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2014

621.37(075)
32.81473
25
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25
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. . . 2- ., . . . : , 2014.
281 .
ISBN 978-5-7417-0500-1
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621.37(075)
32.81473

ISBN 978-5-7417-0500-1

. ., 2014



-
( ), 2014


................................................................................................................. 7
1.
.............................................. 10
1.1. .................................................................. 10
1.1.1. ........................................................... 10
1.1.2. ................................................................................... 13
1.1.3. .................................................................... 15
1.1.4. ..................................... 18
1.2. ..20
2. .............................................................. 21
2.1. ............................................ 21
2.2. ......................................................................... 26
2.3. - ........................................................................... 27
2.3.1. - ........................................................ 27
2.3.2. -, ................ 28
2.3.3. - ..................................................................... 30
2.3.4. - - - .......................................................... 32
2.4. 34
2.5. .................................................. 37
2.6. ........................................................................ 38
2.7. - ......................................................... 41
2.7.1. ..................................... 41
2.7.2. ................................................... 47
2.7.3. , - .. 49
2.8. ................................................................. 51
3. .................................................... 52
3.1. ....................................................................... 52
3.1.1. ......................................................................... 53
3.1.2. ..................................................................... 55
3.1.3. .............................. 55
3.1.4. ........................................................................................... 56
3.1.5. .................................................................. 57
3.2. ........................................................................................... 59
3.2.1. ................................. 61
3.3. ...................................... 63
3.3.1. - .............. 63
3.3.2. .............................................................. 64
3.4. - .................................................................. 65
3.5. ............................................................. 67
3.5.1. ........................................................................ 67
3.5.2. .................................................................. 70
3

3.5.3. ......................................................................... 71
3.5.4. ................................................................................ 72
3.5.5. ............................................. 72
3.6. .................................................................. 75
4. - 78
4.1. ................................................................................................. 78
4.2. .................................................................................................... 80
4.2.1. .............................................. 80
4.2.2. () .............. 81
4.2.3. () ................... 82
4.3. .................................................................. 86

R
S

5. ....... 87
5.1. ............................................ 89
5.1.1. ................................................................................. 89
5.1.2. ............................................................................. 90
5.2. ............................................................................ 91
5.3. ...................................................................................... 92
5.3.1. SR- ........................................................................................... 92
5.3.2.
- ......................................................................................... 95
5.4. SR- .............................................................. 96
5.5. D- ...................................................................................................... 97
5.6. D-, ................................................ 100
5.7. D- ............................................................... 104
5.8. SR- .......................................................................... 104
5.9. - ...................................................................................................... 107
5.10. .............................................................. 108
6. , ............................................. 111
6.1. ...................................................................................................... 111
6.1.1. ...................................... 111
6.1.2. ....................................................................... 112
6.1.3. ... 114
6.1.4. ............................. 122
6.2. .......................................................................................... 124
6.2.1. ................................................................ 124
6.2.2. ...................... 127
6.2.3. - ........................... 129
6.2.4. .......................................................... 130
6.2.5. .......................................................................... 131
6.2.6. ........................................................................... 133
6.2.7. .................... 134
6.3. ................................................................ 139
7. ................... 141
7.1. , ...................................... 141
7.2. - ........................... 142
7.3. ...................................................................................... 143
4

7.4. ..................................................................... 144


7.5. ............................................................................... 150
7.6. ................................................................ 154
8. .............................. 155
8.1. () ............................................ 155
8.2. - () ........................................... 159
8.2.1. - ,
.............................................................................. 159
8.2.2. ............................................. 164
8.2.3. ............................................... 168
8.2.4. - ............................................................................. 169
8.3. () .................................................. 175
8.4. ................................................................ 178
9. .............................................................................................. 179
9.1. .................................................. 180
9.1.1. ............... 181
9.1.2. ............................................................... 182
9.1.3. ......................................................................... 184
9.1.4. ................................. 185
9.1.5. .......................... 190
9.1.6. - NAND- NOR-............................ 193
9.2. ................................................ 196
9.3. .......................... 197
9.3.1. ................................................. 197
9.3.2. ............................................................ 198
9.3.3. ...................................... 201
9.4. ....................... 205
9.4.1. ........................................................ 205
9.4.2. ................................... 209
9.5. .............................................................. 212
9.5.1. SDRAM- ................................... 214
9.5.2. SDR......................................................................................... 218
9.5.3. DDR ........................................................................................ 220
9.6. ................................................................ 223
10.
CPLD FPGA ..................................................................... 224
10.1. CPLD ............................................................ 224
10.1.1. XC9500 Xilinx ............................................ 225
10.1.2. / ................................................... 229
10.2. FPGA ............................................................ 231
10.2.1. Spartan-2 Spartan-2E ......................................... 233
10.2.2. Spartan-2 ..................................................................... 235
10.3. SPARTAN-2 ................................................... 236
10.3.1. Spartan-2 ............................................................................ 236
10.3.2. - ........................................................................... 238
10.3.3. ..................................................................................... 240
5

10.3.4. .................................................................................. 240


10.3.5. - ......................................................................... 241
10.4. CLB ............................................. 243
10.4.1. LUT ........................................................ 244
10.4.2. ................................................................ 245
10.4.3. ................................................................... 245
10.4.4. .................................................................. 247
10.4.5. .......................................................... 247
10.4.6. (Block RAM) ......................................................... 247
10.5. ......................................... 249
10.5.1. ............................................................................... 250
10.5.2. .............................. 251
10.5.3. - .................... 251
10.5.4. ........................................ 252
10.5.5. ........................................... 252
10.6. ............................................... 253
10.7. (DLL) ............................................. 254
10.8. ......................................................................... 255
10.8.1. ............................. 257
10.8.2. ...................................................................... 258
10.8.3. ............... 258
10.8.4. ............................................................ 259
10.8.5. ................................................................... 260
10.8.6. ............................................... 262
10.9. .............................................................. 262
11.
............................................................... 263
11.1. .............................................................. 264
11.2. .......................................................................... 267
11.3. ........................... 271
11.4. ............................................ 275
11.5. .............................................................. 279
....................................................................................................... 280


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14

1+
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= 2 RC ln 1
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1
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4 R1
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RC .
R1 + R2
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1.1.3.


. . . 1.8 , . 1.9 , .
U0
R1

C1

R2

R3
C2

R4

. 1.8.

( u)

U+, ,
U0. 2
U+, = ( R4 R2 ) R3 + ( R4 R2 ) .

t1
15

, U0, U+ U .
t2

t1
a)
0
t
u
1=R1C1
0
t
b)
U0

U+

c)
0
t
U

u

0
t d)
U0
= C 2 ( R 2 + R3 R 4 )
(U+ U)
. 1.9. ,


(U+ U) 2 = C 2 ( R2 + R3 R4 ) , .

(U+ U) U0:
T = ln ( (U + U ) U 0 ) .
U + = U ,
T = ln ( 2U + U 0 ) .

U 0 2U + . ,
R2 >> R4. R4 ( R3 + R4 ) C 2 R2 .
D 2. -

16

.

1 = R1C1 .
t (, t2 , . 1.9 1.9b).
. 1.9d D.
t , t2 .
U1
U2 . . 1.10.
t2

t1
a)
0
t
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1=R1C1
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t
b)
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U1

U+

c)
0
t
U
u
0
U0

U2

d)

= C 2 ( R 2 + R3 R 4 )

. 1.10. ,

, . 1.11. , ,

17

( ) .
U0
R11
R12
C1
D2

D1

R3
R4

R2 C2

.1.11.

1.1.4.
. 1.12 1, R
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( ). 2 ,
R2/R1, ,
.

R2

R1
A

. 1.12.

U+,

U. . 1.13
, .
18

u2
U+
0
U
u1

U1max = U ( R1 R2 )

0
u
0

t
U1min = U+ ( R1 R2 )

. 1.13. ,

19

1.2.
1. - U

,
.

2.


, ,
R2 = R 3.

R2

R1

R1

R2
R3

3. ?
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20

, R2 , R1.

2.
2.1.
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0 1
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(HIGH):

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. . 2.1
21

.

,
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Y1

X1

Y2
Y3

X2

Y4

. 2.1.
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.
0 1
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. . 2.1
X1
X2 Y1, Y2, Y3 Y4 ,
. 2.1.
2.1

X1
0
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22

X2
0
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1
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Y1
1
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Y2
0
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Y3
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.
X

X
0
0
1
1

Y
0
1
0
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0
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0
1

b)

X
0
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1
1

Y
0
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0
1

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0
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1
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c)

X
0
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1
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. 2.2.
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. , , :
(AND) 1
, 1.
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(OR) 1
, 1 . , , Y = X1+X2+ +Xm.
(NO) , . ,
, Y = X.
, , .
23

, 1, , 1, : 0.
,
, , ( ):
X1 X2 = X1 + X2 ,
X1 + X2 = X1 X2 .

, ,
. . 2.3
; , , :
- (NAND) , , 0
, 1.
- (NOR) , , 0
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- -.

X
Y

Y
+
X

X
Y
X

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X+Y

0
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: ) -; b) -

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, Y1, Y2, Y3 Y4, , . 2.1.
24

Y1
X1
Y2
X2
Y3
Y4
. 2.4. ,
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27

3.3 B
2.0 B
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0.0 B

1
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2.3.2. -,
- - , . 2.7.
iC

(U , I )
iC

U = 3.0
U = 2.5

U >U

U = 2.0
U = 1.5
0

u,

b)

. 2.7. () (b) n-


1.5 , - . . 2.7b
iC = F(u) (U > U ).
- ,
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28

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n- . 2.8. : , . .
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2.3.3. -
- (CMOS logic)
n-
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, . 2.10a.
U 2
12 5.0 .
U =+5 B

a)

b)
Q2

UIN,
0 (L)
5 (H)

UOUT
UIN

Q1

Q1

Q2

UOUT,
5 (H)
0 (L)

IN

OUT

IN

OUT

c)

. 2.10. -: ) ; b) ,
(L , ,
, ); c)

(
R = 0, ) , . 2.10b:
UIN 0 , n- Q1 , U 0 , Q2, , U
(5.0 ). Q2,

30

(U = +5.0 )
(UOUT), , 5.0 .
, UIN 5.0 , Q1,
U +5.0 , Q2
, U 0 . ,
Q1 , 0 .
, [5],
-, .
. 2.11a, UIN = L n-
, - () . ,
, . 2.11b.
U = +5 B

UIN = L

U = +5 B

UOUT = H

UIN = H

UOUT = L

. 2.11. - :
a) ; b)


-. . 2.12 p- n- .
n- (Q1)
, . p- (Q2).
,
.

31

U = +5 B
(-)
Q2


UIN

UOUT


UIN

Q1

UIN

(-)

. 2.12. -

2.3.4. - - -
-, - -.
k-, k p- k n-
. . 2.13 2- -
-.
U
Q2

b)
Q4
Z

A
B

Q1
Q3

a)

A
L
L
H
H

Q2
Q3
B Q1
L
H
L
H
A

c)

A
B

Q4
Z
H
H
H
L

&

. 2.13. 2- - -: a) ;
b) ; c)

, Z p- U, n- .
,
U Z -

32

- . . 2.14
- .
U

a)

c)

b)

A=L
Z=H
B=L

A=H
B=L

Z=H

A=H

Z=L

B=H

. 2.14. 2- - - :
a) (L);
b) (H);
c)

- c . 2.15.
, Z
p-
U, n- . , U
Z n- .
- - - .
n- , -. k n-
, k -. ( )
- k , k- -,
-.

33

a)

b) A

L
L
H
H

Q2
A

B
L
H
L
H

Q1

Q2

Q3

Q4

Z
H
L
L
L

Q4
Q3

B
Q1

A
B

c)

A
B

Z
1

. 2.15. 2- - -:
a) ; b) , ;
c)

2.4.

. 2.10b -
. , . . 2.16
-,
5 .
. 2.16
- 2.4 ,
2.6 . 2.4
2.6 - .
,
. 2.16, , . , ,

.

34


.
UOUT,
5.0
HIGH
3.5

1.5
LOW

UIN,
LOW 1.5

3.5

5.0

- HIGH

. 2.16. -


- . 2.17. - :
UOHmin ;
UIHmin , ;
UILmax ,
;
ULmax .
, .
- ,
. 2.17,
. U, , 10 %.

35

U
0.7 U

0.3 U
0

HIGH

LOW

UOHmin
UIHmin

UILmax
ULmax

. 2.17.
-

, U,
. -, , :
UOHmin

U 0.1
UIHmin

70 % U
UILmax

30 % U
UOLmax

+ 0.1
, ,
, , , . - 74HC,
5 , UILmax (1.35 ) UOLmax (0.1 ) 1.25 ,
1.25 . 1.25 .
, -, .
- .
.
:
IIH
.
IIL
.
36

74HC ,
- . -
,
-,
, .

2.5.
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n ,
n + 1 , . . . n + 1
n . . 2.18a - .
a)

b)
1

+5 B
110

c)
X
Z
110

Z
0

. 2.18. :
a) ;
b) - , ;
c) -,

, . - 1, . 2.18b, -
0, . 2.18c. ,
, . 2.18b 2.18c, , . 2.18a.

, ,
. 2.18b 2.18c 37

, ; . .
-
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.
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, . .

2.6.

(LOW) (HIGH), 0 1. ,
, , Hi-Z; - .
, . ,
38

, 0, 1 Hi-Z.
, .
.

. ,
, ,
0 1. ,
, Hi-Z. ( ) , .
. 2.19a -
. -, -

, ;
12 .
. 2.19b ,
EN (Enable)
.
EN
,
A. . 2.19c
.
,
, ..
, , (
).


, , .

39

EN

c)

Q2

EN
OUT

OUT

Q1

b)

EN
L
L
H
H

A
L
H
L
H

B
H
H
L
L

C
H
H
H
L

D
L
L
H
L

Q1

Q2

OUT
Hi-Z
Hi-Z
L
H

. 2.19. - :
a) ; b) , ;
c) ( , EN ,
OUT - )

,
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40

2.7. -
-,
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.
: .

2.7.1.
, . . 2.20a ,
.
,
, . , , .
. 2.20b
.
tr, ,
,
tf , ,
. tf tr.

41

a)
b)
tr

tf

HIGH

c)

LOW

tr

tf

UHmin
ULmax
t

. 2.20. :
) ;
b) ;
)

. 2.20b , . , . 2.20c.
,
.
,
. tr tf,
.
, .
2.7.2.

.
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42

-
0.5
.
,
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.
. 2.21 ,
, -.
- n Rp Rn.
, . , :
RL , ; ,
. -
,
;
CL ,
.
.
U = +5 B

Rp

uin

uout
Rn

CL

RL

. 2.21. ,
-
43

. , CL = 20 , - n- 200
100 .
1
0. . 2.22a ,
( RL = ).
a)

U = +5 B

b)

200

uin

U = +5 B

>1

uout = 5
iout = 0
>1

uout

uin

20

100

iout

20

. 2.22. -
:
a) ; b) ,
- , n-

,
-
. t = 0,
-, , . 2.22b.
t = 0 uout 5.0 , .
t = uout 0. :
t
uout = U exp

44

(2.1)

= R p CL , 2 .
. 2.23 uout .

uout UHmin

ULmax.
U +5 ,
- UHmin = 3.5 ULmax = 1.5 . (2.1), , UOUT :
u
t = Rn CL ln out ,
U
t3.5 = 0.7 , t1.5 = 2.4 .

t f = t1.5 t3.5 = 2.4 0.7 = 1.7 .
uout
5B

UHmin

3.5 B

ULmax

1.5 B
0

tf
. 2.23. -

.
. 2.24a , .
, uout , t uout 5 .
:

t
(2.2)
uout = U 1 exp
,

45

= R p CL , 4 .
a)

U = +5 B

b)

200

>1

uin

uout = 0
iout = 0
100

U = +5 B

uin

uout

20
>1

iout

20

. 2.24. -
:
) ; b) ,
n- ,
-

. 2.25 UOUT . , (2.2),


U uout
t = Rn CL ln
.
U
uout1 = UHmin = 3.5 uout2 = ULmax = 1.5
t1.5 = 1.4 , t3.5 = 4.8 .
tr 3.4 .
. , - - .
- - ,

.

46

uout
5B

UHmin

3.5 B

ULmax

1.5 B
0

tr

. 2.25. -

.
, ,
. , .

.

2 3 1.5 3.5 , .
2.7.2.

.
. t
, ,
.

, . t
. . 2.26

47

- :
tpHL
;
tpLH
.
UIN
1
0.5

t
UOUT

1
0.5

t
tpHL

tpLH

. 2.26. -

.
, ,
.
,
,

. ,
, , .
.

,
. 2.26, . ,
48

,
. ,
. , ,
.
, . 2.27
.

HIGH
LOW
tmin

. 2.27.

-
, , ,
.
, .
2.7.3. , -

, , , - , . ,
, - . (. 2.28) 0 1.

49

uin

U =+5 B

a)

b)
Q2
i2

uin

i1
Q1

uout
uout
0

i2
i1

T
t
t
t
t

. 2.28. -: ) ; b)


Q2 i2, , 0 .
Q1 Q2, , , .
, , , 0,
q= 0U. 0 1 Q2 Q1, , 0, .
, , ,
I = q T = C0U f , .
I U, :

P = C0 U 2 .

50

2.8.
1. : -
-?
2. -?
3. .
4. : -
?
5. -
?
6.
, ?

51

3.
3.1.
m n m Xi
n Yj, n 2m, ( )
.
, .
. 3.1. ,
EN, . ,
, , , .
n 1 n, . , 1 4 :
0001, 0010, 0100 1000.
: 1110, 1101, 1011 0111.
X0
...

m-

Xm-1

EN

Y0

n-

Yn-1

. 3.1.

, ,
. , , , 52

, .
3.1.1.


m n, . m- , 1 2m.
,
2m , m-
.

m = 3, n = 8. , . 3.1, ,
,
, . . 3.2 , 3.1.
3.1
38

EN X0 X1
0
*
*
1
0
0
1
1
0
1
0
1
1
1
1
1
0
0
1
1
0
1
0
1
1
1
1

X2
*
0
0
0
0
1
1
1
1

Y0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

Y1
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0

Y2
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0

Y3 Y4
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0

Y5
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0

Y6
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
0

Y7
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1

C
3 8 :

53

Y0 = X0 X1 X2 EN

Y4 = X0 X1 X2 EN

Y1 = X0 X1 X2 EN

Y5 = X0 X1 X2 EN

Y2 = X0 X1 X2 EN

Y6 = X0 X1 X2 EN

Y3 = X0 X1 X2 EN

Y7 = X0 X1 X2 EN
Y0

X0
Y1
X1

Y2
Y3

X2

Y4
Y5
Y6
Y7

EN
. 3.2. 3 8

X0 X1 X2
0 7. Y0 Y1 Y2 Y3
Y4 Y5 Y6 Y7 : Yi 1
, i EN
1. EN = 0, 0.

* .

, *.
54

, .
3.1.2.


.
, n < 2m, . , 4 10, 00001001,
Y0,,Y9. Y10,,Y15
, 1010 1111
, , .
3.1.3.

,
. -
. . . 3.3
. ,
.
, , :

a = x 3 x 2 x1 x 0 + x 3 x 2 x1 x 0 = x 3 x1 ( x 2 x 0 ).

2: x 2 x 0 = x 2 x 0 + x 2 x 0 (. 3.3).

.

55

a
f

c
d

0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9


X3 X2 X1 X0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
1
0
0
0
1
1
0
1
0
0
0
1
0
1
0
1
1
0
0
1
1
1
1
0
0
0
1
0
0
1


a
1
0
1
1
0
1
1
1
1
1

b
1
1
1
1
1
0
0
1
1
1

c
1
1
0
1
1
1
1
1
1
1

d
1
0
1
1
0
1
1
0
1
1

e
1
0
1
0
0
0
1
0
1
0

f
1
0
0
0
1
1
1
0
1
1

g
0
0
1
1
1
1
1
0
1
1

. 3.3.

3.1.4.

,
, .
, 2n n
(. 3.4).
1 2n n-
. 8 3
X0, , X7 Y0, , Y2

Y0 = X1 + X3 + X5 + X7,
Y1 = X2 + X3 + X6 + X7,
Y2 = X4 + X5 + X6 + X7.

(3.1)

, , . 3.4b. 2nn
, n 2n1 . j- i 1, i- j- .

56

X0
Y0
Y1
X1
X2
Y2

X0
X1
X2
X3
X4
X5
X6
X7

X2n1 Yn1

a)

Y0

Y1

Y2

b)
. 3.4. : ) ;
b) 83

3.1.5.

n- , 2n , 2n , . ,
2n ,
. ,
. 3.5, /,
.
R(0)
R(1)
R(2)

0
1
2

n 1 R(n 1)
. 3.5. 2n
, ,

,
, , , . 3.4.
57

,

. , . , , X1 X2 8 3 1; 011,
3.

1 2, 3.
. , R7...R0
(R Request) , , .
:
. ,
.
.
, , .
. Z0, , Z7 , Zi 1
, Xi
, 1:
Z7 = X7
Z6 = X6 X7
Z 5 = X5 X 6 X 7
Z 4 = X 4 X5 X 6 X 7
Z 3 = X3 X 4 X5 X 6 X 7
Z 2 = X 2 X3 X 4 X5 X 6 X 7
Z1 = X1 X2 X3 X4 X5 X6 X7
Z0 = X0 X1 X2 X3 X4 X5 X6 X7 .

58

, Y2,
Y1, Y0, ,
(3.1):
Y0 = Z1 + Z3 + Z5 + Z7,
Y1 = Z2 + Z3 + Z6 + Z7,
Y2 = Z4 + Z5 + Z6 + Z7.

(3.2)

8-
. 3.6. X7 .
, Y2, Y1,
Y0 , . , IDLE.
X7
X6
X5
X4
X3
X2
X1
X0

Y2
Y1
Y0
IDLE

. 3.6.
8-


, .
.
.

3.2.

, m ,
, . , . , m . . 3.7a m n
. , m n n- . , , m = 1, 2, 4, 8 16, n = 1,
2 4. k (ADR), c
59

m , k = log2 m. EN
i- , i
, ; EN = 0,
0. MUX.

. 3.7b , . , .
:
m 1

Yi = EN M j Dij .
j =0

iY i- (1 i n),
Dij i- j- (0 j m 1). Mj = 1,
j k- ADR.
, ,
j, iY
Dij .

k
n
n

a)

EN
ADR
D0
D1
Y

1D0
1D1
1Dm 1
2D0
2D1
2Dm 1

Dm -1

b)

1Y

2Y

nD0
nD1
nDm 1

nY
ADR EN

. 3.7. : a) ;
b)

,
, ,
60

- (). 16- (n = 16),


3- (k = 3),
(m = 8). 3- 8- 16-
. ,
, .
3.2.1.

,
,

. , . 3.8
74151, 16 ,
, 1- .
C, B A, C
. EN
;
Y, Y .
. 3.2.

.
, 0 1.
, ,
D0 D7. 0 1
Di (,
D0 D0 ).
, , ,
.

61

9
10
11
12
13
14
15
1
2
3
4
7

b)

B
A
D7
D6
D5

C
B
A
D7
D6
D5
D4
D3
D2
D1
D0
EN

74 151

5
Y
6
Y

D4
D3

D2

Y
D1
D0

a)

EN

. 3.8. 8- 1- :
a) ; b)
16
3.2
8- 1-

C
B
*
*
0
0

A
*
0

Y
Y
0
1
D0
D0

D1

D1

D2

D2

D3

D3

D4

D4

D5

D5

D6

D6

D7

D7

EN
1
0

62

3.3.
3.3.1. -

(XOR) 2- , 1
, 1
. : 1, . -
(XNOR) : 1, .
. 3.3.
,
X Y = X Y + X Y .
3.3

-

XY

XY

( XOR )

( XNOR )

0
0
1
1

0
1
0
1

0
1
1
0

1
0
0
1

, ,
, .

, , , . 3.9.
, -, . 3.10.
, :
(
63

)
- .
X

a)

F =XY
Y
X

b)

F =XY
Y

. 3.9. 2-
: a) ;
b) -

, .
a)
b)
. 3.10. : a) ;
b) -

2.
,
, .
3.3.2.

n
, . 3.11a, n + 1 . ,
1, ,
.
64

,
ntp, tp ,
.
, . 3.11b, , ,
2 .
, 1, .

a)

X1
X2
X3
X4

Xn
X1
X2
X3
X4

b)
Xm
Xn
. 3.11. 2:
a) ; b)

3.4. -
- -, . 3.12, (transmission gate).
EN

U
-

. 3.12. -

EN
65

, EN EN
. EN ,
EN X Y ( 25 ).
EN , EN
, X Y .
,
X Y (
) .

- .
. 3.13 2- .
U

Z
Y
S

. 3.13. -

S ,
Z ;
S Z Y. , ,
S. ,
0.1
0.2 . Z , X
Y , .
,
. , . 3.13 66

6 . - -, 14 .

3.5.
,
, .
, , , ,

.
, , ,
. ,
, .
3.5.1.



. , ,
.

, , ,
.
. 3.14a -
. . 3.14b
X , EN
. 67

, , .
X

b)

READY
tRDY

tRDY

DATA
tDAT

a)
X
EN

tDAT

X
READY

READY

DATA

tRDYmin

tRDYmax

DATA

c)

tDATmin
tDATmax

. 3.14. :
a) ; b)
; c)

, ,
( . 3.14b) , ,
. , , .
,
. . 3.14b, , , X READY ,
X DATA.
EN ,
.
,
, :
.
,
. . 68

; tRDY tDAT.

(, t1, t2, ..., t32).
, , .
,
, ,
. , , . ,
. 3.14c, , tmin
tmax .
, : 1 0 0 1; , . (. 3.15) , :
, , , , ,
WRITE. . 3.15a .
, DATAIN , 0 1,
.
DATAOUT, .
.

. , , ,
, . 3.15b.
69

WRITE

a)

DATAIN

DATAOUT

tsetup tOUTmin

thold

tOUTmax
CLEAR

b)

COUNT
BUS[7:0]

3F

00

01

02

03

. 3.15. : a)
; b)
8-

3.5.2.


, ,
.
, ,
,
.
, (tpLH) , (tpHL).
, , , .
.
,
.

70

3.5.3.

,
.
.
,
.
. ,
, ,
, , . . , , .
. ,
. , , .

. - , ,
(tpLH tpHL),
- . -
,
.
,
. , ,
, , , , ,
. ,
,

.
71

3.5.4.

, ,
. , , (-, - ..) ,

,
tpLH tpHL. ,
(, ..)
,
tpLH tpHL .
, , , . ,
.
,
tpLH tpHL.
,
,
.
, , .
3.5.5.

,
.. , ,
. , , ,
,
, , 72

. ,
.
.
, .
, ,
, , .

(. 3.16), . , .
. 3.17 .
. .
1

Zn

Y
1

Zm

n , m
. 3.16. ,

. 3.17, ,
, . . ( ),
.

73

, .
X

Zn

Zm

Zn

tpn
t

Zm

tpm
t

a)

Zn

t
tpn
t

Zm

tp
t

b)

c)

. 3.17. ,
: a) ; b, c)


. , ,
CLK .

,
, .
, .
. 3.18.
1

Zn

-
Y

Zm

CLK

. 3.18.
CLK

. 3.19 .

74

X
Zn
Zm

Zn

tpn

tpn
t
tpm
t

CLK

Zm

tpm
t

CLK

b) tpn<tpm

a) tpn>tpm

. 3.19. ,

3.6.
1.
,
. 3.8, tpHL = tpLH.
2. -, , .
.
2

0
0
0
0
1
1
1
1

0
*
1
*
0
*
1
*

*
0
*
1
*
0
*
1

X0
X1
X2
X3
X4
X5
X6
X7

75

3. 104, 1 10,
- .
U

4. ,
- X1
,
,
.

X2
S
U

5.

? - A
,

-.

6. 4-
-.

0
1

MUX

2
3

0
1

7.
F,

tp.
?
76

X
tp

2tp 3tp 4tp 5tp

8. :
?
9. 7- 1010 1111?
10. - , :
X0

X1

X2

X3

X4

X5

X6

X7

Y0

Y1

Y2

1
*
*
*
*
*
*
*

0
1
*
*
*
*
*
*

0
0
1
*
*
*
*
*

0
0
0
1
*
*
*
*

0
0
0
0
1
*
*
*

0
0
0
0
0
1
*
*

0
0
0
0
0
0
1
*

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1

0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1

0
0
1
1
0
0
1
1

0
0
0
0
1
1
1
1

11. , ,
Y 1 ,
0, 1, 2, 3, 4 .
Y

MUX
X0 X1 X2 X3 X4 X5 X6 X7 X8 X9 X10 X11X12 X13 X14 X15

A0 A1 A2 A3
A4

12. ,
6 . ,
-.

77

4.
4.1.
, (). , ,
. .
( ). .
-
1- . . 4.1a
1- .

, 0 0 .
b)

)
A0
B0

A0
B0
A1
B1

A2
B2
A3
B3
. 4.1. :
a) 1- ; b) 4-

- -
, 4- ,
. 4.1b. ,
.

78

.
. 4.2 4- , . 4.3.
A0
B0
A1
B1
A2
B2
A3
B3

AEQB

BGTA

. 4.2.
4-

A0
B0
A1
B1

AEQB

A2
B2
A3
B3

BGTA

. 4.3. 4-

4 .
-,
, AEQB , , .
,
BGTA, A(30) < B(30).
79

4.2.
, .
- (),
.
,
;
.
, .
4.2.1.

, 1- X Y,
2- .
0 2 .
HS,
( ). HS
:
HS = X Y = XY + XY ,
CO = XY.
, . ,
,
. X Y, CIN.
0 3; - S
COUT, :
S = X Y CIN = X Y CIN + X Y CIN + X Y CIN + X Y CIN ,
COUT= X Y + X CIN + Y CIN.

S = 1,
, COUT = 1, -

80

. .

. 4.4a.
. 4.4b. , . 4.4c.

b)

a)
c)
. 4.4. : a) ; b)
; c) ,

4.2.2. ()

n-
() , n
. 4- . 4.5.

. 4.5. 4-

81

(0) 0,
.
,
.
, ,
11 ... 11, 00 ... 01. ,

t ADD = t XYCOUT + ( n 2 ) tCINCOUT + tCINS ,
tXYCOUT X Y COUT , tCINCOUT CIN COUT , tCINS
CIN S .
4.2.3. ()


.
, , .
i-
: si = xi yi ci.
ci 0i1, y0yi1 c0;
. , , , ci, .
. 4.6
. ,
, ci , ,
( ) i.

82

. 4.6.

:
1. gi,
, 1
(ci+1= 1) x0xi1, y0yi1
c0 .
2. pi,
1 xi yi.
1 (ci+1= 1) 1
(ci = l).

gi pi
:
gi = xi yi,
pi = xi + yi.
, i ,
1, ,
1.
:
ci+1 = gi + pi ci.
,
ci , 83

, -. ,

:
c 1 = g 0 + p0 c 0 ;
c 2 = g 1 + p1 c 1 =
= g1 + p1 (g0 + p0 c0) =
= g1 + p1 g0 + p1 p0 c0;
c 3 = g 2 + p2 c 2 =
= g2 + p2 (g1 + p1 g0 + p1 p0 c0) =
= g2 + p2 g1 + p2 p1 g0 + p2 p1 p0 c0;
c 4 = g 3 + p3 c 3 =
= g3 + p3 (g2 + p2 g1 + p2 p1 g0 + p2 p1 p0 c0) =
= g3 + p3 g2 + p3 p2 g1 + p3 p2 p1 g0 + p3 p2 p1 p0 c0.

, : ,
, gi pi, . (. 4.6)

.

, .
,
,

.
.
4-
. 4.7.

84

y3

x3

y1

x1

y0

x0

s3

s2

s1

s0

c4

y2

x2

g3

p3 c3

g2 p2

c2

g1 p1 c1

g0 p0

c0

. 4.7. 4-

. 4.8 4- . ,
,
.
g3
p3
c4

g2
p2

c3

g1
p1

c2

g0
p0

c1

c0
. 4.8. 4-

85

4.3.
1. 4- , -.
2. , -.
3. - - ?
4. 4- .

86

5.

, , , .
, , ,
, .
,
, ,
.
,

.
. .
,
, ,
.

, .
n
2n . 2n, , .
, ,
(clock). . 5.1
. , , ,
87

, , HIGH;
,
. ,
, ,
, .
, .

.

tL

tH
tper

tL
tper

tH

= tper
= 1/tper

. 5.1. : ) ;
b)

, .
, .
. . , , D-, ,
,

, .

88

5.1.
, , . 5.2,
. : Q
Q.
Uin1

Uout1

Uin2

Uout2

. 5.2.

5.1.1.

, . 5.2, ,
, , .
Q , ,
,
, . Q
,
,
Q. , ,
Q; : Q = 0
Q = 1. ,
, .

, .
, ,
, .
89

5.1.2.


. 1
. 5.3 ( ) ; : Uout = F(Uin).
, , . 5.2, : Uin1 = Uout2 Uin2 = Uout1;

, . , 1
. 5.2 ,
2 .
Uout1 =Uin2

Uout1 = F(Uin1)
Uout2 = F(Uin2)


Uin1 = Uout2

. 5.3.


, , ,
, , ,
.
Uin1 = Uout2 = F(Uin2) = F(Uout1) = F(F(Uin1)),
Uin2 = F(F(Uin2)).
. 5.3 , ,
, , . ,

90

, ,
: Q
0 ( ) 1 ( ).
, ( ), , Uout1 Uout2 , 1 0;
Q, Q
, . , ,
; , , .

5.2.

.
,
, . 5.3.
, - Uin1 .
Uout1.
Uout1
Uin2,

,
Uout2 , , Uin1. , , Uin1 , ,
, . ,

. 5.3. ,
,
, .

91

5.3.
.
(flip-flop) ,

, , . , (latch), ,
.

, ,
.
5.3.1. SR-

. 5.4 SR- -.
S R Q Q . Q Q.
S R 0, SR-
: : Q = 0 Q = 1.
R

Qn

Qn

0
0
1
1

0
1
0
1

Qn-1
0
1
0

Qn-1
1
0
0

. 5.4. SR-: ) -;
b) ,

. 5.4b,
S R, . S
(set) (preset) ,
Q 1; R (reset) 92

(clear) , Q 0. S R , ,
. . 5.5 , SR-
. ,
.
S
R
Q
Q
a)

b)

. 5.5. , SR-:
) ;
b) S R

. 5.6 SR. , .

, . ,
.
S

)
. 5.6. SR-: ) ;
b)

. 5.7 SR-. tp 93

.
, ,
, -.
S
1

tpLH(SQ)

tpHL(RQ)

tpw(min)

tpw(min)

. 5.7. SR-

,
, , . SR- S
Q ;
tpLH(SQ) ( 1 . 5.7). R Q tpHL(RQ) ( 2 . 5.7).
S R . S R ,
tpw(min), ,
5.7, . ,
S R.
, SR- , S R . , , ( ,
, S R
94

).
trec (recovery time). S R , . trec . ,
.
5.3.2. S R -

. 5.8 - . SR - ,
SR-, -
-.
S

Q
Q

a)

b)

c)

S
0
0
1

R
0
1
0

Qn
1
1
0

Qn
1
0
1

Qn-1

Qn-1

. 5.8. SR -: ) -;
b) ;
) ,

, , ,
SR -
SR-; , . , S R ,
S = R = 1 ;
. -,

S R 1, 0, SR-. 95

, SR - , SR-,
.

5.4. SR-
SR- SR - S R

.
,
, . SR . 5.9.
, SR -, ,
1, , SR-,
, 0,
S R.
S

C
R

a)

S
C
R

b)

Q
Q

S
0
0
1
1
c)
*

R
0
1
0
1
*

Qn Qn
1 Qn1 Qn1
1 0
1
1 1
0
1 1
1
0 Qn1 Qn1

. 5.9. SR- : )
-; b) ;
) ,

. 5.10 ,
. S R 1 ,
1 0, SR-
S R :
,
.

96

,
0

,
1

S
R
C
Q
Q
. 5.10. , SR-

5.5. D-
SR- ,

,
( ),
. .
, , ,
D-.
D- . 5.11.
SR- ,
D S R.
SR- ,
S R .
D

C
Q

a)

b)

C
1
1
0

D Q nQ n
0 0 1
1 1 0
* Qn-1 Qn-1

c)

. 5.11. D-: a) -;
b) ;
) ,
97

. 5.11
, ENABLE CLK. D-,
.
, D, . 5.12.
D
C
Q
. 5.12. , D-

1, Q D. , ; . ,
; Q , .
, D-, . 5.13.
D
C

tpLH(Q)

tpHL(DQ)

tpLH(DQ)

Q
tpHL(CQ) tpLH(DQ) tsetup thold

. 5.13. D-

,
D
Q. ,
1 4. , D
Q, ,
1, Q
tpLH(CQ) tpHL(CQ).
98

2 3 1 ,
Q
D, tpHL(DQ) tpLH(DQ). Q .
D- , ,
SR-, S = R = 1, , , . . 5.13
, D
. ,
, tsetup (setup
time). thold (hold time). D , ,
;
, .
D-
, . 5.14, 2 2 - , 6 -.
D

Q2

In1

In2

Q
Q1
+U

. 5.14. D-

1 , - Q1 , n- Q2 . In1 , D. Q Q
D D , .
0 Q1 ,
Q2 . , Q , 99

D
. .

5.6. D-,
D-, ,

, . 5.15,
Q Q ,
CLK, D. (master); CLK, 0,
. CLK 1, ,
, (slave).
, CLK 1.
,

.
D

LK

QM D

D
0
Q 1
*
Q

a)

b)

CLK

0
1

Qn
0
1
Qn-1
Qn-1

Qn
1
0
Qn-1
Qn-1

LK Q

c)

. 5.15. D-, :
) D-; b) ,
; )

CLK D .
.
. 5.16 , D-. (Master) QM.
CLK, 0. CLK 1, 100

QM (Slave)
Q. QM , CLK
0.
D
CLK
QM
Q
Q
. 5.16. D-,

D-
. 5.17.
CLK,
.

.
D
CLK
Q
tpLH(Q)

tpHL(CQ)

tsetup thold

. 5.17. D-,

D-, D-, , ,
D . , CLK, . 5.17 . , ,
0 1, , , .
101


0 1,
. ,
. D ,
; . 5.17.
D- , D- , D-, , CLK.
, ,
. 5.18.
D- ,

CLK D.
PR (preset, ) S (set) CLR (clear, ), R (reset); D- SR.
D

QM D

Q
Q

LK

b)

a)

D
0
1

CLK

*
*

0
1

Qn
0
1
Qn-1
Qn-1

Qn
1
0
Qn-1
Qn-1

LK Q

c)

. 5.18. D-, :
) D-; b) ,
; )

D - . 5.19. -

102


.
S
D

S
Q
D
CLK
Q
R

CLK
R

b)

a)

. 5.19. D-, ,
: )
-; b)

D-, ,

, . , . 5.20. .
S
Q1

CLK

Q1

Q2

Q3

Q3

Q2

. 5.20. D-,

103

5.7. D-
, D
,
.
(enable input), EN CE
(clock enable).
, .
. 5.21, 2-
, D- .
EN , D-; EN , D-
. , , ,
. 5.21b.
. 5.21; ,
EN.
D
EN

CLK

CLK

a)
D

EN

b)

CLK

Q
Q

D
0

EN CLK Qn
1
0
1

Qn
1

Qn-1 Qn-1

Qn-1 Qn-1

Qn-1 Qn-1

c)

. 5.21. D- :
) ; b) , ;
)

5.8. SR-
SR- , -

1 0. , 104


, , SR-,
D-,
.
D- D-, (. 5.18), SR-, SR- (, ), . 5.22.
D- SR- .

,
, ,
1 .
S
R

S
C
R

Q
Q

QM
QM

a)
S

c)

CLK
R

S
C
R

Q
Q

CLK Qn

Qn

Qn-1 Qn-1
Qn-1 Qn-1

undef undef

b)

. 5.22. SR-: ) SR-; b) ,


(undef );
)

. 5.23, S , 1, ; R . ,
, , ,
1.
105

,
0

,
1

S
R
C
QM
QM
Q
Q
. 5.23. ,
SR-

. 5.22 SR-
, . , S
R , 1, , 0.
SR- . , ,
.

S R ,
SR- .

QM QM 1. 0, ; , . ,
.

106

5.9. -
, CLK, -. . 5.24 -,
, , .
CLK

CLK

a)

b)

. 5.24. -, :
) ; b)

Q
. - D-, . 5.25. .
D

CLK Q

. 5.25. -
D-

, , -
, , - (. 5.26).
EN Q
Q

a)

EN

b)

. 5.26. - ,
: ) ;
b)


, EN
107

.
D-, , EN
, ,
.
EN , . 5.27.
EN

CLK Q

. 5.27. -
D-

5.10.
1. SR-, . 5.4,

, .
, - 10 .
10 .
S
t

R
t

2. D (. 5.11), Q D
,
.

,
-
5 .
5 .

108

3. . 5.27 , D-
- . , : - , D-.
4. Q0, Q1 OUT. .
X

Q1

Q0

OUT

D Q

DQ
C

C
5

10

15

20

25

CLK
X

5. ) DD0
.
) Q0, Q1, Y = 1,
= 0. 0.
Q0

D Q
C

D Q
C

DD0

DD1

Q1

109

6. Q1, Q2, Q3.


.

CLK

X
Y

7. Q1, Q2 OUT. .
EN

OUT
D
C

Q1

Q2

CLK
CLK
EN

8. Q0, Q1. .
A
B

Q1
D Q
C
CLK

A
B

Q0
5

CLK

110

10

15

20

25

6. ,
6.1.
(counter) , (. 6.1). . m m;
m.
, 2, , .
S0

S1

S2

S3

S(m 2)

S(m 1)

. 6.1.

n-
. n ,
2n , 0,
1, 2, , 2n 1, 0, 1, n- .
6.1.1.

n- n .
n = 4 . 6.2. , - ( ) . ,
, ,
, 1
0. :
, , 1 0, 111

. ,
. , .
Q0
CLK

Q
Q

Q1

Q
Q

Q2

Q
Q

Q3

Q
Q

. 6.2. 4-

6.1.2.


, , .
,
,
, n tTQ, CLK, tTQ .

CLK,

tTQ. . 6.3, - ; , , ,
EN .
, , ,
,
EN.

112

. 6.3. 4-

. 6.3 , CNTEN. -
, CNTEN 1 , .
, n ,
;
- 2- .
, . 6.3, , .
,
.
. 6.4,
EN
.
,
.
113

. 6.4. 4-

6.1.3.

4-
74163 ;
.
. 6.5. (. 6.1),
. 6.6.
-, a D, . D-
2- , .
0, CLR 0.
(, , D) , LD 0.
CLR LD ,

114

-.
74163

. 6.5.
74163

6.1
4- 74163
CLR

LD

ENT

ENP

QD n

QC n

QB n

QA n

QDn+1

QCn+1

QBn+1

QAn+1

QDn

QCn

QBn

QAn

1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1

1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1

*
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1

0
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1

*
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1

*
0
0
0
0
1
1
1
1
0
0
0
0
1
1
1
1

*
0
0
1
1
0
0
1
1
0
0
1
1
0
0
1
1

*
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1

QDn
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
0

QCn
0
0
0
1
1
1
1
0
0
0
0
1
1
1
1
0

QBn
0
1
1
0
0
1
1
0
0
1
1
0
0
1
1
0

QAn
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0

115

163 -.
,
(QA, QB, QC QD); 1,
, , , ENP ENT
, , 1.
CLK
LD

CLR
A

D Q
CK Q

D Q
CK
Q

D Q
CK
Q

D Q
CK Q

QA

QB

QC

QD

RCO
ENP
ENT

. 6.6. 4-
74163

116

RCO ( ) ; 1, 1 , , ENT.
, , ,
, .
. 6.7 , , 163 , . 6.8
. QA , . , 163 2, 4, 8 16;
.
74163
CLOCK
+5 B
R

CLK
CLR
U1
LD
ENP
ENT
A
QA
B
QB
C
QC
D
QD
RCO

QA
QB
QC
QD
RCO

. 6.7. 74163

163 ; ,

CLK. ;
74161. 161 , 163,
CLR .

117

CLK
QA
QB
QC
QD
RCO
COUNT

10

11

12

13

14

15

. 6.8. 4- ,
16


74160 74162; ,
161 163, , : 9 0. , 10; .
. 6.9 160
162 . QD QC CLK, 1 0, . . .
CLK

QA
QB
QC
QD
RCO
COUNT

. 6.9. 4- ,
10

163 16, CLR LD ,


118

, 16,
. . 6.10, ,
163 11.
15, RCO , ,
5; 5 15 5,
11 .
. 6.11 11.
74163
CLOCK
+5 B

CLK
CLR
U1
LD
ENP QA
ENT QB
A
QC
B
QD
C
RCO
D

QA
QB
QC
QD

74 04
CNT1
U2
CNT15

. 6.10. 74163 11
5, 6, , 15, 5, 6,
74163
CLOCK
+5 B

CLK
CLR
U1
LD
ENP QA
ENT QB
A
QC
B
QD
C
RCO
D

Q0
Q1
Q2
Q3
74 00
CNT10

U2

. 6.11 74163 11
0, 1, 2, , 10, 0, 1,

119

,
10, -; ,
, 0.
, 10 (
1010) . CNT10 = Q3 Q2 Q1 Q0
4- , 2- , 0 10 Q3 = 1 Q1 = 1. N , 0 N,
, N.
74163, , 16. . 6.12
. CLK, CLR LD 163 , ,
.
CNTEN 163, .
RCO4 ,
163 15 CNTEN; RCO4
163, .

CLOCK
RESET
LOAD
CNTEN
D0
D1
D2
D3

74163

74163

CLK
CLR
U1
LD
ENP
QA
ENT
QB
A
QC
B
QD
C
RCO
D

CLK
CLR
U2
LD
ENP
QA
ENT
QB
A
QC
B
QD
C
RCO
D

Q0
Q1
Q2
Q3
RCO4

D4
D5
D6
D7

Q4
Q5
Q6
Q7
RCO8

. 6.12. 74163

120

, 4- .
, . 6.3,
;
.
163
ENP ENT,
, .
163,
: ENT
. .
,
74163, 74169; . 6.13. 169 ,

. ,
169 :
UP/DN.
UP/DN 1, ; UP/DN 0,
.
74 169

. 6.13.
74169

121

6.1.4.

, 1 m, . , :
, . .
. 6.14 ,
74163, 8, 38
74138; ,
,
. . 6.15
.
() .
74163
CLOCK
+5 B

CLK
CLR
LD
ENP U1
ENT
A
QA
B
QB
C
QC
QD
D
RCO

74138

Q1
Q2
Q3

G1
G2A
G2B
U2
A
B
C

Y0
Y1
Y2
Y3
Y4
Y5
Y6
Y7

S0
S1
S2
S3
S4
S5
S6
S7

. 6.14. 8


. 163 , 0 1
, .

122

CLOCK
S0
S1
S2
S3
S4
S5
S6
S7
COUNT

. 6.15. ,
8 ,

, ; , Y1 ,
Y1 . ,
, 011, 100, Y1
. ,

; .
,
. 6.15, ,
, ,
. ,

,
, .


S R SR -.
123

,
, .
, . 6.15,
138 8 D- (8 ),
(. 6.16).
, .
, 8- ,

, 6.2.5.
74374

+5 B
CLOCK

74163
CLK
CLR
LD U1
ENP
ENT
A QA
B QB
C QC
D QD
RCO

Q1
Q2
Q3

74138
G1 Y0
G2A Y1
G2B Y2
U2 Y3
Y4
A
Y5
B
Y6
C
Y7

S0
S1
S2
S3
S4
S5
S6
S7

CLK
OE U3
1D 1Q
2D 2Q
3D 3Q
4D 4Q
5D 5Q
6D 6Q
7D 7Q
8D 8Q

RS1
RS2
RS3
RS4
RS5
RS6
RS7
RS8

. 6.16. 8

6.2.
6.2.1.

, n-
.
, . -

124

, .
n- , . . 6.17

.
SERIN
CLOCK

D Q
C

D Q
C

D Q
C

SEROUT

. 6.17.

SERIN ,
.
SEROUT
n . , n n .
, . 6.18,
,
. .
Q0
SERIN
CLOCK

D Q
C

Q1
D Q
C

Q(n 1)

D Q
C

. 6.18.


. . 6.19 .

125

D0

D1

D(n 1)

. 6.19.


LOAD/SHIFT
D0D(n 1), . , SERIN.
D- 2- , .

.
,
. 6.20 .
.
. , , ,
.
126

, , ,
.

Q0
D0

Q1
D1

Q(n 1)
D(n 1)

. 6.20.

6.2.2.

. 6.21 8- , . 74164 ,
CLR .
, . , , SERA SERB.
74166 .
,
SH/LD 1;
.
127

c)

)
74164

74166

74194

a)

b)

d)

)
)
) : ) 8-
. 6.21.

; b) 8-
;
) 74166;
d) 74166
166
, : ,
(. 6.21). 166 , CLK , ,
CLKINH CLK,
, CLKINH,
, , . , ,
CLKINH ,
CLK 1;
.
. 6.2
74194 : , -

128

(AD, RIN, LIN) (QAQD).


6.2
4-
7419

S1 S0
0
0
0
1
1
0
1
1


QAn+1 QB n +1 QC n +1 QD n +1
QAn
QBn
QCn
QDn
QBn
QCn
QAn
RIN
QCn
QDn
QBn
LIN
A
B
C
D

194 ,
, (, ,

). 194, , ,
.
6.2.3. -

. 6.22
.

:
, , .
,
,
, . ,
.
:
.
129

CLOCK
SYNC

SDATA

. 6.22.

.
, , .
,
.
6.2.4.

-
,
, .
, . .

, , , .

130

6.2.5.

n- , n , .
. 6.23 .
. 100,
. D Qn1,
: 0100 00, 0010 00, 0001 00, 0000 10, 0000 01,
1000 00, . , n
, .
. 6.24
4- .
Q0
D Q
C

CLOCK

Q(n1)

Q1
D Q
C

D Q
C

. 6.23. n- n ,
1

CLOCK
Q0
Q1
Q2
Q3
STATE

S1

S2

S3

S4

S1

S2

. 6.24.
4-

. 6.23 .
1 (, - ), 0000 131

. 1 (,
0101) ,
.
, , 16.
. 6.25, 12
. - , .
,
, .

. 6.25.

. 6.26 . - D , n 1 0. , . 6.27 4 ; . , , 0001


.
, , ,
.

132

Q0
Q1
Q(n2)
Q1
Q(n2)

Q0
CLOCK

D Q
C

D Q
C

Q(n1)

D Q
C

. 6.26. 4- ,
1

n- (n 1)- -, ,
n 1 .
, , ,
1 n. , . ,
; ,
(. 6.14, 6.15).

. 6.27.

6.2.6.

n-
2n .
133

. . 6.28 n-
, , 4 , . 6.29.
Q1

Q0
D Q
C

CLOCK

D Q
C

Q(n1)

Q(n2)
D Q
C

. 6.28. n-

CLOCK
Q0
Q1
Q2
Q3
STATE

S1

S2

S3

S4

S5

S6

S7

S8

S1

S2

S3

. 6.29.
4-

6.2.7.

n- , 2n.
n-
2n 1 , .

( ).
,

(18111832). 2n
.
. 6.30 n-
. 134

2 ,
. , .
, , , .

hn1
X(n1)
Xn

CLOCK

DIN

hn2
X(n2)

hn3
X(n3)

h1
X1

X0

n-

CLK

. 6.30.

( 1)-
( DIN) (
2) ,
. hi, i = n 1, , 1, ,
(hi = 1)
,
(hi = 0). - 1,
CLOCK 0 ( ) , .
, - ,
2 1: ,
,
,
2 1.
, , ,
2 1 ,
135

h ( x ) = x n + hn 1 x n 1 + ... + h1 x + 1 , , . , h(x) , , 0- , ,
, 1. , h(x)
xm + 1
m < 2n 1.
. 6.3 n , , . n 3- ,
, .
6.3

n
2 X 2 = X1 X 0
3 X3 = X1 X0
4 X 4 = X1 X 0
5 X5 = X2 X0
6 X 6 = X1 X0
7 X7 = X3 X0
8 X8 = X 4 X3 X2 X0
12 X12 = X 6 X 4 X1 X0
16 X16 = X5 X 4 X3 X0
20 X 20 = X3 X0
24 X 24 = X7 X 2 X1 X0
28 X 28 = X3 X0
32 X32 = X 22 X 2 X1 X0
, . 6.30
. 6.31, 2n -

136

.
, ,
.
. 6.32 ( ) 3- .

. 6.4. (
100) ,
.
n-



(. . 6.3)
RESET

Xn1
Xn2
Xn3
Xn
X2
X1
X0

. 6.31.

,
2n , ;
3- , . 6.32, , .

CLK

D Q
D Q
D Q Q0
Q1
Q2
C
C
C
. 6.32. 3- 23

137

, . 6.4.
n- : - n 1 ,
, Q0.
6.4
3- ,
. 6.32

Q2
Q1
Q0
Q2
Q1
Q0
1
0
0
1
0
0
0
1
0
0
1
0
0
0
1
1
0
1
1
1
0
1
1
0
1
1
1
1
1
1
0
1
1
0
1
1
0
0
1
0
0
1
1
0
0
0
0
0

1
0
0


.
.

.
,
, , , .

, .
. , , (
138

U + U) ,
.

6.3.
1. 4- D-,
.
2. 4- ,
, D, .
3. 4- ,
. 6.7,
12 3, 4, 5, , 13,
14, 3, 4, 5,
4. 129, 4 (. 6.7) .
5. ,
, 12. , .
D

EN
C
R

139

6. Q0, Q1, Q2, Q3. .


1,0,0,0.
Q3
Q2
Q1

D Q
C

Q0

CLK

7. .
OUT.
1,1,1,1,1.
OUT

CLK

140

D Q
C

D Q
C

D Q
C

D Q
C

D Q
C

7.

7.1. ,
, , . ,
, .
, ,
. , , ()
. ,
, ( , ). , ,
: f d = 1 T . : d = 2 T .

,
.
, ,
,
.
,
.

, .
, , ,
.
.

( ) .
141

, , ,
, , ,
, . ,
. 7.1.
n

5
4

3
2

1
0
10 2

10

. 7.1. (), ( )
()

,
, . , , ,
.
, ().

7.2. -

. 7.2. u(t).
- ().
, , , . , (),
.
;

.
, 142

. u(t) ().
( . 7.2);

().
u(t)
u

(x0,x1,x2, )

(y0,y1,y2, )
u

u
t

u(t)

. 7.2.

, . 7.2,
.
, , .

7.3.

,
f N = f d 2 = 1 ( 2T ) ; N = d 2 = T ). . 7.3.

.
1. ,
(. 7.3).
2. , ,
( ) (. 7.3b). , 143

, .
3. ,
( , ) ,
(. 7.3c).
(aliasing).
a)
t

b)

c)

. 7.3.

, ,
(, , ). - ( )
, .

7.4.

, . , () .
144


- .
{x(k)} :

s (t ) =

x ( k ) (t k ) .

(7.1)

k =

, ,
,
:

S ( ) =

x ( k ) e

jk

(7.2)

k =


: , 2 ( , , -, , d = 2):
S ( 2 ) = S ( ) .
:
. , - , (7.1), .
(7.2)
x(k). ;
MATLAB fft.
. x(k) s(t), :
x(k) = s(kT).
, (7.2)
S().
-,
s(kT) s(t) (. 7.4):

sd ( t ) =

s ( kT ) ( t kT ) .

(7.3)

k =

145

sd(t)

0 T 2T 3T

. 7.4.
-

,

.
(t kT) ,
t = kT, (7.3) s(kT) s(t):

sd ( t ) = s ( t ) ( t kT ) .

(7.4)

k =

, , (7.4), ,
.
T 2

1
1
jn t
Cn =

e
dt
=
.
(
)
T T 2
T

(7.5)

(7.5) ,
(/2, /2) -, k = 0.
, :

( t kT ) =

k =

1 jn t
e ,
T n =

n = 2n T . (7.6) (7.4),

sd ( t ) =

146

s (t )
T

n =

jn t

1
= s ( t ) e jnt .
T n =

(7.6)

exp ( j n t ) n,
:
1
2n
S d ( ) = S
(7.7)
.
T n =
T
, s(t) (. 7.5).

d = 2 T .
, - (7.7)
1/T , ( , , (t)
).
S d ( )

d /2

d /2

. 7.5.

-
:
;
.
(7.2), {x(k)},
.
(7.7) , {x(k)} s(t), .
, .
147

.
{x(k)}
. , ,
.
(7.7) ,
{x(k)} = {s(kT)} (7.2).
. 7.5
.
() , .
. 7.5 .
, ,
. . 7.5 ,
, :
d > 2h.
(7.8)

(aliasing),
7.3. 0, ,
.
. 7.6 .
Sa ( )

a)
d

0
d +0

0
d 0

S d ( )

b)
2d +0

2d 0

. 7.6. (a) (b)


,

148

, ,
( ) d 0
(. 7.6b). , 0 d 0, .
, . 7.3.
, (7.8) ,
, (. 7.7).
S d ( )

d /2

d /2

. 7.7.

,
, ,
d /2, ;

.

, ,
, (. 7.8).
.

0...d /2 . 149


.
Sa ( )

a)

d /2

d /2

d /2

d /2

d /2

d /2

S a ( )

b)

c)

Sd ( )

. 7.8. ,
(), (b),
(c)

7.5.
,
.
, ,
.
(7.7), , d.
. 7.5 , , 150

(d /2), .

() ,
, , , .
, , . 7.9a. , , 1/T (7.7).
(. 7.9b):
t
sin
T.
h (t ) =
(7.9)
t

T
h(t) 1

K ( )
T

a)

b)

. 7.9. - (a) (b)


(7.3)
-. -
.
( ),
,
(7.9):

151

t kT
sin

s ( t ) = s ( kT )
.
(7.10)
t

kT
k =

T
, : s(t), h = 2fh,

{s(kT)}, T,
:

=
.
2 f h h

(7.11)

s(t) {s(kT)}
(7.10).
,
(sampling theorem).
(7.10) s(t)
{k(t)}, :
t kT
sin

k ( t ) =
.
t kT

T
. 7.10. , (7.10),
.
7.10 .
, (
2,1, 4, 5, 6) .
, .

152

5
4
3
2
1
0
1

. 7.10.


:
, , . .
, ,
. .

.

153

7.6.
1. -?
2.
,
?
3. ?
4. , ,
, ?

154

8.
8.1. ()
,
, ; .
N,
,
N
U =
U max ,
(8.1)
N max
Umax ,
Nmax.

(8.2)
N = an 1 2n 1 + an 2 2n 2 + ... + a1 21 + a0 20 ,
ai = 0, 1.
, , , Nmax =2n 1 , , Nmax 2n,
(8.1) :
(8.3)
U U max an 1 2 1 + an 2 2 2 + ... + a1 2 ( n 1) + a0 2 n .

,
, , , :
n 1

U = U max ai 2( n i ) .

(8.4)

i =0

,
,
n 1

U = ( 1) U max ai 2
an

( n i )

(8.5)

i =0


,
. :
155

, R2R.
, (8.3), R2ni.
. 8.1 .
0, 1, ..., 1, .

, .
T0
a0

K1

Tn 1

R
I

R2n 2

D Q2
C

an 1

R2n 1

D Q1
C
T2

a2

K0

D Q0
C
T1

a1

R2n

R21

K2

Kn 1

D Q(n
C
U

. 8.1. ,
R2n i


. i- 1, Ki R2n i
; 0, .
156

,
.
.
. , ,
U, . .
, ( R),
:
n 1
U ai U n 1 ai
I =
=

,
(8.6)
n i
R i = 0 2n i
i =0 R 2
U = IR,
n 1

ai
.
(8.7)
n i
2
i =0
;
2 . ,
.
R 2R
(. 8.2).
, ,
. , , 2R
i- ,
U a
I i = n ii1 ,
2R 2

n 1
U a
I = n ii1 .
i =0 2 R 2
,
U = U

157

U n 1 ai
=

.
2 i = 0 2n i 1

(8.8)

2R
2R

T0
a0

K0

D Q0
C
R
2R

T1
a1

K1

R
I

D Q1
C

R
2R

T2
a2

D Q2
C

an 1

K2

R
2R

Tn 1

Kn 1

D Qn 1
C
U

. 8.2. R2R.

,
.

.
2R Ii,
. , ,
, 158

, . , ,
.
.
,
,
. , , , , ( ) Ki.

8.2. - ()
-
.
, ,

, , . :
;
;
( ).
8.2.1. - ,

, .
(). , . .
.
159

,
, .
. .

(. 8.3).

T n-
R
Q(n1)
Q0 Q1 Q2

Q
Nx

-
U

Q
U

U
t
U
t

. 8.3. -
,

, , S RS-, 1.

. 160

, U , , . .
. ,
(). U . U Ux RS 0,
. Nx,
,
U.

.
t tmax = ( 2n 1) t .
.
,
.
. .
(. 8.4).

,
. ,
,
,
h U x ( t ) t , U x ( t ) , h .

161

UP
T

n-

U U

Nx

Q0 Q1 Q2

Q(n - 1)

n-
U

. 8.4. : ) ;
b) ,


, t
. , , , ,
,
, ,
, , .
. , , , 8...10 . ,

.
, . 8.5.

162

R
Ux

Nt

N2t
N1
t

Ux1
Ux2

1- 2-

S Q
R

EN

b)

CEO

Q0 Q1

Q2

Q(n1)

Nx

. 8.5. : ) ,
b) ,

.

= Nt, N , .

T
U xT
1
,
(8.9)
U1 ( T ) =
U
t
dt
=

(
)
x
RC 0
RC
U x .
() U, . U
K.
, (. 8.5), C.
U
t= x T.
(8.10)
U

163

, U x ,

, t,
U x :

Ux
N max .
(8.11)
U
,
.
-,
, .
.
, . , , , 50 , ,
, .
-,
, .
Nx =

8.2.2.

- .
.
, 2i , i = n 1, 2, ..., 2, 1, 0
( , ). ,
2 . , .
.
, .
164

, 0 2
. ( ) ,
1 .
. ,
,

. . - ()
2 1 . ,
= 10 106107 .
, ,
,
16 .
. 8.6
. ().
.
S 1 [Q(n 1) = 1],
0. S = 1, , , .
S 0, . ,
, , D,
, D 165

0 1;
, D.
D
, .
S 0, ,
. ,
S ,
1.

S
C

n-

()

Nx

Q(n 1)

Q2

Q1

Q0

n-

. 8.6.

(Q(n 1) = 1,
Q(n2) = = Q1 = Q0 = 0), U = U max 2 . Ux
( 0,U max ) ,
UC = 0, ( 1)- S = 0.
( 1)- R-2R ; ( 1)-
1, ( 1)- R-2R . ,
, ( 1)- ,

166

( 2)-
, U ,
U max 4 . Ux U
( 2)- 1 0; U ,
U max 4 . , ,
( 2), , 1, 0. , i- (i = 1, , ) , U max 2i Ux,
, .
Ux
,
.
. 8.7 ,
4- .
(
) Ux = 9.5 ,
Ux = 6.5 .

Q3
Q2
Q1
Q0
U
U

12
10
8
6
4
2
0

t
1
1

2
0

3
0

4
1

1
1

2
1

3
1

4
0

. 8.7. 4-

167

8.2.3.

( )
2 1 . , (2 1)
. ,
, ,
2 1. ,
.
, () ,
.
2 1 , . , , - .
. 8.8 3-
. . ,
108 1.5

2,2 . ,
( ) . 108,
, 5 .
10 - AD9060.
512 , 9
. .

168

Ux
E

Q2

D2

D1

D0

Q1

Nx

Q0

. 8.8. 3-

8.2.4. -

() . -, , ,
. . , 13- AD7550 .
,
169

.
.
,
. -,
, , , .
- .

: ( ,
) ( ). , , , , , , .
- . n- -
. 8.9.
U(t) U(t)
, . , .
(
).

CLK

. 8.9. -

170


. - N-
N , N
/ , . -
AD7720 ADMOD79 .
CLK
U

()

n
+U

. 8.10. -

- , (), (. 8.10).
. 8.1 . 8.11 , 0,6 , U = 1 . .
. .
. 8.1 .
2 7 ,
U = 0,6 .
0,6 :
(1 1 + 1 + 1 + 1)/5 = 0,6.

- .
.
171

8.1
U=0,6

U=0

N U, U, U, U, N U, U, U, U,
1

0,6

0,6

-0,4

0,2

-1

-1

-0,4

-0,2

-1

1,6

1,4

-1

-1

-0,4

1,0

-0,4

0,6

-1

-1

-0,4

0,2

-0,4

-0,2

-1

-1

-1

1,6

1,4

10

-0,4

1,0

10

-1

-1

11

-0,4

0,6

11

12

-0,4

0,2

12

-1

-1

13

-0,4

-0,2

-1

13

14

1,6

1,4

14

-1

-1

15

-0,4

1,0

15

16

-0,4

0,6

16

-1

-1

CLK
U

1.6
1.2
0.8

0.4
0
0.4
1.2
0.8
0.4
0
0.4

U
U
+1
1

10

11

12

13

. 8.11. ,
-

172

14

15

4- .
16- 13. , U= 1
, 16, .. . U = 1 ,
. U = 0, , . 8.1,
810 10002. ,
.
11112 +710,
00002 810. U = 0,6 ,
. 1, 1310 ,
+5. , +8 U= 1 ,
51/8 = 0,625 > 0,6 .
, D-, , K fCLK.
, , -, .
-
.
-
.
-
- () (sinx/x)3.
z-

1 z M
,
W ( z) =
1

M
1
z
(
)
, .
,
. , AD7714
19 4000.

173

sin ( M f f CLK )
H(f )=
.

M
sin
f
f
(
CLK )

. 8.12 - ,
fCLK = 38,4 = 192,
,
, f = 50 .

- .

- .
(sinx/x)3 ,
.
- . , AD7730 AD7731, ,
1 13
( Fast-Step ). , .
,
0
20
40
60
80
100
0

50

100

150

f,

. 8.12. -

174

- .
-
,
. , -
, , , .
- ( ),
. ,
- ,
. , , 24- -
AD7714 24 , 3 , 18-
HI-7159 75 .
, -
34 ,
, 50 , 20 6080 ,
HI-7159 18-
140 .

8.3. ()

,
.
, .

, .
.

U(t) {U(tn)} (n = 1, 2, ...),
175

. , .
,
, ,
.
, ,
RC -
t = t RC 1

( ) (. 8.13). , 3.4.
RC
R
, .

, ,
.
R

uout u(t)

uin

u(tn1) t

uin
uout
u(tn)

b)

. 8.13. ,
: ) ,
b) , t RC 1


uout
1
,
(8.12)
=
uin 1 + j ( f f 0 )
176

f 0 = 1 2RC , R .
,
j ( f f0 )
u
.
(8.13)
1 out =
uin 1 + j ( f f 0 )
(8.13), RC = 160 (f0 = 1 )
f = 10 1%.
100 10%. .
.

.
, . ,
. , C
. ,
. . .
RC

.

177

8.4.
1. ,
. 8.2, , (. 8.1)?
2.
?
3.
?
4. ?
5. .
6.
. ?
7. -
.
8.
?
9. ,
, 2?
2

uin

178

uout

9.
, . , ,
, ,
.
. () () ,
. , , . ,
, .

. , ,

,
,
.
- , (
1 1.4 ).
- ,
.

179

9.1.
(, ROM) , , n b (. 9.1).
0, 1, ... , (n 1).
, , D0, D1, , D(b 1).
2n b
A0
A1
A2

D0
D1

. 9.1.
2nb

A(n2) D(b 1)
A(n1)


n b . . 9.1

3 4 . 234 = (84).
9.1

3 4

A2
A1
A0
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
1
0
0
1
1
1
0
0
1
0
1
1
1
0
1
1
1

180

D3
1
1
1
0
0
0
0
1

D2
D1
1
1
1
0
0
1
1
1
0
0
0
1
1
0
0
0

D0
0
1
1
1
1
0
0
0

, ,
,
.

, , . , .
, , .
,
.
, , . , .

9.1.1.
. 9.1 24 . : 84,
(. 9.2),
, . 9.3.
84
I0
I1
POL

A0
A1
A2

D0
D1
D2
D3

Y0
Y1
Y2
Y3

. 9.2. 84, . 9.1,


24

181

. 9.3. 24

9.1.2.
, , . 0 1
.
. 9.4 84,
,
.
.
(word line):
, . ,
2,A1,0 = 101.
ROW5 .
. 9.4 (bit line),
. LOW
, , .

182

5 ( D1 ) .
D3, D2, D1, D0 ; 0010.
+5 B
74138
G1

Y0

G2A

Y1

G2B
Y2
1

A0

A1

A2

Y3
Y4
Y5
Y6
Y7

ROW0

HIGH

ROW1

HIGH

ROW2

HIGH

ROW3

HIGH

ROW4

HIGH

ROW5

LOW

ROW6

HIGH

ROW7

HIGH
HIGH D0
LOW

D1

HIGH D2
HIGH D3

D0 0
D1 1
D2
D3

0
0

. 9.4. 84
(LOW , HIGH )

. 9.4
.
, 1,
0.
. 9.4 24, . 9.1.
: 38 , 24.
183

38.
.

9.1.3.
, 1281, , .
7128, 128
7- - 14
, 64.
,
201 048 576.
, .

,
. . 9.5
1281. 6, A5, 4 . (6, 5, 4, , , , ) 16 .
, 16 . 16-

.

1281, 38 16-
(
416). 11 , 101024 1024- , . ,
.
, -, , , ,
.

184

A4
A5
A6

0
1
2
3

3 8

+5 B

D0

. 9.5. 1281,

, , :
,
. ,
11, , ,
.

9.1.4.
, , . .
, . 9.2 .

185

9.2

10

< 100

PROM

< 100

10 /

EPROM

25

10 /

EEPROM

50

1050
/

;

;

;

;

; ;

:
5
6
10 10



.
, .

- . , ,
,
. ; .
,
; ,
, . , .
186

(PROM) ,
,
( ) PROM. PROM
. ,
, , 1.
. PROM,
, . (1030 ) .
PROM .
- ,
; ,
- , . PROM.
(erasable programmable
read-only memory, EPROM) PROM,
, ,
, 1. , . EPROM
, : -
. , . 9.6, n-
- .
,
, ..
.
. .
,
.
-.
U ( )
187

, .

n+

n+
p

U1

U2 u

. 9.6.

(),
U

,
.
,
( )

.
,
. , .
, ( )

, . . ,
( ) ( ) .
( )

(CHE-Channel Hot Electrons), -.

188


,
, , , (

).
. 9.7, EPROM
- .
EPROM , 70% ,
, 10 , 125 ; EPROM .
.

. , EPROM , 520 .
EPROM , , .
+U

. 9.7. EPROM -

EPROM
.
EPROM ,
189

, EPROM,
. PROM
, EPROM . , , PROM. PROM EPROM, ;
.
(EEPROM)
EPROM, , . EEPROM
, ,
, ,
. EEPROM ( 1
) ;
128512 K (1664 K).
- (flash memory, flash EPROM), (in a flash).
. 9.2,
EEPROM , , EEPROM ,
. , ,
. EEPROM , 106. , , EEPROM ,
;
.

9.1.5.

, , 190

OE;
, .
, ,
,
,
. ,
CS. ,
, CS.
CS
; CS,
,
. CS ,
.
CS , , .
10%
,
CS.
. 9.8 , , CS , .

A(m 1)

A(n 1)
CS
OE

. 9.8.
,
, (POWER ON
-
)

POWER
ON

POWER ON

POWER ON

Am
A(m + 1)

SEL

A0
A1



D(b 1) D(b 2)

D0

191

. 9.9
:
tAA .
;
tACS .

CS
.
, .
CS ,
;
tOE .
, . , CS , , .
,
, ;
tOZ .

CS
;
tOH . ,


OE CS .
.

192

ADDR

stable

stable

stable
tAA

max(tAA, tACS)

CS
tOH

tACS

OE

tOZ

tAA

DATA

valid

tOZ

tOE
valid

tOE
valid

. 9.9. ,
(stable - , valid )


. tOE tOH . tOH
0; , .
.
.

9.1.6. - NAND- NOR-


- -.
( )
( 9 ) , . , ( FowlerNordheim, FN).
-
, . ,
() : , (NOR-). -
,
193


, , ,
-.
,
.
.

, ,
. , - - (. 9.10).
.

n+

n+
p

n+

. 9.10.

,
,
. ,
,
,
, ,
,
.

194

- NAND NOR .
.
, .
. 9.11 -
.
-, Intel
1988 (32 ), NOR. EPROM. , DRAM (.
9.4),
( ),
. , . ,
NOR , ,
,
. - NOR-
,
, .
- NOR BIOS, SIM-, .
NOR

NAND

. 9.11. - NOR- NAND-

1989 - NAND Toshiba. . 9.11 ,


195

NOR. , .
NAND-
, NOR-.
-. NOR-
( )
. NAND-
( )
, ,
, .
, , , .
NAND- 16 32,
512 , , . 512
,
. . NAND- . ,
, - NAND.
NAND- NOR-
,
.

9.2.
,
, (read/write memory, RWM).
, , ()
(random-access memory,
RAM). , .
196

(ROM) , (RAM) , .
(static RAM, SRAM) ,
- , , ,
.
(dynamic RAM, DRAM) , , ; .

; , (volatile memory). , (nonvolatile memory), .

9.3.

9.3.1.
, ,
; , ,
. . 9.12
, 2nb .

A(n 1)
DIN0
DIN1
DIN(b 1)
CS

DOUT0
DOUT1

A0
A1

DOUT(b 1)

OE
WE

. 9.12. 2nb
197

, ,
WE (write-enable). , WE .
, D, D-.
, , WE , (
):
. , .
:
. CS OE , .
b-
DOUT.
. , DIN ; CS
WE . b b .
, , ,
, ,
.

9.3.2.
(
; SRAM cell) ,
. 9.13. , ,
D-. SEL
, , . SEL WR , .
198

IN

SEL
WR

OUT

IN

OUT

SEL
WR

. 9.13.

. 9.14 , , ,
84
. ,
.
. 9.14
,
:

, , .
,
, .
,
.

. ,

. , D-
, W R
;
,
, W R .

199

WE
CS
OE

. 9.14. 84

200

W R
, W R
.
- SEL , -


.
W R
,
CS W E . (write
cycle) CS W E ,
. .

9.3.3.
. 9.15
,
:
tAA (access time from address). ,

, OE CS

. 70- ,
;
tACS (access
time from chip select). ,

CS
, OE

.
tAA, tAA

tAA, ;
tOE (output-enable time).
,
,
O CS . , tACS, 201

,
O ;
,
;
tOZ (output-disable time).
, ,
, OE CS
;
tOH (output-hold
time). ,

.

.
ADDR

stable

stable

stable
tAA

max(tAA, tACS)

CS
tOH

tACS

OE

tOZ

tAA

DOUT

valid

tOZ

tOE
valid

tOE
valid

. 9.15. ( WE = H)

(stable ; valid )


,
9.1.5.
, , . ,
.
. 9.16
.

202

( WE)

( CS)
stable

stable

ADDR

tCSW

tFS

tCSW

CS
tAS

tWP

tAH

tHA

tWP

WE
tDS

DIN

tDH
valid

tDS

tDH
valid

. 9.16.
(stable ; valid )

:
tAS (address setup). ,
CS WE . ,
;
tAH (address hold). , tAS,
tAH, CS WE ;
tCSW
(chip-select setup time before end of write).
CS
tCSW ;
tWP (write-pulse width).
WE ,
, , tWP;
tDS
(data setup time before end of write).

203

.
;
tDH
(data hold time after end of write). tDS,

.

: WE CS,
. 9.16. , WE CS

.
,
D , SEL WR.
,
,
, D- .
,
, .
, ,
. , 32K8
32K8.
.
,
.
, (synchronous SRAM, SSRAM), 204

, ,
. . , ,
. ,
.

.

9.4.


D-,

. ( ) ,
.

9.4.1.
,
(
-). (dynamic
RAM, DRAM) , -. . 9.17
,
.
1, ,
. 0 ,
.

205


SiO2

n+

n+

. 9.17.

,
, , , . ,
,
.
1 0 . ,
,

.
, -

. ( ) ,
,
, .
.
, ,
- , .

206

. .
D- . . 9.18
.
0

U
1
0
0

. 9.18.
1

, 1970- , 1024 , . , : ,
, 1 ,
.
,
.
256 , 256 ,
15.6 .
4096 64 ,
- 15.6 .
100 ,

99% .
207

. 9.19
64K1. 64K1 , , 256256 . , 64K
,
. 16- : RAS (row address strobe)
CAS (column address strobe).
,
, , ,

, .


RAS
CAS
WE

256

256 256

256

. 9.19. 64K1

.
, 208

.
,
.
, , ,
, . .

9.4.2.

.

.
,
. RAS CAS .
, , .
. 9.20 .

- . ,
(
64K1)
RAS .

ADDR
RAS

,

: CAS = 1
. 9.20.

209

RAS
,
.
RAS , .
64K1 ,
256 256 . 8- , 15.6 .
, . 9.21,
, .
,
CAS . , DOUT .
CAS , DOUT
. , RAS , .
:
WE=1

ADDR

RAS

CAS
,
DOUT

DOUT

DOUT

valid

. 9.21.
(valid , )

210

, . 9.22, .
ADDR

RAS
,

WE

DIN
CAS
,
DIN

valid

: DOUT
3-

. 9.22.
(valid )

, W E (write enable)
,
CAS . , , ,
DOUT ,
, CAS . , , DIN, W E
, . , RAS ,
.

, :
, .

.
,
. CAS
211

, RAS , ,
, .
:
,
, (, , )
.
--
,
DOUT, CAS . , ,
W E .

()
RAS-CAS.
,
CAS , RAS
. CAS
DOUT . , ;
-.
: ,
RAS
CAS .

9.5.
RAS/CAS ;
212


. 1990- (SDRAM), ,
.

. ,
,
CLK
133 . , CKE:
,
.
, .
, ,
, .
, ,
, .

RAS , CAS W E
, .
: ,
. ,
,
,
,
.

,
CLK. RAS,
, , 213

. CAS , CLK
.
RAS CAS, CAS-, .
. : ,
RAS , CAS W E , .

9.5.1. SDRAM-

, , .
.
. .
, SDRAM- DDR400, 64- (8) 400 ,

400 x 8 = 3,2 /.

, .
.
, .
, , , . ,
214

. .

RAS-to-CAS Delay (tRCD)



( ACTIVE), RAS (. 9.23).
Clock
RAS
CAS
Row

Addr

Command

NOP

ACT

Col

NOP

Read

NOP

RAS to CAS Delay (tRCD)

. 9.23. RAS-to-CAS Delay (tRCD)

(WRITE) (READ)
, CAS WE.
CAS ,
,
.
, , RAS CAS,
RAS to CAS Delay ( CAS
RAS). , CLK,
tRCD. , RAS (ACTIVE),
CAS READ, RAS-to-CAS Delay
ACTIVE READ.

215

CAS Latency (tCL)


() ( )
, CAS Latency (. 9.24).
CLK tCL.
.
Clock
RAS
CAS
Addr

Row

Col

RAS to CAS Delay (tRCD)


Command

ACT NOP Read

NOP

DATA
DQ0DQ7

D1

D2

D3

D4

CAS Latency (tCL)

. 9.24. CAS Latency (tCL)

Active-to-precharge delay (tRAS)


, Active-to-precharge
delay, ,

PRECHARGE (. 9.25). tRAS CLK.
T

Clock
RAS
CAS
WE
Command

NOP

ACT

NOP

Read

NOP

PRE

Active to Precharge Delay (tRAS)

. 9.25. Active to precharge (tRAS)


216

NOP

RAS Precharge (tRP)



PRECHARGE,
. PRECHARGE (tRP), RAS Precharge (. 9.26).
Clock
RAS
CAS
WE
Command

NOP

PRE

NOP

ACT

NOP

RAS to Precharge Delay (tRP)

. 9.26. RAS Precharge (tRP)

Command Rate
, ,
(Command Rate), , CLK,
CS
. , Command Rate
.


. , .
.
:
( ACTIVE);
( READ);
, ;
217

( PRECHARGE);
( ACTIVE).

tRCD,
tCL. (tRAS) , tRAS > tRCD + tCL.
tRAS
tRCD tCL ,
, .
SDR
tCL = 2 tRCD = 2 (tRAS > 4). BL = 2 2 , tRAS 6.


RAS to CAS Delay (tRCD), CAS Latency
(tCL), RAS Precharge (tRP), Active to precharge delay (tRAS)
Command Rate , tCL-tRCD-tRP-tRAS-Command
Rate. , DDR400 (PC3200)
: 2345(1). ,
CAS Latency (tCL) 2 , RAS to CAS Delay
(tRCD) 3 , RAS Precharge (tRP) 4 , ACTIVE-toprecharge delay (tRAS) 5 Command Rate 1 .
9.5.2. SDR
SDR SDRAM- CLK. SDRAM-
. , .
(bank interleaving),
,
.

218

SDRAM- ,

. ,
( ) . SDRAM
,
.
(Burst Length, BL).
SDRAM- , , 100 .
.
. 9.27
SDR SDRAM BL = 4, tRCD = 2 tCL = 2.

100


100


100

ACT NOP READ

NOP

D(0:7)

Clock
RAS
CAS
WE
Command

NOP

Read

PRE

NOP

RAS to CAS Delay

Address

ROW

ColA

ColB

CAS Latency

D(0:7)

A1

A2

A3

A4

B1

B2

B3

B4

. 9.27.
SDR SDRAM-
219

9.5.3. DDR
DDR SDRAM, SDR,
. DDR (Double Data Rate) . DDR- - 64
,
, . ,
-
. , -
2n .
- n
, (. 9.28).

2n

D0

D1

. 9.28. 2n-Prefetch


2n , 2n Prefetch ( 2n ).

( , SDR
SDRAM, ).

. (Burst
Length, BL) DDR SDRAM
2.
220

-,
. ,
-, ,
, . , 2n -
, , .
. DDR- .
DDR- (. 9.29).

100


200


100

D(0:7)

Clock

Command

2n
D(0:7)

ACT
Bank0

ACT
Bank1

READ

ACT

READ

ACT

B0 ColA

Bank2 B1 ColB

Bank3

READ

READ

B2 ColC

B3 ColD

A1

A3

B1

B3

C1

C3

D1

D3

A2

A4

B2

B4

C2

C4

D2

D4

Row to Row Delay

CAS Latency

RAS to CAS Delay

A1 A2 A3 A4 B1 B2 B3 B4 C1 C2 C3 C4 D1 D2 D3 D4

. 9.29. DDR SDRAM-


221

(Bank0Bank3),
(Burst Length) 4, tCAS = 2 tRCD = 3.

.
tRRD (Row to Row Delay) 2 . , ,
.
CAS Delay 2 ,
2
-.
n . , (n ), (Bank0)
(A1), ,
(A2) . ,
A3,
A4. ,
A1, A3, B1, B3 ..,
A2, A4, B2, B4 ..

n
.

222

9.6.
1. ,
?
A2
A3

0
1

24

+5 B

D0

2. , 2 .
3. , y = x0 x1 x2 + x0 x1 x3 + x0 x2 x3 + x1 x2 x3.
4. , 1, - .
5. - NAND
- NOR?
6. ?

223

10.
CPLD FPGA
() , .
, ,
,
.

10.1. CPLD
(complex programmable logic device, CPLD).
. 10.1, CPLD ,
,
. ,
n , n
,
.

224

. 10.1.

CPLD

, .
( ), / . ,
CPLD 9500 Xilinx.

10.1.1. XC9500 Xilinx


XC9500 Xilinx CPLD ,
I/O-
, Xilinx
(FB). 18 ,
36 18 .
. 9536 2 36 , 95288 16 288 .
,
.
, XC95108 108 ,
84
69 . ,
, 69 I/O-
, . : , . ,
,
.
. 10.2 -
CPLD XC9500.

225

54

I/O

18

I/O

1
(18 )

I/O
I/O

54

I/O
I/O
I/O
I/O

18

54
18

I/O
I/O/GCK
I/O/GSR
I/O/GTS

2
(18 )

3
(18 )

3
1
2

54
18

4
(18 )

. 10.2. CPLD 9500 Xilinx

I/O-
, ,
. ,
, . GCK
; , . GSR
/, , . , GTS , ;

, I/O-.
,
XC9500
226

. , XC95288 16 .
, ,
54 . 18
I/O-.
, 18 , , /. /;
, I/O-.
. 10.3
CPLD . "8-" "4-".
" ".

. 0 1. 1
" " ,
"4-".
, "
" .

D- T- ; .
,
; : .
. ,
, .
/ . SR-, CLK .
227

D Q

A
0
1

MUX

. 10.3. CPLD

OUT
, D. OUT ,

/.
- (). .
, , , .
228


-, .
. , ,
. - .

10.1.2. /
/ XC9500 /
CPLD FPGA: , , . / :
. , .
,
.
. , . ,
, ,
,
.

. I/O- , 229

, .
.
,
, .
, XC9500
5 3.3 .
, 5 . VIO, 5 3.3 .
CPLD .
CPLD
.
,
, ( ) ,
.
,
.
, .
CPLD FPGA
: ,
. , , ,
, , .
; CPLD FPGA
, . CPLD ,
. , , 230

,
,
, I/O-

10.2. FPGA
(field-programmable gate array, FPGA)
CPLD, . . 10.4,
, , . ,
/.

. 10.4. FPGA

FPGA
, , FPGA ,
CPLD .
FPGA Xilinx, Inc.
1998 . FPGA
2000-
Spartan-2. Spartan-2 Spartan-2E ( ). Spartan-2E 231

600 000 ( ) 200 .


Spartan-2E 2.5 .
Spartan-2 6 , Spartan-2E 7 , . FPGA
.
. 10. 1.
10.1
Spartan-2E


(LC)

CLB

CLB

(IOB), max

XC2S15
XC2S30
.

432
972
.

15000
30000
.

8 12
12 18
.

96
216
.

16384
24576
.

86
132
.

XC2S600E

15552

600000

48 72

3 456

294912

514

FPGA
.

XC6SLX150T Spartan-6.
147443.
CLB
4824.
, Kb
3.2- .
DSP48A1,
180 ,
1818, 48- , 390 .
.
60% 50%

Spartan-3.
- (IOB) 540.
CLK 540 .

232

10.2.1. Spartan-2 Spartan-2E


Spartan-2:
, FPGA.
15 000 600 000 .
200 .
PCI 66 .
- ( SelectIO).
16 -.
.

.
.

(DLL delay-locked loop) .

24 .
.
4- (4-LUT Look Up
Table), 16- RAM, 16 RAM, 16- .
,
RAM 4 .
RAM.
, .
.
.
/ / .
.
233


IEEE 1149.1.
ISE WEBPack ISE,
.
.


(bitstream)
. FPGA ( - Xilinx)
. 20 900 , .

.
, ,
. .
FPGA Xilinx SRAM -.

. LUT- (Look Up Table),
, .
FPGA :
,
.

234


.
/ , .
.
, LUT-.
,
4 , 72.

FPGA Spartan-2 Spartan-2 Xilinx (CLB Configurable Logic Block).


Spartan-2 XC2S15
812,
Spartan-2 XC2S600 3456 4872.
CPLD, Spartan-2 I/O-.
(. 10.1)
/,
. Spartan-2
, / .
CPLD, FPGA , , ,
, .

10.2.2. Spartan-2

Spartan-2 . CLB,
- IOB.
CLB, IOB 235

.
FPGA Spartan-2 .
Spartan-2
(SRAM),
.
. Master Serial
FPGA Spartan-2.
( Slave Parallel,
Slave Serial JTAG).
ISE
WebPACK ISE, Xilinx. ,
, , , .
Spartan-2 , FPGA.
200
, 350 . -
Spartan-2 PCI,

, 33 66 .

10.3. Spartan-2
10.3.1. Spartan-2
Spartan-2
. 10.5.

236

- (IOB)

DLL

DLL

DLL

VersaRing
- (IOB)

- (IOB)

VersaRing

CLB

VersaRing

- (IOB)

VersaRing

. 10.5. FPGA
Spartan-2

DLL

:
(CLB),
,
- (IOB), CLB.
CLB
GRM (General Routing Matrix).
GRM , . CLB (VersaBlock), GRM.
- VersaRing
.

.
Spartan-2 ,
GRM:
SRAM 4096 .
DLL, , , .
BUFT,
237

CLB .
, ,
, .
, .

10.3.2. -
IOB
Spartan-2 -, Spartan-2 . . 10.6 IOB.
IOB , D-, -.
IOB (CLK),
(Clock Enable ).
/
(Set/Reset SR). (Set),
(Reset), (Preset) (Clear).
, IOB .
- IOB,
.

. , , U = 5 , .
() 6,5 . ,
,
3.3 , -

238

VCCO. .
T
D
CLK
TCE

SR

VCCO

CK

OE

SR
O

SR
Q

CK
OCE

IQ
I

SR

CK
ICE

I/O

I/O, Vref


Vref


IOB

* :
, (pull-down).
, (pull-up).
(week-keeper).
.

. 10.6. - Spartan-2

, :
, (pull-down),
, (pull-up),
(weekkeeper).
, , . Pull-down
week-keeper , a pull-up .
239

pull-up . pull-up ,
. ,
.

10.3.3.
, IOB, , . , D ,
.

FPGA, .

, , .
Vref, . Vref
,
.

( pull-up, pull-down). -. 50150 .

10.3.4.
,
.
,
-.
240


, IOB, . 48
24 . . Vref.

week-keeper. ( ),

, ( ), ( ).
, ,
. .
week-keeper , Vref, .
.

10.3.5. -

V / Vref. , , .
. 10.7 , . V,
-

241

.
.

GCLK3

GCLK2

GCLK1
5

SPARTAN-2

GCLK0

. 10.7. Spartan-2


Vref . IOB
,
Vref. .
Vref
, , Vref. Vref
.

, Vref, ,
. , Vref, 5 .
V Vref .
, -.
V Vref . , -
Vref.
242

Vref, , .
Vref,
,
Vref -.
V, , .
VCCO, .
TQ144 PQ208 V
, ,
V. CS144
, ,
, , , V. Vref
, .

10.4. CLB
CLB LC (Logic
Cell). LC 4-
( Spartan-6 6-
), . CLB
D- . CLB Spartan-2 , (Slice).
CLB . 10.8.
CLB 15 7 . CLB
2 LUT,
.
CLB
Spartan-2 , 243

G4

I4

G3

I3

G2

I2

G1

I1

LUT
O

. ,

Spartan-2 CLB 4,5 LC.
COUT
YB
Y
S
D

YQ

CK
CE

F4

I4

F3

I3

F2

I2

F1

I1

CIN
BX
CLK
CE

LUT
O

F5IN
BY
SR
XB
X
S
D

XQ

CK
CE

. 10.8. CLB
Spartan-2

10.4.1. LUT
LUT (Look Up Table) FPGA, (, , , -),
LUT. LUT , n ,
,
.
, ,
LUT,
.

244

Spartan-2 LUT 16 1, LUT 16 . , LUT- RAM 16 1 . ,


LUT-
RAM- 16 2 32 1
RAM-
16 1 . LUT- Spartan-2
16- , .
.

10.4.2.
CLB Spartan-2 D- (
CLK) D-, CLK. D-
LUT ( ), CLB, .
(CLK)
(Clock Enable ), CLB
(Set) (Reset).
SR BY . SR
,
, BY .
(Preset)
(Clear). . CLB .

10.4.3.
CLB : X, X, XQ, Y,
YB, YQ COUT. . 245

, XQ YQ, . XQ
YQ .
, CLB, : F5 F6 (. 10.9). F5 CLB. LUT ,
5- ,
4 1, .
CLB
(Slice)

LUT

MUXF6

LUT
MUXF5

(Slice)

LUT
LUT
MUXF5

. 10.9. F5 F6
CLB

F6 4 CLB, F5.
6- , 8 1, 19- .
CLB .
, .

246

10.4.4.
LC , FPGA . CLB
.
CLB.
- , LUT ,
.
CIN COUT.


.

10.4.5.
CLB Spartan-2 , . BUFT
.

10.4.6. (Block RAM)


FPGA Spartan-2 Block Select
RAM . Select RAM, LUT
RAM (Look Up Table RAM). Block Select RAM . Spartan-2
, .
CLB, , Spartan-2,
8 CLB , 2 4
.
10.2 Spartan-2. ,
. 10.10,
247

RAM .

, .
10.2

Spartan-2
XC2S15
XC2S30
XC2S200

WEA
ENA
RSTA
CLKA

4
6
14

,
16384
24576
57344

DOA[#:0]

ADDRA[#:0]
DIA[#:0]
WEB
ENB
RSTB
CLKB

DOB[#:0]

ADDRB[#:0]
DIB[#:0]

. 10.10.

10.3 . Spartan-2
CLB .
10.3

1
2
4
8
248


4096
ADDR<11:0>
DATA<0>
2048
ADDR<10:0>
DATA<1 :0>
1024
ADDR<9:0>
DATA<3:0>
512
ADDR<8:0>
DATA<7:0>

16

ADDR<7:0>

216

DATA<15:0>

10.5.
,
. 10.11, , .

. ,

90 . ,
, .

-, D-.
. 10.11b .

b)

c)

. 10.11. Spartan-2:
a) (PSM); b)
(PSE); c)

, :
.
FPGA - ,
.
, , , 249

.
.
, , .
, , .
, .

10.5.1.
Spartan-2 , VersaBlock (. 10.12).

GRM

GRM

GRM


GRM

. 10.12.

Spartan-2


GRM
CLB

CLB


CLB

:
1. LUT,
GRM.
2. CLB, LUT CLB
.
3. , CLB, , .

250

10.5.2.
Spartan-2
, ,
.
,
CLB. :
CLB GRM. GRM ,

CLB
.
GRM
GRM 24- .
96 - GRM
GRM . -
(
). - , .
12 (Long lines) , .
, , .

10.5.3. -
Spartan-2 , .
, VersaRing, CLB IOB.
251

, .
, . . FPGA.

10.5.4.
.
Spartan-2 :

.

CLB, (. 10.13).
CLB .

CLB

CLB

CLB

CLB

. 10.13.

10.5.5.

.
Spartan-2 ,
.

252


,
.
CLB, IOB BlockRAM .
. .

24 , 12 12 .
12 12 .
, , ,
,
.

10.6.
Spartan-2 ,
. . 10.14.
, .
.

.
, , .

253

GCLKPAD3
GCLKBUF3

GCLKPAD2
GCLKBUF2

GCLKBUF1
GCLKPAD1

GCLKBUF0
GCLKPAD0

. 10.14.

10.7. (DLL)
DLL, ,
.
DLL . DLL
, , . ,
. , ,
.
, , , DLL
. DLL ; 1.5, 2, 2.5, 3, 4, 5, 8 16.

254

DLL . DLL
Spartan-2.
,
, DLL
.

10.8.
Spartan-2 Xilinx ISE
WebPACK ISE. : , . ,
Xilinx , Cadence, Simplicity, Mentor
Graphics Synopsys. , Xilinx.
Xilinx
, Xilinx Design Manager
(XDM),
, . XDM , , (-lin help).
,
(schematic capture) (Placement and
Routing PAR), XDM. Spartan-2. ,
(Relationally Placed Macros RPMs),
,
. -

255

.

(Hardware Description Language HDL) Xilinx ISE :
Synopsis (FPGA Compiler, FPGA Express);
Exemplar (Spectrum);
Symplicity (Symplify).
Xilinx
ISE WebPACK ISE
:
Mentor Graphics V8 (Design Architect Quick Sim II);
Viewlogic System (Viewdraw).
, .

(EDIF),
. (ASCII) , ,
Xilinx. HDL-, .
Spartan-2
(Unified library) .
400 , 16
, ,
, , , , , -, , , .

,
,
.
. -

256

,
.
, , User
Constraints File (UCF), , . .

10.8.1.

(place-and-route, PAR)
. EDIF FPGA (IOB, CLB).

,
.
.
PAR
.
. , .
Timing Wizard,
. ,
UCF, .

, , .
, 257

.
.

10.8.2.
.

FPGA
.
FPGA, .
Spartan-2

. ,
, . , TRACE.


.
FPGA, .
FPGA
,
.
.

10.8.3.
,
, FPGA. Spartan-2 (/ JTAG), ( ).
258

.
- Xilinx 1700 1800. . 10.4 , Spartan-2.
.
10.4
Spartan-2

XC2S15
XC2S30

197728
336 800

XC2S50

559 232

XC2S100
XC2S150

781 248
1040 128

XC2S200

1335 840

10.8.4.
Spartan-2
:
(Slave-serial),
(Master-serial),
(Slave Parallel),
(JTAG Boundary Scan).

. ,
2, 1, 0, ,
2, 1, 0 (pull-up) - , -.
. 10.5.
259

2, 1, 0
pull-up ,
, 1.
10.5

DOUT

1
0

1
8

1
0

0
0

0
1

1
1

Slave Parallel

Slave-serial

M2

Ml

M0 CCLK

Master-serial

Boundary- scan
Slave Parallel

1
1

0
1

Slave-serial

Master-serial
Boundary-scan

10.8.5.
Spartan-2 . JTAG.


.
. - :
;
;
;
.
, , Boundary Scan ( ). :
,
, . 260

JTAG,
.
Boundary Scan
Description Language (BSDL).
()
().
(TAP Test Access Port) : , TMS, TDI,
TDO.
:
TDI (test data input ) .

TCK;
TDO (test data output ) . TCK;
TCK (test clock )
.

40 ;
TMS (test mode select )
.
, , ,
- .
:
(2, 1, 0);
(CCLK);
PROGRAM;
DONE;
(TDI, D, TMS,
).

261

,
CCLK , , ,
.

10.8.6.
Spartan-2
.
.
- .
( Start-Up).

.
, .

10.9.
1. CPLD
FPGA?
2. -?
3. LUT?
4. .
5.
FPGA?
6.
FPGA?
7. FPGA
?

262

11.


.

,
,
4.56 .
.

, ,
.

.
,

.
2
, ,

, .

, 2, ,
,
. ,
, , ,

.
, , ,

, ,
.

()
,
.

263

11.1.

, . , R0, L0, G0, C0 , , ()
.
dx, R0dx, L0dx, G0dx 0dx.
d x i d x u .

. 11.1.
dxu
R0dx

L0dx

R0dx

L0dx

i +dxi

dxi
C0dx

G0dx
u

C0dx

G0dx
u +dxu

. 11.1.

. 11.1
i
(11.1)
( R0 dx ) i + ( L0 dx ) = d xu,
t
u
(11.1)
( G0 dx ) u + ( C0 dx ) = d xi.
t
(11.1) (11.1) , u
i
u
i

= R0 i + L0 ,
(11.2)
x
t
264

i
u
= G0 u + C0 .
(11.2)
x
t
(R0 = 0, G0 = 0)
, u i:

v = 1

2u 1 2u
(11.3)
= 2,
2

x
t
2i 1 2i
(11.3)
=
,
x 2 t 2
L0C0 .

f t ,


.
R0, L0, G0, C0
: R0 L0 = G0 C0 = q, q ,

(11.2) f t exp ( qt ) .

, , .

.
,
:
(11.4)
u ( x, t ) = U ( x ) exp ( jt ) ,
i ( x, t ) = I ( x ) exp ( jt ) ,

(11.4)

U ( x ) = U ( x ) exp ( ju ( x ) ) , I ( x ) = I ( x ) exp ( ji ( x ) ) .
(11.2) (11.2) u i
(11.4) (11.4) t,
dU
+ ( R0 + jL0 ) I = 0,
(11.5)
dx
265

dI
+ ( G0 + jC0 ) U = 0.
(11.5)
dx
U ( x )
d 2U
2

U = 0,
(11.6)
dx 2
=

( R0 + jL0 )( G0 +

jC0 ) -

.
(11.6)
U ( x ) = A exp ( x ) + B exp ( x ) .

A
B
I ( x) =
exp ( x )
exp ( x ) ,
Z0
Z0
Z 0 =

(11.7)
(11.7)

R0 + jL0
,
G0 + jC0

A B ,
.
, R0 = 0 G0 = 0,
Z0 .

G C = R L Z0 -

, Z 0 = L0 C0
U L L I L , , x = L (11.7,), A B :
U + Z0 I L
U Z0 I L
A= L
exp ( L ) , B = L
exp ( L ) .
2
2
(11.7,)
U ( x ) = U L ch ( L x ) + Z 0 I L sh ( L x ) ,
(11.8)

I ( x ) = I L ch ( L x ) +

266

UL
sh ( L x ) .
Z0

(11.8)

= j L0C0 = j = j 2 ,

, Z 0 = L0 C0 , (11.8,)

(11.9)
U ( x ) = U L cos ( L x ) + jZ 0 I L sin ( L x ) ,

UL
sin ( L x ) .
(11.9)
Z0
,
K = U L U 0
I ( x ) = I L cos ( L x ) + j

Z = U 0 I 0 :

Z
(11.10)
K = 1 cos L + j 0 sin L ,

Z
1 + j 0 tgL
Z
Z =
Z .
(11.11)
Z
1+ j
tgL
Z0
Z , .

11.2.
(11.7) (11.7) . , ( ). .
, . U U .
, , ku
Z Z 0
(11.8)
ku =
.
Z + Z 0
ki.
267

, , Z = ku = +1, Z = 0 ku = 1. , ku = 0.
,
. 11.2a.
, ,
U, R, ,
, .
U , ,
Z0. , l , Tl = L v.
L

U0
U

Ul

UL

a)
U0

Ul

UL

t
R

U0
U

Tl

TL

Ul

UL

R = Z0

b)

. 11.2. : a) ;
b) , ,

R Z0
, U = U0:
Z0
U = U
.
R + Z 0
.
, 1
,
Z0. ,
. 11.2b, ,
268

. ,
, ,
- .
,
, . ,
, . 11.3a.
, R = Z0.
,
U = U 2
. .
,

, . ,
2 .
L

U0
U

Ul

UL

a)

l
U0

Ul

UL

Tl

t
R

TL

U0
U

2TL t

TL

U0

U
U

Ul

UL

b)

Ul

UL

Tl

TL

2TL t

TL

. 11.3. : ) ;

b)


, . 11.3b. ,
. ,
269

, ,
,
,
. 2,
,
, U,
.
U
, kuU.
:
Z = Z0
, 0.
Z = 0
1, ,
, .
Z =
+1, , , .
R Z0,

, .
ku. , , , ,


, . ,
, .
. 11.4 ,
.
, .
0.9U, .

270

k = 0.5

R = Z0/3

k = +0.5

U0
U

Ul

R = 3Z0

UL

l
Ul

U0
U

UL

2T

3T

4T

5T

2T

3T

4T

5T

2T

3T

4T

5T

. 11.4. ,
R, R Z0

11.3.
,
. , - , ,
. 11.5. - - 100200 ; 150
, .


100150 ; 150 ,
,
, 0.
- 1 ,

+1.
. 11.5
. , 5

-, 150 ,
Z0 = 150 ,

271

2.5 . DD2 .
2T ,
,
,
ku = 0.

-
150

ku = 0

+
5

150

ku = +1

L
DD1

Ul

U0

DD2

UL

l=L2
Ul

U0
5

2.5

2.5
T

2T

UL
5

2T

2T

. 11.5. ,

, DD2
,
0 5 ,
,
. ,
DD1,
DD2. . 11.5, DD1
2.5 . ,
,
. ,
2.5
5- -.
DD1
,

272

,
.
,
, ,
. ,
, , T
,
. ,
, , , ,
, , ,
.
,

. ,
-
10 ,
(. 11.6).

0.88. ,
, ,
10 ,
,
150 .

-
40
+
5

10

ku = 0

ku = +1

U0

UL

DD2

UL

U0
5
3.82
2.93

5
2.5
T

2T 3T 4T 5T 6T 7T

2T

4T

6T

3.35
4.38

. 11.6.

273

, 5 ,

10
5 = 0.31 .
150 + 10
,
(0.31 5.0) = 4.69 .
,

( ku = 1). ,
UL = (5.0 4.69 4.69) = 4.38 ,
.
2
4.69 ,
. ,
ku , ,
0.88 (4.69) = + 4.10 .
,
: ,
, ,
; U = (0.31 4.69 + 4.10) =
= 0.28 . .
3
+ 4.10 ,
,
, DD2
U2 = (4.38 + 4.10 + 4.10) = 3.82 ,
!
. 11.6, ,

0 .
, .

.

,
UL ,
U =

274

,
(0.8 ). ,

.
,

.
,
,
, ,
. ,
.
, ,
.

,
, ,

1 .
, ,
3,
1 . ,
, ,
, ,

.

11.4.

, .
. 11.7a, ,
. ,
,
. 11.7.

275

U
R1

R2

. 11.7. : ) (
); )


:
1. R
Z0
.
R1 R2,
(R1R2)/(R1+R2).
2. U 0 = U R2 ( R1 + R2 ) ,

,
, , .


, ,
, , , U0 U L
UH.
,
,
TT- - -,
U0 ,

,
.
3. U0
,
,

.
U 0 ,
276


.
4.
(, 150, 220, 270, 330, 390,
470 ).
-
: R1 = 220 , R2 = 330 ,
R0 = 132 U0 = 3.0 .
,
(3.0 )/(132 ) = 22.7 ,
,
0.

. R1 R2
,
.

.
. 11.8,
, ,
Z0 R, R

. .
U 0 (
) 2Z0 R,

,
. , ,
,
,
U.
, U/2, , U/2,
+1.

Z0,
.
277

Z R
0

. 11.8.


,

, , , -.
50100
1540 .

, - , ,
, DD1 . 11.9, -
.

, , U/2;
, ,
. , , U/2
.

, ,
. 11.8.
,
,
.

278

R1

t = 0
Z0 R

5
R2

U1

U0

U2

DD1

2.5

2.5

2.5

2T

DD2

U2

U1

U0

ku = +1

2T

2T

. 11.9. ,

11.5.
1. ,
.
2. , ?
3. 10 ,
2 , 0.3 /.
4. ?
5.
.
6. R = 2Z0,
R = 0.5Z0.

279


1. .. . .: , 2007.
2. .., .. : . . .: , 1992.
3. .. . .:
, 1999.
4. ., . . .: . ,
2006.
5. ., . .
2- . .: , 2008.
6. . .
2- . .: , 2002.
7. ., . . .:
, 2003.

280


2- ,

. . . . .
19.09.2014. 60 84 1/16. . . . 17,6.
.- . . 16,5. 300 . 324.


- ( )
141700, ., . , ., 9
. (495) 408-58-22, -mail: rio@mail.mipt.ru
__________________________________________________________________
-
141700, ., . , ., 9
. (495) 408-84-30, -mail: polygraph@mipt.ru

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