.1, gives

N2

i1

=

i2

N1

SpringerBriefs in Electrical and Computer Engineering,

DOI: 10.1007/978-81-322-1847-0_2, The Author(s) 2014

(2.4)

45

46

transformer with two windings

Closed path

i2

i1

+

e1

e2

N2

N1

transformer with three

windings

i2

i1

+

e1

N1

ideal transformer

+

e2

i3

+

e3

N2

N3

i1

i2

+

e1

+

e2

N1 N2

For the three-winding transformer shown in Fig. 2.2, where the number of turns

in the windings are N1 , N2 , and N3 ,

e1

N1 e1

N1

=

,

=

e2

N2 e3

N3

N1 i 1 = N2 i 2 + N3 i 3

(2.5)

(2.6)

shown in Fig. 2.3. The dots shown at a terminal of each winding indicate the winding

terminals which simultaneously have the same polarity due to the emfs induced.

There are applications where the ideal transformer cannot be used. Then the

equivalent circuit of the transformer is given by Fig. 2.4. R1 and R2 are the resistances

of the two windings. Though the permeability of the core is high, it is not infinite,

and hence there is flux outside the core which links some or all turns of only one

winding and induces an emf. This flux is called leakage flux and its effect is modelled

by leakage inductances L 1 and L 2 . e1 and e2 are related by (2.3). Due to finite

permeability of the core, (2.4) is not exact but is used as an approximation.

2.1 Transformer

47

R1

L1

i2

i1

R2

L2

+

+

e1

v1

+

e2

v2

N1 N2

A three-phase transformer can be obtained from three identical single-phase transformers. Figure 2.5 shows the equivalent circuit of the wye-wye-connected transformer. The two windings of a single-phase transformer are shown parallel to each

other.

Let v1a , v1b , and v1c be the potentials of the terminals 1a, 1b, and 1c, respectively,

with respect to the neutral. Let v2a , v2b , and v2c be the potentials of the terminals

2a, 2b, and 2c, respectively, with respect to the neutral. The equations for the wyewye-connected transformer are

di 1a

+ e1a

dt

di 1b

+ e1b

= i 1b R1 + L 1

dt

di 1c

+ e1c

= i 1c R1 + L 1

dt

N2

N1

N1 di 1a

=

e1a

i 1a R2

L2

N1

N2

N2

dt

N2

N1

N1 di 1b

=

e1b

i 1b R2

L2

N1

N2

N2

dt

N2

N1

N1 di 1c

=

e1c

i 1c R2

L2

N1

N2

N2

dt

v1a = i 1a R1 + L 1

(2.7)

v1b

(2.8)

v1c

v2a

v2b

v2c

(2.9)

(2.10)

(2.11)

(2.12)

N2

N2

N2

N1

v2a =

v1a

R1 +

R2 i 1a

L1 +

N1

N1

N2

N1

N2

N2

N2

N1

v2b =

v1b

R1 +

R2 i 1b

L1 +

N1

N1

N2

N1

N2

N2

N2

N1

v2c =

v1c

R1 +

R2 i 1c

L1 +

N1

N1

N2

N1

di 1a

N1

L2

N2

dt

di 1b

N1

L2

N2

dt

di 1c

N1

L2

N2

dt

(2.13)

(2.14)

(2.15)

48

2c

1c

R1

L2

i1c

L1

i2 c

R2

+

N1

e 1c

e 1a +

N1

e 1b

N1

+

N2

e2c

R1

L1

e 2a +

1a

i1a

L2

2a

i2 a

+

R2

i2 b

L1

i1b

e2b

N2

N2

R2

L2

R1

2b

1b

In order to obtain the equations in per unit quantities, the equations are divided by

the base voltage. If V1B is the base voltage on the transformer side with N1 turns,

the base voltage on the other side of the transformer is

V2B

N2

V1B

N1

(2.16)

I1B =

SB

SB

V1B

V2B

, I2B =

, Z 1B =

, Z 2B =

V1B

V2B

I1B

I2B

(2.17)

1

v 2a = v 1a R 1 + R 2 i a

B

1

v 2b = v 1b R 1 + R 2 i b

B

1

v 2c = v 1c R 1 + R 2 i c

B

X1 + X2

di a

dt

di b

X1 + X2

dt

di c

X1 + X2

dt

(2.18)

(2.19)

(2.20)

notation for currents since i 1a = i 2a , i 1b = i 2b , and i 1c = i 2c .

2.1 Transformer

R1

49

i1c

L1

+

N1

e 1c

N1

i2 c

i1a

R2

R2

i2 b

+

N2

e2c

L2

e 1b

+

R2

e 2a +

N2

L1

i1b

L2

R1

L1

e 1a +

N1

e2b

N2

L2

i2 a

R1

Fig. 2.6 Wye-delta-connected transformer

e 1b

N1

R1

e2b

N2

i1c

L2

L1

L1

i1b

+

N1

e 1c

R1

R1

e 1a +

N1

i2 c

L1

R2

R2

i2 b

+

N2

e2c

L2

e 2a +

N2

i1a

R2

L2

i2 a

For the wye-delta-connected transformer, if V1B is the base voltage on the transformer

side with N1 turns, the base voltage on the other side of the transformer is

N2

V1B

V2B

3N1

(2.21)

For balanced sinusoidal operation, if resistance and leakage inductance are neglected,

the phase shift between terminal voltages on the two sides of the transformer is 30 .

The equivalent circuit of the delta-delta-connected transformer is shown in

Fig. 2.7. For the delta-delta-connected transformer, if V1B is the base voltage on the

50

transformer side with N1 turns, the base voltage on the other side of the transformer

is

V2B

N2

V1B

N1

(2.22)

A transmission line has four parameters: series resistance, series inductance, shunt

conductance, and shunt capacitance. These parameters are distributed uniformly

throughout the length of the transmission line. The series resistance in each phase is

denoted by R. For an overhead transmission line, the shunt conductance represents

the effects of leakage current over the surface of the insulator and corona. The shunt

conductance in each phase is denoted by G.

The expression for inductance and capacitance are derived for overhead transmission lines. The derivations assume that the conductors are straight.

2.2.1 Inductance

2.2.1.1 Transmission Line with Three Conductors

Let the transmission line consist of three conductors, one for each phase, of radius r

as shown in Fig. 2.8. Let the current in these conductors be i a , i b , and i c with uniform

current density. The expression for inductance is derived assuming that

ia + ib + ic = 0

(2.23)

It is assumed that the three conductors are transposed if not spaced symmetrically,

in order to have a symmetrical system; the transmission line is divided into three

sections of equal lengths and each conductor occupies each of the three positions 1,

2, and 3 for one third of the transmission line length. Let the conductors a, b, c occupy

positions 1, 2, 3, respectively, in the first section, positions 2, 3, 1, respectively, in

the second section, and positions 3, 1, 2, respectively, in the third section.

Consider a tube of radius x < r and thickness dx in phase a conductor in section 1

as shown in Fig. 2.8; the tube is coaxial with the conductor. Consider a filament in

this tube with cross-sectional area xdxd ; d is the angle subtended at the axis of the

conductor by the filament [2]. Consider the closed path consisting of this filament

and an arbitrarily located (at P) straight line parallel to the conductors. Let f a ,

f b , and f c be the flux linkage of this closed path in section 1, due to i a , i b , and

i c , respectively. The power delivered to this closed path, due to i a , is equal to

51

3

r

D3

P

D23

b

D2

D31

D1

Filament

D12

d

x

a

dx

1

d f a xdxd

di a

1

ia

xdxd

=

fa

2

2

dt

r

r

dt

(2.24)

over the cross-sectional area of the conductor as follows.

1 di a

p=

r 2 dt

2

=0

f a xdxd

(2.25)

x=0

i c , respectively. The expression for p can also be written in terms of flux linkage of

phase a due to i a , as

p=

di a

daa

i a = aa

dt

dt

(2.26)

aa =

1

r 2

2

=0

r

x=0

f a xdxd

(2.27)

52

2 r

1

=

f b xdxd

r 2 =0 x=0

2 r

1

=

f c xdxd

r 2 =0 x=0

ab

ac

(2.28)

(2.29)

Hence, the flux linkage of a phase is the average of the flux linkages of all the

filamentary closed paths in that phase.

The flux linkage of a phase can be determined from the flux densities due to

currents in the three conductors. The flux density Ba due to i a can be obtained from

Amperes law.

0 i a x

2r 2

Ba =

0 i a

2 x

if x r

(2.30)

if x r

where x is the distance from the axis of conductor a and 0 is permeability of free

space; permeability of air and conductor are almost equal to that of free space. Then,

fa

l

=

3

D1

x

0 i a l

Ba dx =

6

1

x2

D1

2 + ln

2 2r

r

(2.31)

where l is the length of the transmission line. From (2.27) and (2.31),

aa

1

=

r 2

=0

r

x=0

0 i a l

6

1

x2

D1

2 + ln

2 2r

r

xdxd =

D1

0 i a l

ln (2.32)

6

r

where r e1/4 r .

The flux density due to i b is

Bb =

0 i b

2 D

if D r

(2.33)

fb =

l

3

D2

D

Bb dD =

D2

0 i b l

ln

6

D

(2.34)

2

1/2

where D = D12

+ x 2 2D12 x cos

. From (2.28) and (2.34),

ab

1

=

r 2

=0

r

x=0

D2

0 i b l

D2

0 i b l

ln

xdxd =

ln

6

D

6

D12

(2.35)

53

Similarly,

ac =

D3

0 i c l

ln

6

D31

(2.36)

a1 = aa + ab + ac

0 l

=

6

D1

D2

D3

(2.37)

i a ln + i b ln

+ i c ln

r

D12

D31

are given by

0 l

D2

D3

D1

i a ln + i b ln

+ i c ln

6

r

D23

D12

0 l

D3

D1

D2

i a ln + i b ln

=

+ i c ln

6

r

D31

D23

a2 =

(2.38)

a3

(2.39)

a = a1 + a2 + a3

(2.40)

0 l

(D1 D2 D3 )1/3

D1 D2 D3 1/3

D1 D2 D3 1/3

a =

+ i b ln

+ i c ln

i a ln

2

r

D12 D23 D31

D12 D23 D31

(2.41)

The coefficient of i a is self inductance and the coefficients of i b and i c are mutual

inductances. Using (2.23), the self and mutual inductances can be replaced by an

equivalent self inductance L.

L=

ln

2

r

(2.42)

A composite conductor consists of two or more individual conductors. Examples

of composite conductor are bundled conductor, stranded conductor, and conductor

of a multi-circuit transmission line. Figures 2.9, 2.10, and 2.11 show a double circuit transmission line, a transmission line with bundled conductors, and a stranded

conductor, respectively.

54

transmission line

d4

a

d1

d1

d3

d6

d5

d1

d4

c

Fig. 2.10 Transmission line

with bundled conductors

c

d2

a

d

d3

D

Fig. 2.11 Stranded conductor

with composite conductors

12

11

13

1n

23

2n

22

31

3n

32

33

21

as shown in Fig. 2.12 [2]. Let each phase consist of n individual conductors of

radius r .

It is assumed that the three phases are transposed if not placed symmetrically;

the transmission line is divided into three sections of equal lengths and each phase

occupies each of the three positions 1, 2, and 3 for one third of the transmission line

length. Let phases a, b, c occupy positions 1, 2, 3, respectively, in the first section,

positions 2, 3, 1, respectively, in the second section, and positions 3, 1, 2, respectively,

in the third section. The position of each individual conductor is identified by two

numbers as in Fig. 2.12; the first number is that of the position of the phase and the

second number is that of the position of the individual conductor. Let the current in

the individual conductors of phases a, b, c be i a /n, i b /n, i c /n, respectively. This is

true if the individual conductors in each phase are transposed so that each individual

55

conductor occupies each of the n positions for equal lengths along a section. i a , i b ,

and i c satisfy (2.23). Consider the closed path consisting of the individual conductor

of phase a at position 1k for length l/(3n), and the straight line (at P) parallel to the

conductors. Similar to (2.37), the flux linkage of this closed path is

a1k =

n

0 l

D1m

D2m

D3m

ln

+

i

ln

+

i

ln

i

a

b

c

6 n 2

D1k1m

D1k2m

D1k3m

(2.43)

m=1

where D pkqm ( p and q are 1, 2, or 3, and pk = qm) is the distance between the axes

of conductors at positions pk and qm, D pkpk = r , and D pk is the distance between

point P and the axis of conductor at position pk. It is evident from (2.27) to (2.29)

that the flux linkage of a phase is the average of the flux linkages of the closed paths

formed by individual conductors in that phase. Therefore, the flux linkage of phase

a in section 1 is

a1

n

n

0 l

D1m

D2m

D3m

i a ln

=

+ i b ln

+ i c ln

6 n 2

D1k1m

D1k2m

D1k3m

(2.44)

k=1 m=1

are given by

n

n

0 l

D2m

D3m

D1m

i

ln

+

i

ln

+

i

ln

a

b

c

6 n 2

D2k2m

D2k3m

D2k1m

k=1 m=1

n

n

0 l

D3m

D1m

D2m

i a ln

=

+ i b ln

+ i c ln

6 n 2

D3k3m

D3k1m

D3k2m

a2 =

a3

(2.45)

(2.46)

k=1 m=1

a = a1 + a2 + a3

(2.47)

From (2.23) and (2.44) to (2.47), the equivalent self inductance of each phase is

L=

Dm

0 l

ln

2

Ds

(2.48)

where

Dm

n

n

1/(3n 2 )

D1k2m D2k3m D3k1m

k=1 m=1

Ds

n

n

k=1 m=1

(2.49)

1/(3n 2 )

(2.50)

56

GMD.

For the double circuit transmission line shown in Fig. 2.9,

1/6

Dm = 2d12 d22 d3 d4

1/6

Ds = e3/4 r 3 d52 d6

(2.51)

(2.52)

where r is the radius of the individual conductors. For hexagonal spacing (d4 = d1

and d6 = d5 ), transposition is not necessary.

For the transmission line with bundled conductors shown in Fig. 2.10, where each

bundle (composite conductor) consists of two individual conductors,

2

1/12

6

2

2

2

2

4D d

Dm = 4D D d

(2.53)

1/2

Ds = e1/4 r d

(2.54)

For the stranded conductor shown in Fig. 2.11,

Ds = 2 (364.5)1/49 e1/28r

(2.55)

It is to be noted that the transposition of the individual conductors in the composite

conductor is not necessary for the three phases to be symmetrical; but the assumption

of transposition helps in easily obtaining the expression for inductance.

2.2.2 Capacitance

2.2.2.1 Transmission Line with Three Conductors

Consider the transmission line with three conductors shown in Fig. 2.8. Let the charge

per unit length on the conductors of phases a, b, and c be qa , qb , and qc , respectively,

such that

qa + q b + q c = 0

(2.56)

The radius of the conductors is assumed to be very small compared to the distance

between any two conductors. Therefore, the potential of conductor a with respect to

the point P is

57

va P =

1

2 0

D1

D2

D3

qa ln

+ qb ln

+ qc ln

r

D12

D31

(2.57)

0 is the permittivity of free space; permittivity of air is almost equal to that of free

space. The potential of the conductor is obtained by allowing P to recede to infinity.

As P recedes to infinity, using (2.56), the potential of conductor a for symmetrical

spacing of conductors (D12 = D23 = D31 = D) is

1

va =

2 0

1

1

1

qa ln + qb ln + qc ln

r

D

D

(2.58)

C=

2 0 l

ln(D/r )

(2.59)

is done in order to have a symmetrical system. Let the conductors a, b, c occupy

positions 1, 2, 3, respectively, in the first section, positions 2, 3, 1, respectively, in the

second section, and positions 3, 1, 2, respectively, in the third section. The charge

per unit length is not same in all three sections for any phase whereas the potential

is same. It is assumed that the charge per unit length is same in all the three sections

[3]; let the charge per unit length on the conductors of phases a, b, and c be qa ,

qb , and qc , respectively, which satisfy (2.56). With this assumption, the potential of

conductor a in sections 1, 2, and 3, va1 , va2 , and va3 , respectively, are given by

va1

va2

va3

1

1

1

1

qa ln + qb ln

=

+ qc ln

2 0

r

D12

D31

1

1

1

1

qa ln + qb ln

=

+ qc ln

2 0

r

D23

D12

1

1

1

1

qa ln + qb ln

=

+ qc ln

2 0

r

D31

D23

(2.60)

(2.61)

(2.62)

va =

1

(va1 + va2 + va3 )

3

(2.63)

C=

2 0 l

ln (D12 D23 D31 )1/3 /r

(2.64)

58

Consider the transmission line with composite conductors shown in Fig. 2.12. It is

assumed that the three phases are transposed if not placed symmetrically. Let the

composite conductors of phases a, b, c occupy positions 1, 2, 3, respectively, in

the first section, positions 2, 3, 1, respectively, in the second section, and positions

3, 1, 2, respectively, in the third section. Let each individual conductor of a composite

conductor occupy each of the n positions for equal lengths along a section. Let the

charge per unit length on the individual conductors of phases a, b, and c be qa /n,

qb /n, and qc /n, respectively, which satisfy (2.56). It is assumed that the charge

per unit length on all individual conductors is same along the entire length of the

transmission line. The potential of phase a individual conductor at position 1k is

va1k =

n

1

1

1

1

qa ln

+ qb ln

+ qc ln

2 0 n

D1k1m

D1k2m

D1k3m

(2.65)

m=1

where D pkqm ( p and q are 1, 2, or 3, and pk = qm) is the distance between the axes of

conductors at positions pk and qm; D pkpk is the radius of the individual conductors.

The potential of phase a composite conductor in section 1, va1 , is assumed to be

equal to the average of the potentials of the individual conductors.

va1 =

n

n

1

1

1

1

q

(2.66)

ln

+

q

ln

+

q

ln

a

b

c

2 0 n 2

D1k1m

D1k2m

D1k3m

k=1 m=1

The potential of phase a composite conductor in sections 2 and 3, va2 and va3 ,

respectively, are given by

n

n

1

1

1

1

q

(2.67)

ln

+

q

ln

+

q

ln

a

b

c

2 0 n 2

D2k2m

D2k3m

D2k1m

k=1 m=1

n

n

1

1

1

1

q

(2.68)

=

ln

+

q

ln

+

q

ln

a

b

c

2 0 n 2

D3k3m

D3k1m

D3k2m

va2 =

va3

k=1 m=1

va =

1

(va1 + va2 + va3 )

3

(2.69)

C=

2 0 l

ln Dm /Ds

(2.70)

59

their images

2

1

D12

D23

D 31

h31

h2

h1

h12

h 31

h 23

h 23

h12

h3

Earth

D31

1

D 23

D12

where

Dm

n

n

1/(3n 2 )

D1k2m

D2k3m

D3k1m

k=1 m=1

Ds

n

n

(2.71)

1/(3n 2 )

D1k1m

D2k2m

D3k3m

(2.72)

k=1 m=1

The earth affects the distribution of the electric field due to charge on a conductor.

The earth is at zero potential. The effect of earth is same as that of the image of the

conductor [3]. The image of the conductor with charge qa per unit length is a conductor with charge qa per unit length located at the same distance from the earths

surface below it as shown in Fig. 2.13. The images of conductors at positions 1, 2,

and 3 are at positions 1 , 2 , and 3 , respectively.

Transposition of conductors is assumed. Let the conductors a, b, c occupy positions 1, 2, 3, respectively, in the first section, positions 2, 3, 1, respectively, in the

second section, and positions 3, 1, 2, respectively, in the third section. Let the charge

per unit length on the conductors a, b, and c be qa , qb , and qc , respectively, which

60

satisfy (2.56). It is assumed that the charge per unit length is same in all the three

sections. The potential of conductor a in sections 1, 2, and 3, va1 , va2 , and va3 ,

respectively, are given by

va1 =

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

qa ln ln

+ qb ln

+ qc ln

ln

ln

2 0

r

h1

D12

h 12

D31

h 31

(2.73)

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

qa ln ln

+ qb ln

+ qc ln

va2 =

ln

ln

2 0

r

h2

D23

h 23

D12

h 12

(2.74)

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

qa ln ln

+ qb ln

+ qc ln

va3 =

ln

ln

2 0

r

h3

D31

h 31

D23

h 23

(2.75)

where r is the radius of the conductors. The potential of conductor a is assumed to

be given by

va =

1

(va1 + va2 + va3 )

3

(2.76)

C=

2 0 l

(D12 D23 D31 )

ln

r

1/3

h 12 h 23 h 31

ln

h1h2h3

1/3

(2.77)

Let va , vb , and vc be the voltages with respect to the neutral, i a , i b , and i c be the

currents, at the point which is at distance x from the receiving end, as shown in

Fig. 2.14. The currents satisfy (2.23). Then, the voltages and currents are related by

the following equations.

R

L i a

va

= ia +

x

l

l t

vb

R

L i b

= ib +

x

l

l t

vc

R

L i c

= ic +

x

l

l t

(2.78)

(2.79)

(2.80)

61

ia

Sending

end

ib

Receiving

end

ic

x

Fig. 2.14 Transmission line

G

i a

C va

= va +

x

l

l t

i b

G

C vb

= vb +

x

l

l t

i c

G

C vc

= vc +

x

l

l t

(2.81)

(2.82)

(2.83)

Dividing (2.78)(2.80) by VB , and (2.81)(2.83) by I B gives the equations in per

unit quantities.

v a

R

X i a

= ia +

x

l

l B t

v b

R

X i b

= ib +

x

l

l B t

v c

R

X i c

= ic +

x

l

l B t

i a

G

B v a

= va +

x

l

l B t

i b

G

B v b

= vb +

x

l

l B t

i c

G

B v c

= vc +

x

l

l B t

(2.84)

(2.85)

(2.86)

(2.87)

(2.88)

(2.89)

C B Y B / B . Two special cases: lossless transmission line and sinusoidal operation,

are considered.

62

If R = G = 0, then (2.78)(2.83) can be written as follows.

va

L i a

=

x

l t

i a

C va

=

x

l t

L i b

vb

=

x

l t

i b

C vb

=

x

l t

vc

L i c

=

x

l t

C vc

i c

=

x

l t

(2.90)

(2.91)

(2.92)

(2.93)

(2.94)

(2.95)

If the subscripts a, b, and c are not shown, the solution for any phase is

i(x, t) = f 1 (x v p t) f 2 (x + v p t)

(2.96)

v(x, t) = Z c f 1 (x v p t) Z c f 2 (x + v p t)

(2.97)

called characteristic impedance. f 1 and f 2 are functions of x and t. Let subscripts

S and R denote sending end quantities and receiving end quantities, respectively.

If only terminal response is of interest, the following method known as Bergerons

method is used. From (2.96) and (2.97),

i R (t) = i(0, t) = f 1 (v p t) f 2 (v p t)

v R (t) = v(0, t) = Z c f 1 (v p t) Z c f 2 (v p t)

l

l

iS t

= i l, t

= f 1 2l v p t f 2 v p t

vp

vp

l

l

= v l, t

= Z c f 1 2l v p t Z c f 2 v p t

vS t

vp

vp

(2.98)

(2.99)

(2.100)

(2.101)

l

1

l

1

+

vS t

v R (t)

i R (t) = i S t

vp

Zc

vp

Zc

(2.102)

63

This equation relates the receiving end current and voltage. Similarly, one can obtain

the following equation which relates the sending end current and voltage.

l

1

l

1

+

vR t

v S (t)

i S (t) = i R t

vp

Zc

vp

Zc

(2.103)

Dividing (2.102) and (2.103) by I B gives the equations in per unit quantities.

l

+

i R (t) = i S t

vp

i S (t) = i R t

vp

l

1

vS t

v R (t)

vp

Zc

Zc

1

l

1

+

vR t

v S (t)

v

Zc

Zc

p

1

(2.104)

(2.105)

Let the voltages and currents be sinusoidal with angular frequency o . Then voltages

and currents can be represented by phasors. Let V and I be the notations for phasor

representation of v and i, respectively. If subscripts a, b, and c are not shown, (2.78)

(2.83) can be written in the following form for each phase.

R + jo L

dV

=

I

dx

l

dI

G + jo C

=

V

dx

l

(2.106)

(2.107)

If V R and I R are the receiving end voltage and current, respectively, the solution of

(2.106) and (2.107) is

V = cosh( x)V R + Z c sinh( x)I R

1

sinh( x)V R + cosh( x)I R

I=

Zc

(2.108)

(2.109)

Zc

R + jo L

,

G + jo C

(R + jo L)(G + jo C)

l

(2.110)

If V S and I S are the sending end voltage and current, respectively, then from (2.108)

and (2.109),

V S = cosh( l)V R + Z c sinh( l)I R

1

sinh( l)V R + cosh( l)I R

IS =

Zc

(2.111)

(2.112)

64

of transmission line

IS

IR

+

VS

Y /2

Y /2

of transmission line

IS

VR

R+j o L

IR

+

+

(G+j oC) /2

VS

(G+j oC) /2

VR

Each phase of the transmission line can be represented by the equivalent circuit

shown in Fig. 2.15, where Z is impedance and Y is admittance. For this circuit, the

following equations can be written.

YZ

VR + Z IR

VS = 1 +

2

YZ

YZ

VR + 1 +

IR

IS = Y 1 +

4

2

(2.113)

(2.114)

Z = (R + jo L)

sinh( l)

tanh( l/2)

, Y = (G + jo C)

l

l/2

(2.115)

It is to be noted that

lim Z = R + jo L , lim Y = G + jo C

l0

l0

(2.116)

If Z and Y in Fig. 2.15 are replaced by the values of their respective limits as l 0,

the circuit shown in Fig. 2.16 is obtained. This circuit is called nominal circuit.

For transmission lines of length less than 240 km, the nominal circuit shown in

Fig. 2.16 is a good approximation [3].

65

Krons transformation does a transformation of the three-phase voltages and currents

as follows [5].

iD

va

ia

vD

v Q TK vb , i Q TK i b

v0

vc

i0

ic

(2.117)

where

1

TK

2 sin (o t) 2 sin (o t 2/3) 2 sin (o t + 2/3) (2.118)

3

1

1

1

where o is the operating frequency. It can be verified that TK1 = TKT .

If v0 = i 0 = 0, then (2.117) can be written as

vD

vQ

va

ia

i

D

= TK vb ,

= TK i b

iQ

vc

ic

(2.119)

where

1

TK

3

(2.120)

2 sin (o t) 2 sin (o t 2/3) 2 sin (o t + 2/3)

In certain studies, high-frequency transients in the transformer and the transmission line are neglected. Then, Krons transformation results in simplification of

equations. Krons transformation also enables generalization of the definitions of

certain electrical quantities.

2.3.1 Definitions

There are quantities such as voltage magnitude, phase angle, frequency, reactive

power etc. which are well defined in steady state when voltages and currents are

sinusoidally varying and balanced. The definition of these quantities will be generalized so that they can be used even in the presence of harmonics and during a transient

when the voltage and current are not sinusoidal; however, these definitions are made

with the assumption that v0 = i 0 = 0.

Consider the shunt-connected equipment shown in Fig. 2.17. Let va , vb , and vc

be the voltages of terminals a, b, and c, respectively, with respect to the neutral.

66

equipment

ia

a

ib

b

ic

c

The magnitude V and phase angle of the voltage of the three-phase bus, at

which the equipment in Fig. 2.17 is connected, are defined as

V

v 2D + v 2Q

vD

tan1

vQ

(2.121)

(2.122)

as follows.

v Q = V cos , v D = V sin

(2.123)

If va , vb , and vc are obtained from these expressions for v Q and v D using (2.119),

then

2

V sin(o t + )

va =

(2.124)

3

2

2

V sin o t +

(2.125)

vb =

3

3

2

2

vc =

V sin o t + +

(2.126)

3

3

Therefore, if va , vb , and vc are sinusoidal with angular frequency o and balanced,

V is the rms value of the line-to-line voltage and is the phase angle of va .

The frequency at the three-phase bus f is defined as

f fo +

where f o o /(2 ).

1 d

2 dt

(2.127)

67

Similar to voltage magnitude and phase angle definitions, the magnitude I and

phase angle of the current drawn by the equipment in Fig. 2.17 are defined as

I

2 + i2

iD

Q

tan1

iD

iQ

(2.128)

(2.129)

times the rms value of i a , i b , or i c , and is the phase angle of i a .

The power drawn by the equipment in Fig. 2.17 is

P = va i a + vb i b + vc i c

(2.130)

P = vD i D + vQ i Q

(2.131)

P = Re[V I ()]

(2.132)

From (2.119),

P is also known as active power. The reactive power Q drawn by the equipment in

Fig. 2.17 is defined as

Q Im[V I ()] = v D i Q v Q i D

(2.133)

The active current i A and the reactive current i R drawn by the equipment in

Fig. 2.17 are defined as

i A I cos( ) = i Q cos + i D sin

(2.134)

(2.135)

It is to be noted that i A > 0 P > 0, and i R > 0 Q > 0. The reactive current

is said to be inductive if it is positive, and is said to be capacitive if it is negative.

Consider the series-connected equipment shown in Fig. 2.18. The magnitude V

and phase angle of the voltage across the equipment in Fig. 2.18 are given by

(2.119)(2.122) using va , vb , and vc of Fig. 2.18. Similarly, the magnitude I and

phase angle of the current through the equipment in Fig. 2.18 are given by (2.119),

(2.120), (2.128), and (2.129) using i a , i b , and i c of Fig. 2.18. The active voltage v A

and the reactive voltage v R across the equipment in Fig. 2.18 are defined as

v A V cos( )

v R V sin( )

(2.136)

(2.137)

68

equipment

ia

va

vb

vc

ib

ic

is drawn by the equipment. The reactive voltage is said to be capacitive if it is positive

and inductive if it is negative.

Equations (2.18)(2.20) of the wye-wye-connected transformer can be written as

v 2a

v 1a

ia

di a /dt

1

v 2b = v 1b R 1 + R 2 i b

X 1 + X 2 di b /dt (2.138)

B

v 2c

v 1c

di c /dt

ic

By Krons transformation,

TKT

v 2D

v 2Q

= TKT

v 1D

v 1Q

R 1 + R 2 TKT

iD

iQ

d

1

X1 + X2

B

dt

TKT

iD

iQ

(2.139)

ia

v 1a

v 2a

v

v

i

where 1D TK v 1b , 2D TK v 2b and D TK i b .

v 1Q

v 2Q

iQ

v 1c

v 2c

ic

Pre-multiplying (2.139) by TK gives

v 2D = v 1D (R 1 + R 2 )i D

di D

o

1

(2.140)

X1 + X2 i Q

X1 + X2

B

B

dt

69

of phase a of transmission line

iSa

ia

Re

iRa

Le

+

vSa

Ge

2

Ce

2

v 2Q = v 1Q (R 1 + R 2 )i Q +

Ge

2

Ce

2

vRa

di Q

o

1

(2.141)

X1 + X2 i D

X1 + X2

B

B

dt

If the high-frequency transients are to be neglected, then the last term on the righthand side of (2.140) and (2.141) are set to zero. For balanced sinusoidal operation at

angular frequency o , all transformed variables are constant and hence the last term

on the right-hand side of (2.140) and (2.141) is equal to zero. The factor o / B in

one of the terms of (2.140) and (2.141) is usually approximated to 1. Therefore,

v 2D = v 1D (R 1 + R 2 )i D X 1 + X 2 i Q

v 2Q = v 1Q (R 1 + R 2 )i Q + X 1 + X 2 i D

(2.142)

(2.143)

For sinusoidal operation, the equivalent circuit of the transmission line shown in

Fig. 2.15 is applicable. Let Z = Re + jo L e and Y = G e + jo Ce . The circuit of

Fig. 2.15 can be redrawn as shown in Fig. 2.19 for phase a.

From the circuit diagram in Fig. 2.19,

di a

dt

Ge

Ce dv Sa

i Sa i a =

v Sa +

2

2 dt

Ge

Ce dv Ra

i a i Ra =

v Ra +

2

2 dt

v Sa v Ra = Re i a + L e

(2.144)

(2.145)

(2.146)

di b

dt

di c

= Re i c + L e

dt

v Sb v Rb = Re i b + L e

(2.147)

v Sc v Rc

(2.148)

70

Ge

Ce dv Sb

v Sb +

2

2 dt

Ge

Ce dv Sc

i Sc i c =

v Sc +

2

2 dt

Ge

Ce dv Rb

i b i Rb =

v Rb +

2

2 dt

Ge

Ce dv Rc

v Rc +

i c i Rc =

2

2 dt

i Sb i b =

(2.149)

(2.150)

(2.151)

(2.152)

di D

(2.153)

dt

di Q

v S Q v R Q = Re i Q o L e i D + L e

(2.154)

dt

Ce

Ge

Ce dv S D

iSD iD =

v S D + o v S Q +

(2.155)

2

2

2 dt

Ce

Ge

Ce dv S Q

v S Q o v S D +

(2.156)

iSQ iQ =

2

2

2 dt

Ce

Ge

Ce dv R D

iD iRD =

v R D + o v R Q +

(2.157)

2

2

2 dt

Ce

Ge

Ce dv R Q

iQ iRQ =

v R Q o v R D +

(2.158)

2

2

2 dt

v Sa

v Ra

i Sa

vS D

v

i

RD

where

TK v Sb ,

TK v Rb , S D TK i Sb ,

vS Q

vR Q

iSQ

v Sc

v Rc

i Sc

i Ra

ia

iRD

i

TK i Rb , and D TK i b . For balanced sinusoidal operation

iRQ

iQ

i Rc

ic

at frequency o , all transformed variables are constant. Therefore, (2.153)(2.158)

can be written as

v S D v R D = Re i D + o L e i Q + L e

v S D v R D = Re i D + o L e i Q

(2.159)

v S Q v R Q = Re i Q o L e i D

Ce

Ge

v S D + o v S Q

iSD iD =

2

2

Ce

Ge

v S Q o v S D

iSQ iQ =

2

2

Ce

Ge

v R D + o v R Q

iD iRD =

2

2

Ce

Ge

v R Q o v R D

iQ iRQ =

2

2

(2.160)

(2.161)

(2.162)

(2.163)

(2.164)

71

equations in per unit quantities.

o

X ei Q

B

o

Rei Q

X ei D

B

Ge

o B e

vSD +

vSQ

2

B 2

Ge

o B e

vSQ

vSD

2

B 2

Ge

o B e

vRD +

vRQ

2

B 2

Ge

o B e

vRQ

vRD

2

B 2

v S D v R D = Rei D +

(2.165)

vSQ vRQ =

(2.166)

i SD i D =

i SQ i Q =

i D i RD =

i Q i RQ =

(2.167)

(2.168)

(2.169)

(2.170)

equations is usually approximated to 1. As an approximation, (2.165)(2.170) are

used even during transients.

2.4 Load

In many system studies, the effects of the subtransmission and the distribution networks along with the connected load devices are represented by an aggregated load

at a transmission substation. The load model is given by the expressions for active

power P and reactive power Q drawn, in terms of voltage magnitude and/or frequency

[5, 6]. Two commonly used models are:

V a

1 + k p f ( f fo )

Vo

b

V

1 + kq f ( f f o )

Q = Qo

Vo

P = Po

(2.171)

(2.172)

V 2

V

+ p2

+ p3 1 + k p f ( f f o )

P = Po p1

Vo

Vo

V 2

V

Q = Q o q1

+ q2

+ q3 1 + k q f ( f f o )

Vo

Vo

(2.173)

(2.174)

72

Subscript o identifies the values of the respective variables at the operating point.

a, b, p1 , p2 , p3 , q1 , q2 , q3 , k p f , and kq f are constants; p1 + p2 + p3 = 1 and

q1 + q2 + q3 = 1. If frequency dependence is not to be considered, k p f and kq f are

set to zero.

Equations (2.171)(2.174) in per unit quantities are

P=

Po VBa a

V 1 + k p f ( f fo )

S B Voa

Q o VBb b

V 1 + kq f ( f f o )

b

S B Vo

VB2 2

VB

Po

P=

V + p3 1 + k p f ( f f o )

p1 2 V + p2

SB

Vo

Vo

VB2 2

VB

Qo

Q=

V + q3 1 + k q f ( f f o )

q1 2 V + q2

SB

Vo

Vo

Q=

(2.175)

(2.176)

(2.177)

(2.178)

References

1. C.A. Gross, Power System Analysis, 2nd edn. (Wiley, New York, 1986)

2. S. Krishna, Teaching calculation of inductance of power transmission lines. Int. J. Electr. Eng.

Educ. 48(4), 434443 (2011)

3. J.J. Grainger, W.D. Stevenson Jr, Power System Analysis (Tata McGraw-Hill, Noida, 1994)

4. P.W. Sauer, M.A. Pai, Power System Dynamics and Stability (Pearson Education, Upper Saddle

River, 1998)

5. K.R. Padiyar, Power System Dynamics: Stability and Control, 2nd edn. (BS Publications,

Hyderabad, 2002)

6. P. Kundur, Power System Stability and Control (Tata McGraw-Hill, Noida, 1994)

Chapter 3

transmission line instead of an AC transmission line. DC transmission requires conversion from AC to DC at one end of the transmission line, and conversion from

DC to AC at the other end of the transmission line. These conversions are done by a

circuit called converter which consists of power semiconductor devices.

Flexible AC transmission system (FACTS) is an AC transmission system incorporating equipment, made up of power semiconductor devices, in order to enhance

controllability and increase power transfer capability [1]. Such equipment is called

a FACTS controller.

The power semiconductor devices are used as switches. A mechanical switch is said

to be in the on state if it is conducting current and is said to be in the off state if it

is not conducting current. Similarly, power semiconductor devices can be in the on

state or the off state. The transition from off state to on state is called turn on, and

the transition from on state to off state is called turn off. It will be assumed that these

devices are ideal. In other words, the following assumptions are made:

1. The voltage across a device is zero when it is on.

2. The current through a device is zero when it is off.

3. The time taken to turn on and turn off is zero.

The power semiconductor devices can be classified into diode, thyristor, and

controllable switches [2].

The diode has two terminalsanode (A) and cathode (K)and its circuit symbol

is shown in Fig. 3.1a. The diode conducts current from anode to cathode if the

potential of anode is higher than that of cathode, and it does not conduct current if

the anode potential is less than cathode potential. The state of the diode depends on

the circuit conditions. Hence, the diode is said to be an uncontrolled device.

S Krishna, An Introduction to Modelling of Power System Components,

SpringerBriefs in Electrical and Computer Engineering,

DOI: 10.1007/978-81-322-1847-0_3, The Author(s) 2014

73

74

Fig. 3.1 Power

semiconductor devices:

a diode, b thyristor, and

c controllable switch

A

(a)

(b)

(c)

The thyristor has three terminalsanode (A), cathode (K), and gate (G)and its

circuit symbol is shown in Fig. 3.1b. The thyristor starts conducting current from

anode to cathode if the anode potential is higher than the cathode potential, and a

pulse of positive current flows from gate to cathode. The thyristor stops conducting

if the anode to cathode current goes to zero, and the cathode potential is higher than

anode potential for a certain minimum duration. The gate is said to be the control

terminal. Since the thyristor can be turned on by a control signal but cannot be turned

off by a control signal, it is said to be a semi-controllable device.

The circuit symbol of a controllable switch is shown in Fig. 3.1c. The circuit

symbol has two terminals1 and 2and the control terminal is not shown. The

switch can be turned on by a control signal if the potential of terminal 1 is higher

than that of terminal 2, and the current flows from terminal 1 to terminal 2. The

switch can also be turned off by a control signal. Gate turn off (GTO) thyristor and

insulated gate bipolar transistor (IGBT) are examples of controllable switch.

A device is said to be forward-biased if the potential of anode (or terminal 1) is

higher than that of cathode (or terminal 2). On the other hand, the device is said to be

reverse-biased if the potential of cathode (or terminal 2) is higher than that of anode

(or terminal 1).

When used at the transmission level, many devices are connected in series and/or

parallel to obtain the required voltage and/or current rating [1, 3]. This combination

of devices is called a valve. It is assumed that a valve behaves as a single device; all

the devices in a valve turn on and turn off simultaneously. The circuit symbol of a

valve is the same as that of the device.

A DC transmission line requires two converters one at each end where one converter

operates as a rectifier and the other operates as an inverter. A converter is said to

operate as a rectifier if the average power flow is from the AC side to the DC side.

If the average power flow is from the DC side to the AC side, the converter is said

to operate as an inverter. The type of converter used for long-distance bulk power

transmission is line-commutated converter [4].

75

converter

1

ea

L

ia

eb

L

vd

ib

ec

Id

L

ic

4

The circuit diagram of a six-pulse line-commutated converter is shown in Fig. 3.2.

The converter has six thyristor valves. The circuit on the AC side is represented by

a three-phase balanced voltage source with an inductance L in each phase. A large

smoothing reactor is used on the DC side [4, 5]. Therefore, the circuit on the DC

side is represented by a constant current source.

For the sake of starting with a simplified analysis, let L = 0. If the gate currents are

continuously applied, the valves behave as diodes. At any instant, one valve among

1, 3, and 5 conducts and one valve among 2, 4, and 6 conducts. Among the valves 1,

3, and 5, the valve whose anode is at the highest potential conducts and the other two

valves are reverse-biased. Among the valves 2, 4, and 6, the valve whose cathode is

at the lowest potential conducts and the other two valves are reverse-biased. Let ea ,

eb , and ec be given by

2

V sin(o t + 150 )

ea =

(3.1)

3

2

V sin(o t + 30 )

eb =

(3.2)

3

2

V sin(o t 90 )

ec =

(3.3)

3

The plots of ea , eb , and ec are shown in Fig. 3.3. Each valve conducts for 120 . The

valves turn on in the sequence 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6. The duration between any two

consecutive instants of turn on is 60 . One cycle of the AC voltage can be divided

into six equal intervals where each interval corresponds to the conduction of a pair

76

side

ea

ec

ea, eb, ec

6,1

1,2

2,3

3,4

4,5

5,6

6,1

ot

Table 3.1 DC-side voltage and voltage across a valve for two-valve conduction mode

Interval

+ 60

< o t <

+ 60 < o t < + 120

+ 120 < o t < + 180

+ 180 < o t < + 240

+ 240 < o t < + 300

+ 300 < o t < + 360

vd

2, 3

3, 4

4, 5

5, 6

6, 1

1, 2

eb ec

eb ea

ec ea

ec eb

ea eb

ea ec

ea

ea

ea

ea

0

0

eb

eb

ec

ec

of valves. The six intervals and the conducting valves during each interval are shown

in Fig. 3.3.

The instant of natural conduction of a valve is the instant at which the valve starts

conducting if the gate current is continuously applied. For example, the instant of

natural conduction of valve 3 is when o t is equal to zero. Instead of continuous

gate currents, gate current pulses are applied which are delayed by an angle with

respect to the instants of natural conduction; is called delay angle. For example,

valve 3 is turned on at o t = . Valve 1 stops conducting when valve 3 is turned on.

The transfer of current from one valve to another

is known as commutation. Voltage

across valve 1 when valve 3 is turned on is 2V sin(o t), and this voltage appears

across valve 1 for < o t < + 120 . Immediately after valve 1 stops conducting,

it takes some time for it to withstand positive voltage [2, 4, 6] and this time is given

in terms of an angle denoted by o . Therefore, can take a value between 0 and

180 o .

For each interval, the valves that conduct, DC voltage vd , and voltage across valve

1 are given in Table 3.1.

The average DC voltage is

3 2

V cos

Vd =

(3.4)

77

Id

ib

120o

60o

120o

60o

Id

o t

180 o .

The harmonic components in the DC voltage are of order h = 6k, k = 1, 2, 3, . . .

The rms value of the hth-order harmonic component is

Vh =

1/2

6V

2

2

1

+

(h

1)

sin

(h 2 1)

(3.5)

The rms value of the fundamental component of the AC-side currents is

6

Id

I1 =

(3.6)

1, 2, 3, . . . The rms value of the hth-order harmonic component is

Ih =

I1

h

(3.7)

180

(3.8)

If > 60 , gives the duration for which the voltage across a valve is negative after

it stops conducting; should be greater than o . An angle known as commutation

margin angle is defined as the duration for which the voltage across a valve is negative

after it stops conducting [4]. This angle is relevant for inverter operation for which

=

(3.9)

78

in the first subinterval for

two- and three-valve

conduction mode

ea

+

i1

eb

+

vd

i3

ec

Id

Due to the inductance L on the AC side, the current in a valve can vary only at

a finite rate, and hence, commutation from one valve to another takes some time.

For example, when valve 3 is turned on, the current transfer from valve 1 to valve

3 requires a certain time period during which both valves conduct. This duration is

measured in terms of an angle known as overlap angle or commutation angle denoted

by u. For normal operation, 0 < u < 60 .

One cycle of the AC voltage can be divided into six equal intervals. Each interval

can be divided into two subintervals. Three valves conduct in the first subinterval, and

two valves conduct in the second subinterval. For steady-state analysis, it is sufficient

to consider only one interval. The interval < o t < + 60 is considered.

The effective circuit to be analyzed in the first subinterval ( < o t < + u) is

shown in Fig. 3.5.

From the circuit diagram in Fig. 3.5,

L

d(Id i 3 )

di 3

L

= eb ea

dt

dt

(3.10)

i3 =

V

2o L

(3.11)

Substituting i 3 ( + u) = Id gives

V

Id =

[cos cos( + u)]

2o L

(3.12)

3

vd = ec

2

(3.13)

79

Table 3.2 DC-side voltage and voltage across a valve for two- and three-valve conduction mode

Subinterval

vd

< o t < + u

+ u < o t < + 60

+ 60 < o t < + u + 60

+ u + 60 < o t < + 120

+ 120 < o t < + u + 120

+ u + 120 < o t < + 180

+ 180 < o t < + u + 180

+ u + 180 < o t < + 240

+ 240 < o t < + u + 240

+ u + 240 < o t < + 300

+ 300 < o t < + u + 300

+ u + 300 < o t < + 360

1, 2, 3

2, 3

2, 3, 4

3, 4

3, 4, 5

4, 5

4, 5, 6

5, 6

5, 6, 1

6, 1

6, 1, 2

1, 2

3ec /2

eb ec

3eb /2

eb ea

3ea /2

ec ea

3ec /2

ec eb

3eb /2

ea eb

3ea /2

ea ec

0

ea eb

3eb /2

ea eb

3ea /2

ea ec

3ec /2

ea ec

0

0

0

0

vd = eb ec

(3.14)

3

Vd = V [cos + cos( + u)]

2

(3.15)

The rms value of the hth-order harmonic component is

u

u

u

u

cos2 (h1) 2 + cos2 (h+1) 2 2 cos (h+1) 2 cos (h1) 2 cos(2+u)

3 2

(h1)2

(h+1)2

h 2 1

V

Vh =

(3.16)

For each subinterval, the valves that conduct, DC voltage vd , and voltage across

valve 1 are given in Table 3.2.

The AC-side currents possess half-wave symmetry. The expression for one of

these currents for half cycle is given by

2

oL

Id if + u o t + 120

ib =

I V [cos + cos( t + 60 )] if + 120 t + u + 120

o

o

d

2o L

0 if + u + 120 o t + 180

(3.17)

80

6Id

I1 =

2

[cos + cos(

+ u)]2

+

2 cos 2 cos( + u)

2

(3.18)

1, 2, 3, . . . The rms value of the hth-order harmonic component is

6Id

Ih =

h

sin2 (h+1) u2

sin2 (h1) u2

2 sin (h+1) u2 sin (h1) u2 cos(2+u)

+

(h+1)2

(h1)2

h 2 1

cos cos( + u)

(3.19)

u

(3.20)

For normal inverter operation, 120 < < 180 , and the commutation margin

angle is

=

(3.21)

3

Vd = V cos( + u) cos

2

V

cos( + u) + cos

Id =

2o L

(3.22)

(3.23)

Under certain abnormal conditions, u > 60 . If u 120 , vd = 0. For 60 < u <

120 , one cycle of the AC voltage can be divided into six equal intervals and each

interval can be divided into two subintervals. Four valves conduct in the first subinterval, and three valves conduct in the second subinterval. For steady-state analysis,

it is sufficient to consider only one interval. The interval < o t < + 60 is

considered.

When valve 3 is turned on at o t = , valves 6, 1, and 2 are still conducting. The

effective circuit to be analyzed in the first subinterval ( < o t < + u 60 ) is

shown in Fig. 3.6.

From the circuit diagram in Fig. 3.6,

81

in the first subinterval for

three- and four-valve

conduction mode

ea

i1

3

eb

L

6

vd

Id

i6

ec

di 1

d(Id i 1 i 6 )

L

= eb ea

dt

dt

d(Id i 6 )

d(Id i 1 i 6 )

+L

= eb ec

L

dt

dt

L

(3.24)

(3.25)

3L

di 6

= 6V cos(o t)

dt

(3.26)

i6 =

6V

[sin sin(o t)] + i 6 ()

3o L

(3.27)

Substituting i 6 ( + u 60 ) = 0 gives

i 6 () =

6V

[sin( + u 60 ) sin ]

3o L

(3.28)

i6 =

6V

[sin( + u 60 ) sin(o t)]

3o L

(3.29)

3L

di 1

= 6V sin(o t + 150 )

dt

(3.30)

6V

[cos( + 150 ) cos(o t + 150 )] + i 1 ()

i1 =

3o L

(3.31)

82

Substituting i 1 () = Id gives

i1 =

6V

[cos( + 150 ) cos(o t + 150 )] + Id

3o L

(3.32)

is same as that shown in Fig. 3.5. From the circuit diagram in Fig. 3.5,

L

di 1

d(Id i 1 )

L

= eb ea

dt

dt

(3.33)

i1 =

V

2o L

[cos(o t) cos( + u 60 )] + i 1 ( + u 60 )

(3.34)

From (3.32),

i 1 ( + u 60 ) =

6V

[cos( + 150 ) + sin( + u)] + Id

3o L

(3.35)

V

i1 =

[cos(o t) cos( + u 60 )]

2o L

6V

+

[cos( + 150 ) + sin( + u)] + Id

3o L

(3.36)

It is to be noted that

i 1 ( + 60 ) = i 6 ()

(3.37)

Substituting for i 1 ( + 60 ) from (3.36) and for i 6 () from (3.28) in (3.37) gives

V

Id =

[cos( 30 ) cos( + u + 30 )]

6o L

(3.38)

For each subinterval, the valves that conduct, DC voltage vd , and voltage across

valve 1 are given in Table 3.3.

The average value of vd is

3 6

V [cos( 30 ) + cos( + u + 30 )]

Vd =

2

(3.39)

83

Table 3.3 DC-side voltage and voltage across a valve for three- and four-valve conduction mode

Subinterval

vd

< o t < + u 60

+ u 60 < o t < + 60

+ 60 < o t < + u

+ u < o t < + 120

+ 120 < o t < + u + 60

+ u + 60 < o t < + 180

+ 180 < o t < + u + 120

+ u + 120 < o t < + 240

+ 240 < o t < + u + 180

+ u + 180 < o t < + 300

+ 300 < o t < + u + 240

+ u + 240 < o t < + 360

6, 1, 2, 3

1, 2, 3

1, 2, 3, 4

2, 3, 4

2, 3, 4, 5

3, 4, 5

3, 4, 5, 6

4, 5, 6

4, 5, 6, 1

5, 6, 1

5, 6, 1, 2

6, 1, 2

0

3ec /2

0

3eb /2

0

3ea /2

0

3ec /2

0

3eb /2

0

3ea /2

0

0

0

3eb /2

0

3ea /2

0

3ec /2

0

0

0

0

3 6

V cos( + u + 30 ) cos( 30 )

Vd =

2

V

Id =

cos( + u + 30 ) + cos( 30 )

6o L

(3.40)

(3.41)

The circuit diagram of the 12-pulse converter is shown in Fig. 3.7 [4, 7]. The two

six-pulse line-commutated converters are connected in series on the DC side to obtain

a higher DC-side voltage. One transformer is wyewye-connected, and the other is

wyedelta-connected. The magnitude of the line-to-line voltages on the AC side of

the two six-pulse converters should be same. Therefore, the number of turns in the

transformer windings are as shown in Fig. 3.7.

If the transformers are assumed to be ideal, the three-phase voltage supplied by

the delta-connected winding to one of the six-pulse converters lags the three-phase

voltage supplied to the other six-pulse converter, by 30 . The instants of turn on of the

thyristor valves of the six-pulse converter supplied by the delta-connected winding

are delayed by 30 with respect to the instants of turn on of the thyristor valves of

the other six-pulse converter. If h is allowed to take a value 1 (for the fundamental

component) or 6k 1, k = 1, 2, 3, . . . (for the harmonic components), the current

phasors shown in Fig. 3.7 are given by

Iah = Ih 0, Ibh = Ih (120 h), Ich = Ih (120 h)

Iah

= Ih (30 h), Ibh

= Ih (150 h), Ich

= Ih (90 h)

(3.42)

(3.43)

84

N1

N2

Iah

N1

IAh

N2

Ibh

N2

N1

Ich

IBh

ICh

N1

Iah

I

ah

Ich

3 N2

N1

Ibh

N1

Ibh

I

ch

The currents Iah

bh

ch

Ich

= Iah

Iah

Ibh

Iah

= Ibh

Iah

+ Ibh

+ Ich

=0

(3.44)

(3.45)

(3.46)

Equation (3.46) is obtained by applying Kirchhoffs current law to the neutral of the

+ I +

wye-connected winding. Solving (3.44)(3.46) and using the relation Iah

bh

Ich = 0 gives

1

(I Ibh

)

3 ah

1

= (Ibh

Ich

)

3

1

= (Ich

Iah

)

3

Iah

=

(3.47)

Ibh

(3.48)

Ich

(3.49)

85

of a typical converter station

N2

2

I1 0 if h = 1

N1

N2

N2

I Ah =

Iah + 3 Iah

= 2 N2 I 0 if h = 6k 1, k = 2, 4, 6, . . .

(3.50)

h

N1

N1

0 if h = 6k 1, k = 1, 3, 5, . . .

N2

2

I1 (120 ) if h = 1

N1

N2

N2

I Bh =

Ibh + 3 Ibh

= 2 N2 I (120 ) if h = 6k 1, k = 2, 4, 6, . . .(3.51)

h

N1

N1

N1

0 if h = 6k 1, k = 1, 3, 5, . . .

2 2 I1 120 if h = 1

N1

N2

N2

N

ICh =

Ich + 3 Ich = 2 2 I (120 ) if h = 6k 1, k = 2, 4, 6, . . .(3.52)

h

N1

N1

N1

0 if h = 6k 1, k = 1, 3, 5, . . .

h = 12k 1, k = 1, 2, 3, . . . The harmonic components in the DC-side voltage

are of order h = 12k, k = 1, 2, 3, . . .

Typically, a converter station consists of two 12-pulse converters connected as

shown by the schematic diagram in Fig. 3.8 [4, 7]. One terminal on the DC side is at

a positive potential with respect to earth, and the other is at a negative potential. The

operation is such that the DC-side currents in the two 12-pulse converters are equal.

86

3.3 FACTS

FACTS controllers can be classified into the following types [3]:

1.

2.

3.

4.

Shunt controller.

Series controller.

Combined shuntseries controller.

Combined seriesseries controller.

Depending on the power semiconductor device used, the FACTS controllers can

be classified into variable impedance-type controller and voltage source converter

(VSC)-based controller. The device used in a variable impedance-type controller is

thyristor, whereas a VSC-based controller uses a controllable switch.

The prominent FACTS controllers are as follows:

1. Static var compensator (SVC): variable impedance-type shunt controller.

2. Thyristor-controlled series capacitor (TCSC): variable impedance-type series

controller.

3. Static synchronous compensator (STATCOM): VSC-based shunt controller.

4. Static synchronous series compensator (SSSC): VSC-based series controller.

5. Unified power flow controller (UPFC): VSC-based combined shuntseries

controller.

6. Interline power flow controller (IPFC): VSC-based combined seriesseries

controller.

The primary function of shunt FACTS controller is regulation of voltage and that

of series FACTS controller is regulation of power flow.

3.3.1 SVC

The SVC consists of a three-phase thyristor-controlled reactor (TCR) in parallel with

three capacitors connected in wye or delta.

3.3.1.1 TCR

The TCR consists of a reactor and two thyristor valves connected in antiparallel. The

effective reactance of TCR is varied by varying the instant of gate current pulses

to the thyristor

valves. Figure 3.9 shows a voltage source connected across a TCR

where v = 2V cos(o t) and L is inductance.

If the gate current pulses are at the instants of voltage peaks, the effective reactance

is minimum and is equal to that of the reactor. In order to increase the reactance,

the gate current pulses to the thyristor valves are delayed. The gate current pulses

to thyristor valves 1 and 2 are at o t = 2 k + and o t = 2 k + + ,

3.3 FACTS

87

voltage source

L

+

v

by the following equation:

2V

L

di

0 if < o t < +

=

2V

dt

L

0 if 2 < o t < 2 +

(3.53)

2V

[sin(o t) sin ] if o t

o L

0 if o t +

i=

2V

[sin(o t) + sin ] if + o t 2

0 if 2 o t 2 +

(3.54)

The rms value of the fundamental component of current is

I1 =

V

[ 2 sin(2)]

o L

(3.55)

The current contains odd harmonic components only. The rms value of the odd

harmonic component of current, of order h, is

Ih =

o Lh(h 2 1)

(3.56)

88

voltage and current

v and i

50

100

150

200

ot (degree)

250

300

350

I1

2 sin(2)

=

V

o L

(3.57)

Connection of three TCRs in delta as shown in Fig. 3.11 results in the three-phase

six-pulse TCR; the triplen harmonic components are eliminated in the line currents.

Half the number of harmonic components in the line currents of the six-pulse TCR

can be eliminated using the 12-pulse TCR [3, 7]. Figure 3.12 shows the circuit

3.3 FACTS

89

I ah

N2

N2

I bh

N2

IAh

N1

I ch

I Bh

N1

I

ah

N1

Iah

ICh

I

ch

3 N2

I

bh

I

bh

I

ch

diagram of the 12-pulse TCR which consists of two six-pulse TCRs and a threephase three-winding transformer.

If transformers are assumed to be ideal, based on the explanation given in

Sect. 3.2.2,

Iah = Ih 0, Ibh = Ih (120 h), Ich = Ih (120 h)

Iah

= Ih (30 h), Ibh

= Ih (150 h), Ich

= Ih (90 h)

(3.58)

(3.59)

From (2.6),

N2

N2

Iah + 3 Iah

N1

N1

N2

N2

=

Ibh + 3 Ibh

N1

N1

N2

N2

=

Ich + 3 Ich

N1

N1

I Ah =

(3.60)

I Bh

(3.61)

ICh

(3.62)

90

gives Iah + Ibh + Ich = 0 and I Ah + I Bh + ICh = 0; therefore, adding (3.60)(3.62)

gives

+ Ibh

+ Ich

=0

Iah

(3.63)

The currents Iah

bh

ch

Ich

= Iah

Iah

Ibh

Iah

= Ibh

(3.64)

(3.65)

+ I + I = 0 give

Solving (3.63)(3.65) and using the relation Iah

bh

ch

(I Ibh

)

3 ah

1

= (Ibh

Ich

)

3

1

= (Ich

Iah

)

3

Iah

=

(3.66)

Ibh

(3.67)

Ich

(3.68)

I Ah

I Bh

ICh

N2

2

I 0 if h = 1

N1 1

N2

=

2

Ih 0 if h = 6k 1, k = 2, 4, 6, . . .

N1

0 if h = 6k 1, k = 1, 3, 5, . . .

2 N2 I1 (120 ) if h = 1

N1

N2

=

2

Ih (120 ) if h = 6k 1, k = 2, 4, 6, . . .

0 if h = 6k 1, k = 1, 3, 5, . . .

N2

2

I 120 if h = 1

N1 1

N2

=

2

Ih (120 ) if h = 6k 1, k = 2, 4, 6, . . .

0 if h = 6k 1, k = 1, 3, 5, . . .

(3.69)

(3.70)

(3.71)

Therefore, the harmonic components in the currents drawn by a 12-pulse TCR are

of order h = 12k 1, k = 1, 2, 3, . . .

3.3 FACTS

91

Thevenin equivalent circuit of

the network

ia

Lt

iTCRa

Lt

vtc

vta

vtb

vb

+

LTCR C

iTCRc

LTCR

+

Lt

LTCR

ib

ic

+

v

a

iTCRb

vc +

In steady state, if the harmonic components in the TCR currents are neglected, the

TCR can be represented by three wye-connected inductors of inductance L T C R . Let

the capacitors of capacitance C be wye-connected. SVC is connected at a bus in a

network. The network is represented by the Thevenin equivalent circuit shown in

Fig. 3.13. The resistance in the Thevenin equivalent circuit is neglected, and L t is

inductance.

The equations governing the circuit in Fig. 3.13 are

di a

dt

di b

Lt

dt

di c

Lt

dt

di T C Ra

LTC R

dt

di T C Rb

LTC R

dt

di T C Rc

LTC R

dt

dva

C

dt

dvb

C

dt

dvc

C

dt

Lt

= vta va

(3.72)

= vtb vb

(3.73)

= vtc vc

(3.74)

= va

(3.75)

= vb

(3.76)

= vc

(3.77)

= i a i T C Ra

(3.78)

= i b i T C Rb

(3.79)

= i c i T C Rc

(3.80)

92

By Krons transformation,

i Q + ji D = j(BT C R BC )(v Q + jv D )

v Q + jv D = vt Q + jvt D jX t (i Q + ji D )

vta

va

ia

v

i

TK vtb , D TK vb , D TK i b , BC o C,

vQ

iQ

vtc

vc

ic

1/(o L T C R ), and X t o L t . Equations (3.81) and (3.82) can be written

v

where t D

vt Q

BT C R

as

(3.81)

(3.82)

I ( 90 ) = jB SV C V

(3.83)

V = Vt jI ( 90 )X t

(3.84)

2 + i 2 , tan1 (v /v ) = tan1 (v /v ),

where V v2D + v2Q , I i D

D Q

tD tQ

Q

Vt vt2D + vt2Q , and B SV C BT C R BC . Equations (3.83) and (3.84) can be

written as

i R = B SV C V

(3.85)

V = Vt i R X t

(3.86)

where

iR =

I if current is inductive

I if current is capacitive

(3.87)

the equation of a straight line in the i R V plane. A few representative straight lines

corresponding to different values of B SV C are shown in Fig. 3.14. Let 0 BT C R

B L ; the minimum value of B SV C is BC , and the maximum value of B SV C is

B L BC . Equation (3.86) is that of a straight line shown in Fig. 3.15.

For a given steady-state operating condition, the values of V and i R are obtained

by solving (3.85) and (3.86). In order to regulate the voltage, a regulator is used to

vary the value of B SV C such that in steady state, the voltage magnitude V is equal

to the desired value Vr e f . The block diagram of the regulator is shown in Fig. 3.16

where the regulator is typically a proportionalintegral controller. The proportional

and integral gains are negative; the sign of the proportional and integral gains should

be such that the change in the regulator output results in reduction in the magnitude

of the error (regulator input). Br e f is the desired value of B SV C . In steady state, the

V versus i R characteristic is shown in Fig. 3.17. It consists of three straight lines:

One straight line corresponds to the inductive limit at which B SV C = B L BC ,

one straight line corresponds to the capacitive limit at which B SV C = BC , and the

straight line with zero slope corresponds to the control range.

3.3 FACTS

93

magnitude versus reactive

current for different values of

SVC susceptance

BSVC =BC

BSVC =BLBC

iR

Fig. 3.15 Characteristic of

the network

Slope = Xt

V = Vt

iR

Fig. 3.16 SVC controller

BL B C

Vref

Regulator

Bref

BC

As the power system operating condition changes, the values of Vt and X t change,

and this may result in operation at the inductive or capacitive limits. To avoid frequent hitting of the limits, the steady-state characteristic is altered using the controller

shown in Fig. 3.18 [3]; X s is positive. Due to this controller, the steady-state characteristic is as shown in Fig. 3.19.

94

characteristic of SVC

BSVC =BLBC

V=Vref

BSVC = BC

iR

controller

BL BC

Vref

Regulator

B ref

BC

Xs

iR

+

V

characteristic of SVC with

positive slope in the control

range

Slope = Xs

BSVC =BLBC

V = Vref

BSVC = BC

iR

3.3.2 TCSC

A TCSC is connected in series with a transmission line. The TCSC consists of a

single-phase TCR and a capacitor in parallel, in all the three phases.

3.3 FACTS

95

series with a current source

L

iTCR

C

+

The effective reactance of TCSC is varied by varying the instant of gate current pulses

to the thyristors. Figure 3.20 shows one phase of a TCSC where L is inductance and

C is capacitance; the transmission line current is assumed to be independent and is

modelled by a current source i = Im cos(o t) [3, 8].

If the thyristors are turned on at the instants of peaks of current i, the current

through the TCR is zero. In order to vary the effective reactance of the TCSC, the

gate current pulses to the thyristors are advanced by an angle with respect to the

instants of peaks of current i; 0 /2. The equations governing the circuit,

when the TCR conducts, are

iT C R

Im cos o t

dv

=

+

dt

C

C

di T C R

v

=

dt

L

(3.88)

(3.89)

attains the peak value and the instant of zero crossing of v are the same as the instant

at which i attains the peak value. The steady-state solution of (3.88) and (3.89), in

the interval o t , is given by the following two equations:

v=

Im X C

2

sin(o t + ) sin(o t)

sin(o t + + ) + sin(o t)

+

+1

1

+v() cos(o t + )

Im cos(o t) cos(o t + + )

iT C R =

2

+1

+

C

cos(o t) cos(o t + )

v() sin(o t + )

+

1

L

(3.90)

(3.91)

where 1/(o LC) and X C 1/(o C). Substituting v(0) = 0 in (3.90) gives

v() =

Im X C

[sin cos tan()]

2 1

(3.92)

96

cos sin(o t)

Im X C

sin(o t) +

v= 2

1

cos()

(3.93)

dv

Im cos(o t)

=

dt

C

(3.94)

v=

Im X C

[ cos tan() sin ] + Im X C [sin(o t) sin ]

2 1

(3.95)

V1m

4

=

/4

v sin(o t)d(o t)

(3.96)

V1m

2 2 X C

1 2 + 1

2 cos2 tan()

X T C SC =

= XC +

2

sin(2) +

Im

2 1

2 1

2 1

(3.97)

X T C SC is positive when it is capacitive and negative when it is inductive. Parallel

resonance occurs at certain values of , denoted by r es . X T C SC as

r es = (2k + 1)/(2), k = 0, 1, 2, . . . Since 0 /2, there is only one value

of r es if < 3. Typically, < 3 [3, 8], and hence, r es = /(2). Figure 3.21

shows the variation of X T C SC with .

The primary purpose of TCSC is to increase the power flow in a transmission line.

Since the reactance of TCSC can be varied, it can be controlled in order to regulate

the power flow in the transmission line. Normally, X T C SC is capacitive. Operation

near resonance results in a large voltage across the TCSC. To limit the voltage across

TCSC, 0 max where max < r es . At = 0, X T C SC = X C , and at

= max , X T C SC = X max .

The most basic type of control is open-loop control where is decided based on the

desired TCSC reactance X r e f . The other type of control is closed-loop control. One

type of closed-loop control is the constant current (CC) control [3, 8]. In CC control,

3.3 FACTS

97

TCSC

reactance as a function of

angle

TCSC

10

20

30

40

50

(degree)

60

70

80

90

X max

Iref

Regulator

Xref

XC

characteristic of TCSC with

CC controller

TCSC

=X

I ref

X TCSC =X max

the magnitude of the current in the transmission line is regulated. The block diagram

of CC controller is shown in Fig. 3.22. I is the magnitude of the current through

TCSC as defined in Sect. 2.3.1, and Ir e f is the desired value of I . The regulator is

typically a proportionalintegral controller; the proportional and integral gains are

98

P

S1

ea

eb

S3

D5

vd

ib

ec

D3 S 5

ia

n

D1

Rp

ic

S4

D4

S6

D6 S 2

D2

N

is the magnitude of voltage across TCSC as defined in Sect. 2.3.1. In steady state, if

the harmonic components are neglected, V and I are related by V = X T C SC I .

3.3.3 VSC

A VSC employs controllable switches.

The circuit of a two-level VSC is shown in Fig. 3.24. The VSC consists of three

legs and a capacitor. The resistance R p in parallel with the capacitance C represents

the loss in the capacitor. Each leg has two bidirectional switches. A bidirectional

switch consists of a controllable switch and a diode connected in antiparallel. The

bidirectional switch consisting of S1 and D1 is called switch 1. Similarly, the other

five bidirectional switches are called switches 2 to 6. A bidirectional switch is said to

be on if the controllable switch or the diode conducts. At any instant, in each leg, one

bidirectional switch is on and one bidirectional switch is off. The DC-side voltage

vd is always positive. The possible states of one of the legs are shown in Table 3.4.

va N is the voltage of terminal a with respect to the DC-side negative terminal N . The

circuit on the AC side is represented by a three-phase balanced voltage source with

a resistance R and an inductance L in each phase. The currents i a , i b , and i c flow

3.3 FACTS

99

Controllable switch with control Controllable switch with control va N

signal to turn on

signal to turn off

ia > 0 ia < 0

S1

S4

D1

S4

S4

S1

vd

0

S1

D4

through inductances and hence can vary only at a finite rate. If D1 is conducting and

a control signal is given to turn on S4 , then S4 starts conducting and the capacitor

voltage reverse-biases D1 ; if S1 is conducting and it is turned off, then D4 starts

conducting. Similarly, if D4 is conducting and a control signal is given to turn on

S1 , then S1 starts conducting and the capacitor voltage reverse-biases D4 ; if S4 is

conducting and it is turned off, then D1 starts conducting.

The adjective two-level means that for a given DC-side voltage, the number

of possible values of the voltage of an AC-side terminal with respect to a DC-side

terminal is two. For example, va N is equal to either vd or 0.

Let van , vbn , and vcn be the voltages of the terminals a, b, and c, respectively,

with respect to the neutral n of the AC side. Let vbN and vcN be the voltages of the

terminals b and c, respectively, with respect to the terminal N . Let v N n be the voltage

of N with respect to n.

van = va N + v N n

vbn = vbN + v N n

(3.98)

(3.99)

vcn = vcN + v N n

(3.100)

The switches are turned on and off such that the fundamental components of

AC-side currents i a , i b , and i c are equal in magnitude and displaced by 120 . The

triplen harmonic components of these currents are zero. For any other harmonic

order, the harmonic components of the three currents are equal in magnitude and

displaced by 120 . Hence, the drops across the series combination of R and L in the

three phases add to zero. Therefore, since the AC-side source voltages, ea , eb , and

ec are balanced,

van + vbn + vcn = 0

(3.101)

1

v N n = (va N + vbN + vcN )

3

(3.102)

va N

van

vbn = 1/3 2/3 1/3 vbN

1/3 1/3 2/3

vcn

vcN

(3.103)

100

The voltages va N , vbN , and vcN can be written in terms of switching functions u a ,

u b , and u c .

va N

ua

vbN = u b vd

(3.104)

vcN

uc

where u a = 1 if switch 1 is on and u a = 0 if switch 4 in on, u b = 1 if switch 3 is on

and u b = 0 if switch 6 in on, and u c = 1 if switch 5 is on and u c = 0 if switch 2 in

on. From (3.103) and (3.104),

sa

van

vbn = sb vd

vcn

sc

(3.105)

sa

2/3 1/3 1/3

ua

sb 1/3 2/3 1/3 u b

1/3 1/3 2/3

sc

uc

(3.106)

where

The switching of the GTO thyristor is slow. If GTO thyristors are used as

controllable switches, in order to minimize the switching losses, each GTO thyristor

is turned on and off only once in a cycle [3]. The plots of u a , u b , and u c are shown in

Fig. 3.25; the plots of sa , sb , and sc are shown in Fig. 3.26. With this switching, for

a given constant vd , the magnitude of the fundamental component of van , vbn , and

vcn is fixed. If vd is constant, the harmonic components present in van , vbn , and vcn

are of order h = 6k 1, k = 1, 2, 3, . . .

If IGBT is used as the controllable switch, the switching frequency can be

increased. Then, the magnitude of the fundamental component of the voltages van ,

vbn , and vcn can be varied for a given constant vd using the switching function u a

shown in Fig. 3.27 instead of u a . This switching function has a notch in both positive and negative half cycles and possesses quarter-wave symmetry. In addition to

controlling the magnitude of the fundamental component, some harmonic components can be eliminated by introducing more notches in the switching function. For

example, using the switching function u a shown in Fig. 3.28 which has two notches

in both positive and negative half cycles, a harmonic component can be eliminated

in addition to controlling the magnitude of the fundamental component; there are

two degrees of freedom, namely and . u a should possess quarter-wave symmetry.

This type of switching is called selective harmonic elimination.

3.3 FACTS

101

ua

+180

o t (degree)

+360

ub

0

+120

+480

+300

o t (degree)

uc

0

+60

+240

o t (degree)

+420

Diode-clamped converter is a type of multi-level VSC. Figure 3.29 shows the circuit

diagram of a three-level diode-clamped converter. In addition to the bidirectional

switches, there are six diodes Dc1 to Dc6 which are called clamping diodes. The

resistances R p in parallel with the capacitances C represent the loss in the capacitors.

102

2/3

sa

1/3

0

1/3

2/3

+180

+360

ot (degree)

2/3

1/3

0

1/3

2/3

+120

+300

+480

ot (degree)

2/3

1/3

0

1/3

2/3

+60

+240

+420

ot (degree)

It is assumed that vd1 vd2 vd /2. vd is always positive. For each leg, there are

three possible states. The possible states of one of the legs are shown in Table 3.5.

vam is the voltage of the terminal a with respect to the midpoint m of the DC side.

Let van , vbn , and vcn be the voltages of the terminals a, b, and c, respectively,

with respect to the neutral n of the AC side. Let vbm and vcm be the voltages of the

terminals b and c, respectively, with respect to the midpoint m of the DC side. vam ,

vbm , and vcm can be written in terms of switching functions u 3a , u 3b , and u 3c .

3.3 FACTS

103

function u a

ua

2+180

function u a

+180

2+360

+180

o t (degree)

+360

+180

o t (degree)

+360

u"

vam = u 3a vd

(3.107)

vbm = u 3b vd

vcm = u 3c vd

(3.108)

(3.109)

where u 3a , u 3b , and u 3c are equal to 1/2, 1/2, or 0, depending on the status of the

switches. For a given value of vd , the number of possible values of vam , vbm , and

vcm is three; hence, this VSC is called three-level VSC. Similar to the derivation of

(3.103), it can be shown that

vam

van

vbn = 1/3 2/3 1/3 vbm

1/3 1/3 2/3

vcn

vcm

(3.110)

104

S1

D1

S1

D1

Dc1 S3

D3

D5

Dc3 S 5

Dc5

vd 1

ea

eb

S5

D5

Rp

ib

ec

D3

ia

n

S3

+

C

ic

S4

D4

S6

D6

S2

D2

vd 2

S4

D4

Dc4 S6

D6

Dc6 S2

D2

Dc2

+

C

Rp

Table 3.5 Possible states of a leg of the three-level diode-clamped VSC

Controllable switches with control Controllable switches with vam

signal to turn on

control signal to turn off

S1 , S1

S4 , S4

S1 , S4

S4 , S4

S1 , S1

S1 , S4

ia > 0 ia < 0

vd /2

D1 , D1

vd /2 S4 , S4

0

S4 , Dc4

S1 , S1

D4 , D4

Dc1 , S1

If GTO thyristors are used as controllable switches, each GTO thyristor is turned

on and off only once in a cycle and u 3a is as shown in Fig. 3.30. u 3a possesses

quarter-wave symmetry. The magnitude of the fundamental component of van , vbn ,

and vcn is controlled by varying . If vd is constant, the harmonic components present

in van , vbn , and vcn are of order h = 6k 1, k = 1, 2, 3, . . . If IGBT is used as the

controllable switch, in addition to controlling the magnitude of the fundamental component, some harmonic components can be eliminated by increasing the switching

frequency.

The VSCs described in Sects. 3.3.3.1 and 3.3.3.2 are called six-pulse VSCs. A multipulse VSC is used to reduce the harmonic content in the AC-side voltages. The circuit

diagram of the 12-pulse VSC, which is a multi-pulse VSC, is shown in Fig. 3.31 [3].

3.3 FACTS

105

functions u 3a

u3a

0.5

0.5

+180

o t (degree)

+360

k = 1, 2, 3, . . . for the harmonic components. Let Vah , Vbh , and Vch be the voltages

, V , and

of terminals a, b, and c, respectively, with respect to the neutral. Let Vah

bh

Vch be the voltages of terminals a , b , and c , respectively, with respect to the neutral.

The control signals to the controllable switches of the two six-pulse VSCs are given

such that

Va1 = V1 0, Vb1 = V1 (120 ), Vc1 = V1 120

(3.111)

Va1

= V1 (30 ), Vb1

= V1 (150 ), Vc1

= V1 90

(3.112)

The general expressions for the voltage phasors applicable to both the fundamental

component and the harmonic components are

Vah = Vh 0, Vbh = Vh (120 h), Vch = Vh (120 h)

Vah

= Vh (30 h),

Vbh

= Vh (150 h),

Vch

(3.113)

= Vh (90 h)

(3.114)

If the transformer is assumed to be ideal, from Fig. 3.31, the emfs in the transformer

windings are given by

Vbh

, V Bh = Vbh

Vch

, VCh = Vch

Vah

V Ah = Vah

1

1

1

= VCh

VAh = V Ah , VBh = V Bh , VCh

3

3

3

(3.115)

(3.116)

The voltages at the terminals a , b , and c with respect to the neutral are

Vah

= VAh + Vah

2V1 0 if h = 1

= 2Vh 0 if h = 6k 1, k = 2, 4, 6, . . .

0 if h = 6k 1, k = 1, 3, 5, . . .

(3.117)

106

a

Six-pulse

VSC 1

b

c

a

Six-pulse

VSC 2

b

c

VBh

+

3N

VAh +

VCh

+ N

VCh

VAh +

c

a

b

VBh

+

Vbh

= VBh + Vbh

= VCh

+ Vch

Vch

2V1 (120 ) if h = 1

= 2Vh (120 ) if h = 6k 1, k = 2, 4, 6, . . . (3.118)

0 if h = 6k 1, k = 1, 3, 5, . . .

2V1 120 if h = 1

= 2Vh (120 ) if h = 6k 1, k = 2, 4, 6, . . . (3.119)

0 if h = 6k 1, k = 1, 3, 5, . . .

Therefore, the order of the harmonic components in the AC-side voltages of the

12-pulse VSC is h = 12k 1, k = 1, 2, 3, . . .

The concept of harmonic cancellation can be generalized. The schematic diagram

of a general multi-pulse VSC is shown in Fig. 3.32. It consists of n identical sixpulse VSCs which are connected in parallel on the DC side and in series on the AC

side through transformers. Each transformer has three windings in each phase. One

winding is wye-connected, and the other two windings are connected in zigzag. The

wye-connected winding is connected to the VSC. The circuit diagram of transformer

i is shown in Fig. 3.33. The subscript h is equal to 1 for the fundamental component

and is equal to 6k 1, k = 1, 2, 3, . . . for the harmonic components.

The control signals to the controllable switches of the six-pulse VSCs are given

such that the fundamental components of the voltages, with respect to the neutral, at

the AC-side terminals of (i + 1)th VSC are V1 (60 i/n), V1 (60 i/n 120 ),

and V1 (60 i/n + 120 ), i = 0, 1, 2, . . . n 1 [9]. For i = 1, 2, 3, . . . n 1, the

voltages at the terminals of the (i + 1)th VSC are nothing but the voltages across the

wye-connected winding of transformer i shown in Fig. 3.33. Therefore,

3.3 FACTS

107

Six-pulse

VSC 1

Six-pulse

VSC 2

Transformer 1

Six-pulse

VSC n

Transformer n1

Viah +

Ni 2

+

N

Vich

+

Ni1

Vich

+

Viah

Viah +

Ni1

N

N

Vibh

Ni2

Ni1

Vibh

Vibh

+

+

N i2

Vich

Vib1 = V1 (60 i/n 120 )

(3.120)

(3.121)

(3.122)

If it is assumed that the transformers are ideal, the other voltages shown in Fig. 3.33

are given by

108

Ni1

Ni1

Ni1

Viah , Vibh

Vibh , Vich

Vich

=

=

N

N

N

Ni2

Ni2

Ni2

Viah , Vibh

Vibh , Vich

Vich

=

=

=

N

N

N

Viah

=

(3.123)

Viah

(3.124)

The transformers provide a phase shift such that the fundamental component of the

voltage in zigzag winding is equal to the VSC 1 voltage both in magnitude and in

phase. This condition is given by the following equations:

Via1

Vib1

= V1 0

(3.125)

(3.126)

Vic1

Via1

= V1 120

(3.127)

Ni1

Ni2

V1 (60 i/n)

V1 (60 i/n 120 ) = V1 0,

N

N

i = 1, 2, . . . n 1

(3.128)

60 i

1

Ni1

60 i

= cos

sin

N

n

n

3

Ni2

2

60 i

= sin

N

n

3

(3.129)

(3.130)

The zigzag windings are connected in series; the series-connected windings are connected to VSC 1 such

component of the resultant

n1that the hth-order harmonic

voltage in phase a is i=0

[(Ni1 /N )Vh (60 i h/n) (Ni2 /N )Vh (60 i h/n

120 h)], where N01 N and N02 0. Substituting h = 6k 1, k =

1, 2, 3, . . . gives

n1

Ni1

i=0

Ni2

Vh (60 i h/n)

Vh (60 i h/n 120 h)

N

N

0 if h = 6k 1 and k is not a multiple of n

(3.131)

The VSC shown in Fig. 3.32 is called 6n-pulse VSC; for example, n = 3 for the

18-pulse VSC. The diagram of 18-pulse VSC is shown in Fig. 3.34.

3.3.3.4 Quasi Multi-Pulse VSC

The transformer requirement of a multi-pulse VSC is complicated. An alternative

to multi-pulse VSC is a quasi multi-pulse VSC which consists of only wye- or

3.3 FACTS

109

Six-pulse

VSC 1

Six-pulse

VSC 2

Six-pulse

VSC 3

a 12-pulse VSC shown in Fig. 3.35. This circuit is different from the one shown in

Fig. 3.31.

Equations (3.113)(3.116) are applicable to the circuit shown in Fig. 3.35. The

voltage of terminal A with respect to terminal A is

VAh

+ Vah =

2Vh 0 if h = 1 or h = 6k 1, k = 2, 4, 6, . . .

(3.132)

0 if h = 6k 1, k = 1, 3, 5, . . .

Similarly, expressions can be written for voltages of terminals B and C with respect

to terminals B and C , respectively. The order of the harmonic components in the

AC-side voltages is h = 12k 1, k = 1, 2, 3, . . .

A quasi multi-pulse VSC is obtained by connecting 12-pulse VSCs in parallel on

the DC side and in series on the AC side. The schematic diagram of a general quasi

multi-pulse VSC is shown in Fig. 3.36. This VSC is called quasi 12n-pulse VSC.

For example, n = 2 for the quasi 24-pulse VSC.

The control signals are given such that the phase angle of the fundamental component of the AC-side voltage of the ith 12-pulse VSC is 30 (i 1)/n. Let Vh(12)

110

B

A

C

a

Six-pulse

VSC 1

+

N

Vch

c

N

+

+

N

Vch

b

c

VBh

+

Vbh

Vbh

N

+

a

Six-pulse

VSC 2

Vah +

Vah +

+

VCh

3N

+

N

VCh

C

A

B

VBh

N

VAh +

VAh +

Fig. 3.36 Quasi multi-pulse

VSC

AC

DC

12-pulse VSC 1

12-pulse VSC 2

12-pulse VSC n

be the rms value of the voltage in each phase of a 12-pulse VSC, where h is equal

to 1 for the fundamental component and 12k 1, k = 1, 2, 3, . . . for the harmonic

components. The rms value of the voltage in each phase of the quasi multi-pulse

VSC is

3.3 FACTS

111

(12)

for different values of n and h

Table 3.6 Value of Vh / nVh

n=2

n=3

n=4

h=1

h = 11

h = 13

h = 23

h = 25

h = 35

h = 37

h = 47

h = 49

0.9914

0.9899

0.9893

0.1305

0.1053

0.0981

0.1305

0.0952

0.0861

0.9914

0.0952

0.0648

0.9914

0.1053

0.0648

0.1305

0.9899

0.0861

0.1305

0.9899

0.0981

0.9914

0.1053

0.9893

0.9914

0.0952

0.9893

Vh =

(12)

Vh

2 3

2 2 cos(30 h/n)

(3.133)

(12)

The value of Vh /(nVh ) for different values of n and h are given in Table 3.6. The

AC-side voltage of a quasi multi-pulse VSC has harmonic components of all order

which are present in a 12-pulse VSC. Though there is no elimination of harmonic

components, the magnitudes of the harmonic components are reduced.

There are two types of VSC depending on whether, for a given constant DC-side

voltage, the magnitude of the fundamental component of the AC-side voltages can be

controlled or not [3]: type 1 VSC and type 2 VSC. The magnitude of the fundamental

component of the AC-side voltages can be controlled in type 1 VSC for any given DC

voltage. In a type 2 VSC, the magnitude of the fundamental component of AC-side

voltages can be controlled only by changing the DC voltage. A two-level VSC is a

type 2 VSC if all controllable switches are turned on and turned off only once in a

cycle. A three-level VSC is an example of type 1 VSC.

3.3.4 STATCOM

A STATCOM is a shunt FACTS controller connected at a bus. The schematic diagram

of STATCOM is shown in Fig. 3.37.

STATCOM is mainly used to regulate voltage by generating or absorbing reactive

power. The reactive power is varied by varying the magnitude of the converter voltage.

If losses in the converter are neglected, and the transformer does not introduce a

phase shift, the fundamental component of the converter voltage and the fundamental

component of STATCOM bus voltage are in phase. In a STATCOM with type 2 VSC,

the converter voltage magnitude is altered by varying the DC voltage; the DC voltage

is varied by drawing/supplying active power from/to the network at the STATCOM

bus. Figure 3.38 shows the controller for STATCOM with type 2 VSC [3]. It consists

of two control loops: the outer voltage control loop and the inner reactive current

control loop. The voltage control loop is similar to the one shown in Fig. 3.18. V is

112

VSC

iRmax

Vref

i Rref +

Voltage

regulator

iRmin

Xs

iR

Reactive

current

controller

iR

+

V

the magnitude of the STATCOM bus voltage, and i R is the reactive current drawn by

STATCOM. Vr e f and i Rr e f are the desired values of V and i R , respectively. X s is

positive. In steady state, is the angle by which the fundamental component of the

converter voltage leads the fundamental component of the STATCOM bus voltage;

if losses are neglected, = 0. In general (in steady state and during a transient),

decides the instant of switching on/off of the controllable switches. Change in

changes the amount of active power drawn/supplied by STATCOM, thereby changing

the DC voltage. The voltage regulator and reactive current controller are typically

proportionalintegral controllers. The proportional and integral gains of the voltage

regulator are negative, and the proportional and integral gains of the reactive current

controller are positive.

3.3.5 SSSC

A SSSC is connected in series with a transmission line. The schematic diagram of

SSSC is shown in Fig. 3.39. The three-phase winding of the transformer connected

to the VSC is wye- or delta-connected; the other three windings are connected in

series with the transmission line.

3.3 FACTS

113

VSC

vd

vRref

1/ k

Absolute

vdref

Sign

DC voltage

regulator

+

90

SSSC generates or absorbs reactive power. The reactive power is varied by varying

the magnitude of the converter voltage. If the losses in the VSC and the transformer

are neglected, the fundamental component of the voltage injected by SSSC lags or

leads the transmission line current by 90 . Figure 3.40 shows a part of the controller

for SSSC with type 2 VSC [3]. The output of the Absolute block is the absolute

value of its input. The output of the Sign block is 1 if its input is positive and 1 if

its input is negative. The controller consists of two control loops. The outer control

loop consists of a controller, for example CC controller shown in Fig. 3.22, which

generates v Rr e f (instead of X r e f ). v R and vd are the reactive voltage injected by

SSSC and the DC-side voltage, respectively, v Rr e f and vdr e f are the desired values

of v R and vd , respectively. In steady state, if vd is assumed to be constant, the reactive

voltage injected by SSSC is v R kvd , where k is a constant which includes the effect

of transformer also. In steady state, is the phase angle by which the fundamental

component of the voltage injected by SSSC leads the fundamental component of

the transmission line current; the polarity of the voltage and the direction of current

are as shown in Fig. 3.40. In the inner control loop, the reactive voltage is regulated

indirectly; change in changes the amount of real power drawn by SSSC, thereby

changing the DC voltage. The DC voltage regulator is typically a proportional

integral controller; the proportional and integral gains are positive. In steady state, if

losses are neglected, = 90 . In general (in steady state and during a transient),

decides the instant of switching on/off of the controllable switches.

114

of UPFC

VSC

VSC

of IPFC

VSC

VSC

STATCOM and SSSC generate or absorb reactive power which can be controlled;

in other words, these FACTS controllers have one degree of freedom. If two such

VSC-based FACTS controllers are at the same location, then there can be three

degrees of freedom if the two FACTS controllers are connected in parallel on the

DC side, resulting in a multi-converter FACTS controller [1, 3]. The third degree of

freedom is amount of power flow via the DC link. If the losses are neglected, the net

active power drawn by the multi-converter FACTS controller is zero. Figures 3.41

and 3.42 show the schematic diagrams of multi-converter FACTS controllers: UPFC

and IPFC. UPFC has a VSC connected in shunt through a transformer and a VSC

connected in series through a transformer. IPFC has both VSCs connected in series

through transformers.

References

1. N.G. Hingorani, L. Gyugyi, Understanding FACTS: Concepts and Technology of Flexible AC

Transmission Systems (IEEE Press, New York, 2000)

2. N. Mohan, T.M. Undeland, W.P. Robbins, Power Electronics: Converters, Applications, and

Design, 2nd edn. (Wiley, New York, 1995)

3. K.R. Padiyar, FACTS Controllers in Power Transmission and Distribution (New Age International, New Delhi, 2007)

4. K.R. Padiyar, HVDC Power Transmission Systems, 2nd edn. (New Age International, New Delhi,

2010)

References

5.

6.

7.

8.

115

J. Vithayathil, Power Electronics: Principles and Applications (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1995)

P. Kundur, Power System Stability and Control (Tata McGraw-Hill, Noida, 1994)

R.M. Mathur, R.K. Varma, Thyristor-Based FACTS Controllers for Electrical Transmission

Systems (IEEE Press, New York, 2002)

9. G. Joos, Power Electronics: Fundamentals, ed. by Y.H. Song, A.T. Johns Flexible AC Transmission Systems (FACTS), (IEE, London, 1999)

Chapter 4

4.1.1 Steam Turbine

A steam turbine has two or more turbine sections. Figure 4.1 gives the model of

one type of steam turbine known as tandem compound single reheat turbine [1, 2]

which has three turbine sections: high pressure (HP), intermediate pressure (IP), and

low pressure (LP) turbine sections. Y is valve position; 0 Y 1. TCH is the time

constant of the steam chest and the inlet piping. TRH is the reheater time constant and

TCO is the time constant of the crossover piping. FHP , FIP , and FLP are the fractions

of the total power generated by HP, IP, and LP turbine sections, respectively. THP , TIP ,

and TLP are the torques generated by HP, IP, and LP turbine sections, respectively.

Tmax is the maximum total mechanical torque.

The per unit mechanical torque generated by the turbine driving the equivalent

synchronous generator with two field poles is

Tm 2Tmax

T m =

Tmax pf TB

(4.1)

Figure 4.2 gives the model of the hydraulic turbine [1, 2]. Pm is the mechanical

power, G is the gate position, and Tw is the water starting time. Pmo and Go are the

initial values of Pm and G, respectively. G = Go + G and 0 G 1.

The per unit mechanical torque generated by the turbine driving the equivalent

synchronous generator with two field poles is

SpringerBriefs in Electrical and Computer Engineering,

DOI: 10.1007/978-81-322-1847-0_4, The Author(s) 2014

117

118

+

THP

Tmax

TIP

Tmax

1

1+ sTCH

Tm

Tmax

FIP

FHP

TLP

Tmax

FLP

1

1+ sTCO

1

1+ sTRH

Pmo 1 Tw s

Go 1+0.5 Tw s

Pm

HP turbine

section

IP turbine

section

LP turbine

section

Synchronous

generator

rotor

1

Pmo + Pm

T m =

TB

(4.2)

A steam turbine is made up of turbine sections connected by shafts of finite stiffness. Figure 4.3 shows the structure of a synchronous generator driven by a tandem

compound single reheat turbine. Each turbine section and the synchronous generator

rotor can be represented by a mass. Masses 2, 3, and 4 in Fig. 4.3 represent LP, IP,

and HP turbine sections, respectively, mass 1 represents the synchronous generator

rotor.

Let the torques generated by LP, IP, and HP turbine sections, driving the equivalent

, T , and T , respectively. The

synchronous generator with two field poles, be TLP

IP

HP

equations governing the torsional dynamics are [1, 2]

d1

= 1 o

dt

d2

= 2 o

dt

d3

= 3 o

dt

(4.3)

(4.4)

(4.5)

119

d4

= 4 o

dt

1

d1

= K12 (2 1 ) Te

dt

J1

d2

1

= TLP + K23 (3 2 ) K12 (2 1 )

dt

J2

1

d3

= TIP

+ K34 (3 4 ) K23 (3 2 )

dt

J3

d4

1

= THP

K34 (3 4 )

dt

J4

(4.6)

(4.7)

(4.8)

(4.9)

(4.10)

where i is the angular position of mass i in electrical radian with respect to a reference

rotating at speed o , i is the speed of mass i in electrical radian per second, Ji is

the moment of inertia of mass i, and Kij is the stiffness of the shaft between masses

i and j. In some studies, the stiffness of shafts are assumed to be large and hence

1 = 2 = 3 = 4 = and 1 = 2 = 3 = 4 = . Under such an assumption,

(4.3)(4.6) are equivalent to (1.132); similarly, (4.7)(4.10) are equivalent to (1.133),

where

J J1 + J2 + J3 + J4

(4.11)

Tm TLP

+ TIP

+ THP

(4.12)

If equations in per unit quantities are required, (4.7)(4.10) are replaced by the

following equations.

d1

dt

B

d2

=

dt

2H2

B

d3

=

dt

2H3

d4

dt

B

K12 (2 1 ) T e

2H1

(4.13)

T LP + K 23 (3 2 ) K 12 (2 1 )

+ K 34 (3 4 ) K 23 (3 2 )

T IP

B

THP K 34 (3 4 )

2H4

(4.14)

(4.15)

(4.16)

where Hi Ji B2 /(2SB ).

A governor is used to regulate the frequency/speed. The governor adjusts the turbine

valve/gate to change the mechanical power/torque. Figure 4.4 shows a governor for

the steam turbine, which is an integral controller; K is positive. Y is the change in

120

governor

K

s

K

s

B

R

and load reference setpoint

K

s

Y

+

B

R

Load

reference

setpoint

valve position. This governor is called an isochronous governor since it tries to bring

the frequency back to the nominal value. The steady-state or operating speed o is

equal to B .

Isochronous governor works satisfactorily when there is a single synchronous

generator in the system or when only one synchronous generator is required to

respond to changes in frequency. The isochronous governor cannot be used when

two or more synchronous generators in a system are required to respond to changes

in frequency. This is because, due to inevitable errors in the speed measurement,

which are different for different governors, a steady-state frequency would not be

reached. Therefore, a feedback loop with positive gain R is added as shown in Fig.

4.5 [2]; R is referred to as droop. In steady state,

1

Y = ( B )

R

(4.17)

If the value of R of different governors are nearly equal, then for a given change in

frequency, change in power output of the generators is nearly in proportion to the

rating. The relation between speed and valve position can be adjusted by changing

an input known as load reference setpoint which is added in the feedback loop of the

governor as shown in Fig. 4.6 [2]. Therefore, in steady state,

1

Y = ( B ) + Load reference setpoint

R

With this governor, the operating speed o is in general not equal to B .

(4.18)

121

RT

sT R

1+ sT R

K

s

G

+

Load

reference

setpoint

Exciter

transformer

Controlled

rectifier

Slip

ring

Synchronous generator

Field Armature

Potential

transformer

Voltage

regulator

Fig. 4.2,

Pm =

Pmo

(1 3e2t/Tw )G

Go

(4.19)

The initial change in turbine power is opposite to that sought. Therefore, the governor

for a hydraulic turbine is provided with a large temporary droop (RT ) with a long

reset time (TR ), as shown in Fig. 4.7 [2].

The excitation system provides voltage to the synchronous generator field winding. This voltage is varied in order to regulate the synchronous generator terminal

voltage. One type of excitation system which is prevalent nowadays is the static excitation system the schematic diagram of which is shown in Fig. 4.8 [2]. The exciter

transformer steps down the voltage.

122

excitation system

Efmax

Vref

Ef

Efmin

The delay angle of the controlled rectifier is set by the voltage regulator. Let

the magnitude of the voltage input to the controlled rectifier be V . Let it be assumed

that the field current is constant and that the input voltage to the controlled rectifier

is sinusoidal and balanced. If the instantaneous value of Ef is approximated by its

average value, then from (1.194) and (3.4),

3 2Mdf

V cos

Ef =

Rf

(4.20)

The voltage regulator is designed such that the static excitation system is represented

by the model shown in Fig. 4.9 where K is positive and

Ef max

3 2Mdf

3 2Mdf

=

V , Ef min =

V cos max

Rf

Rf

(4.21)

where max is the maximum value of . V is the magnitude of the voltage at the

generator terminals and Vref is the desired value of V .

The cosinusoidal dependence of Ef on is negated by the appropriate choice of

[3] given by

K(Vref V )

1 Rf

cos

3 2Mdf V

=

max

0

if K(Vref V ) < Ef min

if K(Vref V ) > Ef max

(4.22)

V ref V )

K(

Ef = E f min

Ef max

where K KVB /B .

if

if

if

V ref V ) E f max

E f min K(

V ref V ) > E f max

K(

(4.23)

References

123

References

1. K.R. Padiyar, Power System Dynamics: Stability and Control, 2nd edn. (BS Publications,

Hyderabad, 2002)

2. P. Kundur, Power System Stability and Control (Tata McGraw-Hill, Noida, 1994)

3. J. Machowski, J.W. Bialek, J.R. Bumby, Power System Dynamics: Stability and Control, 2nd

edn. (Wiley, New York, 2008)

Appendix A

Equations with Constant Coefficients

can be written as follows:

dy

= Ay + u

(A.1)

dx

where y is a n 1 vector, A is a n n matrix, x is the independent variable, and u

is a n 1 vector dependent on x.

i is said to be an eigenvalue of A if there exists a non zero n 1 vector vi such

that

(A.2)

Avi = i vi

vi is called a right eigenvector of A corresponding to the eigenvalue i . The n n

matrix A has n eigenvalues 1 , 2 , . . . n . For a real matrix A, if i is a complex eigenvalue of A and vi is a corresponding right eigenvector, then i is also an eigenvalue

of A and vi is a right eigenvector corresponding to i .

If the eigenvalues are distinct, then the solution of (A.1) is

y = Te

(xx0 )

y(x0 ) + T e

e T 1 u( )d

(A.3)

x0

T [ v1 v2

x

e 1

0

.

x

e

.

.

0

. . . vn ]

0 ... 0

e2 x . . . 0

.

.

.

.

.

.

0 . . . en x

SpringerBriefs in Electrical and Computer Engineering,

DOI: 10.1007/978-81-322-1847-0, The Author(s) 2014

(A.4)

(A.5)

125

Appendix B

Fourier Series

f (o t) =

a0

+

[ah cos(ho t) + bh sin(ho t)]

2

(B.1)

h=1

where

1

ah =

bh =

c+2

f (o t) cos(ho t)d(o t)

(B.2)

f (o t) sin(ho t)d(o t)

(B.3)

c+2

c

of f (o t). The rms value of

the hth-order harmonic component of f (o t) is (ah2 + bh2 )/2. The Fourier series

of f (o t) is also given by

f (o t) =

ch ejho t

(B.4)

f (o t)ejho t d(o t)

(B.5)

h=

where

ch =

1

2

c+2

a0

2

ah jbh

, h = 1, 2, 3, ...

ch =

2

c0 =

SpringerBriefs in Electrical and Computer Engineering,

DOI: 10.1007/978-81-322-1847-0, The Author(s) 2014

(B.6)

(B.7)

127

128

ch =

ah + jbh

, h = 1, 2, 3, ...

2

If f (o t) is an odd function, i.e., f (o t) = f (o t),

(B.8)

2|ch |.

ah = 0

2

f (o t) sin(ho t)d(o t)

bh =

0

(B.9)

(B.10)

2

bh = 0

ah =

f (o t) cos(ho t)d(o t)

(B.11)

(B.12)

0

ah = 2

bh = 2

if h = 0, 2, 4, ...

c+

f (o t) cos(ho t)d(o t) if h = 1, 3, 5, ...

(B.13)

if h = 2, 4, 6, ...

c+

f (o t) sin(ho t)d(o t) if h = 1, 3, 5, ...

(B.14)

symmetry and there exists a such that f (o t + ) = f (o t + ). If f (o t)

possesses quarter-wave symmetry, then for the function f (o t + ),

0 if h = 0, 2, 4, ...

ah = 4 /2

0

bh = 0

(B.15)

(B.16)

are equal.

The harmonic components of order 3 and its multiples are called triplen harmonic

components. The triplen harmonic components of f (o t), f (o t 2/3), and

f (o t + 2/3) are equal. Hence, the triplen harmonic component of f (o t) is

equal to one third of the triplen harmonic component of f (o t) + f (o t 2/3) +

f (o t + 2/3). Therefore, the triplen harmonic components are equal to zero if

f (o t) + f (o t 2/3) + f (o t + 2/3) = 0.

S Krishna is Assistant Professor of Electrical Engineering at Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai, India. He received B.E. degree from Bangalore University

in 1995 and M.E. and Ph.D. degrees from Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore, in

1999 and 2003, respectively. He worked with Kirloskar Electric, Bangalore, from

1995 to 1997 and M.S. Ramaiah Institute of Technology, Bangalore, from 2003 to

2008. His areas of research interest are power system dynamics and control. He is

an Associate Editor of SADHANA, a Journal of the Indian Academy of Sciences.

SpringerBriefs in Electrical and Computer Engineering,

DOI: 10.1007/978-81-322-1847-0, The Author(s) 2014

129

The brief provides a quick introduction to the dynamic modelling of power system

components. It gives a rigorous derivation of the model of different components

of the power system such as synchronous generator, transformer, transmission line,

FACTS, DC transmission system, excitation system, and speed governor. Models of

load and prime movers are also discussed. The brief can be used as a reference for

researchers working in the areas of power system dynamics, stability analysis, and

design of stability controllers. It can also serve as a text for a short course on power

system modelling or as a supplement for a senior undergraduate/graduate course on

power system stability.

SpringerBriefs in Electrical and Computer Engineering,

DOI: 10.1007/978-81-322-1847-0, The Author(s) 2014

131

Index

A

Active current, 67

Active power, 67, 68, 71

Active voltage, 67

Amperes law, 45, 52

Angle of advance, 77

B

Bergerons method, 62

Bidirectional switch, 98, 101

Bundled conductor, 53, 56

C

Characteristic impedance, 62, 63

Commutation angle, 78

Commutation margin angle, 77, 80

Composite conductor, 53, 58

Current magnitude, 67, 97

Current phase angle, 67

D

DC transmission system, 74

Delay angle, 76, 122

Diode, 73

Diode-clamped converter, 101

Distribution network, 71

Double circuit transmission line, 53, 56

E

Eigenvalue, 125

Eigenvector, 125

Equivalent circuit of transformer, 46, 47, 49

Even function, 128

Excitation system, 121

Extinction angle, 80

F

FACTS, 86

Fourier series, 127

Frequency, 66, 71

G

Gate turn off thyristor, 74, 100, 104

H

Half-wave symmetry, 79, 128

Hydraulic turbine, 117, 121

I

Ideal transformer, 45, 83, 89, 105, 107

Insulated gate bipolar transistor, 74, 100, 104

Interline power flow controller, 86, 114

K

Krons transformation, 65, 92

L

Line-commutated converter, 75

Linear differential equation, 125

Load, 71

SpringerBriefs in Electrical and Computer Engineering,

DOI: 10.1007/978-81-322-1847-0, The Author(s) 2014

133

134

M

Multi-converter FACTS, 114

Index

steady-state characteristic, 94

Steam turbine, 117119

Stranded conductor, 53, 56

Subtransmission network, 71

N

Nominal circuit of transmission line, 64

O

Odd function, 128

Overlap angle, 78

P

Periodic function, 127

Phase velocity, 62

Power semiconductor device, 73, 86

Prime mover, 117

Propagation constant, 63

Q

Quarter-wave symmetry, 95, 100, 104, 128

R

Reactive current, 67, 92, 112

Reactive power, 67, 71

Reactive voltage, 67, 113

S

Selective harmonic elimination, 100

Series FACTS controller, 86, 94, 112

Shaft stiffness, 118

Shunt FACTS controller, 86, 111

Speed governor, 119

droop, 120

isochronous governor, 120

load reference setpoint, 120

Static excitation system, 121

Static synchronous compensator, 86, 111

Static synchronous series compensator, 86, 112

Static var compensator, 86

controller, 91

T

Tandem compound single reheat turbine, 117,

118

Three-phase transformer, 47

Three-winding transformer, 46, 89, 106

Thyristor, 73, 75, 86, 95

Thyristor-controlled reactor, 86, 94

Thyristor-controlled series capacitor, 86, 94

constant current control, 96

reactance, 96

resonance, 96

steady-state characteristic, 98

Torsional dynamics, 118

Transmission line, 50

capacitance, 56

effect of earth on capacitance, 59

inductance, 50

lossless transmission line, 62

model, 60

Triplen harmonic component, 88, 99, 128

U

Unified power flow controller, 86, 114

V

Variable impedance-type FACTS, 86

Voltage magnitude, 66, 71, 93, 98, 112, 122

Voltage phase angle, 66

Voltage source converter, 86, 98

multi-pulse converter, 104

quasi multi-pulse converter, 108

three-level converter, 101, 111

two-level converter, 98, 111

type 1 converter, 111

type 2 converter, 111, 113

Voltage source converter (VSC)-based FACTS,

86, 114

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