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Sangya (Noun) A. Types: These are of five types (similar to those in English language)-1.

Vyakti vachak sangya (Proper Noun) - e.g. Delhi, Gandhi, Ramayan, Geetanjali, Himalaya,
Tajmahal
2. Jati vachak sangya (Common Noun) - e.g. more(peacock), pustak(book), mahila(lady),
baalak(boy), baalika(girl)
3. Bhav vachak sangya (Abstract Noun) - e.g. bachpan(childhood), satya(truth), sundarata(beauty),
namrata(politeness)
4. Samudaay vachak sangya (Collective Noun) - e.g. sena(armed forces), sabha(assembly),
mandali(group)
5. Dravya vachak sangya (Material Noun) - e.g. sona(gold), loha(iron), paani(water)
B. Sangya-Vikar (Declension of Nouns) Due to three reasons-- (i) Ling, (ii) Vachan, (iii) Karak
Ling (Gender) - In Hindi, there are only two types. These are
1. Pull-ling (Masculine)
2. Stri-ling (Feminine).
Vachan (Number) - These are of two types.
1. Ek-vachan (Singular Number)
2. Bahu-vachan (Plural Number)
Karak (Case) - These are of eight types.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

Karta (Nominative) - represented by Hindi word "ne"


Karm (Objective, Accusative) - "ko"
Karan (Instruments) - "se, ke dwara"
Sampradan (Dative) - "ko, ke liye"
Apadan (Ablative) - "se"
Sambandh (Genetive, Possessive) - "ka, ki, ke"
Adhikaran (Locative) - "me, par"
Sambodhan (Vocative) - "Hey!, Arrey!"

Sarvnaam (Pronoun)
A. Types: Pronouns in Hindi language are of five types:
1. Purush vachak sarvnaam (Personal pronoun) - These are of three kind :
o Uttam Purush (First Person) e.g. mae (I), hum(we), mera (my), humara (our)
o Madhyam Purush (Second Person) e.g. tum(you), tera(your)
o Anya Purush (Third person) e.g. vah (he), uska (his)
2. Nischay vachak sarvnaam (Demonstrative pronoun) - Point to a definite person or object. e.g. yeh
(this), veh (that), ye(these), ve (those)
3. Anischay vachak sarvnaam (Indefinite pronoun) - Do not point to a definite person or object. e.g.
koi (someone), kuchh (something)
4. Sambandh vachak sarvnaam (Relative pronoun) - Relate one word to another. e.g. jo (who), jiski
(whose), jaisa (like)

5. Prashna vachak sarvnaam (Interrogative pronoun) - Used for interrogation. e.g. kaun (who), kya
(what), kisko (whom)
B. Roop (Variations) Similar to declension of nouns, a pronoun also has two Vachan; and eight Karak
(case).
Visheshan (Adjective) A. Types These are of four types. The grammar tree is given below.
Gun Vachak (Quality)

Sankhya Vachak
(Numeral)

Pariman
Vachak
(Quantity)

1. Gun (good quality)


2. Dosh (bad quality)
3. Rang (color)
4. Kal (tense)
5. Disha (direction)
6. Aakar (shape)
7. Dasha (condition)
8. Sthan (place)

1. Nishchit visheshan 1. Nishchit


(definite) - of four
2. Anishchit
types

Sanket Vachak
(Demonstrative)
Points towards noun
objects.

garana(count)
kram(order)
aavritt(recurrence)
samuday(group)
2. Anishchit
3. Pratyek bodhak

B. Tulna (Degree of Comparison) There are three stages of comparison in Hindi Visheshan.
1. Mula vastha (Positive degree)
2. Uttara vastha (Comparative degree)
3. Uttama vastha (Superlative degree)
Kriya (Verb) A. Kinds of Verbs
1. Sakarmak Kriya (Transitive Verb) - These cause direct effect on another person/object. These are
of two typeso Preranarthak Kriya (Causative Verb)
o Dwikarmak Kriya (Verbs with two objects)
2. Akarmak Kriya (Intransitive Verb) - Have no effect on others.
B. Kaal (Tense)
Bhoot Kal
(Past tense) -6
Types

Vartman
Kal(Present
tense) -3 Types

Bhavishya kal
(Future tense)
-2 Types

1. Samanya

1. Samanya

1. Samanya

Bhoot(Past
Indefinite)
2. Aasann
Bhoot(Past
Imminent)
3. Apurn
Bhoot(Past
Continuous)
4. Purna
Bhoot(Past
Perfect)
5. Sandigdh
Bhoot(Past
Doubtful)
6.
Hetuhetumad
Bhoot(Past
Conditional)

Vartman
(Present
Indefinite)
2. Apurn
Vartman(Present
Continuous)
3. Sandigdh
Vartman
(Present
Doubtful)

Bhavishya
(Future
Indefinite)
2. Sambhabya
Bhavishya
(Future
Conditional or
Doubtful)

C. Vachya (Voice) These are of three types 1. Kartri Vachya (Active Voice)
2. Karm Vachya (Passive Voice)
3. Bhav Vachya (Impersonal Voice)
Kriya Visheshan (Adverb) These are of four types 1. Kaal Vachak (Time) - e.g. abhi(now), tabhi(then), sada(always), pratidin(daily), Aaj(today),
phir(again), pahle(previous)
2. Sthan Vachak (Place) - e.g. yeha(here), veha(there), kenha(where), kidhar(which place), sab
jagah(every-where), bahar(outside)
3. Reet Vachak (Manner) - e.g. dhire(slow), tej(fast), shayad(perhaps), avashya(sure, definite),
achanak(suddenly), theek(right)
4. Pariman Vachak (Quantity) - e.g. kafee(enough), bahut(many), paryapt(sufficient), kuchh(few),
adhik(more), kum(less)
Sambandh-bodhak (Preposition) These words relate noun/pronoun to other words in a sentence. Some
examples are:
1.
2.
3.
4.

Tom ke sar par topi hai. (Tom has hat on his head)
Tom ke peechhe John hai. (John is behind Tom)
Lily ke samne kutta hai. (Dog is in front of Lily)
Lily ke age kutta hai. (Dog is before Lily)

Underlined words are sambandh-bodhak or preposition Hindi words.


Sammuchay-bodhak (Conjunction) These are used to join words, phrase or sentences. Their types and
some examples are given below:

1. Yojak (Additive) such as aur, tatha, evam


e.g. Badal aye aur versa hone lagi. (Clouds came and it started raining)
2. Vikalp-soochak (Shows Alternative) such as ya, athava, ya-ya, na to, na ki
e.g. Versa hogi athava aandhi ayegi. (Either it will rain or there will be a storm)
3. Vibhajak (Dis-joint) such as parantu, kintu, magar, lekin, taki, ki
e.g. Mae uske ghar gaya parntu vah nahi mila. (I went to his house but he did not meet)
4. Parinaam-soochak (Shows Result)
e.g. Maen mehnat kiya isliye mae safal hua. (I worked hard hence I became successful)
5. Karan-soochak (Shows Reason)
e.g. mae nahi sounga kyonki yeha par machhar hai. (I will not sleep because there are mosquitoes
here.)
6. Uddeshya-soochak (Shows motive)
e.g. Tej chalo taki hum station theek samay par pahoonch jaye. (Walk fast so that we reach station
in time)
Vismayaadi-bodhak (Interjection) Some words that show various moods are:
Moods/Feelings

Words

Hersh (Happiness)

Ahaa!, Aahaa!, Wah!, Wahwah!

Shok (Sadness)

Haay!, Aah!, Oh!, Uff!, Afsos!

Vismay (Surprise)

Arre!, Kya!, Sach!, Baap Re!,


Hain!

Krodh (Anger)

Hut!, Chal!, Dur Ho!, Abe!,


Kyon!

Tirskaar
(Condemn)

Chhih!, Dhikkaar!, Dhat!

Vedana (Pain)

Haay Re!, Baap Re!, Haay Mar


Gaya!

Prashansa (Praise)

Waah!, Dhanya!, Khoob!,


BahutAchchhe!

Sweekriti
(Consent)

Achcha!, Theek!, Bahut


Achchha!