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.. , ..

10

1.
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6. . . . . . . . . . . . .
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14
14
16
18

2.
1. : . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3. . . . . . . . . . . . .
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6. . . . . . . . . . . . . .

23
25
31
35
39
39
42
43
44
46
50

3.
52
1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52
2. . . . . . . . 57

3.
4.
5.
6.

. . . . . . . . . . . . .
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.

.
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.
.

.
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.

.
.
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.
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.
.

64
67
68
69

4. .
1. . . . . . . . . . .
2. :
3.
4. . . . . . . . . .

72
72
75
78
81

5. .
1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

100

6.
1. . . .
2. . . .
3. . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . .

103
103
106
108

7.
1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6. . . . . . . . . . . . .
7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8. . . . . . . . . . .

111
111
114
118
123
125
131

. . . . . .
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. . . . . .

83
83
85
89
91
95

139
148

8.
157
1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 157
2. . . . . . . . . . . . 162

3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

. . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . .

N . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . .

9.
. .
1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2. ? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3. . . . . .
4. . .
5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

168
171
180
186
192

208
. . . . . . . . 208
. . . . . . . . 212
. . . . . . . . 217
. . . . . . . . 223
. . . . . . . . 229

10.
232
1. . . . . 232
2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 236
3. . 242
11.
1. .
. . . . . . .
2.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

251
251
256
261
271
275
281

12.
288
1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 288
2. . (
) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 290
3.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 291
4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 296

5
5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 308
13. .
1. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2. .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3. ,
. . . . . . . . . . . . . .

312
312
321
322

14.
328
1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 328
2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 338
3. ( ). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 348
4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 359
5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 361
15.
366
1.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 366
2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 370
3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 375
4. ? . . . . 383
5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 384
16. . 386
1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 386
2. . . . . . 388
3. , .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 397
17.
406
1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 406
2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 415
3. . . . . . . . . . . . 422

6
4. - . . . 432
5. . . . 439

448

. , , , , ,
, ..,
, ,
.

. , ,

. , ,
..
, .
, , .
, ..
.
... .. ...
. .: , 1970, .107
108.

,
19972000 .
, ,
, . .. , .. ..
(-
, 1962, 336 c.)
, , 1 .
,
. ,

.
.
, , . , , , .

. , "
" . . ,
, .
1

9


,
.-. ... .. ..
(.:, 1984 , 1992 ). ..

( ), .
, , . .. .
..
.
.
, ..
, .
..
..

10

, ,
,
.
(-, 1982, 1,
c. 3436) .. : : ,
. : ,
, ,
,

. , , .. (, , . . . . , 1993, .36): . . .
, . :
(!) !)
( ). - , -
. ,
, (), ,
.
, , ,
. , , -

11
. .. , : , !
, , ,
, , (, ,
..). ,
. .
, , - ,
.
. , ,
2. 3,
,
. 4,

.
(5 6).

( 7). , ,
, -- .

: ( 8 9).
, , . 9 ,
. ,

, .
-

12
10. ( 11) ( 12).
, (
), ( ),

.
. ,
.
,
13. 14. .
( 15) - .
, .. . ,
.
, 16.

. .
.
.
. .
, . , , .. (
, .:, 1972, . 73),
: ,

13
.
. :
? , .
- .

. :
.
, .

1

. . , , . . .
. . .
.

1.
, ,
, , ,
,
.
.

x
+ 2 x + 02 x = 0 .

(1.1)

x(t) , (
, ..), , ( , ),
0 , t .
: x = dx/dt, x
= d2 x/dt2 ..
(1.1)
. . 2, .
x = f , L
, f . L

L , x1 (t) x2 (t)

15
[C1 x1 (t) + C2 x2 (t)] =
L

= C1 Lx1 (t) + C2 Lx2 (t), C1 , C2 . ,


L
.
= 0,
1) x1 (t) x2 (t) Lx
C1 x( t) + C2 x2 (t) .
= f,
2) x1 (t) x2 (t) Lx
x(t) = x1 (t) x2 (t) = 0.
Lx
. ,
.
, ,
. ,
,
.
, ,
[13],
.
, ,
.
. (1.1) .
. , , .
. , .
, , , ..
.

16
2.
( = 0), (1.1)

x
+ 02 x = 0 ,

(1.2)

.

(1.3)

x
+ f (x) = 0 ,


x 2
+
W = W + W =
2

Zx

f () d .

(1.4)

x0

. , . (1.4)
= x[
, W
x + f (x)] = 0, .. W
t.
(1.3) , W (x) x . x0 , W (x)
W (x0 )+(xx0 )2 /2, = d2 W (x0 )/dx2 6= 0.
,
W
(1.2),
02 = / .

(1.5)

, (1.3)
. = 0,
,
.
(1.5) ,
x, , x x.

[4].

17

. 1.1. .
(1.2) :
x(t) = A cos(t + 0 ) .

(1.6)

A , 0 . x(t)
. 1.1. ,
T = 2/0 . : t
x
0 = 0 t. 0
,
, 2, . 0 2,
.
.
t = 0 1 , , x0 v0 , (1.6)
x0 = A cos 0 ,

v0 = 0 A sin 0 .

(1.7)


A=
1

q
x20 + v02 /02

(1.8)

, , . ,
, Q = I .

18

. 1.2. : (),
() ().

cos 0 = p

x0
x20

v02 /02

sin 0 = p

v0 /0

x20 + v02 /02

(1.9)

(1.6) (1.7),

x(t) = x0 cos 0 t +

v0
sin 0 t ,
0

(1.10)

.

t0 , (1.6) (1.10) t t t0 .
3. , ,

, . , , .
. m
(. 1.2,).
x F (x),
F (x) = kx (
). , , ..

19
, .
m
x = kx, (1.2), 02 = k/m. ,
F (x)
x, .
. ,
m l, ,
(. 1.2,). I = M
(I = ml2 , M = mgl sin
, )
+ 02 sin = 0 ,

(1.11)

02 = g/l. .
, sin ,
. ,
, (
M !) .
.
LI +Vc = 0 (Vc ),
(. 1.2,).
: Q = Q(Vc ),
- .
, Q =

= Vc /C, C . , I = Q,


Q + 1/(LC)Q = 0.
p
0 = 1/LC.

, ,
. , .
, ,
.
, , , , -

20


mgl

,
1/C


F = kx


M = mgl

(
)
Vc = Q/C


W = mx 2 /2


W = I 2 /2


W = LI 2 /2

W = kx2 /2



W = mgl2 /2



W = Q2 /2C

F = x


M =

( )
VR = RI

1.1.
.
, 1.1. ,
.
,
, .
. , () ,
[5, 6],
k

k2

0
1
A
X
Y  B.

.
A, (, A ).

21
A X.
k0 . , X Y , Y
(
Y). . , Y , B (
). [6]
A, X, Y B,
:
X = k0 k1 XY ,

Y = k1 XY k2 Y ,

B = k2 Y .

(1.12)

X Y ,
, B .
X = Y = 0,
k0 k1 X0 Y0 = 0 ,

k1 X0 Y0 k2 Y0 = 0 ,

(1.13)

X0 Y0 . (1.13) ,
X0 = k2 /k1 ,

Y0 = k0 /k2 .

(1.14)

, x(t) y(t) X0 , Y0 , .. X(t) = X0 +


+x(t), Y (t) = Y0 +y(t), |x|  X0 , |y|  Y0 .
X(t) Y (t) (1.12), (1.14)

,
x = k2 y (k1 k0 /k2 )x ,

y = (k1 k0 /k2 )x .

(1.15)

(1.15)
(1.1), k1 k0 /k2 = 2, k1 k0 = 02 . ,
(1.12) ,
(1.1), .
, .

- [7, 8]. (
) ,

22
C3 H4 O4 KBrO2 Ce(SO4 )2 . (Ce4+ ).
. ,
.
.
( [5, 6, 9]).
, .
:
? ( , ,
).
. ( N1 (t)) , , ( N2 (t))
. , :
N 1 = 1 N1 .

(1.16)

(1 ). ,
(1.16) . , -
:
N 2 = 2 N2 .

(1.17)

(1 ). , ,
. N1 N2 . ,

N 1 = N1 (1 2 N2 ) ,

N 2 = N2 (2 1 N1 ) ,

(1.18)

2 , ; 1 , .

23
, , N10 N20 . (1.18) N 1 = 0 N 2 = 0

N10 = 2 /1

N20 = 1 /2 .

(1.19)


(N1 (t) = N10 + n1 (t) N2 (t) = N20 + n2 (t)) (1.18)
n 1 = 2 N10 n2 = (2 2 /1 )n2 ,
n 2 = 1 N20 n1 = (1 1 /2 )n1 .

(1.20)

((1.20) , :
n
1 + 02 n1 = 0 ,

(1.21)

02 = 1 2 ( n2 ). (1.21)
n1 = x, (1.2).
, (1.18) N10 = 0, N20 = 0,
, . 2.
4.
[10]
, ,
, .. ,
. Y , C , I
.
t Y = C + I. (, G),

G:
Y = C + I + G.

(1.22)

24
, ..
C = Y d = Y (1 S) ,

(1.23)

d S . , G0 . t D(t), . : , , .. D(t) = Y (t). (


, , , ,
..).
, , ,
D(t) = (1 S)Y (t ) + I(t) + G0 .

(1.24)

(1.24) , , .. I(t ) = I(t).


[Y (t) Y (t )]/ dY /dt,
Y (t ) = Y (t)

dY
+ O( 2 ) ,
dt

(1.25)

O( 2 ) 2 .
(1.23) (1.24) D(t) = Y (t)
:
(1 S)

dY
= SY (t) + I(t) + G0 .
dt

(1.26)

I(t) ,
.
. ,
(I(t) = adY /dt, a > 0).
, , ,
dY
dI
= b[a
I(t)] ,
dt
dt

b > 0.

(1.27)

25
(1.26) (1.27) .
I(t) (1.27) (1.26); :
(1 S)

d2 Y
dY
dY
dY
+S
= ba
b(1 S)
bS Y + bG0 .
dt2
dt
dt
dt

y(t) = Y (t) G0 /S,


(1 S)

dy
d2 y
+ [S ba + (1 S) b] + Sb y = 0 .
2
dt
dt

, G/ S (1.1)
2 =

S ba(1 S) b
(1 S)

02 =

Sb
> 0.
(1 S)

(1.28)

, (), Y G0 /S ( = 0).
. < 0, ,
, , , ,
.
5. .
, () .
. , (
, , ),
.
,
. H0 , z. , .
e
p = [v, H0 z0 ] ,
c

(1.29)

p = mv ,
p e ,
c , m = m0 / 1 v 2 /c2 , m0

26
, z0 z.
(1.29) ,
. ,
pz = const.
, ( !)
. , (1.29) p.
pp = (1/2)dp2 /dt, p[v, z0 ] =
= mz0 [v, v] = 0. , p2 = const. ,
m ,
(1.29) ,
, ,

v x = c vx ,

v y = c vy

(1.30)

vz = const. c :
p
eH0 1 v 2 /c2
eH0
=
,
(1.31)
c =
mc
m0 c
.
x(t) y(t) Z(t) = x(t) + iy(t). (1.30)
;
Z + ic Z = 0 .

(1.32)

(1.32) ,
. , (1.32) : Z + ic Z = Z0 , (Z0
) Z = Z Z0 .
Z + ic Z = 0 ,

(1.33)

exp(ic t). , Z(t) =


Z(t)
= Z(0)
exp(ic t) , Z(t),
= Z0 + Z(0)

x(t) = x0 + rc cos(c t 0 ) ,

y(t) = y0 rc sin(c t 0 ) ,

(1.34)

0 = Arg Z.
(1.34) Z0 = x0 + iy0 , rc = |Z|,
, (x, y), ,

27
rc (x0 , y0 ), .
. , . .
,
rc = v /c .
(1.32)
. Z(t) = exp(ic t/2)Y (t);
Y (t)
Y + (c /2)2 Y = 0 ,

(1.35)

(1.2), 0 = c /2.

. , .
-
, (
[11, 12]), (
[11, 88-89]) . , ,
,
. 0
1
E0 = ~0 (n + )
2

(1.36)

(n ). 0 = c , (1.36) [13]
. ,
,
,
, .

, [14], ( - ) [11, 90],
[15, 16].

28

. 1.3.
-. a [17]: 1 ( ), 2 , 3
;
[18].

. , ,
() [17]. (. 1.3,). , .
, .
(
) .
. , ,
. , , ,
, . , ,
. ,
.

29
1.3,2 .

[18]. , . , ,
()
, ,
.
-, , [17]3 . ,
En ,
n m
n,m,
En Em = ~n,m .

(1.37)

, .
(1.36). , , .
,
. , , ..
, (1.36), E = ~0 . , , n , (1.37)
, , 0 ( ).
[19] n n + 1 (n + 1)|E(n+1,n )|2 ,
n (n 1)
n|E(n,n1 )|2 , |E()| . , I
2

, , .
3
.
, .

30

. 1.4. [17].

I n|E(n,n1 )|2 (n + 1)|E(n+1,n )|2 .

(1.38)

, n,n1 = n+1,n , (1.38)


I < 0, .. .
,
- , .
, c
m, (1.36) ,
(1.36).
.
~c ,
(. 1.4).
. , = v/c  1, (1.31)

c

eH0
(1 2 /2) ,
m0 c

(1.39)

. ( n n + 1)
( n n 1) ,



~c 2
n+1,n n,n1
c .
En
2

31
|E()| n+1,n
n,n1 ,
. (1.38) , , ,
d|E(c )|2 /d > 0.

, , , -
[17]. .
~c , , , ,
. - , .
, , .
.
6.
, . ,
. , , . (1.2)
0 , . , ( ) .
m c ,
. 1.5. , W , W0

x0 ,
x1 x2 ,
W (x) = W .

(1.40)

x1 x2 . mv 2 /2 + W (x) = W = const,
p
dx
= 2[W W (x)]/m .
dt

(1.41)

32

W(x)
W0
W

x2 x0

x1

. 1.5. ; x1 x2
.
. x
,
x1 x2 x2 x1 . (1.41),
, ..
T =2

Zx2

x1

dx
.
2[W W (x)]/m

(1.42)

, W (x) , , W . , -, W , -, ,
,
(1.40).
. , , W (x) = kx2 /2. W (x)
x1,2 = a ,
(1.42) x,
. ka2 /2 = W
W (x) (1.42),
Z
Z
p
p
p
dx
d

p
= 2 m/k .
= 4 m/k
T = 4 m/k
a2 x2
1 2
a

33
, :
T = 2/0 .
, , ( , ).
W () = mgl(1 cos ), , ,

T =4

Zm
0

d
2[W mgl(1 cos )]/I

(1.43)

m W = mgl(1
cos m ), (1.43),
4
T =
0

Zm
0

d
2
p
=

2(cos cos m )
0

Zm
0

d
2

sin (m /2) sin2 (/2)

(1.44)

p
p
0 =
g/l. = sin(m /2) = W/(2mgl), 0 < < 1,
sin(/2) = t, (1.44)

T =

4
K( 2 ) .
0

(1.45)

K(x) [20]
K(x) =

Z1
0

dx

t2

1 xt2

,.

(1.46)

K(x) . 1.6, ,
, m ,
, .
, .

T0 =
p
= 2 l/g, m , ,

34
K(x)
4
3
2
1
0
0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

. 1.6. K(x)
/2  1. (1.46) (1 2 t2 )1/2
1 + 2 t2 /2,
2

K( )

Z1
0

dx
2

+
2
1 t2

Z1
0

2
t2 dx

).
= (1 +
2
4
1 t2

(1.45) m ,
T = T0 (1 + 2m /16) .

(1.47)

(1.47) ,
:
2m /16  1. 30
0,017, . ,
,
.
, . , . W (x) = c|x|n , c > 0 , n > 1
, . x = 0,
m
x + cn sign(x)|xn1 | = 0. , n 6= 2.
(1.42),
x1,2 = a, W = can , a .

Z

dx
(n+2)/(2n)
(n2)/2n

.
W
T = 2 2mc
1 xn
1

35

W(x)
2 1

x
. 1.7. W (x) = c|x|n : 1
1 < n < 2, 2 n = 2, 3 n > 2.
, n,
T (W ) W (n2)/2n . n = 2, , . 1 < n < 2, ,
W 0, n > 2, , , .

(. 1.7): 1 < n < 2
, [a, a], n > 2,
, , ,
.
, ,
, , ,
, .

7. .
, ,
.
.
W = mx 2 /2
W = kx2 /2. (1.6), -

36

W =

m02 A2
[1 cos(20 t + 20 )] ,
4

W =

kA2
[1 + cos(20 t + 20 )] .
4
(1.48)

,
, , . W = W + W = m02 A2 = kA2 /2, ,
. , , , .
,
, .
.
f (t) t , T , t
f (t + T ) = f (t). , T , 2T , 3T , .. f (t)
, ,
.

1
f (t) =
T

t+T
Z

f (t) dt .

(1.49)

. ,
t
, 0 T .
.
1
f (t) = lim
T 2T

t+T
Z

f (t) dt .

(1.50)

tT

1.1. , (1.50)
, (1.49).

37
1.2. sin t = cos t = 0, sin t cos t = 0,
sin2 t = cos2 t = 1/2.

1.3. , f (t) , f(t) =


= 0. ,
f (t), .

.
(1.48) 1.2,
Wk =

m02 A2
,
4

W =

kA2
.
4

(1.51)

02 = k/m, W k = W = m02 A2 /4. , W k = W = W/2.


,
, . , ..
.

[21].
F (x).
m
x = F (x) x(t) x
x=
= d(xx)/dt

x 2 .
d
(mxx)
mx 2 = x F (x) .
dt

(1.52)

(1.52) , 1.3,
2W k + V = 0 ,

(1.53)

V = xF (x) [21].
:
1) ;
2) .

38
, .

W (x) = c|x|n . , , V = x dW /dx = nW .
2W k nW = 0 W k +W = W ,
Wk =

nW
,
n+2

W =

2W
.
n+2

(1.54)

, n > 2 W k > W , 1 <


n < 2, , W k < W .
.

: . . : .
. . .

1. :
, .. , ( t = t0 ). , .
, .

, ,
, , , .
, , [13]1 .
, , .
..
[4] [1].
, ..
.
1

, .

40
(., , [5]), , ,
.. [6]: , (,
.) , . ,
, (, , ..),
.
, . ,
, , ;
x = x2

(2.1)

x(t) = x0 /(1 x0 t), t = 0


x = x0 . x0 > 0, t = 1/x0
. (2.1),
x0 ,
. , x < 0, (2.1)
. ,
, ,
.
,
,
, .

.
,
, . t ( , ..) ,
, . . , .

41

. . N ,
, N .
. . 1
.

. ,
ytt v 2 yxx = 0,
y(x, t) , v
, .
, t = 0 y(x, 0) yt (x, 0), ..
. , , .
,
.
,
. t t0 , t . ,
.
,
.
. ,
, xn+1 = x2n , .
, , [7].
. , . ,

42
. ,
.

. , . xi (t), i =
= 1, 2, . . . , N , , , , .
x0 , x1 , . . ., .
2.1. , ,
.

2.
, .
x
2 x.
, R2 ,
, x x.
,

x 2
x2
p
= 1,
+ p
( 2W/k)2 ( 2W/m)2

(2.2)

p ,p 2W/k 2W/k. W
, ,
(. 2.1). ,
x(t) 0, x(t)

0, ,
.
2

p =
= mx.

43

. 2.1. .
.
.
,
. , t0 + T
,
t0 , , [t0 +
+ 2T, t0 + 3T ], [t0 + T, t0 + 2T ] ,
. , ,
, .
3.

x = P (x, y) ,

y = Q(x, y)

(2.3)

( x = y). , P (x, y)
Q(x, y) .

P (x, y) = 0 ,

Q(x, y) = 0

(2.4)

: x = x0 , y = y0 , (x0 , y0 ) (2.4),
. (2.3) , ,
:
Q(x, y)
dy
=
.
dx
P (x, y)

(2.5)

44
(2.3) (2.5), .
(2.5)
[5], (2.5).
. , (2.4). ,
(2.5). . ,
[1]. ,
(x(t) 0, y(t) 0).
,
, .

, . ,
(1.2) [3, 8].
.. ,
.
, , 1 ,
.
,
.
4. -
(N1 0, N2 0),
(N1 0,N2 0). 3 ,
N10 = 1 /2 , N20 = 2 /1 (1.18) . ,
.
(1.18) .

45

. 2.2. ()
()
x = N1 /N10 , y = N2 /N20 .
(1.18)
,
x(y 1)
dy
=
,
dx
y(x 1)
= 1 /2 . :
(x ln x) + (y ln y) = C ,

(2.6)

C . C (2.6) x, y. (2.6)
x = 1+x
, y = 1 + y, |
x|, |
y |  1, ln(1 + x) = x x2 /2 + O(x3 ), ,
x
2 /2 +
y 2 /2 = C.
,
, .. . ,
,
(2.6), . . 2.2,.
2.2. , ,
x y , .. .

46
5.
N1 = 0, N2 = 0.
.
(1.18) N1 N2 ,
(1.18) N1 N2 .
:
x = 1 x ,

y = 2 y .

(2.7)

: x(t) = x0 exp(1 t), y(t) =


= y0 exp(2 t) (, t = 0
(x0 , y0 )). ,
, , .
, y, , , x, .
,
. .
x(t) y(t) t
. ln(x/x0 )/1 +
+ ln(y/y0 )/2 = const, ,
x(t)y (t) = x0 y0 = const ,

(2.8)

= 1 /2 > 0. ,
, .
.
, , t = 0 . y = 0 , (1.18),
y = 0, .. . ,
y = 0 .
x(t) (1.18)
(2.7) x(t)(t) = x0 exp(1 t).
, , .
, x,
, t .

47
, ..
t . ,
,
,
.
, x ( x =
= 0) ,
t = t .
.
, t = 0
y. x(t) 0 y(t) = y0 exp(2 t).
,
t = ,
, t .

,
, , . : , , .
t .


. 2.2,. ,
x 0, y 0. ,
.
(. 2.3,). x ,
: W (x) = W (0) 2 x2 /2 + O(x3 ). , 2 =
= (d2 W /dx2 )x=0 > 0.
x
2x = 0 .

(2.9)

(1.2) . (2.9)

48

. 2.3. :
() ().
,
x(t) = C1 et + C2 et ,
x(t)

= (C1 et C2 et ) ,

(2.10)

C1,2 . (2.10),

1
C1 et = [x(t) + x(t)/]

,
2
(2.11)
1
t
C2 e
= [x(t) x(t)/]

.
2
, C1 C2 6= 0. ,
(2.11),
x 2
x2

= 1.
4C1 C2 4C1 C2

(2.12)

.
, C1 C2 6= 0 .
C2 = 0. (2.10) ,
, x(t)

= x(t). ,
,
, . ,
.
C2 = 0 (2.10), t
. t , , . x = x ,
, , .

49

. 2.4. : ()
() .

= x(t).
, C1 = 0, x(t)
, t ,
t .
, .

, , ,
, (. 2.3,).
, , . , . 2.4,. (.. = 0, = 0,
W = mgl2 /2 + ml2 2 /2, W (, ).

= 2n, = 0, n = 1, pm2 . . . .
. = (2n + 1), = 0,
n = 0, 1, 2, . . . W (, )
W = mgl[vf i (2n + 1)]2 /2 +
2
2
+ ml /2 ,
. . 2.4,.
, , ,

50
, ,
, t . , 2mgl,
. , .
,
.
6.
,
, .

.
, ,
.
. ,
[1, 3].
x0 = {x01 , x02 , . . . , x0N } N ( ), eps > 0 () > 0,
kx(t0 ) x0 k < kx(t) x0 k < t > 0. ,
.
k . . . k . , ,
, ,
, .
,

.
x0 ,
lim x(t) = x0 .
t

51
, , , t .
, . .
2.3. .


, , ,
14.

. . . . . . .
.

1. .

.
, .
. .
.
, ,
, : F = x.
,
[1], , ,
.

.
. VR = RI R (VR , I ) , .
(. 3.1

53

. 3.1.

+ RQ + 1 Q = 0 .
LQ
C

(3.1)

02 = 1/(LC), 2 = R/(2L) (1.1). .


( ) = /(2m).
(1.1)
[2].
x(t) = exp(pt) x(t) (1.1), exp(pt), ,
, p

p2 + 2p + 02 = 0 .

(3.2)

(1.1).

q
(3.3)
p1,2 = 2 02 ,

, 0 ,
, 0 < < 0 .
.
(3.3)
q
(3.4)
p1,2 = i ,
= 02 2 .
p. x1,2 =
= exp(p1,2 t), , (. 1),

54

x(t) = C1 ep1 t + C2 ep2 t

(3.5)

(C1,2 ) . , p1 6= p2 , (3.5)
. C1,2 .
, t = 0 x(0) = x0 ,
x(0)

= v0 , .. .
(3.5) :
C1 + C2 = x0 ,

p1 C1 + p2 C2 = v0 .

(3.6)

(3.6)
C1 =

p2 x0 v0
,
p2 p1

C2 =

p1 x0 v0
.
p1 p2

(3.7)

, (3.4),



1
v0 + x0
C1 =
x0 + i
,
2



(3.8)
1
v0 + x0
C2 =
x0 i
.
2

, C1 = C2 .
, x(t) . (3.8)
(3.5), :


v0 + x0
t
sin t .
(3.9)
x(t) = e
x0 cos t +

t = 0 . .
t0 , (3.9) t
t t0 .

x(t) = A0 et cos(t + 0 ) ,

(3.10)

55

. 3.2.

A0 =

cos 0 = x0 /A0 ,

x20 + (v0 + x0 )2 / 2 ,
sin 0 = (v0 + x0 )/(A0 ) .

(3.11)
(3.12)

x(t), (3.10),
. 3.2.
, ,
,
. ,
. , (3.10) ,
T /2,
T = 2/. , x(t)
, T .
, T
, , x(t), , .
(3.10)
x(t) = A(t) cos(t + 0 ) ,

(3.13)

A(t) = A0 et

(3.14)

. A(t) .
,

56
= 1/ . , , 2
e2 7,4 , 4 e4 54,6 , 10
2,2104 . ,
, , .
An
x. ,
An+1 = et An . d = T
. T exp(d) . , , d  1, An+1 /An 1d,
,
.
, .
1 .
Q=

=
.
d
2

(3.15)

,
, .
, T .
(3.4) , 0 (1.1),
,  0 .
,
= 0 (1 2 /02 )1/2 0 [1 2 /(202 )] .

1/2



0
2
2
0

1 2
1 2 .
Q=
2
2
0
20
, Q 0 /(2), 0,5% Q > 5.
1

, Q

57
. . ,
Q . ,
. ,
104 , , . ,
,
. 108 .

2.
, . ,
, (3.13)
. , A(t) ,
T . (Q  1), /T = 1/(T ) = 1/d
. ,
. ,
x(t)
, , , ,

.
. ,
.
f (t) ,

58
2 ,
f (t) =

F () eit

f (t) eit dt .

d
,
2

(3.16)

F () =

(3.17)

(3.16), , f (t)
, .
F () -, f (t).
- (3.9), ,
, x(0) = 0, x(0)

= v0 ( v0 ).
(3.9) (3.17) , x(t) = 0 t < 0,

X( 0 ) = p

( 0

v0
p

)2

2 + ( 0 + )2

(3.18)

( 0 , ..
).
|X( 0 )|2 ( ) . 3.3. ,
, , :
.
(  ),
0 = 0 = .
, . .
, , |X( 0 )|2 0 = . /  1
2

f (t) (, +)
, ..

, f (t) [3].

59

. 3.3.

2,
v0 /(2)
.
X( 0 ) p
1 + ( 0 )2 / 2

(3.19)

, |X( 0 )|2 0 =
. 2.
|X( 0 )|2 0 = ,
f (t) (3.17) ,
F ? ( 0 ) = F ( 0 ).
. ,
- ,
. , x(t) = cos 0 t. x(t) =
= (exp(i0 t) + exp(i0 t))/2,
0 . , , ,
0 , ,
.
,

0 ,

x(t) = A(t) cos[0 t + (t)] ,

(3.20)

60
A(t) (t) . , T0 = 2/0 ,
, A(t) (t)
.

|A/(

0 A)|  1 |/(
0 )|  1.
,  0 , .. .
, . , 7 17.

[46].

, 1. f (t)
, , (1.50). , f (t)
(3.10), x(t) = 0, x2 (t) = 0 .. ,
.
, , , ,

, ,
(1.51), A0 A(t).
F[f (t)] f (t)
Z
E
D 1 t+T
^
F[f (t0 )] dt0 .
F[f
(t)] =
T0

(3.21)

, h. . . i,
, c .
(1.50), , ,
. ,
, f (t) , ,
.
, . P (t) = F x = x 2 .

61
(3.9),
x(t)

= V0 et cos(t + ) ,

(3.22)

p
V0 = v02 + (02 x + v0 )2 / 2 , arctg = (02 x0 + v0 )/(v0 ).
T ,
1
T

t+T
Z

P (t ) dt =

V02

1
T

t+T
Z

e2t cos2 (t0 + ) dt0 .

, ,

1
T

t+T
Z
t

P (t0 ) dt0 =

V02 e2t 1 e2T


{1+
2
2T
2
[ cos(2t + 2) sin(2t + 2)]
+ 2
+ 2

. (3.23)

, , t,
. 2, /  1. ,
. , (3.23),
2, , .
, (3.23)
: t t + T
(3.21) , t T /2 t + T /2, .
, ,
, (3.23) ,
. (3.23) , .
(3.21) .
,
t+T
R
F[x(t0 )]dt0
- (1/T )
t

62

. 3.4. .
(3.23),
.

. 3.5. () () . . ,
, , 0 , 20 , 30
..
3.4 3.5.
P (t) ( ) ().
P (t).
P (t)
.
, -

63
x(t) A(t) (t),
c (3.20) x(t) [6]. ,
h. . . i.
T0 , 0 , 20 , . . . ,
.
. 3.5, .
,

= |A/A|,

, ,
. ,
[46].
, . . c, (3.21) A(t) (t)
, . F ,
.
, ,
. , V (t) = V0 exp(t)
(3.22) , ,
Pg
(t) =

V02 e2t

1
T

t+T
Z
t

cos2 (t0 + ) dt0 =

V02 et
.
2

(3.24)

c
(3.23) (1e2T )/(2T ) 1T +O( 2 T 2 ),
T  1 .
: . ,
Z
D 1 t+T
^
f
+ T ) fg
(t)
dfg
(t)
df E f (t
df
=
dt =

dt
T
dt
T
dt
t

,
T fg
(t)

64

. , , .
(1.1) 2x,
2xx =
= dx2 /dt 2x
x = dx 2 /dt , 02 = k/m, 2 = /m.

d
dt

mx 2 kx2
+
2
2

= x 2 .

(3.25)

:
. ,
,
: T .
(3.25), (3.21). hP (t)i >,
, .
f
dW
f.
= 2 W
dt

(3.26)

(3.25) , V02 exp(t)/2 =


f . (3.26),
= 2mV02 exp(t)/2 = 2 W
f (t) = W
f (0) exp(2t). ,
, W
, .
3.

, (1.1). x v
, ,
.
, (1.1)
, v:
x = v ,

v = 02 x 2v .

(3.27)

65

.


d
02
( 2)
v
(3.28)
[x + v] =
x +
dt

02
,
v, , , ,
. , = (2 2)/(02 ),

02 (/)2 2 (/) + 1 = 0 .



q
i
1
2
2
(/)1,2 = 2 0 =
.
0
02

(3.29)

( , < 0 (3.4). (3.29) ,


. (3.28).
, ,
.
a(t) a? (t)


+ i
v ,
a(t) = x +
02


(3.30)
i
?
a (t) = x +
v .
02
. (3.29) (3.28), ,
a(t)

= ( i) a(t) ,
?

a (t) = ( + i) a (t) .

(3.31)
(3.32)

(3.31)-(3.32) . :
a(t) = a(0)ei(+i)t ,
a? (t) = a? (0)ei(+i)t .

(3.33)

66
, ,
a(0) a? (0) . (3.33) ,
. (3.31)-(3.32).
, (1.1) (3.31)-(3.32)
.
(3.33) , a(t) + i, a? (t) + i.
.
.
5 (
), 7 ( ), 8 ( ).
.
, ,
. = 1,
,
= 0
W = 0 a? (t)a(t) .

(3.34)

.
2

p (3.34) W = (mv /2 +
2
+ kx /2) (3.30), , = k/(20 ).
r



+ i
k
x+
v ,
a(t) =
20
02
r


i
k
?
x+
v .
a (t) =
20
02

(3.35)

67
(3.35) x v:
r
0
x=
[(1 + i/)a + (1 i/)a? ] ,
2k
r
0 02
v=
[a a? ] .
2k i

(3.36)

4. 3
. ,
, . .
a(t) a? (t)
,
.
.
,
[7]
= ~0 a
H
? a
.

(3.37)

p
? a
, = k/(2~0 ). a
, . ,

a
a
? a
? a
= 1.
(3.37), ..
En = ~0 (n + 1/2) .

(3.38)

n , , , . 1/2
.
, En ,
En+1 . ,
3

, ,

68

. 3.6. :
a, (x, x)

En En1 . (3.37) (3.38)


, n = h
a? a
i 1/2, . n
1/2 ,
.
n = a? a, .

5. .

. a = a0 + ia00 a0 a00 .
(3.33). ,
|a(t)| = |a(0)|et ,

Arg a(t) = Arg a(0) 0 t .

(3.39)


(. 3.6,). -, ,
.
,
,
.
(x, v).
(3.32)

69
a0 , a00 x, v ( = 1):
x = (a0 a00 /) ,

v = 02 a00 / .

(3.40)

, (a0 , a00 ) (x, x),

(dotx = v) (. 3.6,).
(  0 ) ,
,
(x, v) .
. ,
,
. .
,
.
( )
, ,
.
6. .
,
( < 0 ) , .
4 > 0 .
, 1, . , (3.3), , |p1 | > |p2 |. C1,2
(3.5)
C1 =

|p1 |x0 v0
,
|p1 | |p2 |

C2 =

|p2 |x0 v0
.
|p1 | |p2 |

(3.41)

, :
? ,
4

= 0 ,
: .

70
x(t) = 0? , x(t)
(3.5): C1 exp(|p1 |t) + C2 exp(|p2 |t) = 0,
exp[(|p1 | |p2 |)t] = C1 /C2 .

(3.42)

, (3.42) , C1
C2 .
t? =

ln(C1 /C2 )
.
|p1 | |p2 |

(3.43)

|C1 | > |C2 |, , (x0 , v0 )


v ( t? > 0). |C1 | < |C2 |,
( t? < 0). ,
v, , , x,
I II,
v = |p1 |x ( L1 . 3.7) v = |p2 |x ( L2 ). III IV C1 C2
,
, .
(3.5) , t , t .
. |p1 | > |p2 |,
t (3.5) , (
, , C1 C2 ), x(t) C2 exp(|p2 |t), v(t) |p2 |C2 exp(|p2 |t),
, v(t) |p2 |x(t). ,
L2 .
t v(t) |p1 |x(t)
, L1 . L1 L2 : ,
,
,
.
: ,
.
, (. 3.7) . .

71

. 3.7. .
L1 L2

. 3.8. .
: . , ,
.
x(t) (. . 3.8) [8]. (3.42) ,
t1 ,
t2
( 1 . 3.8). (3.42)
, : ( 2),
,
( 3).

4
.

. : .
. .

1.
, , ,
. , > 0.
, , ,
. , , ,
.
.

,
.

.
,
( ),
. ,

73

. 4.1.
()
().
.
,
. ( , , )
1 . .
,
. 4.1, [1, 4]. , , V .
, u = V x
. 4.1,.
m
x + x + kx = F (V x)
.

(4.1)

, (|x|
 V )
F (u) u = V , : F (V
x)
F (V ) xF
0 (V ). (4.1)
m
x + [ + F 0 (V )]x + kx = F (V ) .

(4.2)

(4.2)
x0 = F (V )/k,
= x x0
+ 2 + k = 0 ,

(4.3)

2 = [ + F 0 (V )]/m. (1.1),
. ,
1

[13].

74

. 4.2.

F 0 (V ) < . F (u) , F 0 (u) < 0, .


< 0 .
[1] (. 4.2). , , . , F (u). (4.1)(4.3),
.
[13]. . 4.3.
, L1 , .
. ,
.
, , - (.. ,
V i) : i = SV . S
. , ,

. 4.3.

75

LI + RI = V + M ,
V = Q/C ,

i = SV .

(4.4)

. 4.3.
M di/dt
. ,
, I = dQ/dt.
(4.4) ,
+ RC M S Q + 1 Q = 0 .
Q
LC
LC

(4.5)

2 = (RC M S)/(LC), 02 = 1/(LC),


(1.1). ,
: M >
RC/S.
2. :
(3.5) , p< 0.
p1,2 = || 2 02 , || < 0 ,
p1,2 = || i .

(4.6)

p . , , (3.10)-(3.12)
||.
x(t) = A0 e||t cos(t + 0 ) ,

(4.7)

A0 =

cos 0 = x0 /A0 ,

x20 + (v0 ||x0 )2 / 2 ,


sin 0 = (v0 ||x0 )/(A0 ) .

(4.8)
(4.9)

, (. 4.4).
x = 0, v = 0 :

76

. 4.4.

. , , , . ,
, ,
.
,
. ,
, .
.
.
,
, , .

x = v ,

v = 02 x + 2||v

(4.10)

. -,
v = v 0 (4.10),
x = v 0 ,

v 0 = 02 x + 2||v 0 ,

(4.11)

-, : t = t0 , (4.11)
x = v 0 ,

v 0 = 02 x 2||v 0 ,

(4.12)

77

. 4.5. : () (|| < 0 ), ()


(|| > 0 ).

,
!
.

: v t.
x,
,
.
,
. 4.5,.
, > 0 . ,
p . p1,2 = 2 02 ,
. t (3.6) ,
, , , x(t) exp(p1 t). . ,
, .
v = v 0 t = t0 , . 4.6,.
.

78
3.
. 24 "" (1.1), . , [1], x y,

x = F (x, y) ,

y = G(x, y) ,

(4.13)

F (x, y) G(x, y) .

F (x, y) = 0 ,

G(x, y) = 0 .

(4.14)

, (x0 , y0 ) . x y x = x0 + , y = y0 + , , 2 . (4.13), F (x, y) G(x, y)


,
= a + b ,
= c + d ,

(4.15)

a = Fx (x0 , y0 ), b = Fy (x0 , y0 ), c = Gx (x0 , y0 ), d = Gy (x0 , y0 ).


, , a2 +
+ b2 6= 0 c2 + d2 6= 0. , (4.15)
, , .
. , (4.15)3 .
(4.15) (t) = 0 exp(pt), (t) = 0 exp(pt).
0 0
(a p) 0 +
b 0
= 0,
c 0
+ (d p) 0 = 0 .
2

(4.16)

F (x, y) G(x, y)
(x0 , y0 ) .
3
, .

79
, (p a)(p d) bc = 0,
p2 (a + d)p + ad bc = 0, .

(4.17)

(4.15).

p
1 
S S 2 4D .
p1,2 =
(4.18)
2

S = a + d ac db , D .
S D,
p1,2
p, , , :
1) S > 0,D > 0, S 2 < 4D
p.
(. . 4, 2);
2) S > 0,D > 0, S 2 > 4D
.
(. 4, 2);
3) S < 0,D > 0, S 2 < 4D
p.
(. 3, 5);
4) S < 0,D > 0, S 2 > 4D
.
(. 3, 6)
5) D < 0, , (. 2,
5).

(S, D) . 4.6.

, , , ,
.
.

, S = 0, D > 0. (4.18) ,
p1,2 = i D ,

80

. 4.6. (S, D), .


. , , . , S = 0 ,
(4.15) , .. . ,
(4.15)

a i, = D = a2 cb ( , a = d),
b .

d
[(a i) + b] = i [(a i) + b] .
dt
, = i. ,
(3.31), = 0. (t) = (0) exp(it), ||2 = (a + b)2 + 2 2
.
, (4.15)
, . ,
(4.13). , .
[5]
x = y x(x2 + y 2 ) ,

y = x y(x2 + y 2 ) .

(4.19)

81
x = y, y = x,
S = 0 . , (4.19)
:
x, y
p
, r = x2 + y 2 r = r 3 ,
r(t) = [2t + 1/r 2 (0)]1/2 . t r(t) 0,
(4.19) .
, . 44.
, , , S = 0, D > 0, . (S, D) D (.
. 4.6). ,
, .. ,
.
. , , S = 0 ,
, D.

:
, .
,
.
4.
F G (4.13) x y,
. ,
. , (4.15), (S, D),
, ,
(. 4.7.
15,
. (, : A,
B, C)
. -

82

. 4.7.
, ,
. [1] :
= 0 ,
> 0, , | 0 | < .
, , .

< 0 > 0 .
= .

.
.

5
.
. . . .
.
.

1.
, . ,
, , .
. , .
, , . . 5.1, , k,

x0 (t). x0 = 0.
, 1,
,
.
, :
ml2 = mgl + kl[x0 (t) x] .
, x l,

x
+ 02 x = F (t) ,

(5.1)

02 = g/l + k/m, F (t) = kx0 (t)/m. ,


t.

84

. 5.1. : () ()
.
. 5.1,. .

L

dI
Q
+ RI +
= E(t) ,
dt
C

(5.2)

, , Q = I,
+ R Q + Q Q = 1 E(t) .
Q
L
LC
L
2 = R/L, 02 = 1/(LC), F (t) = E(t)/L, (5.1), ,
, .
,
x
+ 2 x + 02 x = F (t) .

(5.3)


. , , (5.3)

1/m, .
, ,
.

85

(5.3)
F (t). 1 . (5.3), ,
x(t) = X(t) + (t), X(t)
, (t) -
(5.3).
, (t) .
x(t) = et (A cos t + B sin t) + (t) .

(5.4)

A B ,
t = 0. x0 v0
,
A = x0 (0) ,

B=

[v0 (0)]
+ [x0 (0)]
.

(5.5)

, A B
(t). , ,
F (t), .
,

F (t) = F0 cos(pt + 0 ) ,

(5.6)

F0 , p , 0 (,

).
.
2.

, ,
. , .
,

86
1 .
, x(t) = x0 cos(t + 0 ) , x0
0 . (x, y) (. . 5.2) x0 ,
t = 0
0 x.
,
x0 cos(t + 0 ), .. x(t).
. ,
z = x+iy,

it ,
z(t) = x0 cos(t + 0 ) + i sin(t + 0 ) = x0 ei(t+0 ) = Xe
= x0 exp(i0 ). z(t) ,
X
x(t), X 2 .


it ,
x(t) = Re Xe
(5.7)
, .
, ,

= x0 ei0 ,
X

x0 = |X|

.
0 = Arg X

(5.8)

.
1) . , .
:
1 , x2 (t) X
2 , x1 (t) + x2 (t) X
1 + X
2 ,
x1 (t) X
1

(5.9)

,
.
2

,

87

. 5.2.

,
x(t) X

.
Cx(t) C X

(5.10)

C , .
2) .
i:
,
x(t) X

.
x(t)

i X

(5.11)

3) .
i:
Z
,

x(t) X
x(t) dt X/(i)
.
(5.12)

5.1. (5.9)-(5.12).

88
. (5.9) , . , . (5.12). , .
, . , , ,
.
, .
, x(t), . , , x2 (t)
,
0 2, x(t).
, ,

. ,
,
.
V (t) I(t)
, -

P (t) = I(t)V (t) =


1 it
V e + ..
4
1
= (V
4


I eit + .. =

i2t + V I ei2t ) .
I + V I + V Ie

.. .
P (t) =

1
Re(V I ) .
2

(5.13)

V = RI, (5.13)
2 /2 = |V |2 /(2R).
V (t) = R|I|
Pc = V I /2
,
. , Pc = Pa + iPr , Pa (5.13),

89
Pr = Im(V I )/2. ,
, .
.
.
, V = LI,

(5.11), V = i I.
2

Pc = iL|I| /2. ,
, ( ),
,
.
3.

(t) (5.3) , F(t) :
+ 2 + 02 = F0 cos(pt + 0 ) .

(5.14)

,
. , (t)
exp(ipt) F(t) = F exp(ipt). (t) = (z +
F (t), z(t) =

+ z )/2 F (t) = (F + F )/2 (5.14) , exp(ipt) exp(ipt),


,
z + 2 z + 02 z = F(t) .
(5.14),
.
z(t) F(t), , ,
: (p2 + 2ip +
= F .
+ 02 )
=

F
=
p2 + 2ip + 02
=

p2 + 02 2ip
ei
p
F . (5.15)
F
=
2
(0 p2 )2 + 4 2 p2
(02 p2 )2 + 4 2 p2


cos = p

(02

02 p2

p2 )2

4 2 p2

sin = p

(02

2p

p2 )2 + 4 2 p2

(5.16)

90
exp(ipt)],
(5.15) (t) = Re[

(t) = p

F0
(02 p2 )2 + 4 2 p2

cos(pt + + 0 ) .

(5.17)

,

A(p) = p

F0
(02

p2 )2 + 4 2 p2

(5.18)

.
5.2. , (5.17) (5.14).


x(t) = et (A cos t + B sin t) +
=p

F0
(02

p2 )2 + 4 2 p2

cos(pt + + 0 ) . (5.19)

A B (5.5),
, (5.17), (0) = A(p) cos( +

+ 0 ), (0)
= pA(p) sin( + 0 ).
(5.19) ,
:
, . , , A
B, . , . ,
. exp(t) ,
1/

.

91
, .
( )
, .
.
, (x0 = 0, v0 = 0)
t = 0 F (t) =
= F0 sin(0 t). , .
(5.16) ,
= /2 , p = 0 (5.18),
, F0 /(20 ).
:
F0
cos 0 t .
x(t) = et (A cos 0 t + sin 0 t)
20
0 , .. , -
. , A = F0 /(20 ), B = F0 /(202 ).
A/B = 0 /  1, , B

,
. :
F0
(1 et ) cos 0 t .
(5.20)
x(t) =
20
, (5.20), . 5.3. , t  ,
: 1 exp(t) t, x(t) F0 t/(20 ) cos 0 t,
Am = F0 /(20 ).
4.
,

92

. 5.3.
.
(5.18) (5.16).
. . u = p/0
(5.18)
A(u) = p

F0 /02
(1 u2 )2 + u2 /Q2

(5.21)

Q = 0 /2 . A(u)
. 5.4. , p 0 . ,
, , . . 5.4 ,
, .
, , 0 , ,
0 . , A(u).
(5.21) D(u) = (1 u2 )2 + u2 /Q2 , D 0 (u) =
2
2
4u(1
p u ) + 2u/Q , A(u) u = 0
2
u = 1 1/(2Q ). , 2 = 02 2 2 . 0 [11/(4Q2 )].
, Q = 5 0 . ,
,

93

. 5.4.
. 1 > 2 > 3 .
.
= 0 .
(p = 0), A(0) = F0 /02 . (5.21) p = 0 , ,
Am = F0 /(20 ). Am /A(0) = Q, ,
! ,
, , ,
.
, ,
, , , .
.. [2, .251]. ,
, , , .
. : ,
, ; ,
tempo , ,
. , ,
, , , .. ,
, .
. 5.4 . ,
- -

94

. 5.5. .

A/Am = 1/ 2 2.
. , D(u) , . 1/Q2 , D(u) 1/Q2 + 4(u 1)2 .
(5.21) ,
A(p) = p

F0 /(20 )
1 + (p 0 )2 / 2

(5.22)

0 . ,
,
, ..
(5.22) . 5.5.

.
(p, A2 /A2m ).
. ,
(5.22) , p = 0
. 1/2, = 2
Q = 0 /0 .
.
(5.18) = 0 p = 0 , ,

95
.
,
(5.17) ,
, .
, . , , ,
t = 0 F (t) = F0 cos(pt + 0 ),
p 6= 0 .
x(t) = A cos 0 t + B sin 0 t +

02

F0
cos(pt + 0 )
p2

A B ,
x(t) =

F0
F0
[cos(pt + 0 ) cos(0 t + 0 )]
sin 0 sin 0 t .
0 (0 + p)
02 p2

p 0
0/0,
x(t) =

F0 t
F0
sin(0 t + 0 ), .
sin 0 sin 0 t +
2
20
20

(5.23)

, , ,
. , , .
, . , , :
.
5.

.
(5.16). , -, ,
sin < 0, .. < < 0.
. -, (5.16) ,
tg =

2p
02 p2

96

. 5.6. . 1 > 2 > 3 .


, p , . ,
|0 p|  . 0  p, tg p/(Q0 ),  p,
tg 0 /(QP ) + 0 /(Qp). ,
(p  0 ), (p  0 ).
2 .
(p = 0 ) = /2.
(p)
. 5.6. , ,
-.
= 0, p < 0 = , p > 0 .
.
.

, . , (. 5.7) [3].
, 0 ,
. .
, .
- , , ,
. ,
[4]. -

97

. 5.7.
: 1 ; 2 ; 3
; 4 , ; 5
; V0 ; V
V .
,
,
. ,
.
-
, n-
n 0 (n-). - .
.
, , . ,
,
.. ,
() ,
() .
,
h = W W , (h ; W ,W
),
.

(. 5.8) [5]. -

98

. 5.8. - : , , 1 2
3
( ), .
, ,
, ,


. , , ,

. . ( . [5]).
. , , [6]. ,
12 40 . ,
. 0 A2 /A2m - .
:
3


(. 5.8),
, - ( VR . 5.9)
. , .
, , .

99

. 5.9.
;

. 5.10.
: = 2/ = 10 . 20 . 1 , 2
, 3 .

100
,
(. 5.10).
6.
,
. ,
(5.2). I = Q ,
= d(Q)
2 /dt, 2 = (1/LC) = R/(2L).
2QQ = dQ2 /dt, 2Q Q
0



d LI 2 (t) Q2 (t)
+
+ RI 2 (t) = E(t)I(t) .
(5.24)
dt
2
2C
, : , ,
. , ,
.
, :
RI 2 (t) = E(t)I(t) .

(5.25)

.
,
. (5.2) Q(t)
= d(QQ)/dt

QQ
Q 2 .
1
d
(QQ Q2 ) Q 2 + 02 Q2 = E(t)Q(t) .
dt
L
,
1
Q2 (t) LI 2 (t)

= E(t)Q(t) .
2C
2
2

(5.26)

(5.26) . , ,

101
. Q(t) x(t), I(t) v(t), L m, 1/C k E(t) F (t) (F
, ). (5.26)

kx2 (t) mv 2
1

= F (t)x(t) ,
2
2
2
2(W W ) = F (t)x(t). ,
, F = kx, : 2W + V = 0, V = (F + F )x(t) [7]. , (5.26)
(1.53) , 1.
,
(5.25) (5.26)
. , , 4 E(t) = E0 cos pt, Q(t) =
= Q0 cos(pt + ). (5.25) (5.26)
,
Rp2 Q20 = pQ0 E0 sin ,

p2 L2 Q20
1
Q20

= Q0 E0 cos ,
2C
2
2

(5.27)

(02

2pQ0 = E0 /L sin ,

p2 )Q0 = E0 /L cos ,

(5.28)

,
Q20 =

E02 /L2
,
(02 p2 )2 + 4 2 p2

, ,
(5.18). Q0 (5.28),
(5.16) .

0 , , ,
.

. .
:
.

1.
, , .
, .
c T , ..
F (t + T ) = F (t). , ,
[1].

F (t) = a0 +

n=1

an cos(

X
2nt
2nt
bn sin(
)+
)=
T
T
n=1

= a0 +

p
X

n=1

a2n + b2n cos(

2nt
+ n ) ,
T

(6.1)

104
an bn
1
a0 =
T
an =

2
T

ZT
0
ZT

F (t) dt = F (t) ,

F (t) cos(

2nt
) dt ,
T

(6.2)

bn =

2
T

ZT

F (t) sin(

2nt
) dt ,
T

n = 1, 2, 3, . . . , n
cos n = p

an
a2n

b2n

sin n = p

bn
a2n

+ b2n

(6.3)

F (t),

(. . 58).
,
[1].

.
p

a2n + b2n
a0 X
p
(t) = 2 +
cos(pn t + n + n ) ,
0 n=1 (02 p2n )2 + 4 2 p2n

(6.4)

pn = 2n/T n- , n ,
, (5.16), p
pn .
, . ,
, .
n, |0 2n/T | . ,

105
1.
p
a2n + b2n
cos(pn t + n + n ) .
(6.5)
(t) p 2
(0 p2n )2 + 4 2 p2n

, , ,
an bn n.
, , , . ,

-
p
2
pn = 2n/T , an + b2n .
:
F (t) =

cn ei2nt/T ,

(6.6a)

n=

1
cn =
T

ZT

F (t)ei2nt/T dt .

(6.6b)

(6.1) (6.6a) , , F (t) . cn =


= cn (6.6a)


X
cn ei2nt/T + cn ei2nt/T =
F (t) = c0 +
n=1

= c0 + 2


X

n=1

c0n

2nt
2nt
cos
cn sin
T
T

c0n cn cn . (6.1), , c0 = a0 , an = 2c0n ,


bn = 2cn , n = Arg cn . (6.4)

c0 X 2|cn | cos(pn t + n + n )
p
.
(t) = 2 +
0 n=1
(02 p2n )2 + 4 2 p2n

(6.7)

, , n
+ b2n 6= 0.

a2n

106
2.

.
. (5.3)

(6.8a)

x = v ,
v = 2v

02 x

(6.8b)

+ F (t)


,


1 2
d
2
(x + v) = 0 x
v + F (t) .
(6.9)
dt
02
, ,
, = (1 2)/(02 ),
02 2 2 + 1 = 0 .
p
02 1,2 = ( 2 02 ) = ( i). = 1
(6.9)
+ i
da
F (t) ,
= ( + i)a +
dt
02

(6.10)

= 2
i
da
= ( i)a +
F (t) ,
dt
02

(6.11)

a(t) a (t) (. 3),


a(t) = x +

+ i
v,
02

a (t) = x +

i
v,
02

(6.12)

, x(t) v(t) :
x=

1
[(1 + i/) a + (1 i/) a ] ,
2

v=

02
(a a ) .
2i

(6.13)

107
(6.10) a(t) = A(t) exp[( i)t];
A(t) A = ( + i) exp[( + i)t] F (t)/02 ,
,
+ i
a(t) =
02

Zt

e(+i)(tt ) F (t0 ) dt0 .

(6.14)

(6.13),
1
x(t) =

Zt

e(tt ) sin (t t0 ) F (t0 ) dt0 .

(6.15)

(6.15) ,
t = 0. () , (6.15)
, . ,
t .
(6.15) .
( = 0), (6.15)
x(t) = A(t) cos 0 t + B(t) sin 0 t,
1
A(t) =
0

Zt

sin 0 t F (t ) dt ,

1
B(t) =
0

Zt

cos 0 t0 F (t0 ) dt0 .

(6.16)

, , F (t) = F0 sin 0 t, A(t) = (F0 /20 )[t sin(20 t)/(20 )]


t . , t A(t) B(t) ,
. ,

1
lim
T T

ZT 
0

sin 0 t0
cos 0 t0

F (t0 ) dt0 = 0 .

(6.17)

, F (t) . , ,
(6.17) .

108
3.
. , F (t) (. 6.1,),  2/0 
1/. ,
R
m F ( ) d ,

x(t) =

F ( ) d

et sin t .

(6.18)

(6.15)?

1
x(t) =

Zt
0

e sin F ( ) d et cos t +

1
+

Zt
0

e cos F ( ) d et sin t .

t >
, sin ,
cos 1 exp( ) 1.
 1,
, (6.18).
(6.18) ,
[2]. , ,
, , , .
. 6.1,.
m, v0 , M  m .
V mv0 /M .
R
. (6.18)
F ( ) d = V ,
0

109

F(t)
l

Dt

v0

. 6.1. : () ().
,
X1 =

mv0 t1
e
sin t1 ,
M

(6.19)

t1 = arctg(/)/. ,
: X1 = v0 ,
. , (6.19) .
.
:  1/  2/0 .
, , sin |F/F 0 |. ,
, ,
. (5.3) , ,
( ),
.

x(t)

F (t)
.
02

(6.20)

(6.15).
, F (t) , (6.15)

110
:
x(t) =

F (t) F (0)et cos t

2
2


Zt
dF (t0 )
1
(tt0 )
0
0
e
cos (t t )
+ F (t ) dt0 . (6.21)
2

dt
0


, -
t = 0. 1/ ,
.
F 0 F/ , ,
(6.21)



Zt
1 1
0
,
e(tt ) cos (t t0 ) F (t0 ) dt0 .
max

,
x(t) (. (6.15)), max(1/( ), /)  1
, (6.21). (6.21) , (6.20)
.
, F (t) ,
, x(t) 1/.

7

: , , .
. .
. . -- . .
. -.
. . .
. .

1.
,
. . -, ,
, . . . -,
, . , . ,
,
.
,
.
, (. 7.1,), , ,
1. Q(t) Vc (t) 1


p n-

112

. 7.1. : ()
,
().
Q(t) = C(t)Vc (t),
+ Vc (t) = 0. , I(t) = Q(t),

LI(t)

1
d2 Q(t)
+
Q(t) = 0 .
dt2
LC(t)

(7.1)

,
. , . ,
, , (7.1)



d
dI(t)
LC(t)
+ I(t) = 0 .
dt
dt

(7.2)

, (7.1) (7.2)
.
, y = y0 (t) (. 7.1,).
, .

113
, ,
:
ml2 = mgl m
y0 (t)l ,
,
.
F = m
y0 (t),
.

02

y0 (t)
+
l

= 0.

(7.3)

, (7.3)
(7.1) ( 02 = g/l).
: .
, ,
.
.
, ,
(7.1).
. , , , , .
x
(t) + 2(t)x(t)
+ 2 (t)x(t) = 0 .

(7.4)

x(t) = exp

Zt

(t0 ) dt0 y(t) ,

(7.5)



y(t) + 2 (t) 2 (t) (t)

y(t) = 0 ,

(7.6)

114
y(t) . ,
:
x
(t) + 2 (t)x(t) = 0 .

(7.7)

.

, . , (t) - ,
, ,
2/(t). :
(t), . :
1) , .. 2/(t).
. , (t) c T , ,
.
.
2) (t) , . . 
2/(t).
.
3) , .
, ,
.
.
2.
(7.7) 2 (t) = 02 f (t), f (t + T ) = f (t), f (t)
,

115
, T , 0 .
(t) 0 ,
T0 = 2/0 . , T T0 , ,
.
,
.
, . , , ,
C1 , .

, .. LC1 /2,
. , C2 > C1 . LC2 /2,
,
, ,
, .
. 7.2. , , . .
.

.
. Vc ,
W = C2 Vc2 /2 ( ).
, Vc0 , C2 Vc = C1 Vc0 .
W 0 = C1 Vc0 2 /2. ,
W = W 0 W = W


C2
C
,
1 W
C1
C

C = C2 C1 , C = (C1 + C2 )/2 (, C/C  1).


, , "" ,

116

. 7.2.

( LC1 + LC2 ) 2 LC,


2C
W

.
W
C

(7.8)

T
T =

 T
p
p
0
LC1 + LC2
.
2
2

(7.9)

, ,

.
, , ,
, , , .
(7.9) T T0 . , n-
, , :
T

nT0
,
2

n = 1, 2, . . . .

(7.10)

n = 1 , n
n- .

117
,
. ,
. W
2T0 W , . (7.8),


2C
2T0 ,
W = W
C
, C/C > 0 T0 = d = /Q (d , Q ),
.
.
, , . , .
,
, . , ,
C(t) = C0 + C cos(20 t), 0 = 1/ LC0 ,
C  C0 (, ).
, ,
Vc (t) = Vc cos(0 t + ), . C A = Wc C/C,
Wc = CVc2 /2 , .

1
A=
2

t+2/
Z 0

0 ) dt0 .
Vc2 (t0 )C(t

C(t) Vc (t),
A = C0 V 2

t+2/
Z 0
t

sin 20 t0 cos2 (0 t0 + ) dt0 =

C
W sin 2 .
C0

.
, = /4 = 3/4, W/W =
= C/C. , , ,

118

:
2
C
> .
C0
Q

(7.11)

,
. , ,
0 , .
(7.11) , .
7.1. , ,
.
, ? ,
?

,
:
1) , (7.10)
.
2) , .
, .
3)
, .
3.

x
(t) + 2 (t)x(t) = 0 ,

(7.12)

119
2 (t) T .
2 (t) [1]. , , (7.12), .
, , [13].
(7.12)
x1 (t) x2 (t),
. , (7.12) t t + T ,
, x1 (t + T )
x2 (t + T ) .
, ,


 



  x1 (t)
x1 (t + T )
a11 a12 x1 (t)
=
= A
,
(7.13)
x2 (t + T )
a21 a22 x2 (t)
x2 (t)

 ai,j , 

A . A ,

  .
A , . (7.12) x1,2 (t):
x
1 (t) + 2 (t)x1 (t) = 0 ,

x
2 (t) + 2 (t)x2 (t) = 0 .

x2 (t), x1 (t),
. x
1 x2 x1 x
2 = d(x 1 x2 x1 x 2 )/dt =
= 0, . . x 1 x2 x1 x 2 = const.
t t + T , , (7.13),
 
a11 a22 a12 a21 = det A = 1 .

(7.14)

,



a11
a
12
= 0,
(7.15)
det [A I] =
a21
a22
, (7.14),

2 (a11 + a22 ) + 1 = 0 .

(7.16)

120
(7.16)


  q  2
1
1,2 =
Sp A Sp A 4 ,
(7.17)
2
 
Sp A = a11 + a22 - , 2
.
  (t) ,
A 
.

Sp A :
 
1) | Sp A | < 2, , 1 2 = 1, 

. A
 
 1      
B = P
A P ( P
)
  , B .
(. [3]), (7.12)




 1 x1 (t)
u1 (t)
= P
(7.18)
u2 (t)
x2 (t)
: u1,2 (t + T ) = 1,2 u1,2 (t).

u1,2 (t) = e1,2 t (t) ,

1,2 =

1
ln 1,2 ,
T

(7.19)

1,2 (t) T .
. , t |u1 (t + nT )| = |n1 u1 (t)| =
= |n1 ||u1 (t)| = |u1 (t)|. u2 (t).
u1,2 (t), .
.
 
2) | Sp A | > 2, (7.17) , , .
,
(7.19).

121
. , , |1 | > 1, |u1 (t + nT )| =
= |1 |n u1 (t). , u1 (t)
. , u2 (t) t . ,
.
 
3) Sp A = 2,
. ( . [2,3]),
u1,2 (t), T , 1,2 = 1, 2T ,
1,2 = 1,
, u2 (t) = t(t), (t)
. , .
.
.
(7.19)
,
: ,
,
(7.19).
. , , 1,2 = exp[i], 1,2 = i/T .
(7.19) 1,2 (t)
, , n = (2n )/T .
2,
.
, ,
1 = 2 . , , , , |1,2 |T  1.

2/T ,

122
et , et , 1,2 .
, 2 (t) ,
= 0 2 (t) = 02 = const, , . (0 T, )
, , .
[1, 2] , 2 :


(),
 
 

| Sp A | < 2 ( | Sp A | > 2).

Sp A ,
().
 
= 0 A . ,
, cos 0 t sin 0 t.
,

 




  cos 0 t
cos 0 (t + T )
cos 0 T sin 0 T cos 0 t
=
= A
,
sin 0 (t + T )
sin 0 T
cos 0 T
sin 0 t
sin 0 t
(7.20)
 
Sp A = 2 cos 0 T . , 0 T 6= n, n = 1, 2, . . . ,
| Sp A | < 2, 0 , ,

n
T
= ,
T0
2

n = 1, 2, . . . ,

(7.21)

. , , .
(0 T, )
(7.21). , .
(7.10) .
 
, n = 0 Sp A = 2,
2

, , , . . ,
.

123
,
T  2/0 , .
4.
( )
,
.
#
"

X
2
(t nT ) x(t) = 0 ,
(7.22)
x
+ 0 1 +
0 n=
, -
.
T .
. xn yn = x/
0 n- .
0 , (n + 1)-

 0  
 
cos 0 T
sin 0 T xn
xn+1
=
.
(7.23)
0
yn+1
sin 0 T cos 0 T yn
,
, (7.22)
, (n + 1)- .
, ,
0
x0n+1 ,
xn+1 = x0n+1 , yn+1 = yn+1
 



1 0 x0n+1
xn+1
=
.
0
1 yn+1
yn+1

(7.24)

(7.23) (7.24):

 
 
 
  xn
xn+1
cos 0 T
sin 0 T
xn
=
= A
.
yn+1
sin 0 T cos 0 T cos 0 T sin 0 T yn
yn
(7.25)

124

. 7.3. (7.22).

 
| Sp A | = |2 cos 0 T sin 0 T | = 2, :
1. cos 0 T (/2) sin 0 T = 1.

(
(
0 T = 2n ,
sin(0 T /2) = 0 ,

0 T = 2 arctg(/2) + 2n ,
tg(0 T /2) ,
n = 1, 2, . . . . (0 T, ) , , ,
0 T = 2n
(. . 7.3).
2. cos 0 T sin 0 T /2 = 1.

(
(
0 T = (2n + 1) ,
cos(0 T /2) = 0 ,
, n = 1, 2, . . .

0 T = 2 arcctg(/2) + 2n ,
ctg(0 T /2) ,
. 7.3 "",
0 T = (2n + 1).
, ,
, ,
.
 
. | Sp A | | sin 0 T |, ,

125
 
0 T 6= n, | Sp A | > 2.
, . 7.3.
, ,
-, . .
7.2. C1 C2 T /2.
T
(0 T, C/C),

, C/C  1, C = C2 C1 , C = (C1 + C2 )/2, 0 = 1/ LC.

5.
, . (7.12)
x
(t) + 02 (1 + cos t) x(t) = 0 .

(7.26)

. , [4],
.
3. , (  1).
(7.21),
= (0 n/2), ||  0 .
/0
.
, (n = 1).
:
x(t) = a(t) cos

t
t
+ b(t) sin
.
2
2

(7.27)

. = 0 = 0, (7.27) , a b .
3

[3].

126
, , a b . (7.27) x(t) = A(t) cos[t/2 +
+ (t)], ..
.
a(t) b(t) x(t) , , , - . ,
a(t)
cos

t
t
+ b(t) sin
= 0.
2
2

(7.28)

, (7.28), (7.27):
t
t

x(t)

= [a(t) sin
b(t) cos ] ,
2
2
2
 2

t
t
t
t
x
(t) = [a(t)
[a(t) cos
sin
b(t) cos ]
+ b(t) sin ] .
2
2
2
2
2
2
(7.26), :
 2
t
t
t
t

][a(t) cos
sin
+ b(t) cos
= [02
+ b(t) sin ]
a(t)
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
t
t
2
+ b(t) cos t sin ] .
0 [a(t) cos t cos
2
2
(7.29)

(7.28) (7.29) a(t)

b(t)

:
 2

t
t
t
][a(t) sin
a(t)

= [02
cos
+ b(t) sin2 ] +
2
2
2
2
2
t
t
2 t
2
cos
cos t + b(t) sin
cos t] ,
+ 0 [a(t) sin
2
2
2



t
t
t
2
][a(t) cos2
+ b(t) sin
cos ]
b(t) = [02
2
2
2
2
2
t
t
2
2 t
cos t + b(t) sin
cos
cos t] .
0 [a(t) cos
2
2
2
, -

127

 2

][a(t) sin t b(t) cos t + b(t)] +


a(t)

= [02
2
2
2
+ 0 [a(t) sin 2t b(t) cos 2t + 2b(t) cos t b(t)] ,
2
 2

][a(t) cos t + b(t) sin t + a(t)]


b(t) = [02
2
2
2
0 [a(t) cos 2t + b(t) sin 2t + 2a(t) cos t + a(t)] .
2

(7.30)

(7.30) ,
(7.26), , ,
.
.
02 (/2)2 = (0 /2)(0 +/2) = (+) , (7.30) /0 .

a(t)

b(t)
,
. [3],
, --, .
(7.30) . , a(t)
b(t), a(t) sin t, a(t) cos t
.., a(t) b(t) ,
. (7.30) T = 2/.
a(t) sin t, a(t) b(t) , ,
. a(t)
b(t), a
(t) b(t).

=a
(t) b(t)
= b(t).
a(t)
(7.30)

h
i2 02

b(t) ,
02
a
(t) =
2
2
(7.31)
h

i2 02
2

b(t) = 0
+
a
(t) .
2
2

128
, 02 (/2)2 0 / 1/2,
:
0
) b(t) ,
4
= ( + 0 ) a
b(t)
(t) .
4

a
(t) =

(7.32)

(7.32) , ,
a
(t) = a0 exp(t), b(t) = b0 exp(t). (7.32)
a0
( 0 /4) b0 = 0 ,
( + 0 /4) a0
+ b0
= 0.
,
r
0 2
1,2 =
2 .
4

(7.33)

(7.34)

, (7.34) , exp(1,2 t) .

0
0
<<
.
4
4

(7.35)

= 0,
0
max =
.
(7.36)
4
, ,
a(t) b(t).
|| > 0 /4 ,
.
|| = 0 /4, ,
,


0 1

(7.37)
= 8 .

2
(0 /, ) , 1/2
(. 7.4,).

129

. 7.4. )
. . ) .
.
.
?

x
(t) + 2 x(t)
+ 02 (1 + cos t) x(t) = 0 .

(7.38)

(7.5), . ,
x(t) = exp(t) y(t), y(t)
, 0
2 /02 . . (7.34) , y(t) exp(|1,2 |t), x(t)
< |1,2 |,
r
0 2
2 .
(7.39)
<
4

r
0 2
=
2 ,
4

(7.40)

, . 7.4, . , ,

130
"" ,
.
min =

2
4
= ,
0
Q

(7.41)

Q .
: , .
(7.41) (7.11), .
7.3. ,
,
(7.11) (7.41) .

/0 . ,
, . 7.4,,
. .
(n > 1), ,
. ,
a(t) b(t) , ,
(7.32) [3].
[1]:
1) n 0 / ,
n ( n ).
2) , n
.
3) , n- min,n
n. .

131
,
( ).
, x(t) . , , ,
- , .
6.
.
-.
, [57].

. , ,
.
, [6]. p n- ,
. -
q(V ), . ,
, ,
,
.
, ,
, [5]. , V (t) = V0 + V1 cos t, V1  V0 .
q(V ) V0 :
q(V ) =

n=0

an (V V0 )n .

p n ,

132
, .. C = dq/dV ,

C(V ) =

n=1

nan (V V0 )n1 .

V (t)
V1 ,
C0 + C cos t ,
C(t) = C0 + C(t)

(7.42)

C0 C an .
, .

,
.
1 2 , ,
( ).
( ) 3 ,
1 + 2 = 3 .

(7.43)

. 7.5,.
i(t), ()
C(V ) g(V ). 01
02 . , ,
,
(7.42). . 7.5,,
. 7.5,.
, .

133

. 7.5.
[6] (a),
().

dI1
= 0,
dt
dI1
dq
C1
I1 = ,
dt
dt
dI2
V2 + L2
= 0,
dt
dI2
dq
C2
I2 =
,
dt
dt
h
i

q = C(t) (V1 V2 ) = C0 + C(t)


(V1 V2 ) .
V1 + L1

(7.44)

,
, [5].
--,
, --.
, . 1.

s
C01,2
(V1,2 + iZ1,2 I1,2 ) ,
(7.45)
a1,2 (t) =
201,2

134
p
2
C0 1,2 = C0 + C1,2 , Z1,2 = L1,2 /C01,2 , 01,2
= 1/(L1,2 C01,2 ). , C0
4 .

r

01,2 
a1,2 + a+
(7.46)
V1,2 =
1,2 .
2C01,2
, a+
1,2 a1,2 , a+
1,2 a1,2 . E1,2 = 01,2 |a1,2 |2 .
a+
1 +01 , a1 01 ,
, 01 .
a+
2 a2
.
p

p (7.44) 01 /2C01 , i L1 /201 .


, 1 2 . (7.44), :
r

i
1 d h
C
02
da1
+
0

a 2 + a +
+
C(t)
a
+
a
+ i01 a1 =
1
2
1
dt
01 2 C01 C02
2C01 dt
r
i
d h
1
02

,
(7.47a)
+
C(t) a2 + a+
2
01 2 C01 C02 dt
r

i
1 d h
da2
C
01
+
0

a 1 + a +
+
C(t)
a
+
a
+ i02 a2 =
2
1
2
dt
02 2 C01 C02
2C02 dt
r
i
d h
1
01

+
.
(7.47b)
C(t) a1 + a+
1
02 2 C01 C02 dt
(7.47) :
a1
+
, a+
1 , a2 a2 ;
4

,
, .

135
a2
+
a1 , a+
1 a2 .
, , .. C(t) =
= 0. (7.47)
, a1 (t) = a1 (0) exp(i01 t) a2 (t) =
= a2 (0) exp(i02 t). (7.47)
, , , . (7.47)
, . , ,
. , , , a 2 .

d 
a2 (0)e02 t = i02 a2 (0)e02 t ,
dt

(02 ). , 01 02
. a1 ,
(01 ). ,
, a +
2 , 02 ,
.

(7.47a), 

]/dt.


d[C(t)
a2 + a+
2

C(t)

= C cos 3 t = C ei3 t + ei3 t ,
C(t)
2

:


C  i3 t
i02 t
e
+ ei3 t a2 (0)ei02 t + a+
=
2 (0)e
2
C h
i(3 +02 )t
i (3 2 ) a2 (0)e+i(3 02 )t + i (3 + 02 ) a+

=
2 (0)e
2
i
i (3 + 02 ) a2 (0)ei(3 +02 )t i (3 02 ) a2 (0)+ ei(3 02 )t .

(7.43), , , ,

136
exp[i(3 02 )t].

, d[C(t)
a1 + a+
1 ]/dt
(7.47a), .
(7.47b) ,
d i3 t + 
e
a1 i (3 01 ) ei(3 01 )t .
dt

. , ,
. (7.47) ,

. , ,
:
r
02
da1
C

+ i01 a1 =
dt
01 4 C01 C02
r
01
C
da2

+ i02 a2 =
dt
02 4 C01 C02


d
ei3 t a+
2 ,
dt

d
ei3 t a+
1 .
dt

(7.48)

a1 (t) a2 (t)
a1 (t) = a
1 (t) ei01 t ,
a2 (t) = a
2 (t) ei02 t .

(7.49)

a
1,2 (t) a1,2 (t): |a
1,2 (t)|  0 1,2 |
a1,2 (t)|
. , , = 3 01 02 , ..
||  01 , 02 , 3 . (7.48) , ,
d
a1
= ieit a
+
2 ,
dt
d
a2
= ieit a
+
1 ,
dt

(7.50)

137

= 01 02 C/(4 C01 C02 ) . (7.50)


, () a1
+
a+
2 ( a1 a2 ),
. ,
.
a
1,2 = exp(it/2)b1,2 (t) (7.50)
:
db1
b1
i
= ib?2 ,
dt
2
db?2
b?
+ i 2 = +ib1 .
dt
2

(7.51)

b?2 , b2 .
(7.51) b1 (t), b2 (t) exp(t). (7.51)

p
(7.52)
= 2 2 /4 .

2 < < 2, = 0
max = .
1 = 01 + /2 2 = 02 + /2 , . ,
, , , , (7.43)
.
(7.50) . ,
+
a+
1 , a2 .

d|a1 |2 d|a2 |2

= 0,
dt
dt

(7.53)

|a1 |2 |a2 |2 = const. ,


, .
. ,
, , E1,2 = 1,2 |a1,2 |2 , (7.53)
P2
P1
=
,
1
2

(7.54)

138
P1 P2 (.. ) .
P1 + P2 + P3 = 0, P3 ,
C(t), , , ,
3 . , ,
, , . 3
(7.43),
P3 P1 + 2 P1 /1
P1 P3
P3 P1 + P2
+
=
+
=
+
= 0.
3
1 + 2
3
1 + 2
1
3
, (7.54),
P1 P3
+
= 0,
1
3

P2 P3
+
= 0.
2
3

(7.55)

(7.55) - [5, 8]
. -
.
- , - ,
E = ~N , ~ , N . , ,
1 dE1
dN1
P1
=
=~
.
1
1 dt
dt
2 3 .
(7.55)
dN1 dN3
+
= 0,
dt
dt

dN2 dN3
+
= 0,
dt
dt

(7.56)

,
, , ,
.
- . , ,
mn = m1 + n2 , n

139
m , 1 2 , - [5, 9]

X
X

mPmn
= 0,
m
1 + n2
m=0 n=

X
X

nPmn
= 0.
m
1 + n2
n=0 m=

(7.57)

Pmn mn .
m n, mn < 0,
Pmn = Pm n . (7.57) .
. Pmn

mn ; , ,
, 1/1 1/2 [9].
, , . - ,
,
, P1 P2 ,
P3 . , 1 , , . .
3 = 1 2 . - :
P1 P3
+
=0
1
3
P2 P3

= 0.
2
3
, P2 , , P3 . ,
,
, .
7. .

,
, . 2 (t) (7.7)

140

2 (t) = 02 f (t/ ) ,

(7.58)

0 , f , .
0  1, , |f |/| df
dt |,
(t):


1 d(t)
 1.
(7.59)
| 2 (t)| dt
,
(t), ,
.
= t/ = 1/(0 ),
(7.58)
2

d2 x()
+ f () x = 0 .
d 2

(7.60)

(7.60)
.
Z
x() = exp[ y( 0 ) d 0 ] = exp[()] .

(7.61)

(7.61) :
x0 () = y() exp[()] ,

x00 () = [y 0 () + y 2 ()] exp[()] .

(7.60),
y():
2

dy()
+ 2 y 2 () + f () = 0 .
d

(7.62)

, ,
(7.60), . , , .

141

(7.63)

y() = y1 ()/ + y0 () + y1 () + . . . .

yi () ,
(7.63). (7.63) (7.62)
, . :
0 :
1 :
2 :

2
() + f () = 0 ,
y1
0
() + 2y1 ()y0 () = 0 ,
y1
... ,

p
y1 () = i f () ( , f () >
0, , 5 ). y1 () ,
y0 () =

0 ()
y1
d
d
=
ln |y1 ()|1/2 =
ln |f ()|1/4 .
2y1 ()
d
d

, x() :

1
x() = exp i

Z p

f ( 0 ) d 0 + ln |f ()|1/4 =
= p
4

Z p
1

1
exp i

f ()

f ( 0 ) d 0 . (7.64)

, : , n,
, . ,
, 0
6. ,
(7.64), .
5
6

f () < 0.
. [10].

142
(7.64) ,
, (7.59).
,
(7.7).
,
(7.63).
[11, 46].
, (7.7) (t)

x(t) = p

1
(t)

exp i

Zt

(t0 ) dt0 .

(7.65)

--,
- [11, 12]. -
, (7.7)
, , , - .
(7.7) t x, 2 (t) k2 (x), k(x)
x. 17.
, -
2 (t). , (7.59).
2 (t) > 0 2 (t) < 0, -

Zt
1
exp |(t0 )| dt0 .
x(t) = p
|(t)|

(7.66)

(7.66) ,
, (7.65)7 . , ,
.
7

, t
x - .

143
, (7.65),

t

Z
A0
cos (t0 ) dt0 + 0 = A(t) cos [(t)] ,
(7.67)
x(t) = p
(t)

p
A(t) = A0 / (t) ,
Rt
(t0 ) dt0 + 0 , 0 . (7.67)
(t) =
, ,
. . , :
d(t)
= (t) .
dt

(7.68)

, . ,
. m
k, .
k(t) = m 2 (t), E = m[x 2 (t)+ 2 (t)x2 (t)]/2. x(t)

x(t)

(t)A(t) sin[(t)].

A(t),

: ,
, (7.65). ,



mA20
mA20 2 (t) sin2 (t) + 2 (t) cos2 (t)
(t) .
=
E=
2
(t)
2

I=

E(t)
= const ,
(t)

(7.69)

, .
, , [13].
.

144

. 7.6.
. , , .
(7.69) ,
. ,
, ,
(7.59) ,
.
. , x
p = x/m.

, p
E ,
p 2E/k 2mE (. . 7.6),
S = 2 m/k E = 2E/ = 2I. , ,
,
I. , ,
, .
,

H
S = p dx,
.
I
1
p dx .
(7.70)
I=
2
,

145
, [13]. n ,
, n
, , n.
. . [13, 14].
, E/, ,
. ~ (~ ),
E/~ = N .
.
. ,
(7.69) . , (7.70),
I
p dx = 2~N .
(7.71)
(7.71) : , ,
(7.71)8 . ,
,
, ,

.
, . .
, .
,
, . (,
8

- , (7.71)
N N +1/2, .
.

146
) ~ 2~0 , ~0 . ,
, 0 .

,
. (7.7) 2x(t)

:
2x
x + 2 (t)2xx
=

dx2
dx 2
+ 2 (t)
=
dt
dt

1 d 2 (t)
d  2
= 0.
x + 2 (t)x2 2 (t)x2 2
=
dt
(t) dt

E = m 2 (t)x2 /2,
E = m[x 2 + 2 (t)x2 ]/2,
dE
1 d(t)
=2
E .
dt
(t) dt
2/(t).
, ,
E ,
.
1 d(t)
1 dE(t)
=
.
E(t) dt
(t) dt
, E(t)/(t) =
= const, .
, ().
. 1.
. ,
, ,
, x y. ,
c = eB/mc ( ). 2/c .

147

, E = [z0 , r] B(t)/(2c),
z0
.
(
, , )
m

eB(t)  0 
d2 r
= eE
r , z .
2
dt
c

,
1

= 0,
x
(t) + (t)y(t)
+ (t)y(t)
2
1
y(t) (t)x(t)
(t)x(t)

= 0,
2

(7.72)

(t) = eB(t)/(mc). = x + iy,



(t):
i(t)(t)
i (t)(t)

= 0.
(t)
2

(7.73)


R t ,
(7.5): (t) = u(t) exp[(i/2) (t0 )dt0 ]. u(t)
u
(t) +

2 (t)
u(t) = 0 ,
4

(7.74)

(t)/2.
(7.7) , . -

A2
A1
exp[i(t)/2] + p
exp[(i(t)/2] ,
u(t) = p
(t)
(t)

Rt
(t) = (t0 ) dt0 , A1 A2 ,
. (t), :
A1
A2
(t) = p
exp[i(t)] + p
.
(t)
(t)

(7.75)

p
|A1 |/ (t) (t),

148
x, y. ,
- ,
p
= A1 (t) exp[i(t)] .
(t)
(7.76)
2 = x 2 + y 2 = v 2 ,
||

2 /(t) = |A |2 = const,
(7.76) v
1
E
= const .
B(t)

(7.77)

, ,
. : -
. , -
, , .
8. .
.
.
, , (  0 ).

x
+ 02 x = 02 x cos t .

(7.78)

,
F(x, t) = F (x) cos t, F (x) = 02 x
. ,
, ,
(7.78), .
f (x) F(x, t),
,
. ( m
):
x
+ f (x) = F (x) cos t ,

(7.79)

149
 0 = 2/T0 , T0 , .

,
. ,
- . (7.79) x(t) = X(t) + (t), 0 /  1. X(t) x(t)
2/, x(t) =
= X(t). (7.79)
f (x) F (x) ,
,

f

(t) =
X(t) + (t)
+ f [X(t)] +
x X(t)

F
= F [X(t)] cos t +
(t) cos t . (7.80)
x
X(t)

, , .
(t)
= F [X(t)] cos t .

(7.81)

, .
(7.81), ,

2
.
F [X(t)] "" .
(t) =

F [X(t)]
cos t .
2

(7.82)

(7.80)
,
:




F 2 (x)
1 F
2

F [X(t)] cos t =
.
X + f (X) = 2
x x=X(t)
x 2 2
x=X(t)
(7.83)
,
: , "

150
" , , ,
, .
, , , , .. f (x) =
U (x)/x. ,
U (x) = U (x) +

F 2 (x)
.
2 2

(7.84)

,
, . , , .
1951 . .. [15, 16].
. 7.7.
, ,
a
.
ml2 = mgl sin mla 2 sin t sin .

(7.85)

l , m . , (t) = (t) + (t), (t) (t)


, , ,
. ,
, , .. y.
M = (ma2 2 /4) sin 2 .
.

M () = mgl sin (ma2 2 /4) sin 2 .

(7.86)

151

. 7.7. [15]: ) ; L m
A, y c
a. ) ;
(1) (
4000 6000 1 ) (2), (3);
(4), ;
(5) (L 15 ) , (a 34
).
,
M = 0, = 0, " ". , dM /d < 0, :
a2 2 > 2gl. . :
, ,
, . , ,
. .
, ...
, [15].
, , -

152
. , , , ,
45 [16]. ,
. , , , , ,
( .. [16]).

[17];
, , [18].
,
()
() [19, 20]. .7.8.
7.8, [21].
, z i s ki ks ( i
s . 7.8,, ) . i
, s
( ). K 0 ,
z ( ) ,
v = (s i )/(ks + ki ),
, .
,
.

i
h
~ t) = Re A
~ i (z)eii .
~ s (z)eis + A
A(z,
~ s (z) A
~ i (z)
s = s t ks z i = i t + ki z , A
.
, ,

153

1
S

e
N

wi
ws

wi
ws

Ei

Es

ki

ws
ks

js

ji

wi

. 7.8. ;
) , (1); , ;
(2); )

(1), )
(1), i s ; ( i) ( s)

; ), ) , .

154
, z-
.

~
~ = 1 A ,
E
c t

~ = rot A
~.
H

(7.87)


d~
p
~ e [~v , H]
~ ,
= eE
dt
c

(7.88)

p~ .
(7.87),



Ax,y
dpx,y
e Ax,y
=
+ vz
.
dt
c
t
z
, , dAx,y /dt,
, ,
. ,

e
d 
px,y Ax,y = 0 .
(7.89)
dt
c
, , ,
z .
(7.89) px,y = (e/c)Ax,y .
p~ = m~v , = E/(mc2 )
, E , vx,y = (ec2 /E)Ax,y .
(7.88),



~2
Ay
e2 c
dpz
Ax
e2 c A
=
+ Ay
.
(7.90)
Ax
=
dt
E
z
z
2E z

, , , , . ,
n
h
i
o
~ 2 = 1 |A
~ i |2 + |A
~ s |2 + Re A
~s A
~ ? ei(s i ) + . . . .
A
(7.91)
i
2

155
, .
~i A
~ s z
A
. , , , exp[i(s i )] = exp[i(s i )t i(ks + ki )z].
, z = v0z (t t0 ), v0z , t0 . , ,
v0z (s i )/(ks + ki ). ~sA
~ ? ,
, A
i
, ..
,
, , () (. 14).
.
.
, i,s = cki,s .

s

1 + v0z /c
i 402 i ,
1 v0z /c

p
2 /c2 -,
0 = 1/ 1 v0z
. , (0  1), .

,
-.
.
~i A
~ s ,
i s A
~sA
~ ? . v0z v s i A
i
, , ;

~sA
~ ? /(s i )2 s i . A
i

156
,
~ i , i )
. (A
. s i
i ,
s .
[19].

. . . . .
() . . . . . . N
( ). . .
.
. .
.

1.
. ,
.
, .
, .
, .
,
. ,

158

. 8.1.
() ().
, .
.
,
.
.
, ,
, (. 8.1,).

m1 l12 1 = m1 gl1 1 + kl2 (2 1 ) ,

m2 l22 2 = m2 gl2 2 kl2 (2 1 ) .

(8.1)


. 8.1,. (k = 0),
p
01 =
p
= g/l1 02 = g/l2 . ,
(8.1) ,
, , : .
, ,
. 8.1,. ,
i = I1 I2 , dq/dt = dq1 /dt dq2 /dt, q1 , q2 q
. q = q1 q2 (

159
, , ,
). ,
. 8.1,,
1
dI1
+
q1 +
dt
C1
dI2
1
L2
+
q2
dt
C2

L1

1
q = 0,
C
1
q = 0,
C

1
1
q1 =
(q2 q1 ) ,
C1 L1
CL1
1
1
q2 =
(q2 q1 ) .
q2 +
C2 L2
CL2
q1 +

(8.2)

, (8.2) (8.1). ,
, , ,
, , [1].
, . , , ,
. 8.2,a. M .
( , I1 = q1 , I2 = q2 )
1
q1 + M q2 = 0 ,
C1
1
q2 + M q1 = 0 .
L2 q2 +
C2

L1 q1 +

(8.3)

,
, . . ,
? ,
, , , ,
(. . 8.2,).
,

160
, . ,
x1 x2 . 1 U = k1 x21 /2 + k2 x22 /2.

, : K = M 2 /2+
+ I 2 /2, M I
P. x1 , x2 ,
x1 = l1 ,
x2 = + l2 ,
, x1
x2 :
K=

1
[(M l22 + I)x 21 + 2(M l1 l2 I)x 1 x 2 + (M l12 + I)x 22 ] ,
2l2

l = l1 +l2 .
L = K U , [2]
d L
L

= 0,
dt x i xi

i = 1, 2 .


M l1 l2 I
M l22 + I
x
1 + k1 x1 +
x
2 = 0 ,
2
l
l2
M l1 l2 I
M l12 + I
x
2 + k2 x2 +
x
1 = 0
2
l
l2

(8.4)

(8.4) , (8.3), .
.
, , ( ) . , ,
x1 x2 , ,
1

, , ,
,
.

161

. 8.2. (); ().


,
, x1
x2 , . ,

, . [1, 22].

, x1 x2 ,
K=

1 X
mij x i x j ,
2
i,j=1,2

U=

1 X
kij xi xj ,
2

(8.5)

i,j=1,2

m12 = m21 , k12 = k21 .


mij :
m11 > 0 ,

m22 > 0 ,

m11 m22 m212 > 0 .

(8.6)


x1 x2 , , ,
, . , (8.6),
kij :
k11 > 0 ,

k22 > 0 ,

2
k11 k22 k12
> 0.

(8.7)

162
(8.6) (8.7) (8.5). 1 2 , x1 x2
1 = c11 x1 + c12 x2 ,
2 = c21 x1 + c22 x2 .

(8.8)

cij ,
, 1 2 . i ( ) . , , , 1 2 ,
( ) .
, cij (8.8) ,
, , ! (8.6) (8.7),
.
, -
, - ,
. ,
, .
, [3], ,
.
,
,
. 8.1,.

2.
, . . 8.1, m1 = m2 , l1 = l2 . ,

163
l1 = l. (8.1)
k
(2 1 ) ,
m1
k
(2 1 ) .
2 + 02 2 =
m2

1 + 02 1 =

(8.9)

02 = g/l.
, . ,
0s 0s . , ,
, . .
p
1 = 0 = g/l,
.
1 (t) = 2 (t) = 0s cos 1 t +

0s
sin 1 t .
1

(8.10)

, t = 0
0a , ,
0a , . ,
, , p

(. . 8.3). 2 = 02 + 2k/m,

1 (t) = 2 (t) = 0a cos 2 t +

0a
sin 2 t .
2

(8.11)

,
1
2 . , ,
. , .
, , , , .

164

. 8.3. (),
().
(8.10) (8.11):
0s
sin 1 t + 0a cos 2 t +
1
0s
2 (t) = 0s cos 1 t +
sin 1 t 0a cos 2 t
1
1 (t) = 0s cos 1 t +

0a
sin 2 t ,
2
0a
sin 2 t .
2

(8.12)

,
.
, (8.12) , ,
.
, (8.12)
(8.9)?
s a
1
s = (1 + 2 ) ,
2

1
a = (1 2 ) ,
2

(8.9) .
s + 02 s = 0 ,
2k
a + (02 + )a = 0 .
m

(8.13)

. ,

165
s a , , - . ,

1 2 , ,
. (8.13) s
a , 1 2
(8.12).
, . (c
)
ml2 21 ml2 22 mgl21 mgl22 kl2 (2 1 )2
+
+
+
+
.
2
2
2
2
2
, 2 + 2 = 2 +2 2 + 2 = 2 + 2 ,
E=

ml2 12 mgl12 ml2 22 (mgl + 2kl2 )22


+
+
+
.
(8.14)
2
2
2
2
. , ,
, , , (8.13).
(8.12) .
0 , , t = 0 .
(8.12):
0
,
0s = 0a = 0 .
0s = 0a =
2

E=

2 1
1 + 2
0
(cos 1 t + cos 2 t) = 0 cos
t cos
t,
2
2
2
0
2 1
1 + 2
2 (t) =
(cos 1 t cos 2 t) = 0 sin
t sin
t.
2
2
2
1 (t) =

(8.15)

, k/m  02 (
).
r
2k
k
2 1 = 02 +
0
,
m
m0
r
2k
k
+ 0 20 +
20 ,
1 + 2 = 02 +
m
m0

166

. 8.4. .
(8.15)
k
t cos 0 t ,
2m0
k
t sin 0 t .
2 (t) 0 sin
2m0
1 (t) 0 cos

(8.16)

1 (t) 2 (t) . 8.4.


. , (8.16)
, , 0
.
, , sin[kt/(2m0 )] kt/(2m0 ).
,
, . , ,
, , 5. ,
.

.
= m0 /k ,
,

167
.
.
, , , , 1 2
. , , , 2

,
t = 0. , .
.
1,2
E
(). ,
2 2
2
1 = E
2 = ml 1 + mgl1 .
E
2
2

(8.15),
 2
20  2
cos 1 t + cos2 2 t + 2cos 1 t cos 2 t = 0 ,
4
8

20  2 2
2
2
2
1 =
1 sin 1 t + 2 sin 2 t + 21 2 sin 1 t sin 2 t =
4


20
12 + 22 20
k
2
=
=
0 +
.
2
4
4
m
21 =

2 2
1,2 = ml 0
E
4

02

k
+
2m

,
2
2
2
= kl (1 2 ) = 0 kl2 .
E
2
4

k/m  02 , , ,
,
 E
1,2 ,
E

(8.17)


, .

168
3.

. , (8.5) ,
, x2 0. ,
. m11 x 21 /2
k11 x21 /2,
x
1 +

k11
x1 = 0
m11

p
k11 /m11 . , x1 0,
n1 =

x
2 +

k22
x2 = 0
m22

p
n2 = k22 /m22 . , , , ,
.
(. 8.1,).
(2 0)

p , n1 = g/l1 + kl2 /(m1 l12 ). p
, n2 = g/l2 + kl2 /(m2 l22 ).
. , N
.
N , xi , i = 1, 2, . . . , n. xj 0 j = 1, 2, . . . , i 1, i + 1, . . . , n.
i- . ,
i- .
:

169
1) n
n , . ,

.
2)
, . , xi

x0i =

n
X

cij xj ,

(8.18)

j=1

, mij kij , , ,
.
, , , . 8.2,.
x1 x2 ,
,
,
,
.
. . 8.5,.
. I
, , ,
I1 = I + M l12 ( )
I2 = I + M l22 ( ).
n21 =

k1 l2
,
I + M l22

n22 =

k2 l2
.
I + M l12

(8.19)

,
, . . 8.5,,
n21 =

k1 + k2
,
M

n22 =

k1 l12 + k2 l22
,
I

(8.20)

170

. 8.5. ,
,
(),
, ().
.
(8.19).
c n , , , (8.18),
:
n . , ,
.

. , ,
, .

,
,

. ,
:
n1 n2 nN 1 nN ;

1 2 N 1 N ,

1 n1 ,

N nN ,

(8.21)

171
, , [1, 3].
.
4.

,
(. 8.1,). , x1 = 1 , x2 = 2 . (8.1)

k
k
) x1 =
x2 ,
m
1
m
1
k
k
2
) x2 =
x1 ,
x
2 + (02
+
m
2
m
2
2
x
1 + (01
+

(8.22)

2 = g/l , 2 = g/l , m
2 2
2 2
01
1
2 1 = ml1 /l , m2 = ml2 /l .
02

2
n21 = 01
+

k
,
m
1

2
n22 = 02
+

k
,
m
2

(8.23)

(8.22) :
k
x2 ,
m
1
k
x
2 + n22 x2 =
x1 .
m
2

x
1 + n21 x1 =

(8.24)

, x1,2 (t) = Re[X1,2 eit ], X1,2


. (8.24)
k
X2 ,
m
1
k
X1 .
( 2 + n22 )X2 =
m
2
( 2 + n21 )X1 =

(8.25)



( 2 n21 )( 2 n22 )

k2
= 0,
m
1m
2

(8.26)

172
. (8.26)
:
4 (n21 + n22 ) 2 + n21 n22

k2
= 0,
m
1m
2




2
 q 2
1
2
2
2
2
2
n2 n1 + 4k /(m
1m
2) .
1,2 =
n1 + n2
2

(8.27)

(8.28)

, ,
n1 n2 , (8.28) 1 ,
2 . (8.28)

q
2

1
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
n2 n1 + 4k2 /(m
1m
2 ) n2 n1 .
n1 1 = 2 n2 =
2

,
,

.
1 .
,
(8.25),
r1 =

X2
n2 12
= 1
> 0.
X1
k/m
1

, ,
(8.25),
r2 =

X1
2 n22
= 2
< 0.
X2
k/m
2

,
, , . . r1 r2 [1],
. r1 ,

173
r2 . (8.28), r1
r2
r
r
m
1
m
2
r,
r2 =
r,
r1 =
m
2
m
1

q
2

n22 n21 + 4k2 /(m
1m
2 ) n22 n21

r=
> 0.
(8.29)
2k/ m
1m
2
, ,
 
 








r
1
x1 (t)
x1 (t)
i1 t
= 2 Re A2 ei2 t , (8.30)
=
Re A1 e
,
1
r1
x2 (t) 2
x2 (t) 1

A1 A2 .
, ,

  
 




x1 (t)
1
r
i1 t
=
Re A1 e
+ 2 Re A2 ei2 t .
(8.31)
x2 (t)
1
r1

A1 A2 , , 
.
 

1
r2
-


1
r1
1 2 , :
, . N ,
N
. , .
,
. t = 0 , x1 (0) = x0 , x2 (0) = 0, x 1 (0) =
= 0, x 2 (0) = 0: x0 ,
, . ,

r1 x0
x0
,
A2 =
.
(8.32)
A1 =
1 r1 r2
1 r 1 r2

174
(8.29) (8.32) (8.31),
x0
x1 (t) =
(cos 1 t + cos 2 t) =
1 r1 r2
1 + 2
1 r2
2 1
2x0
t cos
t x0
cos
cos 2 t ,
=
2
1+r
2
2
1 + r2
m
1 rx0
x2 (t) =
(cos 1 t cos 2 t) =
m
2 1 + r2
2 1
1 + 2
m
1 2rx0
sin
t sin
t.
=
2
m
2 1+r
2
2

(8.33)

x2 (t) , 1 2
, 2 1  (1 + 2 )/2, ,
,
(1 + 2 )/2 . = /(2 1 )
:
m
1 2r
x0 ,
(8.34)
x2 max =
m
2 1 + r2

1 r2
x0 .
(8.35)
1 + r2
, r. (8.29) ,
0 < r 1. r  1, ,
r = 1, .
, -
, 1,2 ,
E
. , E
(8.17),
. ,
:
p
1 E
2 ,
 E
(8.36)
E
x1 min =


[1]:
=

k
.
m
1m
2 n1 n2

(8.37)

175
,  1
(8.36) .
, . ,
, . .. , . (8.28) (8.26), (8.37):


q
1
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
(n1 + n2 ) (n2 n1 ) + 4 n1 n2 ,
1,2 =
2
p
(8.38)
(n22 n21 )2 + 42 n21 n22 (n22 n21 )
.
r=
2n1 n2
,
,
n22 n21 2n1 n2 , . .
.
n22 n21
 ,
2n1 n2

(8.39)

2 .
.

n22 n21
 ,
2n1 n2

(8.40)

,
, . . . (8.40) , ,
.
(8.39). (8.38)
,

1 + x 1 + x/2, |x|  1.
2

, , n2 n1 .

176




n2 n1 n2

1
,
n1 n22 n21


n1 n1 n2
2
2

,
2 n2 1 +
n2 n22 n21
n1 n2
.
r 2
n2 n21
12

n21

(8.41)

(8.39), r  1,
. (8.33)
x1 (t) x0 cos n1 t ,
x2 (t) 0 .
, ,
x0 ,
.
(8.40).
. , ,

1 2
n1 + n22 n1 n2 ,
2

1 2
2
2
n1 + n22 + n1 n2 ,
2
n2 n21
,
r 1 2
2n1 n2

12

(8.42)

, . ,
 1 (8.40),


n2 n1
n1 + n2 2
n2 n1
n22 n21

=
.
1

2n1 n2
(n1 + n2 )/2 2 n1 n2
(n1 + n2 )/2
,
, n/n, n = n2 n1 ,

177
n = (n1 +n2 )/2. n1 n2 n n
n/n,
(
"

 #)
1 n 2
2
2
,
1,2 n 1 1 +
2 n
(8.43)
1 n
.
r 1
n
, 2 =
1,2
= n2 (1 ), .
n/(n)  1. r , , (8.22)
(8.33),
nt
cos nt ,
x1 (t) x0 cos
2
r
nt
m
1
x2 (t)
x0 sin
sin nt ,
m
2
2

(8.44)

. , = /(n).
.

. ,
,
? t1 1/,
( ), , ,
, t1  ,


n
.

,
,
p
, l1 l2 , n g/l1 ,
[4]:
s  
l l 3/2
k
.
(8.45)

m g l1

178

. 8.6.
. ,
.

, , . , . 8.6.
[4].

.
? 1 2
1
(1 + r2 2 ) ,
1 r 1 r2
1
x2 =
(r1 1 + 2 ) ,
1 r 1 r2
x1 =

(8.46)

, .

179
1 ,2 x1 , x2 :
1
(x1 r2 x2 ) ,
1 r1 r2
1
(r1 x1 + x2 ) .
2 =
1 r1 r2
1 =

(8.47)

(8.24) r2 . 1 ) = 12 ,
2 = n22 + k/(r2 m
n21 + r2 k/m
1 1 :
1 + 12 1 = 0. , (8.22)
r1 , 2
2 : 2 + 22 2 = 0. , .
, 1 2
1 2 1 2 , .
8.1.
. 8.1,
K=

U=


1
m1 l12 x 21 + m2 l22 x 22 ,
2


1
m1 gl1 x21 + m2 gl2 x22 + kl2 (x2 x1 )2 .
2

, 1 2 ,
:

1
2 22 ,
m
1 12 + m
2

1
U=
m
1 12 12 + m
2 22 22 .
2

K=

(8.46) (8.47) , r, , , r1 r2 ,
. r 1,
.

180
5.

, ,
.
,
; ,
.
.
,
F1 F2 p, . . 3
F1,2 = Re[F1,2 eipt ]. , ,
F1
k
x2 =
,
m
1
m
1
F2
k
x1 =
.
x
2 + n22 x2
m
2
m
2
x
1 + n21 x1

(8.48)

,
. ,
, . ,
. ,
, .
. ,
. ,
.
3

, , , 5,
F 1 (t) F 2 (t) , x1 x2 . , x1 x2
, F 1 F 2 .

181
, x1,2 = Re[X1,2 eipt ], X1,2
. (8.48)

F1
k
X2 =
,
m
1
m
1
k
F2

X1 + (p2 + n21 )X2 =


,
m
2
m
2
(p2 + n21 )X1

(8.49)


(p2 + n22 )F1 /m
1 + kF2 /m
1m
2
,
2
2
2
2
2
(p n1 )(p n2 ) k /m
1m
2
2
kF1 /m
1m
2 + (p2 + n21 )F2 /m
.
X2 = 2
2
2
2
2
(p n1 )(p n2 ) k /m
1m
2
X1 =

(8.50)


(8.49).
1 2
, (8.50) . , , -
, .
, ,
. , ,
, .
, ,
. F2 0,
, F1 . (8.50) (p2 12 )(p2 22 ). ,
p2
.
F1
(p2 n22 )
,
2
2
2
2
1
(p 1 )(p 2 ) m
k/m
1m
2
F1 .
X2 = 2
2
(p 1 )(p2 22 )
X1 =

(8.51)

, , . . 8.7, ,

182

. 8.7. ()
( ) ()
, ; ()
( ) , . ,
.
X1 X2 . p < 1 ,
F1 . p = 1 ,
p = n2 , .
,
. , p > 2 , F1 .
. ,
. 8.7,
.
, ,
p = n2 ,
, . (8.50)
, p = n2 F2 = 0, X1 = 0, X2 = F1 /k.
[1].

,
. , . 8.8, [1].

183
, , .

. ,
,
.
,
, , .
, ,
. .
.
, , . , ,
. 8.8,. ,
p = 1/ L1 C1 , L2 C2
. , L1 C1
.
, , , ,
. ,
n2 2 ,
.
(8.50) , . : , F
,
X2 =

F/(m
1m
2)
,
(p2 n21 )(p2 n22 ) k2 /m
1m
2

, F ,

X1 =

F/(m
1m
2)
.
(p2 n21 )(p2 n22 ) k2 /m
1m
2

184

. 8.8. : ()
().
, . , ,
.
, . . , , .
[5].
p1 ,
1, E1 , H1 , p2 ,
2, E2 , H2 ,
p1 E2 (1) = p2 E1 (2) ,

(8.52)

E2 (1) E2 p1 , E1 (2)
E1 , p2 .
1 2 , 2
1.
, , p1 , , ,
, 2, , ,
p2 2,
1 .
, . , -

185
, ,
. , ,
, .
. , . .
p = 1 , F1 F2 ,
2.
kF1 /m
1m
2 + (12 + n21 )F2 /m

(8.53)

(8.28), ,

(12 + n22 )F1 /m
1 + kF2 /m
1m
2,
. . (8.50) .
, p = 1 . (8.50)
. ,
(8.49), p = 1
.
, .
(8.48) r2 ;
, r1 .
, ,
. ,
,
:
1
(F1 /m
1 r2 F2 /m
2) ,
1 + 12 1 =
1 r1 r2
1
2 + 22 2 =
(r1 F1 /m
1 + F2 /m
2) .
1 r1 r2

(8.54)

p = 1 (8.53),
: F1 /m
1 = r2 F2 /m
2 ,
(8.54) . , . (8.54)
:


F2 /m
2 i1 t
1
e
.
1 (t) 0 ,
2 (t) = Re
1 r1 r2 12 + 22

186
x1 x2 ,
 i1 t

 i1 t

e F1 /m
1
e F2 /m
2
x1 (t) = Re
,
x2 (t) = Re
.
22 12
22 12
, , ,
.
, ( ).
, ,
, , .
,
. N
:
1) 4
.
2) [F1 /m
1 , F2 /m
2 , . . . , FN /m
N ]T (T
) , .
6. N
5
N , , ,
N 2 . , .
, , , .
4

,
, .
5

-
. ,
, .

187

. ,
[6], [7, 8] ,
,
,
!
.
.
N ,
K=

N
1 X
mij x i x j ,
2 i,j=1

U=

N
1 X
kij xi xj .
2 i,j=1

(8.55)

h i
, - x =
h i h i
iT
h
K M :
= x1 , x2 , . . . , xN

k11 k12 . . . k1N

h i k
21 k22 . . . k2N
K =
,
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
kN 1 kN 2 . . . kN N

m11 m12 . . . m1N

h i m
21 m22 . . . m2N
M =
. (8.56)
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
m N 1 m N 2 . . . mN N

h i
K ,
h i
h i h i
M . K M , :
1) , mij = mji kij = kji ,
h i
h iT
h i
h iT
K = K , M = M . -

[3, 9]. ,
.
h i h i
2) K M [3,9], , -

188
iT
h i h i h

X x = x 1 , x 2 , . . . , x N
K=

1 h iT h i h i
x
M x > 0 ,
2

U=

1 h iT h i h i
x
K x > 0.
2

; ,
,
xi = 0, x i = 0, i = 1, 2, . . . , N .
,
:
;
6 .
, :


1 h iT h i h i h iT h i h i
.
L=
x
M x x
K x
2

d2 h i h i h i h i
M x = K x .
dt2

(8.57)

, . , (8.57)
iT
h i
h i
h i
h
x = Re{eit X }, X = X1 , X2 , . . . , XN
, .
(8.57),
h ih i
h ih i
(8.58)
K X = 2 M X ,
.
h i
X ,
h i
n A i, j > n.
6

189
,
,
h ii
hh i
(8.59)
det K 2 M = 0 .
(8.59) N
2 ,
h i h i 2
M K . N {12 , 12 , . . . , N
},
, (8.58) N 2 .
h
i
, X , (8.58)
i

2 = i2 , i- .

h i
h i
X K

[3, 9, 10],
:
1) : i2 > 0, i = 1, 2, . . . , N ;
h i
2) X ;
h i h i
3) X X , j
i
h i
2
2
i 6= j , M , .
.
h iT h i h i
(8.60)
X
M X = 0 , i2 6= j2 ;
i

4) , . . i, j
k + 1, k + 2, . . . , k + m, k 0, k + m N i2 = j2 , h i
h i
,... X
X
k+m
k+1
;
h i
5) X , i = 1, 2, . . . , N , i

EN -
h i h i
h i?T h i h i
N ( X , Y ) = X
M Y .

,
h i h
i
K M .

190

(8.58), . . ,

)
(N
h i
h
i
X
ii t
,
(8.61)
Ci X e
x(t) = Re
i

i=1

Ci , i = 1, 2, . . . , N h i
h
iT
. x0 = x1 (0), x2 (0), . . . , xN (0) ,
h i
h
iT
, Ci = Ci0 +
x 0 = x 1 (0), x 2 (0), . . . , x N (0)
+ iCi00
N
X
i=1

h i
h i
Ci0 X = x0 ,
i

N
X
i=1

h i
h i
Ci00 i X = x 0 .
i

(8.62)

, 2N ,
Ci0 Ci00 .

h i
. S N ,
i- i- , . .
h i
h i i
h i hh i
.
(8.63)
S = X , X , ..., X
1

15, , ,
h i h iT h i h i
h i h iT h i h i
(8.64)
M S
K S ,
M0 = S
K0 = S

h i
h i
K M , . . ,
h i h i
K 0 M 0
.

kX1 k2
0
..........
h i 0
kX2 k2 0
...

M0 =
,
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
0

.........

kXN k2

2
0
.............
1 kX1 k2

h i
0
22 kX2 k2 0
...

K0 =
.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
0
. . . . . . . . . . . . n2 kXN k2

(8.65)

191
h iT h i h i
kXi k2 = X
M X i- .
i

, kXi k2 = 1,
,
.

h i h i1 h i
h i h
i
(8.66)
= S
x ,
= 1 , 2 , . . . , N .

, , , , :
h iT h i h i h iT h iT 1 h iT h i h i h i1 h i
2U = x
S
K S S
x =
K x = x
S
!
h iT h iT 1 h iT h i h i h i1 h i
=
x
S
S
K S
S
x =
=

(8.67)

h i h iT h i h i h i h i h i h i
1
T
1
K0
S
x =
K0 .
S
x

h iT h i h i
2K =
M 0 .
h i
X , i
, i

N

K=

1 X 2
,
2 i=1 i

U=

1X 2 2
.
2 i=1 i i

(8.68)

, N N
, .
(8.58). ,
,
. , (8.59) ,
. ,
10 , ,

192
,
- [10].
,
, ,
. , (N 200) .
,
,
,
. [10, 11],

NETLIB, http://www.netlib.org,
.

.
, , , . . .
.
, ,
, .

7.
, ,
( , , ), .
, . ,
,
. ,
[12, 13].
, -

193

. 8.9. .
,
, .
,
, ,
[14, 15].
,
,
, , [16].
, .
,
(. 8.9). d . , ,
. , N + 2 , .
N . 0 N + 1
xn n- .
:
x0 = 0 ,
k
k
(xn+1 xn ) (xn xn1 ) ,
m
m
= 0,

x
n + 02 xn =
xN +1

n = 1, 2, . . . , N

(8.69)

02 = g/l. Xn

194
xn (t) = Re{eit Xn }; Xn (8.69)


2 + 02 +

2k
m

(8.70a)

X0 = 0 ,
Xn =

k
(Xn+1 + Xn1 ) ,
m

n = 1, 2, . . . , N ,

(8.70b)
(8.70c)

XN +1 = 0 .

Xn = A sin n, A
. (8.70a) , (8.70b)

2 () = 02 +

4k

sin2 .
m
2

(8.71)

(8.70c), ,
sin (N + 1) = 0,
j =

j
,
N +1

j = 1, 2, . . . , N ,

(8.72)

(8.71) (8.72)
:
s
4k
j
j = 02 +
sin2
,
j = 1, 2, . . . , N ,
(8.73)
m
2(N + 1)

Xn(j) = Aj sin j n

(8.74)


j- . , N , .
j, 1, 2, . . . , N , .

, . 8.10 (, )
(), (8.71). ,
(8.72).
p
1 = 0
2 = 02 + 4k/m,

195

. 8.10. .
.
.

/(N + 1), . . .
.
, N , , ,
1
2
, .
, Aj , (8.74)
(j)
, Xn , . .
, .
,
,
. . 8.11
, N = 9.
, ,
, .
,
, ,
, N , , N .

196

. 8.11. .
, . , .
, , ( ),
, . (8.74), j j /d = 2,
d , j
j- . (N + 1)d, (j j)/2 = (N + 1)d.
j = j/(N + 1), ,
(8.72).
k, k = 2/. j = 2d/j = kj d. ,
j
.
, .
10. , , ,
, ,
, , . [16, 17].

197
, , , , ? , , , . (8.70c)



2 02 +

k
m

XN +1 =

k
XN .
m

(8.75)

Xn = A sin n, ,
, (8.70a) , (8.70b)
(8.71), (8.75), ,
sin(/2) cos (2N + 3/2) = 0.
( Xn 0),
,
j =

(2j 1)
,
2(N + 1) + 1

j = 1, 2, . . . , N + 1 .

(8.76)

, (, ) (8.71),
,
(8.73),
(8.76). ,
, j = 1 j = N + 1 ,
= 0 = . ,
.
8.2.
, ,
, ,
.

. ,
, , .

, :

198
1) (, ) ,
. , ,
(8.71).
2)
.
3) , ,
.
4) ,


1
2.
5) ,

1
2 ,
.

.

, (). ,
. ,
,
N 1023 .
, [
1 ,
2 ], n().
,
. (), , ,
n() = () .

(8.77)

,
, , i
(),

199
T ,
E=

~i
~
/k
e i bT

~ , kb [17].

E(T ) =

E()() d .

(8.78)

, , , (). ,
.
, , N . , (8.71) (8.72),
s
2 02
2(N + 1)
j() =
arcsin
,

4k/m
, () = dj/d,
() =

2(N + 1)
p
.
2
2

(
1 ) (
22 2 )

(8.79)

() . 8.12. ,
()
1
,

1
1
,

1 
1 ,

(8.80)

2 
2 .


, .
(),
, . . , d/d = 0. ,
,


d
d
=
n ,
d
d

200

. 8.12.
.

1
d
() .
d

(8.81)

(8.79). , (8.81) ,
. [16, 2]. (8.81) , ,
.
(. 13.3),
, d/d = 0,
, . ()
.
, ()
, [16].
,
[18].
. , -

201

. 8.13.
.
, ,
, A B,
01 02 .
. 8.13. , .. [1, 30], :
0 2N + 1, , A Xk , B Yn . k
k = 1, 3, . . . , 2N + 1, n
n = 0, 2, . . . , 2N . , , (
)
Y0 = 0 ,

(8.82a)

X2N +1 = 0 .

(8.82b)




k
2k
2
2
(Yk+1 + Yk1 ) , k = 1, 3, . . . , 2N 1 ,
Xk =
+ 01 +
M
M
(8.83a)


k
2k
2
(Xn+1 + Xn1 ) , n = 2, 4, . . . , 2N . (8.83b)
Yn =
2 + 02
+
m
m
(8.82)-(8.83) Xk = A sin k, Yn = B sin n,
(8.82a) ,
(8.83)
( 2 + n21 ) A

2k
cos B = 0 ,
M

2k
cos A + ( 2 + n22 )B = 0 ,
m

(8.84)

202
2 + 2k/M , n2 = 2 + 2k/m. (8.84) n21 = 01
2
02

4 (n21 + n22 ) + n21 n22

4k2
cos2 = 0 ,
mM


"
#
r
2
1
4k
2
(n21 + n22 ) (n22 n21 )2 +
cos2 .
1,2
() =
2
mM

(8.85)

, ,
(8.82b): sin (2N + 1) = 0,
j =

j
,
2N + 1

j = 1, 2, . . . , N .

(8.86)

, (8.86)
, 2N ,
. j, 1, 2, . . . , N ,
. , j = N +1
N +1 =

(N + 1) = N .
2N + 1

, , j = N j =
= N + 1 (8.85), , Xk , Yn .
j = N 1 j = N + 2,
.
, , . 8.10, ,
. 8.14. , , , (8.85).
(8.86), ,
0 /2. ,

1 n1 , n2
2 ,
"
#
r
2
4k
1
2
2
2
2
2
(n1 + n2 ) (n2 n1 )2 +
.
(8.87)

1,2 =
2
mM

203

. 8.14. .

204

. 8.15.
() () .
, ,
, . , ,
. . (8.84)
A=

(4k/m) cos
(n22 n21 )2 +

4k 2
mM

B,

cos2 (n22 n21 )

, . A B
, . .
, A B , . .
.
. 8.15.
() ,
. (),
, ,
.

, , .
, 2 = 0
. 01

205

. 8.16. ""
.
2 = 0, (8.85)
02


 s
2
2
1
1
1
4k
1
2
1,2
() = k
+
+
sin2 .

M
m
M
m
mM

(8.88)

. 8.16. N
.
.
, . ,
, sin  1
r
r
2k
2k(m + M )
1 ()
,
2 ()
.
(8.89)
m+M
mM
1 () ,
. (j = 1)
,
s

2k
.
1 (1 ) =
(m + M ) (2N + 1)
(N 1023 ),
2 .

206
, . , , ,
.
sin 1,
r
r
2k
2k
,
2 ()
.
(8.90)
1 ()
M
m
.
, (M  m),
,
, , ,
r
r
r
m
2k(m + M )
2k
2k

.
(8.91)
=
mM
m
2M m
(w) (8.81). (8.88),
,
() q

| 2 2 |

( 2 2 )2 [(M m)/(M + m)]2 4

,
4 ( 2 2 )2

(8.92)

2 = k(1/m+1/M ). . 8.17. ,
,
.
() ,
= 0, . . ,
d/d 6= 0.
,
() ,
, .
. () , , , ,
, .

207

. 8.17.
.

9

. .

. ? . .
. ? . . . ;
. ? ( ); ;

). .

1.

.
,
, ,
,
( );
, ;
LC ; ; , , . , , ,
,
(., , [1] ).
. , , . .

209
- , .
.
,
, 1.
,
. , ,
,

= (k),

(9.1)

k = 2/. ((9.1)) ,
k ;
, (k).
, (., [2]). ,
. () E = ~(k) p = ~k. ,


[3].
,
(. . 8.9)2 . ,
, .. .

,
1904 1894
,
.
2
n , ,
,

210
:
n (t) (x, t) ,

1 2 (x, t) 2
(x, t)
a+
a + ... ,
x
2 x2
(x, t)
1 2 (x, t) 2
n1 (t) {(x a), t} = (x, t)
a+
a + ... .
x
2 x2

n+1 (t) {(x + a), t} = (x, t) +

,
2
2 (x, t)
2 (x, t)

v
+ 02 (x, t) = 0,
t2
x2

(9.2)

v 2 = 1 a2 /m. ,
.
(9.2) 0 ,

2
2 (x, t)
2 (x, t)

v
= 0.
t2
x2

(9.3)

,
(9.3), v = const
.
F1 F2 (9.3)
F1 (x vt) F2 (x + vt). ,
(x, t) = F1 (x vt) + F2 (x + vt)

(9.4)

, , (9.3).
= x vt = x + vt.
F1

=
,
x

2
2 F1
=
,
x2
2

F1
= v
,
t

2
2
2 F1
=
v
.
t2
2

, = F1 ()
2
2
2

v
= 0.
t2
x2

211
9.1. , F2 (x + vt) .

, (9.4)

(: , : : , ). ,
( (9.3)) , ( (9.4))
, ,
. ( , ).
.. , , . . . [4] . ,
, :
, , (im Kleine!). ,
( !).
! , - .
( ), (!)
(!) (!) .
,
[5].
. . . .
: , ; , ;
, ;
, ; , ,
, , , ? , ,
, .
? , ; , ; . . .

212
, , . .
, , .
- . . .
2. ?
. , . .. .. [6, c. 6667],
.
? , . . . .

, . , ,
,
. : 3 .
, : ,
,
, , ; ,
[7, c. 350].
.. . , [8, c. 144] : ,
. ,
,
,
; ,
.
,
, 1.
3

: , , , ,
,

213
:
, , , , .
,
.
. [9] : . . . .. . , - ,
, , , ..
... .
, , , :
. ,
.
:
, . . .
: L < c T (c
, T ), . L > c T
, [10, c. 8].
, .. , , .
.
25 1742 .
, I, .
,

.
. . . . . .
(
) . -

214
; .
, , , ,
.
,
. ,
?
; ,
. (
) . () .
, .

.
. [10] , : -, . ,
, , . ,
, -
,
. , ,
.
, ,
,
.
, (.,1960). 312
: ,
.
,
(
).

215
? , .
:
? : ?. ,
.
, , .
. , , , ,
( 1 ). .
, ,
, .
[11, . 432] ,
[12]. .
. ? , .
. , ,
.
.
, , ,
. .
, .
.
(., , [5], 1951 Astounding Science Fiction ( )
. . ,
,
.
[13] , ..
20- . , -,

( ). -

216

,
500- .
, ,
.
1988 :
199293 , , , ;

. .! ,
,
- [13]:
,
, .
- , ,
.
120103 2 485 , ( ,
, ), 0,37 4 .
1990 (
0.3). , !
. , .
,
,
.

217
3. . . . ;

(9.3) , , , v 2 = const > 0.
, (9.3)
. ,
(9.3) (9.4), F1 F2 . F1 (x vt) ,
x v,
F2 (x + vt) ,
x. 1 = x vt 2 = x + vt
1
F1 F2 , . , d
dt = 0,
dx
1 = const, dt = v. , , F1 v,
F1 , ..
, F1 .
dx
dt = v F2 , 2 , .. F2 ,
.
, .
F1 , , , F2 = 0, , , , , ,
.
(9.3) . (x, t):
dx
=v
dt

dx
= v
dt

(9.5)

, F1 = const , F2 = const
.

(9.3) x (x), t (t).

218
(9.3) ,
, .
F1 (x vt) = a sin(kx t), v = /k, F2 (x + vt) =
= 0, k . = a sin(kx t)
a v,
= vk v = /k.
(9.3) (0, x) =
= a sin kx, (x, 0)/t = a cos kx.
t (x, t) x (. . 9.1).
, t x = (4n + 1)/(2k) + vt
(n = 0, 1, 2, . . . ) (..
), x = (4n + 3)/(2k) + vt (..
).
:
= [(4n + 5)(/2k) + vt] [(4n + 1)(/2k) + vt] = 2/k.
, , , k
, ,
2. , , x1 ,
T = 2/, . , ,
2. F1 (x vt) = a sin(kx t),
F2 (x + vt) = a sin(kx + vt),
(x, t) = 2a cos t sin kx ,

(9.6)

. . t x
.
F1 F2 , ,
:
(x, 0) = 2a sin kx ,

(x, 0)
= 0.
t

x = n/k ; = 0 .
x = (2n + 1)(/2k) ; . (9.6) , ,

219

j(x,y)
l

. 9.1. (x, t) x
t. .
, , .
. x ( ) T .
2a, .. F1
F2 . ,
, , , (9.6)
. .
(9.3).
x t,
:
L[] = 0,

(9.7)

L 5.

(x, t)
= 1 (x) , . . . ,
(9.8)
(x, 0) = 0 (x),
t t=0

(9.7)

x , i (x) .
5

[14].

220
(9.7) :
(x, t) = aei(kxt) ,

(9.9)

,
x t . , (9.7)
.

i, x
ik, t x . t
(9.7)

D(, k, Ai ) = 0 ,

(9.10)

Ai , (9.7). (9.10)
, :
= (k, Ai ) .

(9.11)

Ai . (9.11)
n . ,
k, ,
6 . k , , (9.11) ( ). Ai ,
(9.11)
= (k) .

(9.12)


(x, t) ei[kx(k)t] ,
(x, t)
(k).
.
1) (k) , (x, t)
.
6

, (9.11)
k. () .

221
2) (k) = i2 (k) ,
(x, t) eikx e2 (k)t ,
.
, Im[(k)] > 0, t , Im[(k)] < 0
t.
(, ).
.
; .
3) (k) = 1 (k) + i2 (k), 1 2 ,
(x, t) ei[kx1 t] e2 (k)t ,
2 = Im() < 0 ( ).
2 = Im() > 0, (
).
, , .
- (., [14]).
(9.12) k
(0 k < . , d2 /dk2 6= 0, , ; d2 /dk2 = 0, , .
, ,
v =

d
.
dk

(9.13)


, ( = 1 + i2 , 2 =
= Im() < 0). .
, .

222

. 9.2.
() .
? ,
, :
1 (x, t) = a cos(kx t) ,

2 (x, t) = a cos{(k + k)x ( + )t} ,


k . 1 2 ,
, :
1
= 1 + 2 = [2a cos{ (xk t)}] cos{(k + k/2)x ( + /2)t}.
2
, 4/
4/k, .
( + /2), ,
= 2/k.
, k ,
.
, . 9.2 ( ,
). .
, ,
xk t = const ,
, dx/dt =
= /k = d/dk k 0.
v =


d
=
.
dk

223
, v = /k.
v , v k, , , d2 /dk2 6= 0,
.
. ,
x = 0 t = 0
?
,
, .
. d2 /dk2 = 0,
v = v .
4. ? ( ;
; )
, (9.2). -, n (t)
x, . -, (x, t) (
(9.2)). , ,
, a . ? (9.2).
(x, t) exp(it ikx) (9.2),
2 = 02 + v 2 k2 ,

(9.14)

2 = 02 +

1
(ka)2 .
m

(9.15)

, (9.15) , sin2 (ka/2)


(ka)2 /4, .. ka  1. , a ,
ka, , , a
, k = 2/ (ka  1 a  ). ,

224

. 9.3.
(), ,
(9.15) ()
, . , a, ..
. ,
8
ka  1 .
, (9.3) (9.2),
0 . , (9.3),

= vk ,

(9.16)

v
.
p
v = 1 /m,
r
1
=
ka .
(9.17)
m
(8.89)
ka  1, m = M ,

p ka. , 0 =
= g/l 0 , l , ,
,
, , (
ka  1!).
k , .. (9.16), ,

225
. , /k, (. 9.3,). ,
ka  1
, .
v,
. (9.15) , 0 , ,
:
0 + AK 2 ,

A = 1 a2 /(2m0 )  1 ,

(9.18)

. . 0 . ,
( (k)).
, , .
c , ,
0 ,
a  ( . 9.3,).
, 0 0 :
, , . ,
, .
T = 2/0 , . : , . (8.71),
a (,
= 2/a), , 0 0. ,
, .
, a . ,
.
, 0 6= 0 a ,
.
, , , a H , .
,
,

226
9.1.

2

02

41
m

sin2 ( ka
)
2

-k

=
+

,

(2/0 a)

ka  1, 2 = 02 + m1 (ka)2
,
-

, 2/0

ka  1,
q0 0,
= m1 ka

1
0 0 , 2 = 4
sin2 ( ka
)
m
2

, a

. 4.
(, ,
), ..
,
. .
, , , .. a
,  a, , a, , .
, , (
) ,
.
, , ,
. ,
,
. -

227

. ,
, D
E
, , .. D E
:
Di (, k) = ij (, k)E(, k),
ij (, k) [15].
: ,
;
, ,
.
D E , ,
[15]. , ,
,
, ,
.
, (), [15, 16]. , , ,
-
( ).
, ,
, .. , ,
,
. , , .

, . 9.4 (. 4.23 [17]).
,

Q
U
I
=
= C
,
x
t
t

I
=
= L ,
x
t
t

228

. 9.4. M


1 2I
2I

= 0,
t2
LC x2
. I =
= LI M 2 I/x2 ,
( ).
1 2I
4I
2I

=
M
,
t2
LC x2
t2 x2

2 = 02 k2 /(1 + k2 ) ,

(9.19)

02 = 1/LC, = M/L. ( , k (9.19)


,
, ; L C
; ,
k a ).  1,
, , (9.19)
2 = 02 k2 (1 k2 ) .

(9.20)


, .. 2 =
= 41 /m sin2 (ka/2). ka sin2 (ka/2) ,

229
(ka)4 ;


(ka)2
1
2
2
.
= (ka) 1
m
12

(9.21)

(9.20) k ,
ka k 0 = 1 /m, = 1/12, (9.21)
(9.20).
, ,

.
0 (. . 9.3, (9.18)). (9.19) . 2 =
= 02 k2 /(1 k2 ), k2 v = /k
( )
v = d/dk . . ,
.
5.
, .
p , , = 2 1 /m sin(ka/2). , :
X
H=
~k (a+
(9.22)
k ak + 1/2),

a+
k ak = Nk k,
k. k qi+M = qi (
; M ).
k = 2n/(M a), n
M/2 + 1 M/2. (9.22)
r
1
k = 2
sin(n/M ) ,
(9.23)
m
. .
.

230

X
E=
~k (nk + 1/2) ,

(9.24)

k M .
,
, . ,
k k , .
, k
, , ~k (
, ~k /2),
. . ,
.
(
) .
,
.
. ka (a  L) p (9.17), k = vk,
v = 1 a2 /m . ,
, , , , = ~k
p = ~k.
p (
) .
. : = vp. ,
, ,
E = ~(n+1/2) [18,19].
() .
, , , :
= ~c, c .

231
, , , . ,
, . .
(, ..)
[20].
( (9.22) Nk
k).
, ,
, , .
, , . ,
. ( ), ,
. ,
,
(
). , ,
.
, , . , , , . : .

10

. . . . .

1. .

.
. . x = 0
(. 10.1) , . , , ,
, (
) ..

= Aei(tkx) ,

(10.1)

k = /v1 , v1 . 1 , ,
, 2 . ? ,
, . , (9.3)

/x. (,
, ), (x, t)
. l,
(0, t) = (l, t) = 0. ,
.

.

233

. 10.1.
,
(k1 = 1 /v1 ; k2 = 2 /v2 ).
(10.1), (. 10.1 ).
y (. 10.2,). , t
, , . . y =
= y(x, t). . 10.2,,
,
( ), .
p
ds = 1 + (y/x)2 dx
(10.2)
, . . y/x ,
(10.2) .
ds dx, ds dx,
.
.
? . 10.2, , , ds dx
y N sin( + d) N sin .
dx 2 y/t2 .

234

. 10.2. ) ds . N x
, x + dx + d x.
) .
, sin = tg = y/x
  
 
y
y

,
Ny = N
x x+dx
x x

.
,

2y
dx .
x2

Ny = N

dx

2y
2y
=
N
dx ,
t2
x2

2y N 2y

= 0.
t2
x2

(10.3)

N/ ,
p (9.3), = y, N/ = v.

x < 0 x > 0
x = 0 , x < 0
(10.1)
k = /v1 1 .
1

[1]

235
, (x, t) = 1 (x, t), x < 0
(x, t) = 2 (x, t) x > 0. 1 (x, t) 2 (x, t)
:
2
2 1 (x, t)
2 1 (x, t)

v
=0
1
t2
x2
2
2 2 (x, t)
2 2 (x, t)

v
=0
2
t2
x2

(x < 0) ,

(10.4)

(x > 0) ,

(10.5)

. , x < 0 x > 0 x = 0
, . .
1 (x, t)|x=0 = 2 (x, t)|x=0 .

(10.6)

[2] .
. 10.2,b. x = 0
x (N sin 1 ),
(+N sin 2 ).
. , x = 0, ,
(N sin 1 ) (+N sin 2 ) , ..
1 = 2 ( [2]
). ,
x = 0 ,


2 (x, t)
1 (x, t)
=
.
(10.7)
x x=0
x x=0

, ,
:
1 (x, t) = Aei(tkx) + A1 ei(1 t+k1 x) ,
2 (x, t) = A2 ei(2 tk2 x) .

(10.8)

(10.8) (10.6) (10.7).

Aeit + A1 ei1 t = A2 ei2 t ,

1
2
i eit + i A1 ei1 t = i A2 ei2 t ,
v1
v1
v2

236
t. , = 1 = 2 (, , (10.6) (10.7) t).
, = 1 = 2 ,
A + A1 = A2 ,

A + A1 = A2 .
v1
v1
v2

1 v1 /v2
A,
1 + v1 /v2
2
A,
A2 =
1 + v1 /v2

A1 =

(10.9)

1 (x, t) 2 (x, t) . . 10.3 A1 A2


v1 /v2 . , , v1 = v2 ,
, .
p
v = N/, 2
(x > 0) v2 0 v1 /v2 . ,
(2 0) v2 v1 /v2 0.
, ,
, . ,
, , . ,

x = 0 x < 0: , ,
.
2. 2
,
. 9 ,

Aei(tkx) Aei(t+kx) .
:
(x, t) = Aei(tkx) + Aei(t+kx) = 2Aeit cos kx .
2

(10.10)

.
[1].

237

. 10.3. (A1 ) (A2 ) v1 /v2


[1]
(10.10), x ,
, x 2A cos kx. (10.10) ,
:
(10.11)

(x, t) = X(x) T (t) ,

X(x) x, T (t) t.
l .

2
2 (x, t)
2 (x, t)

v
=0
t2
x2

(0 x l)

(10.12)

(x, t).
:


= (x) ,
(10.13)
(x, t)|t=0 = (x) ,
t t=0

(x, t)|x=0 = 0 ,

(x, t)|x=l = 0 .

(10.14)

238
. . (10.11) (10.12)
(10.14). (10.12)
(10.14) (10.11).
, ,
(10.13).
,
.
(10.11) (10.12), ,
2
1 2T
2 1 X
=
v
.
T t2
X x2

x, t,
, .
2T
+ T = 0 ,
t2

2X

+ 2X = 0.
x2
v

(10.15)

(x, t), (10.11) (10.14), > 0 (10.15). > 0 (10.15) :

T = A sin( t) + B cos( t) ,

X = C sin( x/v) + D cos( x/v) .


,



(x, t) = X(x) T (t) = A sin( t) + B cos( t)



C sin( x/v) + D cos( x/v) . (10.16)

(10.16) (10.14),
:

(10.17)
D = 0,
C sin( l/v) = 0
, C 6= 0,
, (10.17) ,

nv
=
,
n = 1, 2, 3, . . .
(10.18)
l
, ,

nv 
n
nv
t + Bn cos
t sin
x.
n (x, t) = An sin
l
l
l

(10.19)

239
(10.12)-(10.14) (10.19), :
X
nv 
n
nv
t + Bn cos
t sin
x,
(10.20)
(x, t) =
An sin
l
l
l
n
An Bn . (10.20) (10.14), :
X
n

Bn sin

X nv

n
x = (x) ,
l

An sin

n
x = (x)
l

(10.21)

(10.21)
(x) (x).
, n 6= m
Zl

sin

m
n
x sin
x dx = 0 ,
l
l

n = m l/2. ,
(10.21) sin(mx/l) x 0
l.
Bm

2
=
l

Zl

(x, t) sin

m
x dx ,
l

Am =

2
mv

Zl

(10.22)
(x) sin

m
x dx .
l

n =
= 2l/n n = nv/l. n = nv/l,
x sin(nx/l).
n , ,
sin(nx/l) .
1 , 2 , 3
.. (. 10.4). , (10.22).

240

sin n x
l

n=1
n=2
n=3
x=l

x=0
x

. 10.4. , .
, [1], , ,
.
: ,
, ,
( , , )3 . ,
x = . , .
, , p, (10.12)
(10.14). (x) (x).
, (x) = 0,
.
,
Zl

(x) dx = p ,

(10.23)

, (x)
. ,
3

, , , , . .

241
, (x) 0.
(10.23) :
+
Z
p
(x) dx =

( > 0)

(10.24)

(x) = 0 x
/ [ , + ].
,
, (x) ,
(10.23).
, (x) = 0, (x) , x =
(10.23). (10.22) Am Bm . , Bm = 0,
Am

2
=
mv

+
Z
2p
m
m
xdx
sin
,
(x) sin
l
mv
l

(10.25)

, .
10.1. . , (x) = p/(x ),
( ),
.

(10.25) , v/l 2v/l, 3v/l . . . ,


,
2p/(v) sin(/l),
p/(v) sin(2/l),
2p/(3v) sin(3/l) . . . .
n = 1 n = 2, n = 3 n = 4 . 10.5. ,
,
. ,
, . ,
1 ,
. ,
. [1]. , , ,
.

.

242

Un (x)
n=1
n=2
n=3
x=0

n=4

x=l x

x=

. 10.5.
n = 1
n = 2, n = 3, n = 4.
, . , , , . . . ,
. ,
, . . .
, , .
.
3. .

9 L[] = 0, L . L,
, , .
, ,
:
A

u
u
+B
+ Cu = 0 ,
t
x

(10.26)

A, B C , u . (10.26)

u = ei(tkx ,

(10.27)

243
(1 , 2 , . . . , n ) ( ), i , .
(10.27) (10.26) i .
det(A Bk iC) = D(, k) = 0 .

(10.28)

(10.28) = s (k) k = ks (w) s =


= 1, 2, . . . , n. , n , . .
u(x, t) =

n
X

s ei[s tks ()x] + k.c. ;

s=1

. . - . (. 3 7),
:
as (x, t) = s ei(s tks x) .

as
+ iks as = 0 ,
x

s = 1, 2, . . . , n .

(10.29)

,
: (10.29) , (
).
,
,
k. ,
.
?
.
,
, (
).

244
.
, ,
. , , , ,
, .

, .
:
u(x, t) = 1 ei(tkx) + 2 ei(t+kx) ,

(10.30)


. , , , u(0, t) = 0
u(l, t) = 0 (l ). (10.30) 1 = 2
sin kl = 0,
kn = n/l ,

(n ) .

(10.31)

,
,
(10.31), . . .
. , U , I(x, t) = U , I(x + l, t),
exp(ikl) = 1, . .
kn = 2n/l .

(10.32)


, .
, : D = (, k) = 0, (10.31) (10.32), : () = D(, kn ) = 0,
. . ,

245

k1 k 2 k 3 k 4 k

1 2 3 4

. 10.6. , ,
.

0
k

. 10.7. ,
, .


kn = n/l wn =

= n/(l LC) = kn / LC . 10.6. k


, ?
, , , . 10.7
10.8.

0 (. 10.8,), ; 0 . 0 .
,
(. 10.8,a). , .

246

. 10.8. ,
, ()

()
, , ,
, kn tg kl = iY (Z0 + Zl )/(1 +
+Z0 Zl Y 2 ), Y , Z0
Zl x = 0 x = l [3, 4]. :
, . . Z0 = 0, Zl = ( Z0 = , Zl = 0),
kn = (2n 1)/(2l).
, , , , k ()
.
,
, , . , ,
,
. ( )
()d = const dk .

(10.33)

, (k,k + dk) k. (10.33)

247

. 10.9. () ()
: 1 ; 2


d 1
2
) = (2C/a)(max
2 )1/2 .
(10.34)
dk
. 10.8.
l ()
(. 8). ,
, l () (. (10.34))
,
(k) = B sin2 (ka/2).
. 10.9 [5].
.
() = const(

1 u u
+
=0
v t
x
(v ), G(x, t) =
= G(x) exp(it). ,

u(x)
+ i u(x) = G(x)
x
v

u(x, t) = u(x) exp(it) .

(
u(0) = 0):
ix/v

u(x) = e

Zx
0

G() ei/v d ,

(10.35)

248

. 10.10. : 1
; 2 ; 3 ; 4 ; 5 6 ; H0 (); ( ) ( )
v0 v ()
( x = x
,
, x < x
; ,
v0 v ().
.
, G(x, t) = G(0) exp[i(t x/v )], . . ,
v , (10.35),
u(x, t) = G(0) exp[i(t x/v )]

exp[i(/v /v )x] 1
.
i(/v /v )

/v /v u(x, t) x:
u(x, t) = G(0) x ei(tx/v ) .
, , - ,

249
. . .
, , .
. v v
,
( ). ,
, . .
u(x, t) =

N
X

u(n) ei(n tkn x) ,

n=1

,
n, . . n i .


(
[6]).

,
. 5.
, u(x, t)
E , a G(x, t) I ( ), u(x, t)
[7, 8]:

1
E
+i E =
x
v
2

2

KI(x) ,

K
. ,
v0 ,
I(x, t) = I(0) exp[i(t x/v0 )] v0 (v = v0 ).
, . ,
(

250
; . 10.10). , ,
, v0 .
,

. ,
. :
. , , ,
, . 16.

11

. . .
.

. ( ).
. ( ).
. . .

1. . .
(., , [1, 2]), . .
,
, .
, ,
, . , : v(x, y, z, t), , S(x, y, z, t),
[3], (x, y, z, t) (x, y, z
t).
, , v(x, y, z, t) ,
,
t. S .
, , -

252
, , , .
,
, , .
. ,
,
(. . ). , ,
[4]. ,
.
dV (dv/dt)dV = dF,
v , dF ,
dV . V ,
H, , . .
pdS. (, dS ;
H R ). pdS = p dV . ,
V

a . ,
dF = p dV + a dV , :

dv
= p + a .
dt

(11.1)

(11.1), dv/dt = v/t + (v) v,


:

v
+ (v) v = p + a .
t

(11.2)
R

dV R

: t
dV
V
H
v dS , , ..
Z
I

dV + v dS = 0 ,
(11.3)
t
,

253

+ div(v) = 0.
t

(11.4)

. j = v
.
(11.2) (11.3) : , , . . .
.
, ( ,
)
, . ,
, . . S,
,
.
S
dS
=
+ vS = 0 .
dt
t

(11.5)

(11.4) S, (11.5) , ,
S/t + S/t + S div v + vS = 0.
div(af ) = a div f + f a,

(S)
+ div(Sv) = 0 ,
t

(11.6)

(Sv) . ,
S = const

(11.7)

. ,
, .

: p = p() ( = (p)),
 
dp
d
dp
=
.
(11.8)
dt
d S dt

254
(11.2), (11.4) 0 ,
v0 p0 , 0 , v0 p0 , ( a = 0)
1
v0
+ (v0 )v0 = p0 ,
0
t 
p0
dp
0
+
[div(v0 ) + 0 div v0 ] = 0 .
t
d S

(11.9)

(v0 = 0), v =
= , p0 = 0 /t.
(11.9)
2
c2 = 0 ,
t2

(11.10)

p
c = (p/)S . ,
( , grad), .

( ), (11.10) . 9 2 /t2 c2 2 /x2 = 0,
:
(x, t) = f1 (x ct) + f2 (x + ct) .

, :
= ck .

(11.11)

, . . .
. -
, , .
x-
vx = /x, . . (
) .
.

255
, , , (11.11) . ,
x
v0 , (11.9) :
= ck + v0 k .

(11.12)

, (11.12)
u. [1, 68], x, y, z,
K, K 0 x0 , y 0 , z 0 , K u. K 0

0

= constei(kr kct) ,
r0 - K 0 - r K r0 = rut.
:
= constei[kr(kc+k~n)]t) ,
~n . t . ,
k
= ck + uk .

(11.13)


~v =

k
d
= c + u,
dk
k

.. ~v c k
u . (11.13)
, , , ,
, .
, , , , u. K 0 , , k = 0 /c,
0 . K, , (u)
(11.13) = ck uk.

256
u k.



u
(11.14)
= 0 1 cos .
c

, . u .
K 0 , .
(u), , ,
0 , . (11.13), u,
u k, :


u
0 = ck 1 cos .
c
, K
= ck.
0
.
(11.15)
=
u
1 cos
c
0 , . ,
/2 < , cos < 0, ,
, , , 0 (. (11.15)).
, 0 < /2, cos >
0, > 0 u. , u cos > c, (11.15)
. ,
: , , , ,
.
2.

,

257
, . . . ,
, , [57]. , (11.2)


v
+ (v)v = p 2[v] gz .
(11.16)

t
, z
; a g, .
, , (11.16) (11.4) , ,
:
z , x , ,
y .
, z. p = p0 (z) + p0 (x, y, z, t), = 0 (z) + 0 (x, y, z, t),
p0 , 0  p0 , 0 . , v = v0 (x, y, z, t), p0 0 ,
. (11.16) (11.4)

1
0
v0
= 2[v0 ] p0 g z ,
t
0
0
0

= 0 div v0 v0 .
t

(11.17)
(11.18)

(11.8)
d
1 d
(0 + 0 ) = 2 (p0 + p0 ) ,
dt
c dt

v0
1
0
+ vz
= 2
t
z
c

0
p0
+ vz
t
z

p
c(z) = 1/ (p/)S . ,
p0 /z = 0 g,


0
v0
1 0
+ vz
= 2
0 gvz .
(11.19)
t
z
c
t

258

, z = H
(11.20)

vz = 0 .

H . p0 + p0 = const, d(p0 + p0 )/dt = 0,


(11.19) z = 0
p0
0 gvz = 0 .
t

(11.21)

(11.17)-(11.19) : , 0 (z) ,
0 = const, 0 (0) = 00 . (11.17)-(11.19) (. [8])
vx = (P(z)/00 )Vx (x, y)eit , vy = (P(z)/00 )Vy (x, y)eit ,
vz = iV(z)Vz (x, y)eit ,
p = P(z)Vz (x, y)eit , 0 = 0 (x, y, z)eit ,

(11.22)

.
(11.22) (11.17)-(11.19), (11.17)
i Vz
V(z)
Vz =
,
P(z)
x
i Vz
,
Vy iqVx =
y
P(z)
g
Vx
+ 2 P(z) + 00 ( 2 N 2 )V(z) sP(z)
= 0;
z
c
Vz
Vx + iqVy s00

(11.23)
(11.24)
(11.25)

(11.19)
1 V(z)
i
00 g V(z)
1
00
=
+ 2
2
c
c P(z)
P(z) z

Vx Vy
+
x
x

1
.
Vz

(11.26)

(11.23)-(11.26) (11.18)



P(z) 00 2
=
N (z)V(z) Vz

c2
g
0

(11.27)

259
, :

1/2

0
00 g
g
+ 2
.
N (z) =
00 z
c (z)

(11.28)

(11.23) (11.24) :
q = (2z /) = (2/) sin ,

q = (2y /) = (2/) cos ,

(11.29)

. (11.22) (11.20) (11.21) :


z = H,

z = 0,

(11.30)

V(z) = 0 ,

(11.31)

P(z) + 00 gV(z) = 0 .

[8], (11.23)-(11.26) : 1) s q, , , ; ,
q s , , ,
; 2) , y , . . s, s y . ,

Vx V0x
=
V
ei(kx x+ky y) ,
V
y 0y
Vz
V0z

(11.32)

V0x , V0y , V0z = 1, .


(11.23) (11.24)
V0x + iqV0y =

kz
V(z)
+ s00
,

P(z)

V0y iqV0x =

ky
.

,


V(z)
1
2
iqky ,
kx + s 00
V0x =
(1 q 2 )
P(z)


1
V(z)
2
V0y =
+ iqkx .
ky + iqs 00
(1 q 2 )
P(z)

(11.33)
(11.34)

260
, (11.25 (11.26), (11.32)-(11.34), V(z) P(z):



2 42
2
N V(z) = 0 ,
P(z) + 00
1 q2
(11.35)




2
g
skx + iqsky

1
1
V(z)
+ 2+
V(z) +
2+ 2
P(z) = 0 ,
2
z
c
1q
00
c
(1 q 2 )
(11.36)
P(z)
+
z

g
skx iqsky

2
c
1 q2

2 = kx2 + ky2 .
,
N ; .
(11.35) (11.36) , s, q Q,
N g.
P(z)
+ 00 2 V(z) = 0 ,
z
1
2
V(z)

P(z) +
P(z) = 0 .
z
00
00 2

(11.37)

V(z),
 2

2 P(z)

2
+ 2
P(z) = 0 ,
z 2
c (z)

(11.38)

.
c(z) , , ,
c(z) - , (
) [8, 9].
, c2 = dp/d
(11.35), (11.36)

 2
42
P(z) skx iqsky
2

P(z)
+

N
V(z) = 0 ,
00
z
1 q2
1 q2


V(z) skx + iqsky
2
+
V(z) +
P(z) = 0 .
z
1 q2
2 00 (1 q 2 )

(11.39)
(11.40)

261
P(z),
qsky V(z)
2 V(z)
+ 2i

2
z
1 q 2 z
"
#
kx2 s2 + q 2 ky2 + 2 (q 2 + s2 ) 2
N 22

2
V(z) = 0 . (11.41)
(1 q 2 )2
(1 q 2 )
, , ,
, . e. (11.41) , N , q s,

2 V(z)
+ 2 V(z) = 0 ,
z 2

(11.42)

c (11.30) (11.31),
V(z)|x=H

2 V(z)
= gV(z) 2
z

= 0.

(11.43)

x=0

, V(z)/z + ( 2 / 2 00 )P(z) = 0 (. 11.40).


3.
(
) , [10].
.
. [10, c. 10]: , . ,
, ,
? , .
?
- , , . , ,
... (. 11.1).
.,

262

. 11.1. . () , ()

263
11.1. [10, . 11]. V
, . 11.1,.
, 2. V .
V : Vk ,
( ), V . , :
Vk = V cos V = V sin .
,
h, . 11.1.. V . , [10].
: V2 2gh/ sin2 .

( ),
. ,
. ,
: , -
. , ? , , Fg g (g
) F (
).
.
, ;
.. ,
. v
. v ,
Fg g, ,
, H. , , ,
. ,
. ,
v = f (, g, , H) .
, ,

264
. , , , ,
, . H ,
g, :
p
p
(11.44)
v = gH f1 (/H) v = gH f2 (H/) .

 H; ,
( )1 .
, ,
f1 (/H) = C1 (/H)1/2 ,
C1 = const,
v = C1

p
g .

(11.45)

, v = f (, g, ) H,
LM T 2:
LT 1 = L (LT 2 ) (M L3 ) ,

= 0,

+ 3 = 1 ,
= 1/2
= 1/2 ,

. . (11.45).
,  H, , 3 .
(11.44)
f2 (H/) = C2 (H/)1/2 ,
1

, ,
. ,
.
.
2
,
, (, LM T , , ). ,
.
3
, , ,
.

265

v = C2

gh .

(11.46)

k = /c, (11.45) (11.46)


:

(11.47)
kH  1 ,
(k) = C1 2gk ,

(11.48)
kH  1 ,
(k) = C2 k gH .
. C1
C2 . (11.42) (11.43). (11.42) V(z) = A1 exp(z)+A2 exp(z)
(11.43),
A1 A2 ,

:



eH
eH
2


(11.49)
2
2
g / g + / = 0 = g th(H) .
,
p
= g
p
= gH[1 (H)2 /6 + . . . ]

H  1 ,

H  1 .

(11.50)
(11.51)

,
, , = kx = k, (11.47) (11.48)

C1 = 1/ 2, C2 = 1. (11.45)-(11.46) = kx = k ,
kH 0 (
) v
gH
. k;
.
, v = [(g/k) th(kH)]1/2 . v = d/dk , , ,
, . (, -,

).
, .

266

( = const),
v
+ (v)v = (p/) + g,
t

div v = 0 .

(11.52)

, (rot v = 0), v = .
(v)v = (v 2 /2) [v rot v].
v/t + (v)v = v/t + (v 2 /2) , ,
v2
p

() + ( ) = ( ) + g .
t
2

g , ,
g = U , U
.


v 2
p
+
+ + U = 0.

t
2

- [11]:
v 2 p
+
+ + U = f (t) ,
t
2

f (t) .
(/t = 0),
,
p
v2
+ + U = const ,
2

(11.53)

(11.53)
. rot v = 6= 0 (
, (11.53)
(
).
, (11.53) .
, , U . (11.53) 15
.

267
,
.
,
v = f (, , ) .
LM T :
LT 1 = (M T 2 ) L (M L3 ) ,
3 = 1 ,
+ = 0,
= 1/2 = 1/2 , = 1/2 .
,
v = C3

/() .

, (11.54), :
p
= C3 k3/2 /(2) .

(11.54)

(11.55)

, -
2 = = 0 ,

(11.56)

div v = 0 v =
= . , ,
, (
) [1, 3]:
p1 p2 = /R .
; R , 1/R = 2 /x2 , e = (x, t)
, , .

p p0 =

2
,
x2

(11.57)

p , 0 = const
. . 3 ,

268
(11.57).

p p0
+
= 0,
t

(11.58)

v 2 /2 , ,
, f (t) , , [1].
(11.57), z = 0 (11.58)
2

= 0.
t
x2

(11.59)

(11.56) = (z) exp[(i(t kx)].


2 /z 2 k2 = 0 (z) = B1 exp(kz) + B2 exp(kz).
, (z) B1 exp(kz), z < 0 ( xy ). (11.59) t ,
/t = vz = /z.
2
2
2 2
t
x

= 0.

(11.60)

B1 exp(kz) exp[i(t kz)], (11.60)


:
2 = (/)k3 .

(11.61)

, C3 (11.55) 2. ,
, , = (x, z, t),
, H,


k3
2
th(kH) .
(11.62)
= kg +

-
(
p (11.62)).
v = k/, . .
, . 3

269
O
x,t)
Fa

Fa
dx
R

d
O

. 11.2.
.

v k ;
(11.62).
, ,


. ,
,
(
).
. , (11.62) kH >> 1,
, ,
( ).
.
11.2. , , ( ) [12].

(11.62). = 8102 /, =
= 103 /3 . . 11.4,

,
(11.45)

c C1 = 1/ 2 (11.54) C3 = 2, .
2 , . .

270

. 11.3. v k
:
(kH  1,

gH); kg  k3 /, k gH, v

(kH

1, kg  k 3 /,
p
gk, v g/k); (kH  1,
p
p
kg  k3 /, k k/, v k/).
(11.62),
, kH
. 11.4, . v ()
? = 1,79 v? = 21,4 .
,
,
.
. 11.4,. , ? = 17,9 .
, ? = 4,39 v
?
11.3. ? , v? , ? v
, .

, ..
, .
: , :
. , , ,
.
. .
, , .

70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0

271

70
60
50
40
30
20
10

v
v

0
2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16

2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16

. 11.4. () () .
g
;
- .

.
4.
, ,
4 .
,
, , , .
,
.
, , . ,
, (r, 0) = 0 (r), (
) .
. ,
, , 0 (r) . 4

[5, 13].

272
,
l. ,

x, y k,

l, km 2/l.
, l. . 11.4,,
, d & ? ,
d . ? .
, .

v , - ,
. . - ,
,
,
5 . , ,
11. - k
,
k  k. , v (k). ,
.
, ,
,

. , , r
t ,
v (k) = r/t .

(11.63)

k,
k(r, t). , t
r , 2/k(r, t).
5

, , [13],
.

273
, , ,
( ,
, , ).

,
6 . k(r, t),
, (r, t) = [k(r, t)],
r t.

, , . ,
Re{Aei(tkx) } = t kx, , , = 2n,
, = (2n + 1), n = 0, 1, 2, . . . .

:
(r, t) = (r, t) t k(r, t) r .
, .
, , . ,
.

(11.50) , v (k) = 0 (k) =


p
= g/k/2. (11.63)

gt2
.
(11.64)
4r 2
,
( k), . , ,
, , ,
(11.64) r !
, :
k(r, t) =

(r, t) =
6

gt
,
2r

(r, t) =

gt2
.
4r

(11.65)

,
, - k = ~
p/~,
, .

274
. v
, ,
? , , ,
, v
? t , r1 = v
. ,
, (
) . r2 & gt2 /4, (11.65), .
r2 , g/2.
r1 r2 , .

(
). ,
,
. ,
. , ,
.
, r > r2 , ,
r
. , .
, , , kH  1.
,
gH,

. , r3 = gHt,
.
(11.61).
, , , .
, v = 32 v . ,
, . .

275
11.4. .
4 r 3
. (r, t) =
27 t3

5.
. , ,
. [5].
, ,
, ,
.
.
, - . 17, ,
, .
- .
, , , v . V , k,
V > v .

cos =

v
.
V

(11.66)


, ,
. ,
.
, , c , .
, ,
.

276
, , , ,
= /2 . ,
.
, , 7 .
. , , , ,
- . , ,
. , , .
:
1) - ,
k,
(11.66).
2) .
(11.66),
. v () (. . 11.4),
, V < v? = 21.4 .
,
. , , , ,
, .
, ,
(11.50). , 39 ,
.
[5]. . 11.5 AB
, c A, t B,
7

, . ,
( ).

277
C
V

t
0

V t

. 11.5.
|AB| = V t. A , . ,
v = V cos . t r =
= v t = V t cos /2 (
v = v /2) C. , V t/4
O, 3V t/4 B.
, B
x, .
C
x = V t + r cos ,
y = r sin .

(11.67)

r t ,
x = V t + 12 V t cos2 = 43 V t + 14 V t cos 2 ,
y = 21 V t cos sin = 41 V t sin 2 .

(11.68)

(x + 3V t/4)2 + y 2 = (V t/4)2 .
B , . 11.5 . |OB| = 3V t/4, 0 = arcsin(1/3) 19,5 .
, t, ,

! AB,
. ,
, v < V .
, .
(11.65) r = V t cos /2,

278
r V t :
V 2
cos2 ,
g
2V 2
cos .
Vt=
g
r=

(11.69)

(11.67,
V 2
cos (2 cos2 ) ,
g
V 2
y=
sin cos2 .
g
x=

(11.70)

(11.70) . ,
. , , .
/2 /2,
(x, y) ,
, . , 2, .
11.6. 11.7
, . , .
, .
, .
. 11.6.
,
. -, , x. -
, ,
.
V v = gk, 2V 2 /g. ,
,
p
,
m = arcsin(1/ 3) = 35,3 , cm = 2/3V ,
m = 4V 2 /3g.
, ,
, -

279

y
m

. 11.6.
.

. 11.7. .

280
. l,
. ,
k 2/l,
, , V > v .
, Fr =
= V 2 /gl, [5]. Fr << 1,
, l, . Fr >> 1

. ,
, . Fr
, ( ), Fr ( )
, .

. v = 32 v , , , (11.66),
r = 32 V t cos . 2
2
(. 11.4), = V
3 r cos .
3 1
,
V 2 cos2
2 1
t= 3
.
V cos3

r=

(11.71)

(11.67),
:
2 sin2 cos3
,
V 2
cos2
3 sin
y= 2
.
V cos3
x=

(11.72)

, , 8,
11.8. , = 0
> 0. ,
(11.72) x = ||
V 2
, . ,
8

, . 11.4.

281
y

. 11.8. .
= /2 x ,
y


|| 1/3 2/3
3
|x| , x .
(11.73)
y 2/3
V 2
2
. ,
11.8, ,
,
.

6. . .
, .
.
.
. ,
, , .
,  . (11.41) :


N2
2 V(z)
2
1 2 V(z) = 0 .
(11.74)
z 2

282
N = const, V(z) = V(0) exp(ikz z), kz2 =
2 (1 N 2 / 2 )
k2 = kz2 + 2 = 2

N2
2

(11.75)

sin =

,
N

(11.76)

k , = 1. (11.76) ,
< N . ,
,
.
, N = const .
, .
(11.62)

p
(11.77)
V(z) = c1 eikz z + c2 eikz z ,
kz = N 2 / 2 1 .

(11.77) (11.43), :
c1 eikz H + c2 eikz H = 0 ,
(g + ikz / 2 )c1 + (g ikz / 2 )c2 = 0 .

(11.78)

(11.78)
gkz tg(kz H) = N 2 2 .

(11.79)

kz H  1 , tg(kz H) kz H , ,
< N , (11.79) :
p
(11.80)
kz0 = (N 2 2 )/(gH)

(11.77), (11.80) = 0 gH,


(11.52) H 0.
,
,

gH, . . .

283

N
2

n=1

n
. 11.9. .
, N = const 0 (z) = 00 exp(2z). =
= N 2 /(2g). H  1 ( N 0 0,01 c1 [5], (kzo H)2 = g/[H(N 2
2 )] < N (H)1 ,
. (11.79)
ctg(kz H)/(kz H) = g/[H(N 2 2 ] (H)1  1 ,
,
kz H n

(n = 1, 2, . . . ),

(11.81)

(11.77)
=q

N
2

(11.82)

1 + (n/(0 H))

-
(. 11.9).
N z, [14]. [8], (11.74)
(11.43) N = N (z) , , V(z) z = 0, ,
, ,
0 < z < H.

284
() ,
(11.35) (11.36)
(N = 0) (c ) .
.
V(z),P(z) exp(ikz z) , (. [8])
2 = 4(k/k) = 2 cos

( = 1) ,

(11.83)

k; cos > 0 .
(11.83) , ,
, ,
.
N = const 6= 0, , , [8],
2 = N 2 sin2 + 42 cos2 k, k z.
ky y ( , ky  kz , . . z
y-) 2 =
= 2 gH+ 42z . z 0,
( = gH). ,
.
(11.23)-(11.26), , d/dyX = = const ( -; . [7, c. 35].
, , [3, 15].
( ).

,
, , , .
[15].

, kz  ky . , , . .
, s.

285
, , . . .
, q = (2/) sin y/a
= 0 = x=0,y=0 .
,
q = q(0 ) + dq/d|=0 = (2/) sin 0 + (2/) cos 0 ,
= y/a, a .
q = (2/) sin 0 + y/ ,

(11.84)

= (2/a) cos 0 .

(11.85)

y (11.84) -. , c ,
(11.23)-(11.26)
Vx + iqVy =

i Vz
,
z

Vy iqVx =

i Vz
,
y

P(z)
+ 00 ( 2 N 2 )V(z) = 0 ,
z


1 V(z)
i Vx Vy 1
00
=
+
.
P(z) z
x
y Vz

(11.86)
(11.87)
(11.88)

, (. $12.2).
x, z.
,
Vx + iqVy =

i Vz
,
z

Vy iqVx =

V(z)

+
P(z) = 0 ,
z
00

i Vz
,
y

Vx Vy
+
= iVz ;
x
y
(11.89)

P(z)
+ 00 ( 2 N 2 )V(z) = 0 .
z

(11.90)

(11.89) y, x , , dq/dy = /. (11.89),

Vx Vy

+ qVz + i Vy = 0 .
y
x

(11.91)

286
(11.89) y
,
2 Vx
Vy
2
+

V
=

+ iq 2 Vx .
y
y 2
xy

(11.92)

2 Vx /xy , y (11.91).
2 Vx /xy (11.92) (11.89), (11.89)(11.90) Vx Vy .
Vy

 2
2

2
2
+ (1 q ) Vy = 0 .
(11.93)
+
i
x2 y 2
x
,  q 2  1, . . 1 q 2 q 2 .
(11.93 Vy = Vy0 exp[i(kx x + ky y)],
:
[kx + /(2)]2 + ky2 = [/(2)]2 42 sin2 0 .

(11.94)


(11.90 (11.30) (11.31;



V(z)
N2
2
1 2 V(z) = 0 ,
(11.95)
z 2



1 V(z)
V(z)|z=H = gV(z)
= 0.
(11.96)
z z=0
= 2 / 2 , (11.95) (11.74)
, (11.96) (11.43). ( (11.77) (11.80), (11.81)) n = 0,
:
0 = 1/(gH) ,

(11.97)

n, ,
n =

1
n2 2
, n = 0, 1, 2, . . . .
2
2
H N 2

(11.98)

287
(11.94).
kx ky ,

(11.94), . . /(2) > 2 sin 0 ,


(11.85)
tg 0 < (2a1/2 )1 .

(11.99)

0 , < , =
1/2 tg )1 . ( , (11.97) =
= (2a
0

= gH(2a tg 0 )1 )). 0 ,
(11.94) . , > 0.

=

kx
.
kx2 + ky2

(11.100)

, kx < 0 (
(11.94)). ,
.
, [15].

12

. ( ).
.
; ). , .

1. .
[1, 2]
( ) , , .
. , .
, . . ,
,
. , . . ,
, .
-
, .
= ne (n ,e ),
div E = 4.
, x
div E E/x 4ne E 4nex, V Ex 4nex2 .
V , :
, ,
.
, , , ,

289
? , x < rD (rD
), .
rD .
rD
,
2 k T (k
, . . W = eV 4ne2 rD

, T ,
). ,
rD [k T /(4ne2 )]1/2 (T /m)1/2 .

(12.1)

. ,

, , rD ( , ). ,

,
x  rD . t, , rD /ve , ve (
) me ve2 /2 k T (me
).

t [k T /(4ne2 )]1/2 (2k T /me )1/2 [me /(4ne2 )]1/2 .


, .
p =

4ne2
me

(12.2)

.
.

, .
, ,
Te
Ti .
, T .

290
2.
(
).
, .
,
( ) tp
. ,
v(x, y, z, t), n(x, y, z, t) T (x, y, z, t).
( i) ( e)

:
P
P
ne,i me,i dv/dt =
Fs ,
Fs , . ? ,
, ,
pi . ,
, , .
, ,
pi,e = ni,e k Ti,e . , ,
pi = ni k Ti . ,
, ,
,
ni,e ei,e .

4 = 4e(ni ne )

(12.3)

ei = ee = e. ,
vi 6= ve
Fei , , , Fei = Fie [3]. ,
,
P , (1/c)ei,e ni,e [vi,e B].
Fs ,

291

Fe,i
vi
ni k Ti
ei
ei
+ (vi )vi =

[vi B] .
t
mi n i
mi
mi ni cmi

(12.4)


ne k Te
ee
Fe,i
ee
ve
+ (ve )ve =

[ve B] .
t
me n e
me
me ne cme

(12.5)

(12.4) (12.5)
,
.
, ni ne =
= n. , (12.4) (12.5) . ,
,
mi n[

v
+ (v)v] = [nk (Ti + Te )] ,
t

(12.6)

v = vi + (me /mi )ve vi (, << >> - , ).




ni
+ div ni vi = 0 ,
t
ne
+ div ne ve = 0 .
t

(12.7)
(12.8)

, .
3. .
, (Te = Ti = 0 , Fei = Fie = 0)
, 1 2 . 12.1, . .
2 , F = eEx . Ex

292
: x F 4ne2 x0 .
(4ne2 /me )x0 ,
p :
x
0 + p2 x0 = 0 .
. .
(12.4)-(12.8). ,
; ;
(mi  me ); , v0 = const x.
, , . . . ,
k (f 0 exp[i(t
kx)]). pe =
= p0 + p0 , n = n0 + n0 ,
v = v0 + v 0 ( , ).
pe (n0 + n0 ) = p0 + me (pe /0 )n0 ( )
pe = me (pe /0 )(n0 /x). (12.4), (12.5)
:
v 0
1 pe n0
e 0
v 0
+ v0
=
+
= 0,
t
x
n0 0 x
me x
n0
v 0
n0
2 0
0
=
4en
,
+
n
+
v
= 0.
0
0
x2
t
x
x
v 0 , n0 , 0 exp[i(t kx)], :
( kv0 )2 = p2 + k2

pe
.
0

(12.9)

v0 = 0 2 =
= 02 + k2 /(LC) (. . 12.2). (12.9) , (11.12).

293

. 12.1. ;
(
, ; );
2 = p2 .
pe /. , pe /n = const, pe = nk Te
pe /0 = pe /(nme )(0 = me n).
[2], = 3 .. pe /0 = 3k Te /me . p n3

. (12.9)

( kv0 )2 = p2 +

3k Te 2
k .
me

(12.10)

12.1. [1] , , , p n3 ,
v l = const,
v , , l . .
v l = const , .

, (12.10) v0 = 0, 12.2.
(12.9) .

294

. 12.2. ,
;
k (krD  1) ().
() ()
(. 13.10)

. (12.9) Te = 0 v0 = 0
2 = p2 (. 12.1,). , , ,
, v = d/dk = 0. , ,
, v = /k = p /k
(k ).
(v0 6= 0 , Te =
= 0). (12.9) ,
( kv0 )2 = p2

(12.11)

, (12.11) C [4] : k = /v0 p /v0 k = /v0 + p /v0 (. 12.3).



, v0 . .

295

. 12.3.

(Te 6= 0 , v0 =
= 0). (12.9) v0 = 0
2
2 = p2 (1 + 3k2 rD
),

(12.12)

rD = (k Te /me p2 )1/2 (. (12.1)).


(12.12) ,
krD  1 rD  . 2/
, , ; . , ,
(12.12)
krD .

.
q

2 / 1 + 3k 2 r 2 , , v = 3p krD
D

(krD  1)

v 3krD

k Te
.
me

(12.13)

p
k Te /me , ,
(12.13), . , ,
.

296
4.
( ;
).
f (x, v, t), x , v
, f d3 xd3 v (x, x + dx), (v, v +
+ dv) .

f
+
(vi f ) +
(ak f ) = 0
t
xk
vk

(12.14)

(., , [5]). (12.14)


, k = 1, 2, 3 .
a(x, v, t) , x v, ,
m e E
B


1
e
(12.15)
E + [vB(x, t)] ,
a=
m
c
.
, (12.15), ak /vk = 0, (12.14) :
f
f
f
+ vk
+ ak
= 0,
t
xk
vk

(12.16)

(., , [5]) .
f , ..
, , f1 .
f d3 x d3 v,
. f d3 x d3 v ( ) .

(12.15) E(x,
t)

B(x, t). :

f
B
f
+ vk
+a
k
= 0,
t
xk
vk
1

(12.17)

f (x, v, t) ( ). a
, . , (12.16)
.

297

e
a=
m




1

E+
vB(x, t)
.
c

(12.18)

s,
f (fs ). (12.17)
.
, s-
:
Z
(12.19)
s = es fs d3 v ,
Z
js = es vfs d3 v .
(12.20)
(12.17)-(12.20) , j, ( ). (12.17)
, , ,
,
, .
,
: . .
(12.17)
,

. (12.17) [5]. ,
(12.17) (., , [5]).




f
f
e
1
f
+v
+
= 0,
(12.21)
E + [vB]
t
x m
c
v
+|e|, . E = 0, B = B0 (B0 )

298
f = f0 . f0 v,
. (12.20) ,
[vB0 ]

f0
= 0.
v

(12.22)

,
f = f0 + f1 ,

B = B0 + B1 ,

E = E1 ,

(12.23)

f1 , B1 , E1 . (12.23) ( , ) (12.21)
:


f0
f1
e 1
f1
e
f1
1
+v
+
[vB0 ]
+
= 0 . (12.24)
E1 + [vB1 ]
t
x
cm c
v
m
c
v
(12.24)
f1 , E1 , B1 ei(tkx)

(12.25)

. E1 k,
x; B0 = B1 = 02 .
(12.24) :
f1
f1
e
f0
+v
= E1
.
t
x
m
v

(12.26)

, E1 , .. (12.26) . (12.26) (12.25) ,


f1 =
2

ieE1 f0 /v
.
m kv

(12.27)

y- z- , .
(12.21) vy vz , .
ZZ
f (x, vx , t) =
f dvy dvz .
. f0 , f1 .

299
(12.26),
f1
f1
+v
= 0.
t
x

(12.28)

:
f1 (x, v, t) = F(vt x, v) ,

(12.29)

F . , . (12.26) :
f1 (x, v, t) =

ieE1 f0 /v i(tkx)
e
+ F(vt x, v) ,
m kv

(12.30)

F . , f1 ,
Z
Z
= e f1 dv ,
J = e vf1 dv .
(12.31)
(12.30) F
E1 , J ei(tkx) . j E1 , ..
= (, k)E1 ,

J = (, k)E1 ,

(12.32)

.
,

,
.
t < 0, .
k ,
(/k). , eit , ,
. :
, ,
, .
F

300
, f1 t .
, ,
3 .
, , (12.30). Im < 0 k F = 0.
(12.31) (12.32) (12.30) :
ie2
=
m

ie2
=
m

df0 /dv
dv ,
kv

(12.33)

v(df0 /dv)
dv .
kv

(12.34)

(12.33) (12.34)
v = /k, , , . 12.4,. k .
Im .
, . 12.4,. Im > 0 , , . 12.4,.
Im
. df0 /dv
v,
.
,
. 12.4,,
:
Z

=P

i Res( v = /k)

( ) ,

(12.35)

, f (z), z = Re z + i Im z = x + iy, , f 0 (z) = df /dz, f (z) f (z) =


= u(x, y)+iv(x, y), :
v
u
=
,
x
y

v
u
=
.
x
y

301

. 12.4. C,
.

302
P
v = /k4 .
1
1
=P
+ i( kv) ,
kv
kv

( )

(12.36)

.
(12.35):
F (12.30),
(12.27). , F eikx , :
F(vt x) = eik(vtx) F (v) ,

(12.37)

F (v) . (12.36) /k , F :


E1 e dt0
( kv) .
F (v) =
m
dv v=/k
4

, .
f (z)
L (
H
L f (z) dz) L,
z1 , z2 , . . . , zN , L, L
( ). :
I

f (z) dz = 2i

N
X

k=1

Res f (z) .

z=zk

f (z), L, , .
:
I
1
f (z)
f (z0 ) =
dz ,
2i
z z0
L

, f (z) L ,
z0 L.
f (z)
f (z) = g(z)/h(z), , z = z0 ,
h(z) z z0 ( ),
Res f (z) =

z=z0

z.

g(z0 )
,
h0 (z0 )

303
, , . 12.4,
Z

+i
Z

2i Res( v = /k) ,

(Im > 0 , > 0) .

(12.38)

F (v) .

.
div E1 = 4( ) ,
= E1 (. (12.32)), ,
, :
div D = 4 ,
D = (E1 /4). , ,

(, k) = 1 +

4
ik

(, k) = 1 +

4
.
i

(12.39)

, ,
, .
, E1 , , .
= 0
:
ikE1 = 4 ,

(12.40)

, . ,
. , .
(12.32) (12.40) = ik/4
(12.33) :
Z
df0 /dv
4e2
dv = 1 .
(12.41)
mk
kv
C

304
C , ..
, Im < 0, ,
Im 0. (12.39) (12.41)
:
(, k) = 0 .

(12.42)

k , (12.41) . , f0 (v) .
? ,
. , , ,
, f0 -, . , f0
. f0 ? ,
f0 (v) ,
v . ,
s
m(vu)2
m2
(12.43)
e 2kT ,
f0 (x, v, t) = n
3
(2k T )
k , T , n ,
u ;
, (i) (e)
Z
Z
f0i d3 v = f0e d3 v = n ,
(12.44)
Z
Z
vf0i d3 v = vf0e d3 v = nu .
(12.45)
,
, f0 (v) .
(12.41) :
D(, k) = 0 ,

(12.46)

305

D(, k) =

mk2
df0 /dv
dv +
.
/k v
4e2

(12.47)

(. (12.11))
: 2 = p2 , krD  1 (rD  ),
p2 , (12.12).
krD  1, ,
.
. ,
.
, vT , , |v|  vT
f0 (v) .
, /k  vT ,
. ,

qp , p /k  vT , k  p /vT .
rD =

k T /me p2 , k T me vT2 ; rD vT /p krD  1

(rD  ), . , f0 (v), , |v|  vT , v .


df0 /dv. , (. (12.35)) (12.47), .
= r + i, (r p ) , ,
.
 |r p |, D(, k) = 0,
.

306
(12.47) kv/.
P

k
df0 /dv
dv =
(/k v)

k
=

df0 /dv
dv =
(1 kv/)
Z "

kv
1+
+

kv

2

+ ...

df0
dv . (12.48)
dv

,
#
 2
Z "
Z
kv
kv
k2
df0 /dv
f0 1 + 2
+ . . . dv .
dv = 2
+3
P
(/k v)

(12.49)

R (12.49) , n =
nk T = mv 2 f0 dv, 5 :


mk2
nk2
3k T
D(, k) =
2 1+
+ ... .
4e2

m 2

f0 dv

(12.50)

, D(, k) = 0
2 = p2 (p2 = 4ne2 /m), 2 = p2 (1 +
2 ), = . ,
+ 3k2 rD
p
. (
), . . ,
 |r p |. , , i , ,
. r .
D(, k) = r ,
 
df0
D(, k) = P [D(, k)] + i
dv v=r /k
( P [D(, k)] D(, k),
). ,
 


df0
D
. (12.51)
D(r + i, k) = P[D(r , k)] + i
+ i
dv v=r /k
=r
5

, T
, .

307
D = Dr + iDi ,




D
Dr
Di
i
+i
=
.
=r

=r
r ,
.
(12.51), - D = 0.
- (. . 300)
Di / = Dr /r , D .


df0
=
dv

v=r /k

Dr
r

1

(12.52)

Dr /r , , Dr = P(D). r (k) Dr = 0 ( (. 2 = p2 (1+3r 2 k2 ))).


Dr = 0,
Dr dwr
Dr
+
= 0.
k
r dk

(12.53)

(12.47) ,
Dr
2mk
r Dr
=

.
2
k
4e
k r
(12.53) (12.54)


2mk
dr r Dr

=
.
dk
k r
4e2
(12.55) (12.52) :
 


r dr
2 2 e2 df0

.
=
mk
dv v=r /k k
dk

(12.54)

(12.55)

(12.56)

r = p dr /dk = 0,
( .., , 1946, .16, .574).
df0 /dv < 0, > 0 , et . .

308
N

V
m v2

exp(- 2ke T )
e

. 12.5. :
(
(vp v )); , vp < v ,
; .
, ,
, , .
, .
df0 /dv < 0,
, , ( ). . 12.5.
,
( ) df0 /dv > 0 ,
,
.
, , , ,
= kv.

5. .
.
, , , Te  Ti , , , , , (12.5), .. ve /t + (ve )ve ).
(12.3)-(12.7) -

309
:
vi
e
=
,
t
mi x

0=

1
e
(ne k Te ) +
,
ne me x
me x

ni
2
=
(ni vi ) = 0 .
= 4e(ni ne ) ,
2
x
t
x
, .. Te = const.
,
(k Te /n0 )n0e /x = e/x ,
ne = n0 + n0e (n0  n0e ), , ,
vi0 /t = [k Te /(mi ne )]n0e /x. n0i = n0e [1/(4e)] 2 /x2 , ,
/x, , n0i = n0e [1/(4n0 e2 )] 2 n0e /x2 . :
vi0
k Te n0e
+
= 0,
t
n0 mi x
n0i
v 0
+ n0 i = 0 ,
t
x
1 2 n0e
.
n0i = n0e
4n0 e2 x2

(12.57)

, . 12.6 (12.57),
[6].
:
u , I , I 0 , L , C1 , C ,

1/ LC = 0 ,

1/k02 = c1 /c (x)2 ;


vi , ne , ni , 1/n0 , mi /(4e2 ) , mi n0 /(k Te ) ,
(4n0 e2 /mi )1/2 = pi ,

2
1/k02 = k Te /(4n0 e2 ) = rD
.

, (x) .

310

. 12.6. M , .
,
exp[i(t kx)], (12.57)
2 k 2 /(k 2 + k 2 )
2 = pi
0
2 =

c2s k2
2 ,
1 + k2 rD

(12.58)

p
cs = k Te /mi . krD  1, = cs k.
k , ,
; v 0 k .
, : , . . [6].
, ,
. 12.7,.
; .
p
f 2 k Te /mi /L
(L ,

311

. 12.7. ( : 1 ; 2 ; 3 ; 4 ; 5
() ( Ip =
= 10 ; Ip = 16 ; = 0 k/k0 ()) [6].
). . 12.7,.
, , .
. ,
, ,
.
[79].

13
.
.
. .. , , . ,
.

1.
. .
9
, . ,
(., , [14]).
[5].
, , u(x, t) = u0 Re{exp[i(t kx)]}, u0 =
= const,
v =

(13.1)

, , u(x, t). =
= t kx, , = const
, v . , d/dt =
= /t + (dx/dt)/x = 0, dx/dt = v , /t = , /x = k.
, ,
( t
+ x +). ,
, : , . .

313
, v .
- , .
: t = 0 u = Re[f (x) exp(ik0 x)],
f (x) exp(ik0 x).
, u = Re{f (x) exp[i(0 t k0 x)]}, . . v = 0 /k0
(. (13.1)). . ,
f (x)
+
Z
g(k)eikx dk ,
f (x)

g(k)

f (x)eikx dx .

ik0 x

u(x, 0) e

+
+
Z
Z
ikx
g(k)e
dk
g(k)ei(k+k0 )x dk .

,
, x +. ( )
+
Z
u(x, t)
g(k)ei[t(k+k0 )x] dk .

(13.2)

, = (k). f (x) exp(ik0 x) , g(k)


k  k0 , (k)
:

d
k.
(13.3)
(k0 + k) = 0 +
dk k0

(13.3) (13.2),
u(x, t) ei(0 tk0 x)

+
Z
g(k)eik[x(d/dk)k0 t] dk

314

u(x, t) = f [x (d/dk)k0 t] ei(0 tk0 t) .


f [x (d/dk)k0 t] , v = 0 /k0 , .

d
.
v =
dk k=k0

,
1876 . . , .. (. [1], . 420)
.. . [6] .. ,
,
.. .
u cos(kx st +
+) [7].
, t = 0 u(0) cos(kx + )
? [7]: . . .
; , ,

, ,

, :
=

s
,
k

ds
dk

...

.. . . .
, .. ,
. . . [7]1 .
1

[8]. ?

315
(k) (13.3):


d2 k2
d
k+
.
(k0 + k) = 0 +
dk k0
dk2 k0 2

(13.2) (d2 /dk2 )k0 (k2 t/2),


[(d2 /dk2 )(k2 t/2)]  1,
|(/v )(dv /d)0 |  1 .
= v t, ""
t, k = 2/, . ,
; , (dv /d)0 . ,
, , . .
. ,
.
,
(. 13.1,)
h
i
u = Re u0 ei(0 tk0 x) + u1 ei(1 tk1 x) + u2 ei(2 tk2 x) + . . . .


0 , 1 , 2 . . .
i
h
(13.4)
u = Re F ei(0 tk0 x) ,

F = u0 + u1 ei[(1 0 )t(k1 k0 )x] + u2 ei[(2 0 )t(k2 k0 )x] + . . . .

(13.5)

F (x, t)
[2].
.
, . ,
-
. . . .

316

. 13.1.
0 (); ,
(2), (1) ()
().
, F = A exp(i). (13.4) u = A cos(0 t k0 x + ) (A , (0 t k0 x)
, ).
( 0 ),
n 0 kn k0 (n = 1 , 2 , . . . ) . , (13.4) F exp[i(0 t
k0 x)].
0 , .
(13.5)



(1 0 )t
+
F = u0 + u1 exp i(k1 k0 ) x
k1 k0



(2 0 )t
+ u2 exp i(k2 k0 ) x
+ . . . (13.6)
k2 k0

2 0
dw
1 0
= v
=
= ... =
k1 k0
k2 k0
dk
( , ), , ,
F = u0 + u1 exp[i(k1 k0 )(x v t)] +

u2 exp[i(k2 k0 )(x v t)] + . . . = F (x v t) . (13.7)


(. 13.1,).

317
k , d/dk = /k =
= v , , .
,
= 0 (. 13.1,), (13.7) [2]. ,
- , ,
. .
.
,
, , . . u(x, t) exp[i(x, t)],
(
k-, k k).

,
k(x, t) =
t
x
, ,
(x, t) =

k
+
= 0.
t
x

(13.8)

(13.9)

- (x0 , t0 ),
k
, k 1/ 1/k. , ,
,
,
k. k
= (k). (13.9),
k k
+
= 0,
t
k x

k
k
+ v (k)
= 0,
t
x

(13.10)

v (k) = /k. ,
: v (k) k. (13.1) k , .
k (x, t),

318

. 13.2. xt;
x v t = const ( = 2/k = const); , , [3].
dx/dt = v , , , v =
= const, . . ,
x v t = const

(13.11)

(. 13.2).
, (13.10)

+ v ()
= 0,
t
x

(13.12)

; , ,
" ". (13.12) d/dt,
dx/dt = v (x , t), . . (13.12) , = const. v () = const
t x/v () = (), = const .
() x = 0;
, (13.12)
= [t x/v ()] ,

(13.13)

, (). (13.13)
, ,

319

. 13.3. - . ()

().
v() , . ,
.
, , , .
(x , t), ,
, , ,
(. 13.3). ( ).
( . 17). [4], , , ,
- .
v k k = 2/, v = /k .
v = v

dv
.
d

(13.14)

(13.14) , , , ,
. v v = v () . 13.4.
, v v ,
, ,
().

320

. 13.4. v : v > 0;
v > 0 = 1 v < 0 = 2 . ,
v (),
, , = 0 ,
|v 0 (v /)0 |.
[1], , . 13.4, .. .
. . . v () ,
, . . .
, ,
.
?
: ,
.
, ,
( ).
: (
) , , .. .
. , , [9]. ,

:
.
, :
V =

.. , ,

321
, V v .
, - ,
.
2. .. , ,
[1, c.427-428].
. , V , t0 t

t (V /c2 )x
.
t0 = p
1 (V 2 /c2 )

t
x t + t x + x.


1 V v/c2
t (V /c2 )x
= t p
.
t0 = p
1 (V 2 /c2 )
1 (V 2 /c2 )

v = x/t .
, v > c V < c,
(1 V v/c2 ) < 0, t > 0 ,
t0 < 0. , ,
, .. . , : (,
) , .
, .
=
.
1/2
= gk (. . 11), .. d/dk = (1/2)(g/k) , v = /k = (g/k)1/2 , ,

v = (1/2)v .

(13.15)

(13.15) ,
c .
, , c. ?

322
: , , v .
.
3. ,
.
. 1.
(11.61) , = k3/2 (/)1/2 v = d/dk = (3/2)(/k) =
= (3/2)v , . . v
v ( ).
2. . 12 ,
v0 , . . v = v0 . , ,

p
v 3krD kTe /me , . ,
.
. 12
.
, exp[i(t kr)], (. [10])
k2 E k(kE) ( 2 /c2 )D = 0 .

(13.16)

, D
E: D = E, . D (13.16),
P
, D =
E ,
.
(. [10])
Det kk2 k k ( 2 /c2 ) k = 0 ,

(13.17)

.
D = E
(13.16) ,
k = 0 ,

(13.18)

323

=

k2 c2
.
2

(13.19)

, 12 ,
, (12.42), (13.18).
13.1.
rot B =

1 E
4
1 B
+
j,
rot E =
,
c t
c
c t
div B = 0 ,
div E = 4

+ div j = 0 ,
t
(13.16). ,
j , E B
.
. D D/t =
= E/t + 4j , div D = 0.

v /t = (e/me )E .
v , E exp it, v = [e/(ime )]E .
2 E /(4).
j = e0 v = ipe

D = E = E + 4j /(i). ,
= 1

2
pe
.
2

(13.20)

(13.19) (13.20),
2
2 = pe
+ k2 c2 .

(13.21)

q
q
2 / 2 . . v
2 / 2 v
1 pe
=
c
, v = c/ 1 pe

c, v < c, v v = c2 .
, .
, ,
, v v (. [11]):
v v

c2
=

d
1
k dk

1

(13.22)

324
2 = k2 2 ; k ;
; ,
; k > (
= = 1), k < ( ; 2 =
= 2 k2 ). (13.22) , v v = c2 , = = 1
d /dk = 0. , d /dk = 0
, . . v v = c2 /().
v v ,
.
3.
(. . 11). N = const.
(11.76): sin = (/N ). , z, ..
= +1. (11.76) , , (11.75):
= N /k = N (kx2 + ky2 )1/2 /(kx2 + ky2 + kz2 )1/2 ,
, v = x0 /kx + y0 /ky + z0 /kz , x0 ,
y0 , z0 [3].
, (. [12])
v = (N kz /k3 )(kz / z ) .

(13.23)

(13.23), v k = 0, .. v k (. 13.5). q 0, s 0  (11.40)


V(z)/z + [ 2 /( 2 00 )]P = 0, V(z) = V0 exp[i(t kz z)]
p = (tkz 2 00 / 2 ) exp[i(t kr)]. , p = ikp k. (11.33) (11.34)
, V0x = kx / V0y = ky /. (11.22)
v = (kz / 2 + z )vz ,

vz = iv0 exp[i(t kr)] .

(13.24)

(13.24) , vk = 0, .. , k , k
z. p v (13.24),
P = (1/4)(pv? + ..)

P = (1/2)00 v02 N 2 v .

(13.25)

325

. 13.5.
[12]: , (ky = 0, = 1);
, (ky =
= 0, = 1).
W = (1/2)00 vv
W = (1/2)00 v02 N 2 .

(13.26)

(13.25) ,
(. 13.5), V =
= P/W .
13.2. , , : ,
, (. 13.6).

,

k sin( ) = k sin( ) ,
k . 13.6 (
!). :
. :
(. . 11).

(11.75) , ky .
, ky 6= 0,
/kx = (/ 2 )(kx2 ky2 )/(kx2 + ky2 ) ,
/ky = (/ 2 ) 2kx ky /(kx2 + ky2 ) ,

326

. 13.6. [12].

v = (/ 2 )(x0 cos 2 y0 sin 2) ,
.. v (11.100),
kx .
, , .. = (kx , ky , kz ),
.
, .
[3, 13], .
u(x, t) exp[i(x, t)] x x1 , x2 x3 .
/t = ,

/xi = ki ,

ki = 1 , 2 , 3 ,

(13.27)

k1 , k2 k3 . = (k1 , k2 , k3 )
/t = (/x1 , /x2 , /x3 ) .

(13.28)

(13.28) xi (13.27),
(13.10) :
kj
ki
+ Uj
= 0,
t
xi

(13.29)

Uj = /kj . Uj =
= dxi /dt, kj ,

327
Uj xj Uj t = const.
[3] ,
Uj = /kj ,
( ).
, = (k, x, t).
. , [3, 13, 14].
13.3. , -
, v0 , ,
.
.

14


. : ; . .
. ( ).
.
. . . (
. ;
).

1.
.. [1]
.
., ,
, (
). , .. ( ), -
. ,
, ... ,
()
.
(
) .
, () (),
(). : (), -

329
(), (). ( !),
(, )
(, , ). () ,
.
, , . ,
, (
), . . .
,
.
,
, ,
. .
, .. ,

( ).
, -,
, .. , -,
,
.
, , ,
.

a0

dn1 x
dx
dn x
+ an x = 0 ,
+
a
+ . . . + an1
1
n
n1
dt
dt
dt

(14.1)

an a0 > 0.
x = 0 (14.1). -

330
, x 0 t . (14.1)
x exp(pt) (p ). (14.1),

(p) = a0 pn + a1 pn1 + . . . + an1 p + an = 0 ,

(14.2)

.
(14.2) n pm = Re pm + i Im pm .
, ,
p. ( ), t x exp( Re pm t), , , . , . ,
, (14.2).
,
[2, 3].
D-.
.
(14.2) Re pm < 0, .. (p)
),

a1 a0 0 0 . . . 0
a3 a2 a1 a0 . . . 0

Dn =
a5 a4 a3 a2 . . . 0
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
0 0 0 0 0 0

(14.3)

: ( a1 an ) (14.2);
( a0 ); ( , n) .

331

1 = a1 ,



a1 a0

,
2 =
a3 a3



a1 a0 0


3 = a3 a2 a1 , . . .
a5 a4 a3


a1 a0 0 0 . . . 0


a3 a2 a1 a0 . . . 0


. . . , n = a5 a4 a3 a2 . . . 0 .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


0 0 0 0 0 0

, :
1 > 0 ,

2 > 0 ,

... ,

n > 0 .

(14.4)

p2 + 2p + 02 = 0. (14.4)
> 0 02 > 0.

p2 + ap2 + bp + c = 0

(14.5)


. , , : 1 = a, 2 = ab c, 3 = c(ab c).
, ab > c.
( , ab > c) .
(., , 6.1 [4]).
()
W s ( W u ) ,

( ) . ,
()
. ,

(a, b, c) = a2 b2 + 4b3 + 4a3 c 18abc + 27c3 .
< 0 ; > 0 .

332
. , n
, ,
. , , , , .. .
, ,
(
, , . . exp[p]. D-.
.
, . . (, p) =
= 0. , , . . ,
p.
, ;
, ,
.
,
. , .
p , ,
,
.
p, , ,
D-, .. ,
.
p , ..
= f (p). p ,
, . , ,
, . ,
. p
. , (, p) = 0
, , , f (p),

333
Im l
w
D( l)=1

D( l)=0
Re l
w

. 14.1.
p2 + p +
+=0
.. .
: p2 + p + = 0. , = p2 p, p = i
= 2 i. , Re = 2 , a Im = . , Re = (Im )2 .
(. 14.1). . D() = 1.
D- , . ,
. 10, .
, :
k = n/l (n = 1, 2, . . . ) k = 2n/l .
D(, k) = 0 k k n,
, n, .
. ,
, . ,
ut + v0 ux = 0
n = 2nv0 /l. , D(p, n) = 0
p = i. , .
, ,
ut + v0 ux uxx = 0, -

334
n = (2/l)(v0 + in2/l)n.
(
p), ..
.
, . ,
,
. 14.2,.
u
2u
u
+ v0
2 u = 0 .
t
x
x

(14.6)

u(x, t) = v exp[i(t kx)] ,


:
2nv0
+ i
n =
l

"

2n
l

2

. 14.2, /, l
. l <
p
l = 2/ / ,
p
Im p = 0 (.. Re = 0), . l > l , l
p .
,
(), , . ,
, . . kn , , D(, k), . , , , .
, , , . , , ,
- -

335
g/n
R

D=0

. 14.2. ,
(14.6) () /, l ()

Z
1 X
us (k, 0) ei[s (k)tkx] dk ,
u(x, t) =
2 s

(14.7)

us (k, 0) , .
? k-
. , , ,
, .
, , , ,
( , (. . 14.3), (), ,
, . .
,
, .. , (. ,
) . 1).
1

.. .. [5]
.

336
v

. 14.3.
, , :
lim u(x, t)

x (x1 , x2 ) ,

(14.8)

u(x, t) (x1 , x2 ,
), ;

lim u(x, t) 0

x (x1 , x2 ) ,

(14.9)

.
, . ,
,
, . , t0 = t, x0 = x v0 t,
v0
( , , ( ; , , ,
), .

, ,
, .
.
x = 0 , D(, k) = 0, .
0 . , D(0 , k) = 0 ,

337

w0

. 14.4. ( , ) ();
()
() [6]
Im k < 0, Im k > 0. x? ,

eIm kx ei0 t ei Re kx ,
Im k > 0 x. ,
, . ,
< 0 (. 14.4,; . 14.4,), x,
(. 14.4,). ;
, < 0 D(, k) = 0 Im k > 0. ?
: D(, k) = 0,
k,
. , , (Re k < 0),
(. 14.4,).
( t
), x .
,

338
, .
2. : ;
. .
.
.
, .
2 , ,
, .

, ,
(., , [7]).
, ,
.
:

+ v = v ,
t
p
v
+ (v)v =
,
t

= 4G ,

(14.10)

, v , p , , G .
0, . , t = 0 (..
t < 0) , v0 = 0, t 0
(r, t) = 0 + (r, t), (r, t) = 0 +
t), v(r, t) = v
(r, t). ,
+ (r,
(14.10) 2

, , , ,
.

339
, , :

) = 0 ,
+ div(0 v
t

1 p
+
=
,
t
r
0 r
= 4G

,
p =

c20 .

(14.11)
(14.12)
(14.13)
(14.14)

(14.14) p = p(); c20 = p/


.
div (14.12)
(14.11) ( 0 = const), (14.13) (14.14),


2
02 + c20 = 0 ,
2
t

(14.15)

02 = 4G0 . (14.15) , :
X
(k, )ei(k tkr) .
(14.16)
(r, t) =
k,k

(14.11)-(14.14) .. , , , .
(14.15) :
2 = c20 k2 02 .

(14.17)

, k2 < 4G0 /c20


: 2 < 0. p
> = c20 /G0 . (14.17) . 14.5,. , (14.17)

( ), . 14.4,
,
(. 14.5,).

340
w

. 14.5. (14.17) ()
(
) ()
, (14.10) . > :
, . = ,
> .
. :
1
p0 + 0 = 0 ,
0
0 = 4G0 ,

(14.19)

p0 = p(0 ) .

(14.20)

(14.18)

0 = const (14.20) ,
(14.18)
0 = const. (14.19) : 0 = 0;
. [7], 0 = (r)
0 = const .

. 1952
.
,
.
-

341
[711]. ,
X1 X2 :
2 X1
X2
2 X2
X1
= f1 (X1 , X2 ) + D1
,
=
f
(X
,
X
)
+
D
. (14.21)
2
1
2
2
t
x2
t
x2
D1 D2 ,
x.
(14.21)
:
k

A + B D + E ,

1
A
X1 ,
k1

k2

3
B + X1
D + X2 ,
k3

2
2X1 + X2
3X1 ,
k

4
X1
E,
k4

, k1 =
= k2 = k3 = k4 = 1, k1 = k2 = k3 = k4 = 0. , ,
x,
X1
2 X1
= A + X12 X2 BX1 X1 + D1
,
t
x2
(14.22)
2 X2
X2
2
= BX1 X1 X2 + D2
,
t
x2
, (14.22), [11]
. ,
.
(14.22) (.. /t = /x = 0)
X10 = A,

X20 = B .

(14.23)

x01 x02 (14.23). X1 = X10 + x01


X2 = X20 + x02
2 x01
x01
(B 1) x01 A2 x02 = D1
,
t
x2
x02
2 x02
+ A2 x02 + Bx01 = D2
,
t
x2

(14.24)

342
(14.24)
x01 , x02 ei(ptkx) ,

(14.25)

p = , k
. (14.25) (14.24),
p2 p + = 0 ,

(14.26)



= A2 + 1 B + k2 (D1 + D2 ) ,

= A2 (B 1) D2 k2 + A2 D1 k2 + D1 D2 k4 .

(14.27)

D1 = D2 = 0. ,
p2 1 p + 1 = 0 1 = (A2 + 1 B) 1 = A2
p. ,
1 = A2 > 0 ,

1 = (A2 + 1 B) < 0 .

(14.28)

(14.23) ?
(14.26), < 0,
(14.27),


= D1 D2 k4 + A2 (B 1)D2 + AD1 k2 + A2 < 0 .
(14.29)
k2 ,
k12 , k22 = 0;

 
2
k1,2
= (2D1 D2 )1 A2 D1 (B 1)D2

q
2
2
[A D1 (B 1)D2 ] 4D1 D2 . (14.30)

, D1 D2 6= 0.
, , :
. ,
, 3 .
3

[11] .

343
.
. , ( ) ( ). . 10
(. . 10.10).
,

E
+i E =
x
v
2

2

KI

(14.31)

I = const E
( 10) M

(M ),
. (14.31) ,
exp(it), , ,

, - .
. , ,
, . . , , ( -
).
( , . . , )
v
e
v
+v
= (E + E. ) ,
t
x
m

(v)
+
=0
x
t

(14.32)

(14.33)

,
:
E.
= 4 .
x

(14.34)

344
-c ..
.
, , v = v0 + v 0 , = 0 + 0
v = j0 + j 0 (j0 = 0 v0 ), v0 , 0 , j0 , v 0 , 0 , j 0
(
). (14.32)(14.34)
v 0
e
v 0
+ v0
= (E + E ) ,
t
x
m

j 0
0
=
,
x
t

(14.35)

, j 0 = v0 0 + 0 v 0 ,
j 0
j 0
v 0
+ v0
= 0
,
t
x
t
0
E
= 40 .
x

(14.36)
(14.37)

,
= i + v0 /x, (14.32)
exp(it), L
(14.34) :
0 = e E + e E0 ,
Lv
m
m

0 = io v 0 ,
Lj

0
E
=

4 0
j .
i

(14.38)

(14.38) v 0 E ,
2 j 0 + 2 j 0 = (i0 e/m)E .
L
p

(14.39)


S
p
p = 4e0 /m q = Rp , R
(0 < R 1), [12].
i0 = j 0 S,
, (14.39)
!
i0
2 q2 0
I0
2 i0
+ 2i

E,
(14.40)
2 i =i
x2
v0 x
v0 2V0
v02
v0

345
b=1,89
a,b
2.0

a1

b3

0.0
-2.0

a2

b1

b 1,2

b2

-4.0

-4.0 -2.0

0.0

2.0

4.0 b

. 14.6.
b ; 1
, [14]
p
I0 = 0 v0 S , V0 = v02 m/2e . (14.31) (14.40) , i0 E
, exp(ikx), k ,
( kv )( kv0 q )( kv0 + q ) = 3 C 3 ,

(14.41)

C 3 = (I0 K/4V0 )(v0 /v )2 , C [13]. (14.41),


k = /v
(k = ( q )/v0 )
(k = ( + q )/v0 ). , E exp(ikx)
, ,
, Im k > 0.
. 14.6 (14.41) q = 0 = Im k/(ke C) = (ke Re k)/(ke C) (ke = /v0 )
b = (k0 ke )/(ke C) (k0 = /v )
"". ,
. , b = 0 (v0 = v )

(Im k)max =( 3/2)ke C b = 3 3 2/2 1,89.

346
50 - , [15], ( ).
,
. , x ,
, ,
k .
.
, ;
, , , . .
v () = v0 ,

v () < 0 .

(14.42)

. (14.42)

, v , .
(),
. , , - ( . 14.7 [16, 17].
,

( kv )( kv0 q )( kv0 + q ) = 3 C 3 ,

(14.43)

. . (14.41) .
, , k.
? , . :
k?
(14.31) (
) (14.40) , .

347
3

v0

v v
0

. 14.7.
() (): 1
; 2 ; 3 ; 4 ; ; 5
; 6 ; 7
, (14.41) , E
i0 :
E=

3
X

Ei (0)eiki x ,

i0 =

3
X

i0i (0)eiki x .

i=1

i=1

Ei (0) i0i (0) (x = 0)


3
X
i=1

Ei (0) = E(0),

3
X
i=1

i0i (0)

= 0,

3
X
i0 (0)
i

i=1

= 0,

(14.44)

E(0) , ,
, .
. ,
Im k > 0, . , b = 0

!
!

3
3
E(l)
l
exp
G=
exp
2C
2CN ,
E(0)
2

2
= 2/ke , N = l/ , .

348

(Im = 0) , i0 (0) =
= i0 (0)/x = 0 E(l) = 0 ( ). , : b = 1,522, (CN ) = 0,314. v0 ,
v , C  1 (14.43) k =
= (/v0 )(1 + iC), 2 ( + ib) = i. b = b
1 = 0,725 + i 0,151, 2 = 0,725 + i 0,151, 3 =
= i 1,822 [17]. , Im k1 > 0 ,
,
, E(l) = 0.
, , ,
. ,
, . .
,
.
3. ( ).

.
(
- x , +x- x-),
(14.7), . , ,
, (, (. . 14.4 14.5,
, ).
xt (. 14.8), , .
utt a2 uxx = 0. :
x at = C1 x + at = C2 -

349
u

t
3
1
x1

4 x2

u(x,t)

u(x,t)

u(x,t)
t2

u(x,0)

xi

t1
t0
x

x=const
t

. 14.8.
( xt) ( k) (1,2 ; 3 ; 4 (,); , ()
, , ,
. , ( ) +x-,
x-. , "" ( ,
b2 ut ),
( ,
x (. 14.8). , ( )
.


. -

350
u

t
1

3
2

x1

x2

u(x,t)

u(x,t)

u(x,t)

t2

x2
x1
x0

t1

u(x,0)

t0
x

. 14.9.
( xt) ( k)
(14
, . 14.8 (,); ,
().
xt k;. ,

, ,
.
, (. 14.8),
, (. 14.9).
, . 14.8,
. 14.9,.
[18,
19].
n

uk
ui X
aik (u)
+
+ bi (u) = 0 (i = 1 , 2 , . . . , n) ,
t
x

(14.45)

k=1

ui , , aik , bi u1 , . . . , un . (14.45)

351
.
. xt,
. AB xt,
ui (x , t) (14.45) , , A B . , ,
ui (. . ui /s), (14.45) ui /n.
. t
V , ui /t ui /x ui /s ui /n:
ui
1 ui
V
ui
= 2
2
,
t
V + 1 s
V 1 n
ui
V
1 ui
ui
= 2
+ 2
.
x
V + 1 s
V + 1 n
(14.45)
n
n
X
X
uk
uk
=
bi (u) .
(V aik + ik )
(aik V ik )
n
s
k=1

(14.46)

k=1

uk /n
. uk /n,
, :
Det (aik V ik ) = 0

(14.47)

(ik ). . n- V ,
n . aik
u, xt,
Vl , Vl , (l = 1 , 2 , . . . , n) (14.47) .
(14.45)



1
bi

.
(14.48)
Det aik ik bik = 0 , bik =
k
k
uk u=u0

, (14.48) (14.47),
k .

352
,
,
x .
( , ),
E. .
, , (). , ,
x ( ),
( ) |v01 |
|v02 | .
- [13, 14, 20]. ,
. ,
(,
,
, , , ,
).

, .
v , .
, (.14.10).
, ,
. , ,

.
, . , |v01 | |v02 |,
, . -.
-

353
2

v02 > v 3

H0
5

v02

1
v01> v02

. 14.10. : 1 ; 2,3 ; 4
; 5 ; H0 .

[6, 2123].
-
,
v 0
e 0
v20
v 0
e 0
v10
+ v01 1 = E.
,
+ v02 2 = E.
,
t
x
m
t
x
m
01
0
v 0
02
0
v 0
+ v01 1 + 01 1 = 0 ,
+ v02 2 + 02 2 = 0 ,
t
x
x
t
x
x
0
E.
= 4(01 + 02 ) .
x

(14.49)

, exp(it), (14.49) :

2 j10
x2
2 j20
x2

4
E. = (j10 + j20 ) ,
i


2
0
2 0
1 p1
j1
0
j1 = i
+ 2i

2 E. ,
v01 x
v01
4 v01


2
2 0
1 p2
j20
0
j2 = i
+ 2i

2 E. ,
v02 x
v02
4 v02
4e
4e
2
2
p1
=
01 , p2
=
02 .
m
m

(14.50)

354
(14.50)
.
,
.
,
.
,
. , . 12,

, v, = v02 /(1q /). ,
. (v02 < v01 )
. , ,
v01 ; .
0

(14.50) E.
j10
2 j10
+ 2i

2
x
v01 x
2 j20
j20
+
2i

x2
v02 x

"
"

v01

v02

2
2




p1
v01
p2
v02

2 #
2 #

j10 =
j20




p1
v01
p2
v02

2
2

j20 ,
(14.51)
j10 .

(14.51) j10 = j20 = 0,


, .
0 =
? (14.51) j1,2
1,2 exp(ikx).
(14.51),
1,2 (
(1 , 2 ) ).

2
2
D(, k) = p1
( kv02 )2 + p2
( kv01 )2

( kv01 )2 ( kv01 )2 = 0 ,

(14.52)

355

2
2
p2
p1
+
= 1.
( kv01 )2 ( kv02 )2

(14.53)

14.1. 12, ,
, , :
2
2

+
= 1,
2
( kv )
( kv )2

, , v , v
. ,
12 p = k Te .

, ,
( k ) . .
, , . .
01 = 02 = 0 ,

p1 = p2 = p ,

v01 = v02 = v0 .

(14.54)

(14.54) (14.52)
D(, k) = ( kv0 )2 ( + kv0 )2 p2 ( kv0 )2 p2 ( + kv0 )2 = 0

2 = (k2 v02 + p2 )

4p2 k2 v02 + p4 .

(14.55)

(14.55) , , k2 v02 + p2 <


q
p 4k2 v02 + p2 , . . ,

2p /v0 .
(14.56)

(14.56) , p < 2 (k = 2/, wp /v0 = 2/p ), ..


. , k
. , (14.55), . 14.11.
. 14.11 :
k<

356
w
wp

v0

2
1

v0
wp

1
2

. 14.11.
,

(14.55). = 0 k = 2p /v0 ;
k = 0, = 2p ; k p
v0 k;
k,
(. 14.12). (14.52) ( . 12),
. v02 = v0 = 0, p2 = 0,
p1 = p , (14.52) ( kv0 )2 = p2 , = kv0 p ,
v01 = v0 = 0, p1 = 0, p2 = p ( + kv0 )2 = p2 , = kv0 p .
. 14.12, . (14.12),a, ,
1
, 2 . . 14.11 ,
:
k .

|k| < 2p /v0 ,


( . 14.11 ) Im < 0 .
,
. . , ,
- .
, . . ,
01 = 02 = 0 (p1 = p2 = p ), v01 v02 > 0. (14.52)

p2


1
1
+
= 1.
( kv01 )2 ( kv02 )2

(14.57)

357
wp

v0

wp

v0

v0

wp

v0

wp

v0

wp

wp

v0

w
2

wp

wp

- wp /v0

wp /v0
wp /v0 k

- wp

- wp /v0

- wp

1 k
2

. 14.12.
( A (,);
(). .

. 14.13,.
, , (v02 = 0, v01 > 0),
, , v01 > 0, v02 > 0. (14.57)
- ,
4
P
0
1,2m exp[i(m t km x)].
=
, v1,2
k=1

( 1 . 14.13 )
, ( 2) , k . ,
. ,
, . . .
(14.57) k = k(), . [13] =
= (v01 v02 )/2, v = (v01 + v02 )/2

358

v0 2 =0

wp
k
- wp v0 2 =0

. 14.13. () ()
, (v02 = 0)
();
k,

k = /v + i, (14.57)




v02
2

v01
+ i
+

)2 = 1 .
i
p
v p
p
v p

(14.58)

v01 v02 , , v01 /p


v02 /wp v /p . (14.58)

"
#1/2 1/2

2
2



=
+1
+1
(14.59)
i
v p

p 14
p v

(14.59) ,
max = p /(2v )
Im k =
/p v = 3/2; /p v 2 v /p . ,
x.
14.2.
: 02  01 . ,
. , v01 = 0, ..
.
:
p2
p2
+
= 1.
2

( kv02 )2

359
p2 = 4e/m01 , = 02 /01  1.
,
1) kv02 p ;
2) kv02 p .
.

14.3. ,
v0e . :
2
2
pe
pi
+
= 1,
( kv0e )2
2

pe , pi .
, ( ). , me  mi .

4. .
4 [5].
: x, y (. 14.14,).
, ,
, , .
,
v01 v02 ,
, 01 02 ,
(. (14.14),a).
y 0 , v0
p . y 0 , v0 p0 exp[i(tkx)].

(. . 11 )

v0
1
v10
+ v01 1 =
grad p01 ,
t
x
01
4

div v10 = 0

(14.60)

01 6= 02
.

360

v 0,1
y

r0,1
x

r0,2

v 0,1
r0,1

II v0,2=0, r0,2

v0,2

. 14.14. [5]: a
;
;
(I) (II).
( ,
x).
(14.60) div
,
2 p01 2 p01
+
= 0.
x2
y 2

(14.61)

(14.61)
p01 = p01 (y)ei(tkx) .

(14.62)

, y > 0,
(14.61) (14.62)
p01 (y) = Aeky ei(tkx) .

(14.63)

y 0 = y 0 (x, t). vy0


0
vy1
= dy10 /dt = i( kv01 )y10 .

(14.64)

0 - (14.64) vy1
p01 y10 :

p01 = ( kv01 )2 01 y10 /k .

(14.65)

361
, p02 , y < 0, , (14.65),
:
p02 = ( + kv02 )2 02 y20 /k .

(14.66)

(14.66) , v02 < 0.


; :

1,2

( kv01 )2 = (02 /01 )( + kv02 )2 ,

k
[(01 v01 02 v02 ) i(v01 + v02 ) 01 02 ] .
=
01 + 02

(14.67)
(14.68)

(14.68) , , , Im < 0 k.
, . . .
, v 2 + 2p/ = const.
, , .
,
(. . 14.14, (14.65), (14.66)). ,
;
,
.
5. . .
( . ; ).
, , ,
. , D(, k) =
= 0 k (. .14.8,
14.8,), . , x = 0,
.
.

362
.
[6, 2128]
[23] .
D(, k) = 0
Im < 0. , k , :
Im Im k , ,
, .
, ,
, ,
( ,
q , ,
, kc = i p2 < p ); . , ,
exp(i Re t) exp( Im t) Im , -
. ,
, Im k
Im 0 , . .
, Im = 0.
, . (. [29]) , . .
, . , ,
, . .
, ,
(. [29]),
. , ,
.
[29] , . . 0 , (vr )
(vz ) .

363
. , exp[i(t
kz)], ,

( kv0 )vz0 = kp0 /0 ,
(

kv0 )vr0

(14.69)
0

(14.70)

= (i/0 )p /r ,

v0 z-.
div v0 = 0 (14.69) (14.70) p0 ,
p0 = AI0 (kr)ei(tkx) ,

(14.71)

A , I0 (kr) . , , [29],
:
P 0 = (k2 r 2 )r 0 =

[/(0 r 2 )](k2 r 2 1) p0
,
( kv0 )2
r

(14.72)

,vr0 = i( kv0 )r 0 . (14.71)


(14.72),
( kv0 )2 =

I1 (kr)

(k2 r 2 1)k
.
2
0 r
I0 (kr)

(14.73)

, k = /v0 + (||  /v0 ), (14.73)


k /v0 ,

k=
i
v0

0 r 3 v02

1/2

1
F
20 lg e

r
v0

(14.74)

F (r/v0 ) .14.15.
( )
 
r

r
F
Gmax =
.
(14.75)
2
3
v0
0 r v0
[29], Gmax , ,
0,1 , , r/v0 = 1 (. 14.15),
5000 . ,

364
F
3.0
2.0
1.0
0.0
0.0

0.4

0.8

wr/v0

. 14.15. F (r/v0 ).
( , ) , r/v0 = 0,7
f = v0 /(2r) [29]
1570 / ( 1260 . .). ,
. 14.15 3500 Gmax 1,43 /
( 73 /, 0 1 /3 ).

;
[30].
. 14.16 [30], .
- , [13]. , ,
, ,
, , . ,

( ,

).

365

E0
y

. 14.16. ; [30]
;
(); ; ,
() [13, . 5]

15

-. .
. ?
.

1.

, , .
: - ,
, - , (
1 2 1 ) . . , .
, ,
; ,
- p = 4,5 107 . [1, 2]
(. 9 ).
,
[36].
,
(. . 13): . -
[3]:
utt V 2 uxx + 2 U = 0 .
(15.1) ut ,


1 2 1 2 2

u + u V 2 ut uxx = 0 .
pdt 2 t 2

(15.1)

(15.2)

367
(15.2)
1 2
( 2 ux ) . ,
V 2 ux uxt = t
V 2 ut uxx V 2 ux uxt = V 2

(ut ux ) .
x

,
,




1 2 1 2 2 1 2 2
(15.3)
ut + V ux + u +
V 2 ux ut = 0 .
t 2
2
2
x

12 u2t + 21 V 2 u2x + 21 2 u2 , V 2 ux ut
.
(, ,
), .



(15.4)
u Re Aei = a cos( + )
a = |A|, = Arg A. (15.4),
. ,
ut ia sin( + ) + at cos( + ) t a sin( + ) .
u2t 2 a2 sin2 ( + ), - a
, at t , . ,
,

1 2 1 2 2 1 2 2 1 2
ut + V ux + u
+ V 2 k2 a2 sin2 ( + ) +
2
2
2
2
1
+ 2 a2 cos2 ( + ) ,
2

(15.5)

, /t = , /x = k.

V 2 ux ut V 2 ka2 sin2 ( + ) .

(15.6)

(15.1) ,
, , (15.4)
, k.

368
,
, k ,
. (15.5)
(15.6). : () ,
k a, . ,

E = 2 + V 2 k2
S = V 2 k

a2
.
2

 a2 2 a2
+
,
4
4

(15.7)
(15.8)

(15.1)
2 = 2 + V 2 k2 .

(15.9)

(15.9) (15.7) (15.8) :


E = 2 + V 2 k2
S = V 2 k

a2
.
2

 a2
,
2

(15.10)
(15.11)

v = d/dk, (15.9)
v = p

V 2k
V 2 k2 + 2

(15.12)

(15.10)(15.12), (15.9), ,
v = E/S .

(15.13)

. 13, (15.3)
(15.13), ,


E

+
v E = 0 .
t
x

(15.14)

[3] , ,
xv 1,2 t = const xt .

369

=
E(t)

xZ2 (t)

E dx ,

(15.15)

x1 (t)

x1 x2 , v (k1 ) v (k2 ).
,

dE(t)
=
dt

xZ2 (t)

E
dx + v (k2 )E2 v (k1 )E1 ,
t

(15.16)

x1 (t)

, (15.14), . , (15.16) x2 x1 0 (15.14).



E = F (k)a2 . (15.14);



 2


k
a
F 2 k
+
a
+ v
v a2 +
= 0.
F (k)
t
x
k
t
x

, . 13, k/t + v k/x = 0 ,



a2

+
v a2 = 0 .
t
x

(15.17)

(15.14) (15.17)
. -

utt V 2 2 u = 2 2 utt
[3]. , ,

E
+
v,j E = 0
t
xj


a2

+
v,j a2 = 0 .
t
xj

(15.18)

, . . [3] a(r, t) (r, t), (15.18).

370
2. [3].
.


ZZ

,
, dt dx = 0
(15.19)
I =
L
t x
R

, I[] R . ?
(x, t) (x, t) + h(x, t), h(x, t)
; , (15.19) /t = t /x =
= x . [3] h(x, t)
khk = max |h| + max |ht | + max |hx | ,
h/t = ht h/x = hx .
L , ,
. L .

ZZ


I[ + h] I[] =
Lt ht + L,j hxj + L h dtdx + O khk2 ,
R

(15.20)

, j /xj . ,
I[, h] ( h )
h. h,
R.


ZZ 

I[, h] =
L t
L,j + L h dtdx .
(15.21)
t
xj
R

, (15.21)
h.

L t +
L,j L = 0 .
t
xj

(15.22)

371
L
, , :
L

2
2

2
L t
L,j + 2 Ltt +
Lt ,j +
L,jk . . . = 0 .
t
xj
t
txj
xj xk
(15.23)

(15.23)
.
(15.22) (15.23)
(x, t), .

- :
tt 2 2 + 2 = 0 .

(15.24)

(15.24) (15.22),
1
1
1
L = 2t 2 ()2 2 2 .
2
2
2

(15.25)


Re[A exp(i)], ..
a cos( + ) ,

(15.26)

a = |A|, = Arg A, = /t, kj = /xj . (15.26)


, a, , k
, ..
1
L(a, , k) =
2

Z2

L d .

- (15.24), (15.25)
(15.26), :
L=


1 2
2 k2 2 a2 .
4

(15.27)

372
15.1. ,
tt 2 2 = 2 2 tt ,
tt + 2 xxxx = 0 ,
p
= ik/ 1 + 2 k2 , = k2

1 2
2 k2 + 2 2 k2 a2 ,
L=
4

1 2
2 k 4 a2 .
L=
4


ZZ

L(+t , x , a) dtdx = 0

(15.28)

(x, t) a(x, t).


a , (15.23)
a
a :

La = 0 .

:
:

Lt +
L,j = 0 .
t
xj

, , k a. ,
, :
La = 0 ,

L
Lk = 0 ,
t
xj j
kj
ki

ki
+
= 0,

= 0.
t
xi
xj
xi

(15.29)
(15.30)
(15.31)

(15.29) , , , k
a, 15.1.
. L .
, L :
L = G(, k) a2 .

(15.32)

373
, (15.29)

G(, k) = 0 ,

(15.33)

G(, k) L , (.
(15.27) L 15.1. ,
L: .
(15.30),
(15.32), :



Gkj a2 = 0 .
Gw a2
t
xj

(15.34)

(15.33) , = W (k), G[W (k), k] =


= 0 .
G

W
+ Gkj = 0
kj


v j =

Gkj
W
=
.
kj
G

(15.35)

G (W, k) = g(k). (15.34) :






g(k)v j a2 = 0 .
g(k)a2 +
t
xj

(15.36)

(15.31) ,
ki
ki
+ v j
= 0,
t
xj

ki
kj

= 0.
xj
xi

, (15.36) g(k),


a2
+
v j a2 = 0 .
t
xj

( (15.18)), E = F (k)a2 . ,

374
F (k) g(k) , , (15.36)
(15.18).
[3] ,
, ,
, . t, ,
:


(L L) +
Lkj = 0 .
t
xj

(15.37)

(15.28) .
, , (15.37) (15.29)-(15.31) (
).
, L = 0,

E = L ,

(15.38)


Fj = Lkj .

(15.39)

, L = E/, (15.30) (15.37) :



 

v j E

E
+
= 0,
(15.40)
t
xj

(15.32), (15.38) (15.39) E = G a2 Fj = v j E =


Gkj a2 . , E/ 7

.
15.2. , , .. ,
= p q L
,
H

375
p = L + t , q = t ,
S = qxj

L
qxj

( ).
, (x, t) = a(x, t) cos (x, t), :
= L L ,
H

S = L k .

3.
..
, .. , [4].
, ()
() C = ()C0 L = ()L0
(. 15.1). ,

p 0 = 1/ L()C().
R. , ,
, ,
,
R. , R , ,
,
. ,
.
, t < 0 ,
I = I0 eit ,
V = V0 eit .
L

dI
+V =0
dt

iLI + V = 0 ,

t = 0, R,
L(
)

d2 I
I
dI
= 0,
+R +
dt2
dt
C(
)

376

. 15.1. LRC. C0 L0 ,

p ; R = 0, 0 = 1/ L()C()
.
t > 0 T = I0 exp(i
t),

,

L(
)

1
= iR .

C(
)

(15.41)

R 0,
,
L()

1
= 0.
C()

(15.42)

(15.41) (15.42) .


1
1

L(
) L()

= iR

C(
) C()


C(
) C()
1

L(
) L()
+

= iR

C(
)C()


d(L)
1 d(C)

+ 2 2
(
) = iR .
d
C
d

= + i,
d(L) L d(C)
R
=
+
.

d
C d

(15.43)

, R2 I
, ,
I Re I =

1
(I + I ? ) .
2

377
, ,



Z 
I + I? 2
R|I0 |2

1
W = R
dt =
+
2
4
2 + 2

(15.44)

0
W =

R|I0 |2 R
.
4

(15.45)

15.3. (15.44), , I = I0 exp(i


t)
V = V0 exp(i
t).

(15.45) (15.43) L|I0 | = |V0 |,


W =

L0 |I0 |2 d() C0 |V0 |2 d()


+
.
4
d
4
d

(15.46)

,
,
:
1
L0 |I0 |2
=
hH2 i vm ,
4
8

C0 |V0 |2
1
=
hE2 i ve ,
4
8

(15.47)

vm ve , E H
, V0 I0 , h i
.
V0 I0 E H , , (15.47)
,
. (15.46) (15.47),

:
1 d() 2
hWe i
=
hE i
ve
8 d
hWm i
1 d()
hwm i =
=
hH2 i .
vm
8 d
hwe i =

(15.48)
(15.49)

378
[4], , L C
,
= i ,
(15.48) (15.49) . , L C . , , () () .
15.4. , , [5, . 3]. 0
r

e
d2 r
+ 02 r = E ,
dt2
m
e m .
.
(. . ) , (
). (., , . 3 [5].

15.5. [4] , , () () ,
.


.
S = (c/4)[EH] [6, 7].


B
D
1
+H
E
.
(15.50)
div S =
4
t
t
E D , H B
.
, . . , , (15.50)

379
E = (1/8)(E2 + H2 ) , . .
dE/dt + div S = 0.
:
Q=

Im hE2 i + Im hH2 i ,
4

E
+ div S + Q = 0 .
t

E, [6]. ,
0 , . .
 0 :

1
E0 (t)ei0 t + E?0 (t)ei0 t ,
2

1
i0 t
H = H0 (t)e Re H =
H0 (t)ei0 t + H?0 (t)ei0 t
2
E = E0 (t)ei0 t Re E =

( D B ), E0 (t) H0 (t)
exp(i0 t) .
E, H, D B (15.50) 2/0 . ,
E0 (D0 /t) exp(2i0 t) E?0 (D?0 /t) exp(2i0 t) ,


1
D?
? D
M=
+E
E
16
t
t
(
(15.50)). D/t fE, f = (/t). ,
E = E0 exp i0 t? , E0 = const ( ), fE = i0 (0 )E fE = f (0 )E, f () = i().
E0 (t) , E0 exp[i( 0 )t]
E0 = const:
E0 (t)

E0 ei(0 )t d( 0 ) .

inf ty

E0 (t) , , = | 0 |  0 .

380
:
fE0 ei(0 +)t = f (0 + )E0 ei(0 +)t
df (0 )
f (0 )E0 ei(0 +)t +
E0 ei(0 +)t . (15.51)
d0
,
E0

iE0 eit d() .

(15.52)

(15.51) ,
. (15.52),
fei0 t

E0 eit d() =

i0 t

= f (0 )e

it

E0 e

df (0 ) i0 t
d() i
e
d0

iE0 eit d() =

= f (0 )E0 ei0 t i

df (0 ) E0 i0 t
e
.
d0 t

0 0 ,
d() E0 it
D
= i()E +
e .
(15.53)
t
d t
, () = Re () + i Im () = 0 () + i 00 ().
, 00 () 0 (), ( ).
00 () = 0, Q = 0. ,
() = 0 () = ? (), :


E?0
1 d()
? E0
+ E0
E0
=
M=
16 d
t
t
1 d() d
1 d() d
(E? E0 ) =
(E? E) .
=
16 d dt 0
16 d dt
,


1 d()
d()
2
2
hE(t)i = hE i + hE i =
h|E| i +
h|H| i .
(15.54)
16
d
d

381
,
, [8, 9].
v 0 = Re{v exp[i(t kx)]}, v 0 , , .
F 0 = Re{F exp[i(t kx)]} (,
),
k. v F ,

(F 0 v 0 ? ). v F
D(, k)v = iF , D(, k) k,
:
hEi =

D vv ?
4

(15.55)


hSi =

D vv ?
.
k 4

(15.56)

D(, k) = 0 v = d/dk =
= (D/k) (D/)1 = hSi/hEi,
.

(15.55) (15.56).
,
j 0
E 0 (. .14. ,
exp(it),
j 0
2j0

+
2i
x2
v0 x

"

v0

2

q
v0

2 #

j0 =

ip2 0
E
4v02

(15.57)

v0 , q = R(, k)q . E 0 exp[i(t


kx)], (15.57)
i
4 h
( kv0 )2 /p2 R2 (, k) j 0 S = iE 0 ,
S

(15.58)

382
. .

4
( kv0 )2
2
R (, k)
.
D(, k) =
p2
S


(15.59)

S . D(, k) ,
(1/2) Re(E 0 j 0 ? S). D(, k) = 0 ( kv0 )2 = R2 (, k) p2 , . .
kv0 =
= R(, k) p kv0 = R(, k) p . (15.55),
(15.56) (15.59)


2j 0 j 0 ? S kv0
R
hEi =
Rp
,
p
p



p R
2j 0 j 0 ? Sv0 kv0
+R
,
hSi =
p
p
v0

(15.60)
(15.61)

R = 1, v = hSi/hEi,
.

v = v0

kv0
p R
+R
p
v0



R
kv0
Rp
p

1

. . ,
,
. (15.60) (15.61) , p
;
. , R/ = R/k = 0
( ) ( )
(15.60) (15.61)
hE, i =

2S 0 0 ?
jj ,
p

hS, i = v0 hE, i ,

(15.62)

. . ,
. .

383
4. ?
, :
E
+ div S = 0 .
t
, E = 0 v 2 /2 + p/(20 c2 ), S =
= pv, 0 , v p
, c .
E = L , L = 0,
G(, k) = 0, . : E
, .
,
,
( )
, ..
,
, x
u(z) (z ). , u
h
i
h
i
u = U (z) + A f1 (z)ei(tkx) + k.c. + A2 f0 (z) + f2 (z)e2i(tkx) + k.c. ,

A , A2 f0 (z)
, .. . ,
, :
i

h 2
u U 2 (z) = |A2 | |f1 |2 + uf0 ,
Ek =
2

, , ; ,
= const.
, : E f12
E U f0 , |A2 |. , E
. :

384

.
5.
, |V |  c (c ), .
, V, EV ,
E0V 6=
= EV . [11] ,
|V |  c :
, (
, ). : E0V 6= EV ?
m, v0 = V+v. v
.

E0 =

mV2
mv2
mv02
=
+ mv V +
.
2
2
2

(15.63)

p = mv, E = mv2 /2
, V, E0 = E + pV
mV2 /2. , .
,
:
E0V = EV + PV .

(15.64)

(15.64) ,
.
? , , . v
v , kv = 0. -
() E = (mv2 /2) =
= mvv = vp, .

385
. , EV P
, EV P , . . EV = vP. P
k, ,
k, . = kv ,
P = (k/)EV , , , , (v P) = EV ) (
). EV = |a2 | = N , N
k [11], P = kN .
EV P (15.64), E0V = N +
+ kVN = 0 N , 0 = + kV .
, [3]


(ki L ) +
ki Lkj + Lij = 0 ,
t
xj

(15.65)

ij . (15.65)
ki L =

ki
EV

, k EV /v .
15.6. (15.65) (15.29)-(15.31).

16
.

.
. , . .

1.
,

(. (15.62)).
, (15.38) (15.39),

G(, k) 2
a ,

G(, k) 2
F =
a .
k
E=

(16.1)
(16.2)

(15.33) k . (16.1)
k, G/. ? :
.
v = d/dk = Lk /L (L 6= 0).
= (k), . 16.1 . ,
(),
(). :
.
.

387
w

w=0

. 16.1.
, , ; ,
, ( )



d()
1 d()
2
2
h|E| i +
h|H| i
hE(t)i =
16
d
d
( (15.54) .
, , (. [1])
hW (t)i > 0 ,

d()
> 0,
d

d()
> 0.
d

(16.3)

.
(16.3))
. : .
[2],
, ,
, . .
: , (, ), (
),
( ), .
?
?
.

388
2.

,
- [3]. ,

.
.. [4], ,
, , , u, ,
,
W = W0 (1 + u/v ),

W = W0 (1 u/v ) ,

(16.4)

v v , a W0
. (16.4) , v < u W , .
, , [4], (16.4) [5].
(. [6]
), [710].

,
. ,
d/d < 0;
hW i =

d
hEi2 < 0 .
16 d



.
v 0
e
v 0
+ v0
E = 0 ,
t
x
m
0
v 0
0
+ 0
+ v0
= 0,
t
x
t
E
= 40 .
x

(16.5)
(16.6)
(16.7)

389
exp[i(t
kx)]. (16.5)-(16.7) ,
( kv0 )2 = p2 = 40 e/m kv0 = p
, kv0 = p
. (16.5) (16.7) v 0 = (e/m)E /[i( kv0 )],
E = 40 /(ik), v 0 = (4e/m)0 /[k( kv0 )]
p2
0
v0
=
.
v0
kv0 ( kv0 )

(16.8)

, kv0 = p kv0 = p , (16.8)


,
:
p 0
v0
=
,
v0
+ p 0

v0
p 0
=
,
v0
p 0

(16.9)

(16.9) , ( -
(16.9), ( +
(16.9). (16.9) , p  ( , , [11]).
v0
p 0
=
,
v0
0

v0
p 0
=
,
v0
0

(16.10)

(16.9) ( (16.10)) ,
, . , , (16.10) , , 0 , v0 , , , v0 .
v0 , ,
. ,
, ( 0 , , , v0 v0 ,
( 0 ). v0

390
, , , ,
.

(, k) = 1 p2 /( kv0 )2 = 0 .

(16.11)

, kv0 = p , ,

= 2p2 /( kv0 )2 = 2/p < 0 ,

(16.12)

. . .
/ > 0 .
, ,
.

,
v/t + vv/x =
= (e/m)Ex j = v j/x + /t = 0. , [12], Ex j; j,
Ex j = (m/e) (v/t + vv/x) v .

(16.13)

(16.13)
W S
+
Ex j = 0 .
t
x

(16.14)


W =

mv 2
2e

(16.15)


S =

mv 3
,
2e

S /W = v, . . .

(16.16)

391
(16.14)-(16.16) . , v = v0 + v 0 , = 0 + 0 , j = j0 + j 0 =
= j0 + v0 0 + 0 v 0 ( ), , (16.15) ,


 i
mh  2
2
(16.17)
0 v0 + 2v0 v 0 + v 0 + v02 + 2v0 v 0 0 .
W =
2e

, , Ex = E ,
, , . . ,

0
E = E
exp{i[t (k + v0 /p )x)] +

0
+ E
exp{i[t (k v0 /p )x)]

0 .
E
(16.17)

1
hW i =
2
+

Z2

m
0 v02 d(t) +
2e

Z2

Z2

m
0 v0 v 0 d(t) +
e

m
2
0 v 0 d(t) +
2e

Z2

m 0 2
v d(t) +
2e 0

m 0 0
v0 v d(t) . (16.18)
e

Z2

,
hW0 i. v 0 0
( ),
. ,
hW i = hW i

hW0 i

m0
=
4e

v0

Z2

mv0
v d(t) +
2e
02

Z2

0 v 0 d(t) .

(16.19)

v0

= (e/m)E /[i( kv0 )], p  (16.10), , (16.18),



hW. i

0 )2
(E
> 0,
8 p

hW. i

0 )2
(E
< 0.
8 p

(16.20)

392
, (16.20) , ,
p  : /p .
, (15.62) , E = 4j 0 /(i), , 2 /16 2 , (16.20).
, j 0 j 0 = 2 E
, hW i = (/16)(d/d)|E |2 ,
d/d = 2/p , . p 
(16.4)

W,
= ,
W0
p

(16.21)

u = v0 , v = v0 p /.
, , . -,
; , , .
. , [13], ,
. ,
, [2, 14].
, ? , ,

.
(15.33)
. , , . .
G(, k) + i(, k) = 0

G( 0 , k) i 00 G ( 0 , k) + i( 0 , k) = 0 ,

= 0 i 00 .
:
00 =

0 a2
( 0 , k)
=
.
G
E

(16.22)

393
, .

. L = G a2
,
, , = 0,
G = 0 .
,
.
(16.22) 0 a2 .
, . . .
.
.
, ,
,
, , , .
G 00 + Gk k00 = 0 ,
,
k00 = 00

00
G
=
,
Gk
v

. . k00 00 v . k00 00 < 0


, k00 v , . .
. .
k00 00 v . , Lk = 0,
G(, k) k.
G 00 +

(k00 )2
Gkk = 0
2

00

k =

2G 00

Gkk

1/2

394
4

1 2

. 16.2. : 1
; 2 ; 3 ;
4 .

, k00 ( 00 )1/2 .
[11] (. 16.2).
,
, . , ,
, . .
,
; .
- .
( ),
; , . . 16.3.
,

 2

j 0
i0
2j0

+ 2i
j0 =
E,
2
x
v0 x
v0
2V0
4(j 0 + j )
4j 0 4E
E=
=

,
i
i
i

(16.23)
(16.24)

j - , - . (j 0 , E
exp[i(tkx)]), (16.23) (16.24) -

395

|I|2,

10.0

0.0

1
-10.0

-20.0
450

550

650

V0 ,B

. 16.3. [15]: 1
(
); 2 , ( ); 3 (
).

396

p2
i4
+
= 1.
2
( kv0 )

(16.25)

(16.25)
( kv0 p ) ( kv0 + p ) = i

4 ( kv0 )2
.

(16.26)

, kv0 p .
. kv0 p 2p
(16.26) : kv0 p i2p /.
k

+ p
2
+i
,
v0
p v0

(16.27)

. . Re k , a Im k = 2/(p v0 ) > 0, :


+ p
2
0
x+
x .
j , E exp i
v0
p v0
, ( ).
, , . ,

=1

02 N12
,
2 + 2i
2 12
12

(16.28)

12 , 02 = 4N d/m (d , N ), N12 = (n1 n2 )/n2 , n1,2


[16].
12  ,


( 2 )
2
2
(16.29)
= 2 1 + 12
N12 2 0 2

, , . (16.29)

12 < 0 n1 n2 /2. ,

.

397
3. , .
,
.
da1
= ik1 a1 ,
dx

da2
= ik2 a2 ,
dx

(16.30)

a1 a2 , |a1 |2 |a2 |2 , , k1 k2 .
, (k1 k2
, ),
da1
= ik1 a1 + c12 a2 ,
dx

da2
= ik2 a2 + c21 a1 ,
dx

(16.31)

c12 c21 (c12 c21 k1 k2 ). , , . . k1,2 = /v1,2 ,


v1,2 .

:

dP
= 0.
(16.32)
P = 2 |a1 |2 |a2 |2 const ,
dx

+
.
, -
, -
, (16.32)
-
[17, 18]. ,

P = 2(|a |2 |a |2 ) = const.
|a|2 = aa , (16.32) ,

 

da1
da2
dP
da1
da2
= a1
+ a1
+ a2
a2
= 0.
(16.33)
dx
dx
dx
dx
dx
(16.31) - (16.33)

(c12 c21 )a1 a2 + (c12 c21 )a1 a2 = 0 .

(16.34)

398
(16.34) a1 a2 ,
c12 = c12
c12 =

c12

P = |a1 |2 + |a2 |2 ,
2

P = |a1 | |a2 | ,

(16.35)
(16.36)
(16.37)

, a1 , a2 exp[i(t kx)] (16.35) (16.36), (16.31)


:
1) (
|a1 |2 |a2 |2 (16.32)):
(k /v1 ) (k /v2 ) = |c12 |2 .

(16.38)

2) ( |a1 |2 |a2 |2 :
(k /v1 ) (k /v2 ) = |c12 |2 .

(16.39)

(. 16.1, [19]).
, .
, (. . 14).
:
1

E
+i E =
x
v
2

2

KI

(16.40)

,
:
2 q2
2I
I
I0
+
2i

E.
I=i
2
2
x
v0 x
v0 2V0
v0

(16.41)

399

16.1.
k

k ;


k; k

; , ;

k

; k , , ;

k
; k;

400
I(0) = 0 (I/x)x=0 , (16.41)
Zx

I0 ke
I(x) =
4V0 kq

I0 ke
4V0 kq

Zx
0

E() exp[i(ke kq )(x )] d

E() exp[i(ke + kq )(x )] d = I (x) + I (x) ,

(16.42)

ke = /v0 , kq = q /v0 , ,

. (16.41) (16.42)
:
ke I0
I
+ i(ke + kq )I =
E(x) ,
x
4V0 kq
ke I0
I
+ i(ke kq )I =
E(x) .
x
4V0 kq

(16.43)
(16.44)


ke + kq = k0 = /v

v =

v0
1 + q /

(16.45)

ke kq = k0 = /v

v =

v0
,
1 q /

(16.46)


.
(16.45) (16.46) (16.40), (16.43) (16.44)
. (. . 16.1) :
1) (
); ; ;

.

401
2) (
, ); -;
.
3) ( ) (
);
; -.
4) ; ; .
1,
1
E
+ ik0 E = k02 K I ,
x
2

I
ke I0
+ i(ke kq )I =
E
x
4V0 kq


(k k0 ) (k ke + kq ) = (kq C)3 /(2kq ), .

(16.47)

(k0 = ke kq ,
k1,2 = k0 ke C/[2(QC)1/4 ] ,

2(QC)1/2 = kq /(ke C) .

(16.48)

E(0) = Ex , I (0) = 0 , I
2
P
E/(k ke + kq ) (. (16.44)) E(x) =
Em (0) exp(ikm x),
m=1

E1 (0) + E2 (0) = Ex ,

E2 (0)
E1 (0)
+
= 0.
k1 k0 k2 k0

(16.49)

(16.48)
E(x) = Ex ei(ke kq )x cos

ke Cx
,
2(QC)1/4

. . ,

402

1
2

. 16.4. ,
1 2, 3 [20] ()
[5] ().

CN = (2n + 1)(QC)1/4 /2. a1 = E/(k0 2K) a2 =


= I / 2Y , Y = I0 ke /(2V0 kq ) ,
(16.38) |c12 |2 = ke2 C 2 /[4(QC)1/2 ], /v1 = /v2 = k0 = ke
kq , (16.47) (16.38) [18]. , (4QC 1),
. ,
( 4).
16.1. (16.44)
1
E
+ ik0 E = k02 K I
x
2
- ( 2) E =
= E(0), I = 0 x = 0 (E(0)
).

16.2. (16.43) (16.40)


- ( 3) E = E 0 , I = 0
x = 0.

403

. 16.5. , [20]: , (),


() , ().

,
, . [20],
. ,
(. 16.4). , , -

(
). ,
(
),
( ).
(. 16.4,).
, .
, . ,
. ; ,
,
;
(. 16.5). ,
.

404

.
, - [17, 18].

v , =

v0
,
1 c /

(16.50)

c = eB/m (B
), v0
, ( + (16.50))
. , ;
, [17, 18].
-
[18].
, .

, , ? ,
, [2123]1 .
( , ..)
n,
, , (. [21, 22])
() =

0
,
1 n cos

(16.51)

0 ,
; = v0 /c (v0 , c ),
. n < 1
1

- [18, c.486-489],
[6, c.489-494] [10].

405
, n > 1 [23] (
[24]).
, ,
[2123].
, , , . (v = c/n)
v0 -,
0 , (16.51)

q
.
(16.52)
()|=0 = (0) = =
|1 v0 /v |
n < 1 ( , v0 < v (16.52)
= q /(1 v0 /v ) v = v0 /(1 q /), (16.46) . ,
: (16.46)
.
n > 1 (v0 > v v = v0 /(1+q /), (16.45)
.
(,
, ) (16.45) . ,

( ). ,
- ( (16.45) (16.46)
; (16.50) ), , q c (
). , -
, v0 v
.

17

.
. -. . .

. . . . - .
. . .
. .

1.
,
. . ,
.
, , ,
, .
: ,
, , , .
[1]:
,
, . . ,

407
,
, , , . ,
( ), ( ) (
), .

,
,
.
, , ,
(11.10) (r, t), ,
c(r) . , , (11.10)
(r, t) = Re[u(r)eit ],
u(r) + k2 n2 (r)u(r) = 0 ,

(17.1)

k = /c0 , n(r) = c0 /c(r), c0


. n(r)
,
.
, U (r) [2]:
2m
[E U (r)] = 0 ,
(17.2)
~2
m , ~ , E .
k2 = 2mE/~2 n2 (r) = 1U (r)/E,
(17.1).

(r) ,
[3]
+

rot E = ikH ,

(17.3a)

rot H = ikE ,

(17.3b)

div E = 0 ,

(17.3c)

div H = 0 ,

(17.3d)

408
k = /c, c . H
(17.3a), (17.3b), rot rot E =
~ 2 E. = grad div E

~ 2 E + k2 E = grad div E .

div E
1 1
1
div E = div( E) = E grad + div E = E grad ln .


n2 (r) = (r),


~ 2 E + k2 n2 E = grad E grad(ln n2 ) .

(17.4)

L ,
E nk,
(17.4) k|E|/L, kL  1
, . ,
~ 2
2 , , (17.4),

2 E + k 2 n 2 E = 0 .

(17.5)

E . ,
,
(17.1).
,
1 .
, (17.1) , kL 
1. , , ,

, , . ,
1


[1].

409
c(r) 2 .
(17.1) k. u(r)
u(r) =

X
Am (r) ik(r)
e
,
(ik)m

(17.6)

m=0

Am . ., (17.6) . (r) ,
k . k
, .
(17.6) (17.1)
k , :
k2 :
1

k :
k0 :

()2 = n2 ,
2

A0 + 2A0 = 0 ,

2 A1 + A1 + 2 A0 = 0 ,

(17.7)
(17.8)
(17.9)

(17.7) , (17.8)
, .
.
, , , z,
z. (17.7)(17.8)

d 2
= n2 ,
dz
d2
A0 d
+ A0 2 = 0 .
2
dz dz
dz


, .
.

410

(z) = (z0 )

Zz

n(z 0 )dz 0 ,

z0


p
d2 /dz 2
1 dn
d
1 dA0
=
=
= ln n(z) .
A0 dz
2d/dz
2n dz
dz
p
A0 = const/ n(z). ,

Zz
C
u(z) = p
exp ik
n(z 0 ) dz 0 ,
(17.10)
n(z)
z0

, z.
(17.1)
d2 u
+ k2 n2 (z)u = 0 .
dz 2

(17.11)

(7.8)
, t z (t) kn(z). - (7.65),
(17.10). , - . , ,
-,
3 .
, (17.11) .
,
, ,
3

, , -
, ,
.

411
dve /dy = p2 /c = c r 2 , p c
.

, ( x)
exp[i(tkx)].
p F , y - F (y) = (vy /ve (y)) 1 s2 (y),
d2 F/ds2 r 4 Q(s)F = 0, Q(s) = 1 + 2r 2 /(s2 1) + 3r 4 /(s2
1)2 , s = ( kve (y))/c .
,
, [4, 5].
(17.10)
[6]
[7]. (
).
. p(r)

p(r) = .

(17.12)

p ( ),
p = |p|, (17.7), p = n(r). , (r) ,
p(r) . r0
,
p. . ,
.
. , ,
. , .
,
r(s), . s
r0 r.
l
dr/ds, p.

412

p
dr
= = l.
ds
p

(17.13)

H(p, r) = [p2 n2 (r)]/2. (17.12),


, : dH = 0.

1
p dp n2 dr = 0 ,
2
ds; , (17.13).


1
dp
2
n = 0 ,
p
ds
2p
,
dp
1
= n2 .
ds
2p

(17.14)

, p = n, p = p l, :
dr
= l,
ds


n
n
dl
=

l l.
ds
n
n

(17.15a)
(17.15b)

(17.15) . , , 0 .
, ,
l0 . ,
, : r(0) = r0 ,
l(0) = l0 . , r0 .
(
), .
.

413
,
, , [1].
,
(17.15), .
d/ds:
dr
d
=
= p l = n(r) .
ds
ds

= 0 +

Zs

(17.16)

n(r) ds .

,
. s
ds = p d . (17.13) (17.14)
dr
= p,
d
dp
1
= n2 .
d
2

(17.17a)
(17.17b)

U (r) = n2 (r)/2.
H(r, p) = p2 /2 + U (r) , (17.17) [8]
H
dr
=
,
d
p

dp
H
=
.
d
r

(17.18)

,
Rr
= p1 d .
0

,

( ) = 0 +

Z
0

n2 (r) d .

(17.19)

414
-
. .
, -
, .
(17.15) (17.17) , , ,

.
(17.8), .
(17.12), A0 div p + 2p grad A0 = 0,
div(pA20 ) = 0 .

(17.20)

I = pA20 .
.
q = P 0 v [9], P 0 , v - . 11 P 0 = 0 v = , q =
0 . , u q ,

q=

i0
(uu? u? u) .
4

(17.21)

u = A0 exp(ik). A0
, ,
, A0 , ,
, A1 . ,
:
q=

k0
k0
A20 =
pA20 .
2
2

, , (17.20), .

415

. 17.1.
, d0 ,
(. 17.1). .
(17.20) . ,
I
Z
I dS = 0 .
div I dV =
V

,

I0 d0 = I d .

(17.22)

I = pA20 = nA20 , A0 (r):


s
n(r0 ) d0
,
(17.23)
A0 (r) = A0 (r0 )
n(r) d
A0 (r0 ) , .
, (17.15) (17.17)
, (17.16) (17.23)
.
2.
, , ,
, , .

416

. 17.2. ()
().
. . , , . 17.2,, .

,
, . . .
17.2,
. , (17.23)
, .
(17.1) . ,
, , [1, 10]
u = A0 exp(ik)
, .
, , ,
,
, /2.

s


n(r0 ) d0
exp(ik im/2) ,
(17.24)
u(r) = A0 (r0 )
n(r) d

417

. 17.3.

m r0
r. . 4. , . 17.3.
, d , (17.22) I0 d0 = I d.
(17.23)
exp(i/2) .
, .
- , , z, .. n = n(z). ,
xz. , (17.17). ,

dpx
= 0,
d

dpz
= n(z)n0 (z) .
d

(17.25)

,
px = n(z) cos (z) = n(0) cos 0 = const ,

(17.26)

n(z) (z)
x c z. (17.26) - .

418

. 17.4. - .
, ,
n(z) cos (z) .
(17.25),

p
2
2
2
2
px + pz = n (z), pz (z) = n (z) n2 (0) cos2 0 .
,
.
(17.17), ,
dx
= n(0) cos 0 ,
d

p
dz
= n2 (z) n2 (0) cos2 0 .
d

(17.27)

, (17.25) (17.27) , 0
c n(0)
U (z) = n2 (z)/2.
,
, , , , ,
. 17.4.
.
, n0 (z) < 0 z > 0 n(z) =
= n(0) cos 0 zc . (17.26)
, z = zc ,
x. . z = zc , ,
0 , (. . 17.5,). ,

419

z
zc
q0
x

. 17.5. -
() ()
.
(. 17.5,).
- . , ,
. .

[11]. T (z). c(z)

s
p
P
c(z) = = RT (z) ,

R , = cp /cv . p
n(z) = c0 /c = T0 /T .
r
T
.
(17.28)
cos = cos 0
T0
, ,
, .. T 0 (z) < 0,
. ,
. , , . , . ,
.

420

. 17.6. .

,
[12]. ,
1012
80 % . . n
1 3,25104
dn/dz 4105 1 .

, ,
.
, . 17.6. , (17.15b). ,
dl/ds l, l l = 1. (17.15b) ,
n/n, l dl/ds , ,
A ,
R. A B, s dS = R, l
l = |l| = . |dl/| = R1 .
[A, [B, C]] = B(A C) C(A B), (17.15b)

 

n
dl
= l,
,l .
ds
n

(17.29)

421

. 17.7. . O , 1 , 2
.
4 , ,
(17.29). - n =
= n(z), l = cos x0 + sin z0 , x0 z0
. (17.29),


n(z)
,
(17.30)
R = 0
n (z) cos
,
n. , , , ( = 0)
R 25000 , 4 . ,
,
. 17.7.
, ,
.
, ,
,
. ,
,
, ,
, . (17.30) , 4

, ,

422
|n0 /n| > R 1,57104 .
, , , ,

.

3.

,
. n(z) , , , , ,

[13].
, , , , - , [14, 15].
(. 17.8,). x,
.
n0 , ,
.

, .
. 17.8,.

,
, n(z) .
, . 17.8,, , n(z)
. .
. 17.9 -

423

. 17.8. : () - ().
5 ,
x.
, 0 x, , . ,
, a , , .
. . ,
- . ,
, . 17.10,. , x px = nm cos 0 ,
5

, , y.

. 17.9.
.

424

. 17.10. - : ()

()
nm = n(0) .
x = 0
U (z) = n2 (z)/2 pz 0 = nm sin 0 (. 17.10,). ,
p2z 0 /2 > (n2m n20 )/2,
cos 0 < n0 /nm .
. (. (1.42))
T =4

Zzm
0

dz
n2 (z)

n2m cos2 0

(17.31)

zm ,
n(z) = nm cos 0 . T /2 x
L = (px /2)T ,
L = 2nm cos 0

Zzm
0

dz
n2 (z)

n2m cos2 0

(17.32)

x.
n(z) L
0 ,

425

.
, , nm n0
[14].
= (n2m n20 )/(2n2m )
(nm n0 )/n0  1, . ,

(17.33)
sin 0 < 2 ,

, , 0 < 2. ,
x . . .
6


z2
2
2
(17.34)
n (z) = nm 1 2 2 .
a

zm = a sin 0 / 2,
(17.32) ,
L=

a cos 0

.
2

(17.35)

, n2 (z)

, cos 0 1.
L = a/ 2 
a ,
x.
, D n(z)
. f
. f .
6

, , n(z) nm (1
z 2 /a2 ), .. .

426
17.1. ,
(17.34).
D.

. f = n n0a ctg( 2D/a).


m

(
) ,
. , ,
exp(ix),
, . () .
.
z = 0 0 (x). x exp(ix),

k(x, z)|z=0 = x .

(17.36)

0 , z = 0
. -
. x, p , /x = px = nm cos 0 .
(17.36),
= knm cos 0 .

(17.37)

, ,
(17.37). , (x0 , 0)

. k(x, z) = x + k(z),

(17.7) (z)
 2
d(z)
= n2 (z) 2 /k2 ,
dz

427

d(z)
=

n2 (z) 2 /k2 dz .

, .
x
2L,
I p
k2 n2 (z 0 ) 2 dz 0 .
(17.38)
k = 2L +

- , z = zm ,
/2. ,
.
, , :
2N (N )
c exp(ix)
x 2L. , (17.38)
I p
k2 n2 (z 0 ) 2 dz 0 = (2N + 1) ,
N = 0, 1, 2, . . . .
(17.39)

[14]. n(z)
(k), . N
N - .

.
2 (k)
, (17.37) N
. ,
[2] .
, (17.39) . , , (17.5), . , - ,  1,

428
. , , ,
, [14,15]. , ( x) ,
, -
, . . ,
,
. E(y, z) .
, = (n2max n2min )/(2n2min )  1. , , .
,
LP - .
, LP - , .. = x y 6= 0. , ,
y z .
, , .

( ) .
,
. LP - , ,
.
, .
.
, .

429
0 (17.37). ,
(17.33),
,
p

, 1 2 /(n2m k2 ) < 2,

(17.40)
knm 1 2 = n0 k < < nm k .

,
(17.39) z ,
(17.39) .
, zm > a,
, ,

.

. , ,
x . , ,
.
, , .
,
.

. (17.34)
(17.39) ,
I p
(k2 n2m 2 )a2
ka

k2 n2 (z 0 ) 2 dz 0 = nm
= (2N + 1) .
sin 02 =
2
2kanm

[14],

v
=
2nm ka u =
p
= k2 n2m 2 a. :
u2 = (2N + 1)v .

(17.41)

, , b = 1
u2 /v 2 , 0 1. (v, b)

b=1

2N + 1
.
v

(17.42)

430

. 17.11.
.
, .
, , . 17.11. b = 0
,

. v
vN = 2N +1, N
. , , ,
vN .
. 17.11
. , , (N = 1)
, v = 0, v = 1,
(17.42).
, (17.24),
, .
, dx0
(. . 17.12). z = 0 d0 = dx0 sin 0 ,

431

. 17.12.

x z ABC |AB| =
dz
dx0 , |DB| = d.
= dx0 , |BC| = dz = z(x + dx0 ) z(x) = dx

d = dz cos

dz cos
dz
dx0 cos =
d0 .
dx
dx sin 0

, (17.27)
p 2
2
2
dz
= n (z) nm cos 0 .
dx
n(z) cos

,


d0
n(z) sin 0


d = pn2 (z) n2 cos2 , .
0
m

(17.43)

, ,
. , z,

k1 (z) =

Zz p
0

k2 n2 (z 0 ) 2 dz 0


. F .17.12

432
, .. (N + 1/2).
, , E

k2 (z) = (N + 1/2)

Zz p
0

k2 n2 (z 0 ) 2 dz 0

, x, x. (17.37) (17.43) (17.24),


:
E(x, z) = p
4

C eix

k2 n2 (z) 2
z


R p

2 n2 (z 0 ) 2 dz 0

cos
k
, N ;

0



Rz p

k2 n2 (z 0 ) 2 dz 0 , N .
sin

(17.44)

C , - . (17.44)
,
n2 (z) = 2 /k2 .

(17.45)

,
.
, .

- .
4.
-
- , , , ,
, .
.
,
, .

433
, z:
= (z). , xz,
y. ,
x ,
, x exp(ix),
x- .
(17.3a) (17.3b) /x = i /y = 0.
.
. xz, Ex , Ez , Hy .
, , T E-.
(17.3a) (17.3b) ,

1 dEy
,
Hz = Ey ,
ik dz
k
dHx
+ iHz = ikEy ,
dz

Hx =

,
y- :
d2 Ey
+ [k2 (z) 2 ] Ey = 0 .
dz 2

(17.46)

(17.5) 1, , (17.5) E(x, z) = Ey (z) exp(ix).


, T E- - (17.46)
.
, , Hx = Hz = Ey = 0.
T M -.

Ex =

1 dHy
,
Ez =
Hy ,
ik dz
k
dEz
+ iEz = ikHy ,
dz

Hy (z),

434

d
dz

1 dHy
(z) dz

2
+ k
(z)
2

Hy = 0 .

(17.47)

p
Hy (z) = (z)F (z), F (z)
#
"
d2 F
00 (z) 30 2 (z)
2
2
(17.48)
2
F (z) = 0 .
+ k (z) +
dz 2
2(z)
4 (z)
, (17.46),

k2 = k2 +

30 2
00
2 .
2
4

L (z) /(kL)2 2 /(kL)2 .


2 = (max min )/max
, . kL  1,
, = . , , :  1,
. T M - T E- . , , (17.46),
F (z).
z
, . 17.13. , z. z0 ,
(17.45), n2 = , . q 2 (z) = k2 n2 (z) 2 > 0,
- (17.46)

Zz
Z
A
A+
exp i
exp i
q(z 0 ) dz 0 + p
q(z 0 ) dz 0 ,
F (z) = p
q(z)
q(z)
z0

z0

(17.49)

435

. 17.13.

A+ A ,
x. . z > z0 q 2 (z) < 0,
-

B+
exp
F (z) = p
|q(z)|

Zz

z0

|q(z 0 )| dz 0 .

(17.50)

. , , . , ,
, .
z0 ,
, .
(17.49)
(17.50) , -. ,
: 7 .
7


(., , [16,
17].)

436
q 2 (z) : q 2 (z) =
= q 2 (z0 ) + (dq 2 /dz)z=z0 (z z0 ) + . . . k2 0 (z0 )(z z0 ) = k2/3 |0 (z0 )|1/3 (z z0 ).
(17.46)

d2 F
F = 0 .
d 2

(17.51)

,
. Ai() [2, 18]8
1
Ai() =

Z
0

cos

t3
+ t
3

dt .

(17.52)

, , Mathematica, . [19]:
2
1
exp( 3/2 ) , > 0
3
2 1/4
2

1
Ai() 1/4 cos( ||3/2 ) , < 0
3
4
||
Ai()

(17.53)

, Ai() . ,
,
Ai():
F () = CAi() .

(17.54)

C .
,
(17.46) ,
q 2 (z) .
8

[19]

. 1/ [19]
1/

437
- (17.49)
(17.50) (17.54). ,
. q 2 (z) , |0 (z0 )||zz0 |  |00 (z0 )||zz0 |2 ,
, 0 /L 00 /L2 , |z z0 |  L.
-
(7.59), t z (t) q(z): |q 0 (z)|  |q 2 (z)|. q 2 (z) k2 0 (z0 )(z z0 ),

|z z0 |  L/( kL)2/3 . ,
kL  1, z1 ,

L
 |z1 z0 |  L .

( kL)2/3

(17.55)

z1 , , -,
.
, (17.55) . (17.49) (17.50) (17.54).
(17.49) (17.50):
Z || p
Z z
Z z p
p
2
z0 z 0 dz 0 =
q(z 0 )dz 0 |0 (z0 )|k
0 d 0 = ||3/2 ,
3
0
z0
z0
z < z0 ,
Z z
Z
p
0
0
0
|q(z )|dz | (z0 )|k
z0

z0

z0

z0 dz =

2
0 d 0 = 3/2 ,
3

z > z0 . (17.49) (17.50)


(17.53), ,
A+ , A , B+ C
A+ =

ei/4 C
,
2

A =

ei/4 C
,
2

B+ =

C
.
2

(17.56)

A+ , A B+ . ,
A /A+ = exp(i/2),
, /2. ,
1.

438

. 17.14. - .
- (17.53).
(17.56) (17.49) (17.50), ,


Z z
C
q(z 0 ) dz 0 /4 ,
cos
F (z)= p
q(z)
z0
 Z z

C
F (z)= p
exp
|q(z 0 )| dz 0 ,
2 |q(z)|
z0

z < z0 ,

(17.57a)

z > z0 .

(17.57b)


(17.54). , , , , ,
, ,
,
. .
[2].
. 17.14. z < z0
,
, ( )
. (z > z0 ) . , ,
(17.57), . ,

439

zm z0 = 1,02 k2/3 |0 (z0 )|1/3 .

(17.58)

. 17.14 - (17.57). ,

z, |zm z0 |, .
, z0 ,
.
(17.45). , = 0,
. ,
, [20].
,

(z) = n2 (z) = 1

4e2 N (z)
,
2m

(17.59)

N (z) , . :
N (z) =

2m
= 1,24108 f 2 .
4e2

(17.60)

,
3 . [20].
5.
. , , ,
. , z,

Zz
A+
exp ik
n(z 0 ) dz 0 .
u(z) = p
kn(z)

(17.21) ,
-, ,

440

q = 0 |A+ |2 /2. A+ , z. , q = 0 |A |2 /2,
.. .
,
-,
. , n2 (z) , ,

.
, , --.
. : l,
. z = 0 A+ (0) = A0 ; ()
x = l . A (x) ,
- , ..
, . V = dF/dx (17.46)
:
dV
= k2 (z)F .
dz

dF
=V ,
dz

(17.61)

, = 0. (17.61)
(17.49), A+ A , ..

A+ (z) i A (z) i
e
+p
e ,
F (z) = p
4
4
(z)
(z)
(z) = k

Zz p

(z 0 ) dz 0 .

F (z) A+ (z)
A (z), , ,
. ,
A0+ (z) i A+ (z)0 (z) i A0 (z) i A (z)0 (z) i
p
e
p
e p
e
+p
e = 0 . (17.62)
4
4
(z)
4 5 5 (z)
(z)
4 5 5 (z)

441

V = ik 4 [A+ exp(i) A exp(i)].


(17.61),
A0+ ei +

0 A+ ei
0 A ei
A0 ei
= 0.
4
4

(17.62) :
(4A0+ 0 A+ )ei + (4A0 0 A )ei = 0 ,

(4A0+ + 0 A+ )ei (4A0 + 0 A )ei = 0 .

A0+ A0 ,
A0+ =

0 (z)A 2i
e ,
4

A0 =

0 (z)A+ 2i
e
.
4

(17.63)

(17.63) : F V A+ A . ,
, 0 , , , A+ A
. (17.63) , 0 = 0
A+ (z) = A0 .
A+ (z) = A0 (17.63),

Zz 0 p
Zz 0

exp 2ik
(z 0 ) dz 0 dz .
A = A0
4
0

Zz 0 p
Zz 0

A (z) exp 2ik


(z 0 ) dz 0 dz .
A = A0 +
4
0

:
: .
,
z. R = A /A+

Zz p
Z 0

exp 2ik
(z 0 ) dz 0 dz .
(17.64)
R=
4

442

[2, 17].
, .
, ,
, , , , . ,
.
.
, , , , , ,
, , . [23]

9 .
50- [2022],
[24, 25], [13].
, (
) ,
, , ..
. , . ,
, ,
, -, .
,
. , , , , ,
.
9

[23],
,
.

443
[23],
.
. exp(it).
N - X

 
  
d e
= i T e ,
d

(17.65)

 
. e N -
, 

X , ( = 1, 2, . . . , N ); T 

,

( T ,
); = kx
; k =
= /c , c
(
  ).
T .
 
- e :
N
 
  X
fi () E i ,
e =
i=1

 
 
E i = i e i ,

(17.66)

 
e i , (i = 1, 2, . . . , N ) ,
 
T :
  
 
T e i = ni e i .

(17.67)

 
, T 
 , e i ni .
(17.67)
 
. ,

T
 
e i ,
 
 ? T  
e i e j = ij , e? i -

444
10 ,
 T  ? 
 
T
e i = ni e? i .

(17.66) (17.65),
:
 
N
X
 T d E j
dfi
+ ini () fi =
aij fj ,
aij = E i
.
(17.68)
d
d
j=1
i6=j

(17.68) , aij 6= 0. i ()
aii = 0, , ,
 
1 di  T d E i
+ E i
= 0.
(17.69)
i d
d

aii = 0 ,
.
, , R
(17.65) N i ei exp[i ni ( 0 ) d 0 ],
i () (17.69).
(17.68), fi , aij = 0. ,
. ,
, .
( ),

df1
+ in1 f1 = a12 f2 ,
d
df2
+ in2 f2 = a21 f1 .
d

(17.70)

, :
 
 
e i , e? i  
T .
10

445
,
n1,2 ()
p , |n1 n2 | |a12 a?21 |;

,
.

, (17.70), [23],
, .
, [23]. , ,
- . , ,
[26],
[24], [15]. , ,
(17.68), aij , .
-
,
.
,
. , ,
. ,
, , , ,
, , , ..

.
(
LP-), .
, .
, , LP-

446
Ex Ey , , z .
LP - , ..
,
-
, , , - . LP -
[15, 23]
dEx
+ inx Ex = Ey ,
d
dEy
+ iny Ey = Ex .
d

(17.71)

,
, , , , , .
: 0 ,

,
.
|nx ny |,
LP -.
. , ,
1,2 (K
i =
n
1,2 K
= iEi,y /Ei,x , i = 1, 2) . nx,y = const = const, (17.71) :
p
1
(nx + ny ) 0 q2 + 1 ,
2
p
nx ny
= q q2 + 1 ,
q =
,.
2 0

n
1,2 =
1,2
K

(17.72)

. ,
nx,y ,
, (17.70). [23]
, , ,

447
, , 11 .
( )
, . , , .

, , (17.70).
, . ,
[23, 27].

11

, , , , [23]. ,
, , .


1
1.

.. . .: , 1970.

2.

.. . .:
, 1975.

3.

.. . .:
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4.

. / . .
... 4- . .:, 1977.

5.

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7.

.. . . . 1958 . .: , . 145.
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.. . .: ,
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9.

. .
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,
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11. .., .. . .: , 1979.
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.., .., .. . : , 1978.

13. .., .. .
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