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1.1. , . . . . . .
1.2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

2
2.1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.2.
2.3. . . . . .
2.4. . . . . . . . . . .

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27

3
30
3.1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
3.2. . . . . . . . 38
3.3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
4
4.1. , . . . . . . . . . . .
4.1.1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.1.2.

41
42
42
49

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4.1.3. . . . . . . . .
4.1.4.
4.2. N . . .
4.2.1. . . . . . . . . . .
4.2.2. . . .
4.2.3. . . . . . . . . . . .
4.2.4. . . .
4.2.5. . . . . . . .

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5
5.1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.2. sin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.3.1. . . . . . .
5.3.2. -

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52
53
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64

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67
68
69
71
71
77
79

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1.1. ,

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, ,

x
+ 02 x = 0,

(1.1)

x , , .

x , , , ,
. .
, , , ,
.
,
, .
, .
1.1. .
:
+ 2 sin = 0,

(1.2)

2 = mgl
J , m , J , l , g
, . sin
sin =

3
5
+
....
3!
5!

(1.3)

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( < 10 ) sin (1.2) (1.1). (1.3),




mgl
3
+

= 0.
(1.4)
J
6

, , .
(1.4)

1 2 3
.
(1.5)
6 0
, (1.5)
(). (1.5)
(1.1)

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+ 02 =

= w sin 0 t.

(1.6)
6 80

(1.5)
= 0 sin 0 t + 1 (t),

(1.7)

1 (t) . (1.7) (1.5)

1 + 02 1 =


02 3 3
0 sin (0 t) + 31 20 sin2 (0 t) + 321 0 sin(0 t) + 31 .
6

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(1.8)

1 , (1.6) , 1 .
1 + 02 1

1 2 3 3
sin (0 t).
6 0 0

(1.9)

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1
(3 sin sin 3) ,
4
(1.7)
sin3 =

(1.10)

1 = A sin 0 t + B sin 30 t.

(1.11)

, 0 30 . ,
(1.2) . () .
, Wk + Wp = W . (1.2)

J 2
+ mgl (1 cos ) = W.
2

Zmax

T =2

d
q

max

2
J (W

(1.12)

(1.13)

T =

2J
mgl

Zmax
max

II

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mgl(1 cos )

, W = mgl(1 cos max ),


s

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d
.
cos cos max

(1.14)

T = T (max ). max , cos 1


cos max 1 2max (1.14)

2
2 ,

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s
T = 2

Zmax

J
mgl

max

d
p
= 2
2
max 2

J
max
arcsin
|
= 2
mgl
max max

J
. (1.15)
mgl


. .
(1.14)
s

J
max 
T =4
K sin2
,
(1.16)
mgl
2

(
)
2
Z2

X

1 3 5 . . . (2n 1)
d
2n
p
=
1+
k
K(k) =
2
2 4 6 . . . (2n)
1 k 2 sin2
n=1

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II

.
. 1.1 TT0 0 ( ), T0 .
(1.13) , t(), , , .
, , . (t).
(1.2) . .
(1.2) . 1.2 ( x(t)) . 1.3 (
x0 (t)).
. , , . , (

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. 1.1.

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. 1.2.

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) ,
.

. 1.3.
1.2. .
, . F = f (x), f (x) .
,
f (x) = kx + k1 x3 + k2 x5 + . . . .

(1.17)

(f (x) , . . , ,
x). ,
:


k
k1
x + x3 = 0.
(1.18)
x
+
m
k
(1.4).

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1.3. .
,
L = L(I)
q +

1
q = 0.
LC

(1.19)

1
, = LC
, . ,
, L = L0 (1+I)

q +

1
(1 q)q
= 0.
L0 C

(1.20)

1.4. .
, ( ,
).
.

F~ = k1~v k2~v v ,

(1.21)

k1  k2 .
(1.17) .
x
+ 2 x (1 + |x|)
+ 02 x = 0.

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(1.22)

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1.2.
() , . ,
, . (..
)
. , , .
, ,
. , .
,
, .
. 1.4 , .. .

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. 1.4.

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. 1.5 .

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. 1.5.
,
(. 1.6). , (1.1)
x = A cos(0 t + ). v = A0 sin(0 t + ).
2
, v(x): x2 + x 2 = A2 .
0

. (. 1.7)
.
. (. 1.8)
. 1.9. ,
, . , , , .

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. 1.6.

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. 1.7.

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. 1.8.

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. 1.9.

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2.1.
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(, , )
.

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. 2.1.
, ( ) (. 2.1).
, , ,
, , , . ,
.

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: , ,
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2.2.

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2.1. .
, .

. . 2.2.

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. 2.2.
. ,
. , .
.
, , .

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2.2. .
, . 2.3 .

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. 2.3.
1 .
h2 , 2,
h1 .
( ), ,
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2.3. .
, .
( ) .
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.

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2.3.
3.1. .

. 2.4.
, . 2.4 m, ,
k2 . u.
.
:
, .
II ma = kx rv + f .
, (v
, r ),
, : f = f (u v) =
f (u x).
,
. 2.5. , ,
,
f (u x)
f0 + f1 x + f2 x 2 + . . .

(2.1)

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,
y + y + 2 y = 0, y = x fk0
k
1
, 2 = m
, = rf
m .
.
, . ,

. ,
. f1 > r.
.
(2.1)
, . .
(2.1)
.
3.2. .
. 2.5 . (,
, ).
, RLC
.
M L L0 ,
,
.

U + IR = L
,
I = q = C U , I = C U

dI 0
dt

dI 0
dU

dU
dt

dI 0
dI
M
,
dt
dt
= S (U ) U .

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. 2.5.

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S(U ) ,
.
M S (U ) U + RC U + U = 0.
LC U
.
RC M S < 0, ,
. , S ,
, .
, :
2M S2
1
2
0 RC
S (U ) S0 S2 U 2 = M SLC
, = RCM
S0 , 0 = LC .

1 x2 U + 02 U = 0.
U

(2.2)

(2.2)
. = 0 t, x = U, = 0 ,

x
1 x2 x + x = 0.

JJ

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(2.3)

(2.3) .
 1 (. 2.6)),
1 (. 2.6))  1 (. 2.6)).
. 2.7.
, .
,
.
.
, .
.

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. 2.6.

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. 2.7.
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2.4.

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. 2.8.
() ,
,
, . .
,  1 ( 3),
.

(. 2.8). E, R, C, .
. U2 ( ), .
U1 ( ), . -
. 2.9
r , . R ,
, , , -

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. 2.9.
.

t

U = 1 exp( RC
) , 
t
U = U2 rC
, (. 2.10).


t
t
, I = Ur2 exp rC

: I = R exp RC
. , , I = U0RU I = Ur .
(. 2.11)
, .

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. 2.10.

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. 2.11.

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3.1.
, . ,
( - );
, ( ). , , , ,
, .
,
, ,
( ).
, - , . ,
.
1.1. .
m = 40, .
, , L = 3, 7.

,
h0 = 1, 2. , ,
, l = 0, 6. H
,

h = 0, 6 .

L
mLv = m (L l) v 0 , v 0 = v Ll
, v v 0
, , .
, l  L, v v 0 .
p
02
2
mg (h + l) + mv2 = mgH mgh0 = mv
2g (h0 h)
2 + mgh, v =

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. 3.1. .
2

L
H = h + l + (h0 h) (Ll)
2 . H = 2, 1().
, mv 2
mv 02
.
+ mg (h + l),,
2
  2 + mgh + A =

2Ll
2
A = ml 2(Ll)
2 v + g . , A =


0 h)
mgl (2Ll)(h
+ 1 . A=216 ()
(Ll)2

1.2. .

. lmax .
, lmin ,
lmax .
min
l = lmax +l
l =
2
lmax lmin
lmax lmin
l
. = l = lmax +lmin ,
2
. , 06 6 1.
, ,  1.

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. 3.2.

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. 3.3.
(). ().

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,

 ,
v2
A1 = 2lT1 = 2ml g + lmax , m , v . ,
T1 II
mv 2
= mg + T1 .
lmax



 A2 =
2
2lT2 = 2lmg cos 2lmg 1 2 ,
(  1).
, ,

A = A1 + A2 = 2lm

v2
lmax

g2
+
2

v =

II

35 80

mv 2
2
= mglmax (1 cos 0 ) mglmax 0 ,
2
2
glmax 20 ,

JJ

0 .

A = mgl 220 + 2 .

, ,
, 0. ( )

W = A = 3lmg20 = 6

l lmg20

= 6W.
l
2

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, , .
.
, , , . (,
, ,
- , .)
.
, - , .
W
Q = 2 W
= ,
, : W = 2W .
: 12W = 2W , = 6 .
(, , )
.
, > 6 , .
, , . , ,

.
.
1.3. .
. , ,
, . , ,
. -

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- , ,
.

. 3.4.
, . q0 ,

q2
W = 0
2

1
Cmin

1
Cmax

q2
= 0
2

1
1

C0 C
C0 + C


=

q02
2C

.
2 C02 C 2

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C  C0 , ,
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q2
C
W = 0 2
= 2W .
2C0
C0
,
, .

.

3.2. .

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,

. 2

dL
dt = M . L = I = ml .
: mgl sin rvl = rl2 ,

r .

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ml + 2mll + rl2 + lmg sin = 0.


2


. ,
, , , .
r
(sin ) = leut , = 2m
,

u
+ (t) u = 0,

l(t)
l(t)

2 l(t)
l(t)

(3.1)

g
l(t) .

+
2 2 (t) =
(t) = 2 (t)
(3.1) II (t) .
, l (t) = l0 (1 + cos p t),  1, 2 (t)
g
2
l0 (1 cos p t) = 0 (1 cos p t)
u
+ 02 (1 + m cos p t) u = 0.

 
2
p
, , = w m =

1
.
0

38 80

(3.2)

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3.3.
( ), , , , ,
x = C1 et (t) + C2 et (t) ,

(3.3)

, (t) , .
(t) . , ,
. .
, , . Re 6= 0,
.
, , , . , 0
p = 2
n , n ,
.
. 3.5
.
. ,
, .
mn , n . ,

, .

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. 3.5.
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4.1. ,

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4.1.1.
1.1. .

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. 4.1.
, . 4.1. m

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.
K k.
x1 , x2 . ,
,
m
x1 = kx1 K(x1 x2 ),

(4.1)

m
x2 = kx2 K(x2 x1 ).

(4.2)

, (4.1) (4.2) (4.2) (4.1),


x
1 + x
2 = 2 (x1 + x2 ),
x
1 x
2 = 2 (x1 x2 ) 22 (x1 x2 ),

k
m

2 =

II

(4.3)
(4.4)


2 =

JJ

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K
.
m

(4.5)

1 =

(x1 + x2 )
2

2 =

(x1 x2 )
.
2

(4.6)

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(4.3 4.4)
1 + 2 1 = 0,

(4.7)

2 + ( 2 + 22 )2 = 0.

(4.8)

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(4.7 4.8) ,
.
1 = A1 cos(t + 1 ),

(4.9)

p
2 = A2 cos( 2 + 22 t + 2 ),

(4.10)

A1 , A2 , 1 , 2 . (4.6), (4.9 4.10) x1 x2 .


p
x1 = A1 cos(t + 1 ) + A2 cos( 2 + 22 t + 2 ),
(4.11)
p
x2 = A1 cos(t + 1 ) A2 cos( 2 + 22 t + 2 ).

(4.12)


, 2 + 22 ,
. , .
. .
. , ,

. ,
(4.

.

, .

22 (4.10) 2 + 22 .

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, 1 2 . 1 2
.
1.2. . .

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. 4.2.
. 4.2 , C1 = C2 = C L1 = L2 = L, C 0 .
I1 ,I2 ,I, .
,
.
I1 I2 I = 0,

(4.13)

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UC 0 + UC1 = L

dI1
,
dt

UC 0 + UC2 = L

dI2
.
dt

(4.14)

(4.15)

(4.13),
q1 q2 q = 0.

(4.16)

,
, . ,
UC 0 = Cq0 , UC1 = qC1 , UC2 = qC2 (4.16), (4.14 4.15)

q1 q2
q1
+
= L
q1 ,
C0
C

q1 q2
q2
+
= L
q2 .
0
C
C

II

(4.17)
46 80

(4.18)

, (4.17) (4.18).
1
(q1 + q2 ) = L(
q1 + q2 ),
C


1
2
+ 0 (q1 q2 ) = L(
q1 q2 ).
C
C

JJ

(4.19)
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(4.20)


1 = q1 + q2

2 = q1 q2 .

(4.21)

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(4.19 4.20)
1 + 2 1 = 0,

(4.22)

2 + ( 2 + 22 )2 = 0,

(4.23)

1
1
2 = LC
, 2 = LC
0.
,
(4.7 4.8).
1 2 , 2 + 22 . 1 , C 0
(
),
I1 I2 . 2 2 + 22
I1 I2 . C 0 .
1.3. . .
C1 =
C2 = C L1 = L2 = L.
M .
I1 I2 , . 4.3
, .

UC1 = L

UC2 = L

dI2
dI1
+M
,
dt
dt

(4.24)

dI2
dI1
+M
.
dt
dt

(4.25)

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,
UC1 =

q1
C

UC2 =

q2
,
C

(4.26)

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. 4.3.
(4.24 4.25)
q1
= L
q1 + M q2 ,
C
q2
= L
q2 + M q1 .
C
, .
1
(q1 + q2 ) = (M L)(
q1 + q2 ),
C
1
(q1 q2 ) = (M L)(
q1 q2 ).
C

1 = q1 + q2

2 = q1 q2 ,

(4.27)

48 80

(4.28)

(4.29)

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(4.30)

(4.31)

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12 =

1
C(L M )

22 =

1
.
C(L + M )

(4.32)

(4.29 4.30)
1 + 12 1 = 0,

(4.33)

2 + 22 2 = 0.

(4.34)

1 2 , 1 2
. ,

( 1 ), (
2 ).
1. , . . . 4.1?
. 4.2 . 4.3?

4.1.2.
. ,
. , , , .

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, ,
k.
l, m. l0 . ,
, .
1 .

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. 4.4.

ml2 1 = mgl1 kl02 (1 2 ),

(4.35)
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ml2 2 = mgl2 + kl02 (1 2 ).

(4.36)

, ,
.

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. (4.35 4.36)
1 = A exp(i0 t) 2 = B exp(i0 t).

(4.37)


g
kl2
2 = 02 .
(4.38)
l
ml
(4.37) (4.35 4.36),

2 =

A(2 + 2 02 ) B2 = 0,

(4.39)

A2 + B(2 + 2 02 ) = 0.

(4.40)

,
2
+ 2 02
2

2
2

+ 2 02



= 0.

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51 80

(4.41)

2
01
= 2

2
02
= 2 + 22 .

(4.42)

01 A = B, 02 A = B.
, , A = 1.
(4.39 4.40)
(1)

(4.43)

(1)

(4.44)

(1)
1 = C1 exp(it) + C2 exp(it) = (1)
),
m cos(t +
(1)
2 = C1 exp(it) + C2 exp(it) = (1)
),
m cos(t +

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(2)
2
2
2
2
1 = C1 exp
 i + 2 t +C2 exp i + 2 t =
(1)
(2)
= m cos
2 + 22 t + 1 ,

p
(2)
(2)
(2)
2 + 22 t + 1 .
2 = 1 = (1)
m cos

(4.45)

(4.46)

.
1. , . 4.4,
.

JJ

II

4.1.3.
1. ,

2  2

(4.47)

. ,
A1 A2 ,
A1 = A2 = A; 1 = 2 = 0.

2 + 22 +

(4.48)

(4.47)
p

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2
.

(4.49)



2
x1 = A(cos t + cos +
t),

(4.50)

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x2 = A(cos t cos +


2

t).

(4.51)


2
2
; =
.
2
2

(4.52)

x1 = 2A coshit cos t,

(4.53)

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II

x2 = 2A sinhit sin t.

(4.54)
J

hi = +

hi, (. . 4.5,4.6).

53 80

4.1.4.
, . 4.1,
F (t) = F0 cos
t,
(4.55)

.
m
x1 = kx1 K(x1 x2 ) + F0 cos
t,

(4.56)

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(4.2).
1 + 2 1 = f0 cos
t,

(4.57)

2 + ( 2 + 22 )2 = f0 cos
t,

(4.58)

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. 4.5.
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. 4.6.

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. 4.7.
f0 = Fm0 , .1.1.1.
(4.57 4.58) .
.

. 1 2 x1 x2 (. (4.10)),
, .
. 4.7 , . 4.8
. 4.9 x1 x2 . .

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. 4.8.

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. 4.9.

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4.2. N
4.2.1.

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. 4.10.
m,
k (. 4.10).
l0 . i i .
i- .
mi = K(i i1 ) K(i i+1 ).

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(4.59)

2 =

K
.
m

(4.60)

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i = 2 (2i + i1 + i+1 ).

(4.61)

N , , , ,
.
, , . , .
, , , . ,
.
.

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4.2.2.
,

i  l0

i.

(4.62)
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i i1
i+1 i
d

,
l0
l0
dx x=il0
i+1 2i + i1
l02


d2

,
dx2 x=il0

(4.63)

(4.64)

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(4.61)
d2
d2
= v2 2 ,
2
dt
dx

(4.65)

v = l0 , .


K=E

S
.
l0

(4.66)

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v 2
v 2 = 2 l02 =

E
K 2
ESl02
l0 =
= ,
2
m
Sl0

(4.67)

.
(4.64) . v.
(4.64) ,
, . .
,

x
,
(4.68)
(x, t) = t
v
. ,
(x, t) = A sin(0 t kx + 0 ),
0 , k =
0 t kx + 0 .

(4.69)

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, ,

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0
= v.
(4.70)
k
(4.68)
. , ,
v =

1 = N = 0

(0, t) = (N l0 , t) = 0.

(4.71)

(4.70) , ,
t = 0, 0 = 0
A sin(0 t k 0) = A sin 0 t = 0,
A sin(0 t kN l0 ) = 0.

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(4.72)
(4.73)

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0 t = p,

p = 0, 1, 2, ...

0 t kN l0 = m, m = 0, 1, 2, ...

(4.74)
(4.75)

(4.76)

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(4.74) (4.75), kN l0 = n, n = 0, 1, 2, ...,


k=

2N l0

n, =
, s = 1, 2, .., N.
N l0
s

, ,
(4.76).

, , ,
.

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4.2.3.
(4.61), ,
(4.62) (4.69). x il0
i (t) = A sin(0 t kil0 + 0 ),

(4.77)

, (4.77) (4.61)
i (t) = 02 i (t),
i+1 (t) 2i (t) + i1 (t) = 4 sin2

(4.78)
kl0
i (t).
2

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(4.79)

(4.79) , (4.77) .
, (4.77) (4.61) ,
r
kl0
kl0
K
0 = 2 sin
=2
sin
.
(4.80)
2
m
2
(4.80), ,
.
k 0 (4.80)
r
K kl0

= kv,
(4.81)
0 = 2
m 2
(4.70).
. 4.11 (4.81),
.
( ). , ,

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, , .

min = 2l0

(4.82)

, . , N .

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. 4.11.

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. 4.12.

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4.2.4.
m
(2i) M (2i + 1).
K(. . 4.12).
2i- 2i + 1-
m2i = K(22i 2i+1 2i1 ),

63 80

(4.83)
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M 2i+1 = K(22i+1 2i+2 2i ).

(4.84)

,

2i = A exp [j(0 t 2ikl0 )] ,

(4.85)

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2i+1 = B exp [j(0 t (2i + 1)kl0 )] ,

(4.86)

j .
(4.85-4.86) (4.83-4.84) 0


2K m02 2K cos kl0


(4.87)
2K cos kl0 2K M 02 = 0.

q
02 = 2 + 2 ( 2 + 2 )2 4 2 2 sin2 kl0 ,

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(4.88)

K
2
2 = K
m, = M
. . ,
. ,
. (. 4.13). (m = M ) (4.88)
(4.80).

4.2.5.
. , , . , ,
,
, . .

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. 4.13.

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1. .
. , . ,
, , . ,
.
, .
2. .
. ,
,
.
3. .
, . , .
4. .
, , .
5. .
, ,
? , .
.

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5.1.
, . , .
, . (, ), - , , .. ,
( ) II , (
) ..

( , , ).
 2
: utt c2 uxx u2
uxxxx = 0.
xx

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: ut + uux + uxxx = 0.
-: utt c2 uxx + 02 sin u = 0.

: iut + uxx 2|u|2 u = 0.


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5.2. sin
, .
,
(. 5.1).
m, I, l, , ( ) d.
i- i
Mg = mgl sin i Mi,i+1 = (i i+1 ) Mi1,i = (i i1 ).

I

d 2 i
= mgl sin i (i i+1 ) (i i1 ) =
dt2
= mgl sin i + (i+1 2i + i1 ). (5.1)

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02 =

mgl
,
I

c2 =

d2
,
I

d i
i+1 2i + i1
c2
+ 02 sin i = 0.
(5.2)
dt2
d2
,
. (), .
, (  d).
(x, t), ,
2
i+1 2i + i1

.
d2
t2

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i+1
i-1

. 5.1. -

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tt c2 xx + 02 sin = 0.

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5.3.
5.3.1.


, ,
.

ut + uux + uxxx = 0.

(5.3)

(5.3) u = u(), = x U t, U = const.


u
du
du
=
= U
= U u0 , ux = u0 , uxxx = u000 .
t
d t
d
.
(5.3)

000

u +

u2
Uu
2

0
= 0.

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U u0 + uu0 + u000 = 0

(5.4)

(5.4),
u00 +

u2
U u = C.
2

,
0.


1 u3
U u2 .
W =
2 3

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dW
.
(5.5)
du
W . u = 0
, u = 2U (. 5.2).
. , 1 .
.
. (5.5):
u00 =

(u0 )2
= E W (u),
2

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(5.6)

E ,
.

s
u3
U u2
u0 = 2E
+
.
(5.7)
3

u(0) = u0 u0 (0) = 0.
, u0 > 2U .


1
u30
2
E=
U u0
2
3

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(5.7)
r
p

u = U (u2 u20 )

u3 u30
3

, .

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2U

3U

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2U

3U

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. 5.2.

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3u0 =

p
(u0 u)(u1 u)(u2 u),

(5.8)

p
3(U + u0 )(3U u0 )
.
u1,2 =
2
(5.8) .
3U u0

=
3

Zu
u0

du
p
.
(u0 u)(u1 u)(u2 u)

(5.9)

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u1 < u < u0 , u
u = u1 + (u0 u1 ) cos2 = u1 + a cos2 .

du = 2a cos sin d,

74 80

(5.9) :

(u0 u)(u1 u)(u2 u) =


= (u0 u1 a cos2 )(u1 u1 a cos2 )(u2 u1 a cos2 ) =
= (a a cos2 )(a cos2 )((u2 u1 a(1 sin2 )) =
2

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= a sin cos (u2 u1 u0 + u1 + (u0 u1 ) sin ) =


= a2 sin2 cos2 (u0 u2 (u0 u1 ) sin2 ) =


u0 u1
sin2 =
= a2 sin2 cos2 (u0 u2 ) 1
u0 u2

= a2 sin2 cos2 (u0 u2 )(1 k 2 sin2 ).

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(5.9),

=
u0 u2
3

d
p

1 k 2 sin2

(5.10)

12
F (; k),
u0 u2
F (; k) 1- .
r

u0 u2
2
u = u1 + a cn
; k .
12
=

u u1 + a cn2

U
; 0
4

!
= u1 + a cos2

1
2

II

(5.11)

cn(x; k) = cos(am(x; k)) [10]. am(x; k)


, . cn(x; 0) =
cos x, cn(x; 1) = sech x (. [10]).
. a =
u u0 0, u0 2U + a/2, u1 2U a/2, u2 U , k 2 0.
s

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a a
= u1 + + cos
2 2

=
s

U
a
= 2U + cos

U
.

(5.12)

, (. 5.3).
k 1. u0 3U , u1 = u2 0.
s
s
!
U
U
; 1 = 3U sech2
.
(5.13)
u u1 + a cn2
4
4

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3U
q
4
U (. 5.3).

2U

3U

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u
u
u

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u
u

u 2U

3U

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. 5.3. : , ,

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5.3.2. -
-. = x U t

2
u00 + 2 0 2 sin u = 0.
U c

U 2 < c2 .
W (u) =

02 2
(cos u 1),
c2

=q

20
=
c

Zu

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II

.
U2
c2

,
0.
r
202 2
0
u =
(cos u 1).
c2

du
1

=
1 cos u
2

Zu
0

du
sin u2

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,
 
0
uk = 4 arctg exp
.
c

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(5.14)

(. 5.4).
2

. kink .

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u
2

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. 5.4.

1
(uk (+, t) uk (, t))
(5.15)
2
. ,
.
3 .
=

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. breather , ; .

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1.

., ., . . .:. ...-. .,
1983. ( .)

2.

. . .: . . . .-. ., 1974.
.

3.

. . . .: . . . .-. .,
1964.

4.

. . .: , 1963.

5.

. . . .: ,
1988.

6.

. . . .: , 1986.

7.

. . . .: . . . .-. ., 1987.
. 3.

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8.

. . . .: . . . .-. ., 1983.
.

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9.

.. . .:. ...-. -, 1985.

10. . . . . ..
.: . . . .-. ., 1979.

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