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UNIVERSITAS INDONESIA

DESIGN OF CHEMICAL ENZYMATIC PROCESS OF


EPOXIDE

ASSIGNMENT 3

GROUP 6
GROUP PERSONNEL:
ARDITA RIZKY PUTRI ARCANGGI
CLAUDIA MAYA INDRAPUTRI
MERIELL JADE EUGENIA T
TERRY MUHAMMAD OCTARYNO
UNIK YULIANTINA RISQI

(1306402293)
(1306412180)
(1306447770)
(1306370770)
(1306370991)

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT


ENGINEERING FACULTY
UNIVERSITAS INDONESIA
DEPOK 2016

EXCECUTIVE SUMMARY
XX

TABLE OF CONTENTS
EXCECUTIVE SUMMARY.................................................................................ii
TABLE OF CONTENTS......................................................................................iii
LIST OF FIGURES..............................................................................................iv
LIST OF TABLES..................................................................................................v
CHAPTER I............................................................................................................6
Equipmet Sizing and Material Construction.......................................................6
1.1.

Jatropha curcas Oil Storage......................................................................6

1.2.

Hydrogen Peroxide Storage.......................................................................6

1.3.

Boiler for Jatropha curcas oil...................................................................6

1.4.

Boiler for Hydrogen Peroxide...................................................................6

1.5.

Reactor.......................................................................................................6

1.6.

Microfiltration...........................................................................................6

1.7.

Washer 1....................................................................................................6

1.8.

Washer 2....................................................................................................6

1.9.

Flash Evaporator........................................................................................6

1.10.

Cooler....................................................................................................6

1.11.

Product Storage......................................................................................6

1.12.

Pump......................................................................................................6

1.13.

Heat Exchanger......................................................................................6

CHAPTER 2...........................................................................................................7
PROCESS SELECTION.......................................................................................7
2.1.

Piping and Instrumental Diagram..............................................................7

2.2.

Control, Instrumentation and PID of Each Equipment.............................7

2.2.1 Reactor PFD............................................................................................7


2.2.2 Microfiltration PFD.................................................................................7
2.2.3 Washer PFD............................................................................................7
2.2.4 Flash Evaporator PFD.............................................................................7
2.2.5 Cooler PFD.............................................................................................7
2.3.

Plant Wide Control....................................................................................7

CHAPTER 3...........................................................................................................8
CONCLUSION.......................................................................................................8
REFERENCE.........................................................................................................9

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LIST OF FIGURES
LIST OF TABLES
CHAPTER I
Equipmet Sizing and Material Construction
1.1.

Jatropha curcas Oil Storage


XXX

1.2. Hydrogen Peroxide Storage


1.3. Boiler for Jatropha curcas oil
1.4. Boiler for Hydrogen Peroxide
1.5. Reactor
1.6. Microfiltration
Microfiltration that we use in our plant designed based on Pharmalab India
Pvt. Ltd. India. Before choose the the type of microfiltarion we need to define the
data about flow rate in each microfiltration equipment . The data of microfiltration
consists of

MF-102 dan MF-101. The aim of microfiltration is

filtrate the

impurities.

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Specification Microfiltration
(Source: Pharmalab India Pvt. Ltd. India)

Table of mass flow of MF -102


Material
Acrylic Resin
Lipase
Na2HPO4
NaH2PO4
Water

Mass rate (kg/h)


22,86
6,53
0,026
0,35
340,635

Based on that specification, the filter press that will used with specification:

Diameter of Plate : 08 inch


Number of Plate : 4
Ht of Plate : 25 mm
Filtration Area : 0.132 Sq. mtr.
Cake Holding Capacity :
o CV : 2,8
o RF : 2,5

Flow Rate : 370,97 Ltr/Hr

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Table of mass flow of MF -101


Material
Acrylic Resin
Epoxidized Linoleic
Epoxidized Oleic
Hydroperoxide
Linolenic Acid
Liipase
Na2HPO4
NaH2PO4
Palmitic Acid
Stearic Acid
Water

Mass rate (kg/h)


1207,85
96,3773
131,2928
57,37
5
11,7
0,0059
0,03904
38,30489
19,23584
213,34937

Based on that specification, the filter press that will used with specification:

Diameter of Plate : 14 inch


Number of Plate : 8
Ht of Plate : 38 mm
Filtration Area : 0.756 Sq. mtr.
Cake Holding Capacity :
o CV : 20,25
o RF : 22,5

Flow Rate : 1780,581 Liter/hour


1.7. Washer 1
1.8. Washer 2
1.9. Flash Evaporator
1.10. Cooler
1.11. Product Storage
1.12. Pump
For pump sizing, these are the calculation steps :
1. Determine the operation condition, operation condition includes fluid properties
such as pressure, temprature, density, viscosity and flow rate.
2. Determine pump design, which are optimal diameter, material, nominal size,
schedule number, inside diameter, outside diameter, and inside area of pipe.
Optimal diameter can be calculated using equation below :

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D i ,opt =0,36
3. Determine average velocity and Reynold numbers, which can be calculated
using equations below :
a. Average Velocity
v=

Q
Ai

b. Reynold Number
=

vD

4. Determine Fanning factor using Reynolds number and relative roughness.


Relative roughness can be calculated using equation below :
Relative roughness=

Fanning factor is determined with graph below:

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Gambar 1 Fanning Factor Graph

5. Calculate friction loss


a. Equivalent length of fitting ()
Equivalent length of fittings can be found in Appendix C-2a in Foust, 1980 and
Nevers, 1991. Total equivalent length can be calculated using equations below:
Total

L
= L
Number of fittings
Dfittings fittings

Lfittings =Total L /Dfittings D


b. Total equivalent length ()
Total equivalent length is calculated using equation below :
Ltotal=Lfittings + L pipe
c. Friction loss
Friction loss can be calculated using equation below :
Ltotal v 2
P
F=
=4 f

D 2
6. Calculate work by pump, using equation below :
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( P2P1 )
1 2 2 g
v 2v 1 ) + ( z 2z 1 ) +
+ F +W s=0
(
2a
gc

To be noted negative sign means work done to the fluids


7. Calculate power of pump, using equations below :
Efficiency pump, =70%
W s = W p
BHP=m W p
8. Calculate head loss due pipe friction using equation below :
HFP ( ft fluid )=

HFP
L
L

9. calculate head loss due to pipe fittings using equation below


HFF ( ft fluid )= K

v2
2g

10. Calculate total static head using equation below:


Total static head ( ft fluid )=z 2z 1
11. Calculate velocity head difference using equation below
Velocity head difference ( ft fluid )=

v 22 v 21

2g 2 g

12. Calculate tank pressure head difference using equation below :


Tank head difference ( ft fluid )=H 2 H 1
13. Calculate NPSHA using equation below :
NPSHA=H sH a H av
Pump P-101
Function : to distribute jatropha oil from storage tank to reactor
Determine the operation condition and fluid properties
Tabel 1 Fluid Properties

Fluid Properties
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Temperature (T) ()
Mass Flow (lb/s)
Density () (lb/ft3)
Viscosity () (lb/ft.s)
Volumetic flow rate (Q) (ft3/s)

45
1.531
56.122
0.03178
27.279

Tabel 2 Operation Condition Pump

Discharge pressure (P2) (psi)


Suction Pressure (P1) (psi)
Discharge velocity (v1) (ft/s)
Suction velocity (v2) (ft/s)
Discharge Height (z2) (ft)
Suction Height (z1) (ft)
A
Pump efficiency

0.7

Determine pump design


Tabel 3 Optimum Diameter Calculation

Optimum Diameter (Di opt) (m)


(kg/m3)
Di Opt (m)
899
0.035

Q (m3/s)
0.772

Tabel 4 Pipe Properties

Pipe properties
Type
Nominal size
Schedule
Inside Diameter (ID) (ft)
Outside Diameter (OD) (ft)
Inside Area (A) (ft2)
Roughness (E) (m)
Average velocity and Reynold number calculation
Tabel 5 Reynold Number Calculation

Reynold Number Calculation (Re)


D (m)
v (m/s)

(kg/m3)
899

Re

Fanning factor calculation


Tabel 6 Fanning Factor Calculation
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Fanning Factor Calculation (f)


d
E/d

Friction loss calculation


Tabel 7 Fitting Equivalent Length Calculation

Fitting

Fitting Equivalent Length Calculation (ft)


Amount
L/D
Total L/D

Tabel 8 Total Equivalent Length

Total Equivalent Length (L) (ft)


Pipe
Total

Fitting

Tabel 9 Friction Loss Calculation

Friction Loss Calculation (ft.lbf/lbm)


L
D
v

Work pump calculation


Tabel 10 Pump Work calculation

Pump Work Calculation (Ws) (ft.lbf/lbm)


V1
V2
P1
P2
Z1

Z2

Ws

Power of pump calculation


Tabel 11 Power of pump calculation

Pump Power Calculation (Wp) (ft.lbf/lbm)


Ws
M

Pump BHP Calculation


Wp

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Wp

12

Head Loss due fittings calculation


Tabel 12 Head Loss due to Fittings Calculation

Fittings

Amount

Head loss die to fittings (HFF)


K
v

HFF

Total HFF
Total static head calculation
Tabel 13 Total Static Head Calculation

Total Static Head


Z2
Z2 Z1

Z1

Z2 Z1 (ft fluid)

Velocity head difference calculation


Tabel 14 Velocity Head Difference Calculation

v1

v2

V1 /2g

Velocity Difference
V2 /2g
V22 /2g- v12 /2g
2

V22 /2g v12 /2g (ft fluid)

Tank Pressure head difference calculation


Tabel 15 Tank Pressure Head Difference Calculation

H1

H2

Pressure Difference
H2 H1

H2 H1 (ft fluid)

Total head calculation


Tabel 16 Total Head Calculation

Total Head
HFP
HFF
Total static head
Velocity difference
Pressure difference
Total head
NPHSA calculation
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Tabel 17 NPHSA calculation

NPHSA
HS

Ha

Hva

NPHSA

Pump Identification
Name
Pump
Code
P-105
Function
To pump the filtrate
Amount (unit)
1
Mode of Operation
Continuous
Material Composition
Seawater
Liquid
Operating Condition
Mass flow (kg/s)
0,162728056
Flow rate (m3/s)
12044,63479
Density (kg/m3)
1960
Temperature (oC)
65
Pressure (Pa)
13488531,5
Pressure Vapour (Pa)
24940,32579
Specification Design
Type
Material
NPSHa (m)
59,42006903
NPSHr (m)
57,22088058
Head (m)
938,4489496
Utility
FHP (kW)
1,122433
BHP (kW)
1,496577334

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Pump Identification
Pump
P-106

Name
Code
Function

to pump Sodium Bicarbonate

Amount (unit)

Mode of Operation
Seawater

Continuous

Material Composition
Liquid
Operating Condisiton

Mass flow (kg/s)


Flow rate (m3/s)
Density (kg/m3)
Temperature (oC)
Pressure (Pa)
Pressure Vapour (Pa)
Specification Design
Type
Material
NPSHa (m)
NPSHr (m)
Head (m)
Utility
FHP (kW)
BHP (kW)

1,664547778
1321,680296
2200
25
20265
3156,789628

6,399145752
4,553256511
5,461448853
0,066817693
0,089090257

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Name
Code
Function
Amount (unit)

Pump Identification
Pump
P-107
to pump distillate water
1

Mode of Operation Continuous


Material Composition
Seawater
Liquid
Operating Condisiton
Mass flow (kg/s)
Flow rate (m3/s)
Density (kg/m3)
Temperature (oC)
Pressure (Pa)
Pressure Vapour
(Pa)
Specification Design
Type
Material
NPSHa (m)
NPSHr (m)
Head (m)
Utility
FHP (kW)
BHP (kW)

1.13.

1,027929722
972,829152
1000
25
14185,5
3156,789628

10,04702331
10,01716432
12,56229686
0,094911714
0,126548952

Heat Exchanger

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A heat exchanger is a device used to transfer heat between one or more fluids.
The fluids may be separated by a solid wall to prevent mixing or they may be in
direct contact. Heat Exchanger is used to in this plant, shell-and-tube type heat
exchanger . It causes the amount of heat that needed to be transferred is high. This
Plant uses heat exchanger Here is the heat exchanger sizing for increasing the
temperature raw material jatropha oil, evaporation flash, and storage tank.
1. Heat Exchanger I

Heat Exchanger 1 specification


E-101
Pretreatment Jatropha Oil
equipment
name
Identification

heat exchanger
Pretreatment Jatropha
increase temperature of jatropha oil before entering the
reactor
1
carbon steel
shell and tube
Operating Condition

function
Number of unit
material
Type
Unit Data
Fluid
Fluid Flow
Temperature In
Temperatur Out
No of Passes
Head Duty
LMTD

kg/h
C
C
cal/s
C

Tube Side
Rich Water
242,03
95
50
2
2773,6
24,66

Shell Side
Rich of Jatropha Oil
277,975
25
45
1
Urequired
60

Equipment Dimension
Type of Unit

Fixed Tube
Stainless Stell
316

Material

Number of Tubes

Tube OD

543

Tube Configuration
mm
M
Mm

Tube Length
Shell ID

19,05
5,5
152,4

TEMA

2. Heat Exchanger II

Heat Exchanger II
equipment

heat exchanger 2
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Triangular
A-E-S
34%

17

name
Identification
function
Number of
unit
material
type

Evaporation Flash
increase temperature of epoxide oil removing of
impurities
1
carbon steel
shell and tube
Operating Condition

Unit Data
Fluid
Fluid Flow
Temperature
In
Temperatur
Out
No of Passes
Head Duty
LMTD

kg/h

Tube
Side
Rich
Water
217,10

Shell Side
Rich of Epoxide Oil
273,81

250

36,48

100

100
1
Urequired

60

Fixed Tube
Number of
Tubes

128

cal/s
C

2
8172,44
63,06

Equipment Dimension
Type of Unit
Material

Stainless Stell
316

Tube OD
Tube Length
Shell ID

mm
m
mm

19,05
5,5
152,4

Tube
Configuration
TEMA

Triangular
A-E-S
34%

3. Cooler
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equipment
name
Identification
equipment
function
name
Identification
Number of
unit
function
material
Number
typeof unit
material
type
Unit
Data
Fluid
Unit Data
Fluid Flow
Fluid
Temperature In
Fluid Flow
Temperatur
Out In
Temperature
No
of
Passes
Temperatur
Out
Head
Duty
No of Passes
LMTD
Head
Duty
LMTD
Type of Unit
Material
Type
of Unit
Material
Tube
OD
Tube OD
Tube Length
Shell
ID
Tube
Length
Shell ID

After Evaporation Flash to cooler


Evaporation Flash
Decrease
watertoremoving
Aftertemperature
EvaporationofFlash
cooler of
impurities
Evaporation Flash
1
Decrease temperature of water removing of
impurities
carbon
steel
1
shell and tube
carbon steel
Operating Condition
shell and Shell
tube Side
Tube
Side
Operating Condition

Rich
Rich of Epoxide Oil
Tube
Water
Side
Shell Side
kg/h
1671,77
273,81
Rich
C
2,00
100 of Epoxide Oil
Water
Rich
C
25
25
kg/h
1671,77
273,81
C
2,00
100
2
1
C
25
25
cal/s
9649,6
Urequired
60
2
1
C
54,16
cal/s
9649,6
Urequired
60
Equipment
Dimension
C
54,16
Fixed Tube
Equipment Dimension
Stainless Stell
Number of
272
Fixed Tube
316
Tubes
Stainless Stell
Number of
mm
21,5
Tube
Triangular
316
Tubes
272
Configuration
Tube
Configuration
m
5,5
TEMA
A-E-S
mm
21,5
Triangular
mm
152,4
34%
m
5,5
TEMA
A-E-S
mm
152,4
34%
Cooler Evaporation Flash to Cooler

4. Cooler

Cooler for Storage

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CHAPTER 2
PROCESS SELECTION
2.1. Piping and Instrumental Diagram
2.2. Control, Instrumentation and PID of Each Equipment
2.2.1 Reactor PFD
2.2.2 Microfiltration PFD
2.2.3 Washer PFD
2.2.4 Flash Evaporator PFD
2.2.5 Cooler PFD
2.3. Plant Wide Control

Heat Exchanger
We need to design five heat exchangers. The first step, is to
pretreatment jatropha and H2O2 to reach the optimum temperature which is
from 25 oC to 45 oC. Then, to create evaporator flash and to cooler. The design
of heat exchanger E-101 follows below :
1. Describe Unit Heat Exchanger of E-101
a. By describing T1,T2, Taverage
b. Heat Duty

T1 T2
2
Hitung c dari Fig. 3

Tav

Q W .c. T2 T1

..
()

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T1 (C)

95

T2 (C)

50

Tav (C)

72,5
11435,8915
1,05
242,03

Q (Kj/hr)
c (grafik)
W (kg/hr)

()

Unit For Jatropha Oil


T1 (C)

25

T2 (C)

45

W (l/hr)Tav (C)
c (grafik)
Q (Kj/hr)

277,975 35
2,057
-11435,8915

Heat

Duty For Jatropha Oil

Then, We calculate the utility of water that we need by using this formula, which
Qin=Qout
t1 t 2
2
Hitung c dari Fig. 2
Q
w
c. t 2 t1

t av

Unit for Water Utility

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Or we also can design Heat Exchanger E-101 will be described as follows by


calculated using TOTAL Toolbox Shell & Tube Heat Exchanger Sizing Tool

TOTAL Toolbox Sizing Simulation


(Source : Authors Documentation)
The first step we need to complete inputs of calculation, the user
can fill the green boxes; inlet and outlet temperature of both fluids, heat
duty, and overall heat transfer coefficient The calculation, the verification,
and the graph are updated accordingly. For a heat exchanger with one pass
tube side, the counter current and cocurrent mode can be choses. For a heat
exchanger with two or more pass tube side, the flow configuration is
called multipasses and is considered as counter-current. In order to
complete the definition of the inputs of calculation, the user can fill the
green boxes; inlet and outlet temperature of both fluids, heat duty, and
overall heat transfer coefficient

1st and 2nd Step from TOTAL Toolbox Sizing Simulation


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(Source : Authors Documentation)


The Value Of Ud is depended on what feed is into and it can be shown on the
table

The Value of Overallheat transfer coefficient


2. The next step is calculating the value of LMTD which formula
is

LMTD

t 2 t1
t 2 t1

t 2
t 2

ln
2.3 log
t1
t1
.()

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Table of LMTD value


Hot Fluid

Cold Fluid

Dif

90

higher temp

45

45

t2

50

low temp

25

25

t1

40

Difrences

20

20

t2-t1

LMTD (F)

34,03

3. Define the value of R, S also


. Based on theory, Choose the
simple combination of shell and tube passes or number of
shells in series that will have a value of F above 0.8 or so.
The correction factor calculation following

FT lihat di Fig. 18
t FT LMTD

T1 T2
t t
dan S 2 1
t 2 t1
T1 t1

Correction Factor for 1 Pass-Shellside and Mutiple of Two Passes-Tubeside


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(Source : Wallas, 1990)

1st and 2nd Step from TOTAL Toolbox Sizing Simulation


(Source : Authors Documentation)
Now , Heat transfer area can be calculate with the following equation:
= ..
A

Q
U D t

a" lihat di Table 10


Jumlah tubes

A
l tubes a"

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Heat Exchaner datas


(Source : Wallas, 1990)

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A (ft2)

6,6

a" (ft /lin ft)

0,1309

Sum of Tubes

4,18

Sum of
tubes/shell

5th step & 6th step Determine type, tube size and tube
configuration

The manufacturer sizing have already


choose the tube size , it is used to standard exchanger with 0,75 inch which has
19,05 mm . The reason is choose to smaller diameter to gain the cheaper of cost.
Then we also make an assumption for length of tubes based on the configuration
of tube usually consists of triangular, rotated square and square configuration.
Triangular configuration results the higher

heat transfer rates than anothers

configuration. In Industrial plant, tube length is used to use between 8, 12, 16, or
20 ft. But, we assume the tube length is 5.5 m is because this equipment would be
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installed on modular platform. The consequences chosing the more length is going
to decrese shell diameter, so that the heat exchanger is more cheaper. We also
consider how to decrease corrosion, fouling
1. Corrosion : it can decrease material costs as long as the more corrosive.
2. Fouling : we can reduce a fouling by determining the high velocity which
have higher fouling should be fixed totubeside for keeping the velocity.
3. Operation pressure : we can reduce the cost by determining the operation
pressure by higher flow pressure in tube with small diameter and the
pressure is kept by the higher.
4. Viscosity : we can keep the fluid to be turbulent flow if the viscosity is
high. It can impact for fixing shell acquiring the greater heat transfer
coefficient. We can determine the tubes by calculating the tube area and
we can calculate the number of tubes from the following equation:
=

heat transfer surface area


eachtube surface area

..()

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