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KJC326

Chapter Four
CONCRETE WORK
4.1

CONCRETE

Concrete is the most important material in construction because its cost is very cheap
and easily obtained compare to other materials.

The following tables show the

appropriate unit of measurement for those items included in the above section of work.
Reference should be made to the Standard Method of measurement (Clauses 5278) for
more detailed information on the preparation of bill of quantities as shown below :
Table 4.1 : Concrete-Method Of Measurement
Item
Mass concrete }
Reinforced concrete }
Prestressed }

Reinforced concrete not


exceeding 300 mm thick

Unit

Remarks
Separate items are to be provided for
(i) Different quantities of concrete
(ii) Beams, columns, slabs, etc.
(iii) Concrete 300 mm thick or less.
Thickness to be stated.

cu m

sq m or cu m

Precast concrete (e.g.


beams, columns, etc.)

lin m, cu m or No.

Precast concrete (e.g.


pavings, landings etc).

Sq m

Thickness to be stated

Thickness to be stated

Precast prestressed
concrete

Separate items are to be provided for


units of differing cross-sections and
lengths
Includes the cost of the moulds

Factory-made pretensioned members

lin m, cu m or No.

Include supply, delivery and steel

Site-made pre-tensioned
members

lin m, cu m or No.

Steel to be measured separately

Post-tensioned members

lin m, cu m or No.

Includes supply and delivery

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KJC326

Item
Assembly and posttensioning of posttensioned members
Erection of pre-tensioned
members and assembly of
post-tensioned members
Concrete blockwork (e.g.
quay walls, breakwaters,
etc)

Unit

Remarks

no. of assemblies

No.

Steel measured separately

Includes jointing

Cu m

Size and weight of the blocks are to


be stated.
Only the area of the concrete, which
requires support during the
deposition of the concrete, is to be
measured.

Shuttering

Rough and wrought shuttering are to


be measured separately

Vertical, horizontal,
sloping,
curved, domical and other
types of work

sq m

Separate items are to be provided for


each

Shuttering 300 mm wide


or
under

lin m

Separate items are to be provided for


vertical, horizontal, sloping and
curved work

Fillets and splays, over 50


mm wide on the splay

lin m

Width to be stated

Forming holes for pipes,


etc.

No.

Diameter of hole to be stated.


No. Deduction to be made to
shuttering measurement.

Facework (e.g. granolithic


facing, etc.)
Steel
Rails or steel sections
Bar reinforcement

Sq m

Measurement extra over concrete.


Thickness to be stated.

Mg
Mg
Mg

Separate items for bars 25 mm


diameter and less, also bars 12 m in
length and upwards in steps of 1.5 m

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Item

Unit

Remarks

Fabric reinforcement
Steel wire or cable for
prestressing on site

sq m, Mg or lin m

Forming holes
Anchorage, including
fixing
tensioning

lin m, No.
No. of wires

Grouting of cables
Pneumatic mortar

lin m
sq m

Weight in kg per sq m to be stated

Includes ducts or sheathing

Thickness to be stated

Bringing plant to site and


removing on completion

Lump sum

Pre-tensioning on site
Tensioning, including
anchorage

No. of wires

Bedding and grouting


baseplates

sq m

Pockets for bolts and


grouting

No.

Separate items for pockets nor


exceeding 100 mm deep, 200 mm
deep, and 300 mm deep, thereafter
in steps of 300 mm.

The items for concrete include supply, placing in forms or shuttering vibrating and curing.
Shuttering is measured by the area of concrete, which requires support during setting.
The items for shuttering include supply and erection, including all necessary struts and
bearer, treatment before concreting and removal when the concrete has set.
The items for reinforcement includes supply, bending to the shapes shown on the
bending schedules and fixing the reinforcement in the works. Usually it is not possible to
give the precise quantities of reinforcement in the bill of quantities, as the detailed
drawings are not available when the bill is prepared and the quantities must be
estimated.

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KJC326

The weights of reinforcement for various components of a structure can be expressed as


the weight per unit volume of concrete, and these factors, as shown below, used for
estimating the weights of reinforcement.
Slabs

0.5 - 0.10 Mg per cu m

Main beams

0.25 - 0.35 Mg per cu m

Secondary beams

0.15 - 0.25 Mg per cu m

Columns

0.10 - 0. 37 Mg per cu m

Water retaining structures

0.08 Mg per cu m

When the total weight of reinforcement has been determined for a component it is
necessary to divide the total weight arbitrarily into separate weights for each diameter of
bar that is likely to be used.
Table 4.1.a : Anchorage (Hooks) And Bending Of Reinforcement
Types

Mild steel (R)

High tensile
steel (T or Y)

4.2

Anchorage (hooks)

Bends

H = 9d
N = 3d
d = diameter of bar
L = length

H = 5d
N = 3d
d = diameter of bar
L = length

Min. limit for hooks = H = 9d


Length of hooks = H + N = 12d
Example :
Total length of bar = L + 9d

Min. limit for bends = H = 5d


Length of bends
= H + N = 8d
Example :
Total length of bar = L + 5d

H = 11d
N = 4d
Min. limit for hooks = H = 11 d
Length of hooks = H + N = 15d

H = 5.5d
N = 4d
Min. limit for bends = H = 5.5d
Length of bends = H + N = 9.5d

WORK EXAMPLES
4/4

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Example 4.2.1

Mass Concrete Of Retaining Wall.

Prepare taking off sheet and bill of quantities for mass concrete retaining wall with 30 m
length as shown in Figure 4.2.1. (All measurement in mm)

1.8 m

Figure 4.2.1 : Plan View And Cross-Section Of Retaining Wall


The dimension sheet shall include
(i)

Concrete work :
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(a) Mass concrete for foundation and mass concrete for wall.
(b) Placing of concrete for foundation and placing of concrete for wall.
Concrete for wall thickness 500mm shall be separate from
concrete for wall thickness > 500mm.
(ii)

Ancillaries work which comprise of :


(a) Formwork for fair finishes and formwork for rough finishes.
(b) Inserts such as land drain, and ashes in continuous pocket.

MASS CONCRETE RETAINING WALL TAKE OFF SHEET


MASS CONCRETE RETAINING WALL

30.00
2.40
0.90

CONCRETE WORK
Mass Concrete
(1 : 21/2 : 5) concrete grade 7
- 20 mm aggregate for foundation
64.80

m3
(1 : 2 : 4) Concrete grade 15
- 20 mm aggregate for wall & piers

30.00
0.75
4.00

7/

0.75
0.30
4.00

Average width of wall


1.2
0.3 +
1.5
1.5/2 = 0.75
90.00
No. of piers
= 30/5 +1
=7
6.30
96.30

m3

Placing Of Concrete
Mass concrete for foundation
4/6

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30.00
2.40
0.90

(thickness exceeding 500 mm)


64.80

m3
Mass concrete for wall
thickness 300 mm - 500 mm & piers

30.00
0.40
0.89
7/

0.75
0.30
0.89

10.68

Average thickness of wall


0.3
0.5 +
0.8
0.8/2 = 0.40

1.40
12.08

m3
Mass concrete for wall
thickness exceeding 500 mm & piers
Average thickness of wall
0.5
1.2 +
1.7
1.7/2 = 0.85

7/

30.00
0.85
3.11

79.31

0.75
0.30
3.11

4.90
84.21

m3

Concrete Ancillaries
Formwork to fair finish
(sloping surface)
4/7

KJC326

Width = 4.0 0.9 4.1


2

30.00
4.10

123.00

m2
Formwork to rough finish

24.75
4.00

99.00

Vertical
Width of wall
30.00
7/0.75 = 5.25 less piers
24.75
2
m
Piers
Vertical width 0.4 1.22 m

0.75
4.00

21.00

m2
Piers
Vertical width 0.2 0.4 m

7/2/

0.30
4.00

16.80

m2
Inserts
100 clayware land drain fix in on rake

17/

1
24.75
0.60
0.45

17

30/1.8 = 16.7, say 17 unit


Ashes in continuous pocket behind wall

6.68

m3

MASS CONCRETE RETAINING WALL - BILL OF QUANTITIES


Item
No.

Description

Quantity
4/8

Unit

Rate

RM

KJC326

Mass Concrete
1

Concrete for foundation, mix grade C7.5

64.80

cu. m

Concrete for wall and piers, mix grade C 15

96.30

cu. m

64.80

cu. m

12.08

cu. m

84.21

cu. m

123.00

Sq. m

99.00

Sq. m

21.00

Sq. m

16.80

Sq. m

17.0

No

6.68

cu. m

Placing Concrete
3
4
5

Mass concrete for foundation


Mass concrete for wall & piers, thickness
300 mm - 500 mm
Mass concrete for wall & piers, thickness
exceeding 500 mm
Concrete Ancillaries

Formwork to fair finish

10

Formwork to rough finish, vertical width of


wall
Formwork to rough finish, piers vertical
width 0.4 1.22 m
Formwork to rough finish, piers vertical
width 0.2 0.4 m
Inserts, 100 mm clayware land drain

11

Ashes in continuous pocket behind wall

8
9

Total Bill

Example 4.2.2

Slab

4/9

RM

KJC326

Prepare taking off sheet and bill of for the slab shown in Figure 4.2.2 with the thickness
of slab 300 mm. The dimension sheet shall include concrete work (mass concrete for
slab) and reinforcement (bottom only).

Figure 4.2.2 : Plan View Of Slab


SLAB TAKE OFF SHEET
SLAB
Concrete Work
Mass concrete
4.3
3.5
0.3

4.52 m3
Reinforcement
Reinforcement
(bottom
Y direction)

Reinforcement
(bottom
X direction)

R12 -200

18/

4.37

R10 -100

Length = 4.300
Less (-) cover
2 / 0.025 = 0.050
4.250
Add
bend 2/5d =
2x5x0.012= 0.120
4.370

Length = 3.500
Less (-) cover
2 / 0.025 = 0.050
3.450
Add
bend 2/5d =
2x5x0.010= 0.100
3.550

Total length
required steel
(3500 25 25)
= 3450
No. of steel
3450/200 = 17.25
Say, 18
78.66 m, R12

Total length
required steel
(4300 25 25)
= 4250
No. of steel
4250/100 = 42.5
Say, 43
152.65 m, R10

SLAB - BILL OF QUANTITIES

4 / 10

43/

3.55

KJC326

Item
No.

Description

Quantity

Unit

4.52

cu. m

94.07

Kg

69.80

Kg

Rate

RM

Concrete Work
1

Mass concrete for slab, mix grade (to be


determine)
Reinforcement

2
3

R 10, 152.65m (3.14x0.0052x152.65x7850)


R 12, 78.66m (3.14x0.0062x78.66x7850)
3

(Density of steel bar, assume = 7850kg/m )


Total Bill

Example 4.2.3

RM

Beam

The following example illustrates the method of preparing a taking off sheet and BQ for
the reinforcement of the r.c beam (6 units) as shown in Figure 4.2.3.

Figure 4.2.3 GROUND BEAM


(Concrete cover = 25mm)

Figure 4.2.3 : Cross-Section Of Beam


BEAM - BILL OF QUANTITIES
Item
No.

Description

Quantity

Unit

Rate

Reinforcement
1
2
3

R 12, 33.60m (3.14x0.0062x33.60x7850)


R 18, 34.32m (3.14x0.0092x34.32x7850)
2

R 6, 101.52m (3.14x0.003 x101.52x7850)

29.82

Kg

68.52

Kg

22.52

Kg

(Density of steel bar, assume = 7850kg/m )


Total Bill
BEAM TAKE OFF SHEET
4 / 11

RM

RM

KJC326

BEAM

4 / 12

KJC326

Reinforcement

Stirrups

Reinforcement
(top)

375

2R12

125

Length = 2.600
Add (+) column
2/1/2/0.125
= 0.125
= 2.725
Less (-) cover
2 / 0.025= 0.050
2.675

Length = 0.375
Less (-) cover
2/0.025 = 0.050
0.325
Length = 0.125
Less (-) cover
2.0.025 = 0.050
0.075
0.325+0.075
= 0.400
2 / 0.400 = 0.800

Add
bend 2/5d
2x5x0.012
= 0.120
2.795
Say, 2.80
12mm dia. m.s
6/2/

2.80

add (+)
anchorage 24d
24x0.006= 0.144
0.944
Total length,
say, 0.94

33.60 33.60 m
Reinforc.
(bottom)

No. of stirrups
Length = 2.600
Less (-) column
2/1/0.125= 0.125
= 2.475

2R18

Length = 2.600
Add (+) column
2/1/2/0.125
= 0.125
= 2.725
Less (-) cover
2 / 0.025= 0.050
2.675
Add
bend 2/5d

(2475/150)+1
= 17.5
Say, 18
6 mm dia. m.s
stirrups
6/18
/

0.94

2x5x0.018
= 0.180
2.855
Say, 2.86
6/2/

2.86

Example 4.2.4

R6

34.32 34.32 m
Column And Foundation (Footing)

4 / 13

101.52 101.52 m

KJC326

Drawing no. 4.2.4 is the plan of footings and ground beams of a building. Drawing
no.4.2.4.a is the cross-section (Section Y-Y) for the footings. The drawings might not to
scale. From drawing no. 4.2.4 and 4.2.4.a, prepare the take off of quantities and BQ for:
(i)

Excavation work including 150 mm of top soil for footing only.

(ii)

Concrete work for stump (grade 1:2:4) and footing (grade 1:3:6).

(iii)

Formwork

(iv)

Reinforcement steel bar

Assumption:
1)
Reinforcement :
(i) Lapping of 40d for steel bar from footing to column.
(ii) Length of bending for reinforcement shall be 5.5d.
(iii) Length of hook for link shall be 24d.
2)
Cover of concrete : 30 mm for footing
25 mm for other members

4 / 14

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COLUMN AND FOUNDATION (FOOTING) TAKE OFF SHEET


4 / 15

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COLUMN AND FOUNDATION (FOOTING)

4 / 16

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EXCAVATION WORK
Excavation of 150 mm top soil
from existing level
2/

4/

2.00
2.00

8.00

1.50
1.50

9.00

17.00 m2
Excavation of trench depth
not exceeding 1.5 m

2/

4/

2/

4/

2.00
2.00
1.50
1.50
1.50
1.50

12.00

1.850
0.150 - topsoil
1.700
0.050 + Hardcore
1.750

13.50

25.50 m3
Excavation of trench depth
Exceeding 1.5 m but
not exceeding 3.0 m

2.00
2.00
0.25

2.00

1.50
1.50
0.25

2.25

4.25 m3

CONCRETE WORK
Concrete grade 1:3:6
4 / 17

KJC326

2/

4/

2.00
2.00
0.40

- 20 mm aggregate for footings


3.20

1.50
1.50
0.40

3.60

6.80 m3
Concrete grade 1:2:4
- 20 mm aggregate for stumps

4/

2/

0.20
0.20
1.20
0.25
0.25
1.20

0.19

1.850
0.250 - Ground beam
1.600
0.400 - Footing
1.200

0.15

0.34 m3
FORMWORK

4/4/

2/4/

4/4/

2/4/

Rough surface
formwork for footings

1.50
0.40

9.60

2.00
0.40

6.40

16.00 m2
Rough surface
formwork for side of stump

1.20
0.20

3.84

1.20
0.25

2.40

6.24 m2

REINFORCEMENT
Reinforcement For Footing
4 / 18

KJC326

Reinforcement for
Footing 2000x2000x400
Length of one steel bar
2.000
0.060 - cover 2/0.03
1.940
0.176 + bends 2/5.5d @ 2/5.5/0.016
2.116 2.12
2/2/7/

2.12

59.36

MR of Y16 steel bar


Reinforcement for
Footing 1500x1500x400
Length of one bar
1.500
0.060 - cover 2/0.03
1.440
0.176 + bends 2/5.5d @ 2/5.5/0.016
1.616 1.62

4/2/5/

1.62

64.80

MR of Y16 steel bar

Reinforcement For Stump


Reinforcement for stump 250x250
4 / 19

KJC326

Length of one bar


1.850
0.250 - less grd. level to grd beam
1.600
0.300+ depth of grd beam
1.900
0.030 cover
1.870
0.032 - Less 2Y16
1.838 (i)
0.088 + bend 5.5d (4Y16)
1.926
0.640 + Lap 40d
2.566 2.57
2/4/

2.57

20.56

MR of Y16 steel bar


Mild steel link for stump 250x250
Length of one link
0.250
0.050 - cover 2/0.025
0.200
4/0.200 = 0.800
0.144 + hook 24d
0.944
Distance that require link
1.838 (Length of steel bar from (i))
0.300 - Ground beam
1.538
No. of links = 1.538/0.200 +1
= 8.69, say 9

2/9/

0.94

17.00

MR of M6 link

Reinforcement for stump 200x200


Length of one bar
1.850
4 / 20

KJC326

0.250 - less grd level to grd beam


1.600
0.300+ depth of grd beam
1.900
0.030 cover
1.870
0.032 - Less 2Y16
1.838 (i)
0.066 + bend 5.5d (4Y12)
1.904
0.480 + Lap 40d
2.384 2.38
4/4/

2.38

38.14

MR of Y12 steel bar


Mild steel link for stump 200x200
Length of one link
0.200
0.050 - cover 2/0.025
0.150
4/0.150 = 0.600
0.144 + hook 24d
0.744 0.74
Distance that require link
1.838 (Length of steel bar from (i))
0.300 - Ground beam
1.538
No. of links = 1.538/0.250 +1
= 7.152, say 8

4/8/

0.74

23.81

MR of M6 link

COLUMN AND FOUNDATION (FOOTING) - BILL OF QUANTITIES

4 / 21

KJC326

Item
No.

Description

Quantity

4 / 22

Unit

Rate

RM

KJC326

EXCAVATION WORK
1

17.00

cu. m

25.50

cu. m

4.25

cu. m

6.80

cu. m

0.34

cu. m

FORMWORK
Rough surface formwork for footings

16.00

Sq. m

Rough surface formwork for side of stump

6.24

Sq. m

228.30

Kg.

33.84

Kg.

9.05

Kg.

2
3

4
5

Excavation of top soil, 150 mm


Excavation of trench depth not exceeding
1.5 m
Excavation of trench depth exceeding 1.5 m
but not exceeding 3.0 m
CONCRETE WORK
Concrete grade 1:3:6 - 20 mm aggregate
for footings
Concrete grade 1:2:4 - 20 mm aggregate
for stumps

REINFORCEMENT
8
9
10

Y16, 59.36+64.80+20.56=144.72m,
(3.14x0.0082x144.72x7850)
Y12, 38.14m,
(3.14x0.0062x38.14x7850)
R 6, 17.00+23.81= 40.81m,
(3.14x0.0032x40.81x7850)
(Density of steel bar, assume = 7850kg/m3)

Total Bill

Example 4.2.5

RM

Concrete Road

The following example illustrates the method of preparing a taking-off sheet and bill of
quantities for the concrete road shown in Figure 4.2.5.
4 / 23

KJC326

Figure 4.2.5 : Layout And Cross-Section Of Road


CONCRETE ROAD - BILL OF QUANTITIES
Item
No.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7

Description

Quantity

Unit

Reinforced concrete, 180 mm thick in road


Waterproof paper
Expansion joint in road (180 mm deep)
Fabric reinforcement, 3 kg per sq m
Precast concrete kerb, 150 mm x 150 mm
bedded and jointed in cement mortar with
concrete backing
Mild steel dowel bars in expansion joint 20
mm diameter
Precast artificial stone paving slabs, 0.75 m x
0.75 m x 50 mm thick bedded on sand
50 mm thick

91.85
91.85
9.20
275.55

sq m
sq m
lin m
Kg

34.30

lin m

24.66

lin m

27.00

lin m

Total Bill

Rate

RM

RM

CONCRETE ROAD - TAKE OFF SHEET


CONCRETE ROAD
Reinforced
concrete road

Precat concrete
kerb 150 x 150
4 / 24

KJC326

180 mm thick
18.00
4.60
4.60
1.70
2/

1.70
1.70

mm (including
concrete
backing)

82.80
0.15

7.80

0.15

2/

Road length
2/5.00 = 10.00
5.80
2/2.00 = 4.00
96.40
4.00
18.00

5.00

ditto curved
2/

/4//2
2
/

road width= 4.00


Add 4/0.15=0.60
4.60
Deduct
2/

/4//
1.702/

2.00
Less (-) kerb 0.30
1.70

4.55
91.85 m2

2/
10/

0.5
2.466

24.66 m

Paving slabs
750 x 750 x 50
mm thick,
bedded on sand
0.05m thick

Expansion joint
9.20 m
Fabric reinfmt.
(approximate)

91.85
3

0.5

Say 10 per joint


(20 mm bar
= 2.466 kg/m)

(as above)
91.85 m2
4.60

6.30 m
34.30 m
Dowel bars 20
mm. dia

Waterproof paper

2/

18.00
10.00
28.00 m

18.00
1.50

275.55 Kg

4 / 25

27.00 m