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P ā li Primer

Lily de Silva (M.A., Ph.D., University of Peradeniya, Sri Lanka)

Originally Published by the Vipassana Research Institute, now available as a free e-text. "2008 edition" from E.M. (www.pali.pratyeka.org)

[PUBLICATION DATA: This version of the text was extensively re-formatted in Vientiane, Lao P.D.R., in 2005, then completed and released to the public in Xishuangbanna, Yunnan, People's Republic of China, in the last months of 2007. The revisions are, for the most part, limited to layout and aesthetics (out of deference to the author). However, the addition of Khmer and Burmese script to the glossary (alongside the Roman text) is my own doing, and therefore is provided as a separate file. The source used to create this e-text was adapted from the Vietnamese edition: http://www.saigon.com/%7Eanson/ --Eisel Mazard]

CONTENTS

ch.

Declension of masculine nouns ending in -a. Nominative case,

1 singular and plural. Present, third, singular and plural verbs. Declension of masculine nouns ending in -a, continued.

2 Accusative case, singular and plural.
3 Declension of masculine nouns ending in -a, continued.

Instrumental case, singular and plural. Declension of masculine nouns ending in -a, continued.

4 Ablative case, singular and plural. 5 Declension of masculine nouns ending in -a, continued. Dative case,

singular and plural. 6 Declension of masculine nouns ending in -a, continued. Genitive case, singular and plural.

7 Declension of masculine nouns ending in -a, continued. Locative

case, singular and plural.

8 Declension of masculine nouns ending in -a, continued. Vocative case, singular and plural. Declension of neuter nouns ending in -a.

9 The Gerund / Absolutive.

10

The Infinitive.

pg.

2b

3b

4b

5b

7a

9a

10b

12a

14a

15b

pg. 1

ch.

11 The present participle, masculine and neuter genders.

12 Conjugation of Verbs Present Tense, Active.

13 Conjugation of Verbs Present Tense, Active Voice, continued

14 The Further Tense

15 The Optative / Potential Mood

16 The Imperative Mood

17 The Past Tense

18 Declension of feminine nouns ending in - ā .

19 The Past Participle

20 Declension of feminine nouns ending in -i and ī .

21 The Present Participle, feminine gender.

22

23

The Future Passive Participle.

The Causative.

24 Declension of feminine nouns ending in -u.

25 Declension of masculine nouns ending in -i.

Declension of masculine nouns ending in - ī .

26

27 Declension of masculine nouns ending in -u and - ū .

28 Declension of agent nouns and nouns indicating relationships.

29 Declension of neuter nouns ending in -i and -u.

30 Declension of adjectives ending in -vantu and -mantu.

31 Declension of personal pronouns.

32 Declension of personal pronouns, relative, demonstrative and interrogative. List of P ā li Verbs.

33 [List of] P āli Vocabulary (other than verbs).

pg.

16b

18a

19a

21a

22a

23a

24a

25b

26b

28b

29b

31a

32a

33a

34a

35b

36b

37b

39b

41a

42b

43b

47

Glossary [Full listing in alphabetic order, with Burmese & Khmer

script, available as a separate file from: www.pali.pratyeka.org]

Namo Tassa Bhagavato Arahato Sammā sambuddhassa. Homage to the Blessed One, the Worthy One, The Fully Self-enlightened One.

PRONUNCIATION

1) The Alphabet:

P ā li is not known to have a special script of its own. In countries where Pā li is studied, the

scripts used in those countries are used to write P ā li: in India the N ā gar ī, in Sri Lanka the Sinhalese, in Burma the Burmese and in Thailand the Kamboja script. The Pali Text Society, London, uses the Roman script and now it has gained international currency.

The P ā li alphabet consists of 41 letters 8 vowels and 33 consonants.

Vowels: a, ā , i, ī , u, ū , e, o Consonants:

Gutturals: k, kh, g, gh, ɲ Palatals: c, ch, j, jh, ñ Cerebrals: , h, , h, Dentals: t, th, d, dh, n Labials: p, ph, b, bh, m Miscellaneous: y, r, l, v, s, h, , ŋ

The vowels a, i, u are short; ā , ī, ū are long; e, o are of middle length. They are pronounced short before double consonants, e.g. mett ā , khetta, ko ṭṭ ha, sotthi; and long before single consonants, e.g. deva, sen ā , loka, odana.

2) Pronunciation

a is pronounced like u in cut

ā is pronounced like a in father

i is pronounced like i in mill

ī is pronounced like ee in bee

u is pronounced like u in put

ū is pronounced like oo in cool

k is pronounced like k in kite

g is pronounced like g in good

ɲ is pronounced like ng in singer

c is pronounced like ch in church

j is pronounced like j in jam

ñ is pronounced like gn in signor

is pronounced like t in hat is pronounced like d in good is pronounced like n in now

Lesson 1

VOCABULARY

1. Masculine nouns ending in -a

 

man, human

 

manussa

being

br ā hma a

brahmin

kum ā ra

boy

Buddha / Tath ā gata / Sugata

the Buddha

sah ā ya / sah ā yaka / mitta

friend

Verbs

bhā sati

speaks

 

bhuñjati

eats

chindati

cuts

dh ā vati

runs

kassaka

farmer

m

ā tula

uncle

bh ū p ā la

king

kasati

ploughs

passati

sees

ā

gacchati

comes

2. Declension of masculine nouns ending in -a

Nominative case:

The case ending -o is added to the nominal base to form the nominative case singular number. The case ending - ā is added to the nominal base to form the nominative case plural number. A noun thus inflected is used as the subject of a sentence. Singular:

1. nara + o = naro

2. m ā tula + o = m ātulo

3. kassaka + o = kassako

Plural :

1.

nara + ā = nar ā

2.

m ā tula + ā = m ā tulā

3.

kassaka + ā = kassak ā

3.

Present, third, singular and plural verbs.

In the verbs listed above bhā sa, paca, kasa etc. are verbal bases and -ti is the present tense,

third person, singular termination. The present tense, third person, plural is formed by adding the termination -nti to the base.

pg. 2

Singular:

Lesson 2

bhā sati He speaks pacati He cooks kasati He ploughs Plural:

bhā santi They speak pacanti They cook kasanti They plough

Examples in sentence formation

4.

Singular:

1.

2.

3.

Plural:

1.

2.

3.

Naro bh ā sati The man speaks. M ā tulo pacati The uncle cooks.

Kassako kasati The farmer ploughs.

Nar ā bh ā santi Men speak. M ā tul ā pacanti Uncles cook. Kassak ā kasanti Farmers plough.

Exercise 1

5.

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

8.

Translate into English:

Bh ū p ā lo bhuñjati. Putt ā sayanti :

V āṇ ij ā sayanti Buddho passati Kum ā ro dh ā vati. M ā tulo kasati. Br ā hma ṇā bh ā santi. Mitt ā gacchanti.

6. Translate into P ā li:

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

8.

Sons run. The uncle sees. The Buddha comes. Boys eat. Merchants go. The man sleeps. Kings go. The brahmin cuts.

9. Kassak ā pacanti.

10.

11.

12.

13.

14.

15.

16.

Manusso chindati. Purisā dh ā vanti. Sah ā yako bhuñjati. Tath ā gato bh ā sati. Naro pacati. Sah ā y ā kasanti. Sugato ā gacchati.

9. Friends speak.

10.

11.

12.

13.

14.

15.

16.

The farmer ploughs. The merchant comes. Sons cut. Uncles speak. The boy runs. The friend speaks. The Buddha sees.

VOCABULARY

1. Masculine nouns ending in -a

dhamma

g

kukkura /

sunakha

ā

sig ā la

ā ma

/ so a

v āṭ a

Verbs

harati

oruhati

vijjhati

vandati

the doctrine,

truth

village

dog

pit

jackal

carries, take

away

descends

shoots

worships,

salutes

bhatta

suriya

vih ā ra

pabbata

rukkha

ā

harati

y ā cati

paharati

rice

sun

monastery

mountain

tree

brings

begs

hits, strikes

odana

canda

patta

y ā caka

ā ruhati

kha ati

rakkhati

cooked rice

moon

bowl

beggar

climbs,

ascends

digs

protects

2. Declension of masculine nouns ending in -a (contd.)

Accusative case: The case ending - ŋ is added to the nominal base to form the accusative singular number. The case ending -e is added to the nominal base to form the accusative case plural number. A noun thus inflected is used as the object of a sentence. The goal of motion is also expressed by the accusative case. Singular:

1. nara + ŋ = nara ŋ

2. m ā tula + ŋ = m ā tulaŋ

3. kassaka + ŋ = kassaka ŋ

Plural:

nara + e = nare

m ā tula + e = m ā tule

kassaka + e = kassake

3. Examples in sentence formation

Singular:

1. Putto nara ŋ passati The son sees the man.

2. Br ā hma o mā tulaŋ rakkhati -The brahmin protects the uncle.

3. V āṇ ijo kassaka ŋ paharati The merchant hits the farmer.

pg. 3

Plural:

Lesson 3

1. Putt ā nare passanti Sons see men.

2. Br ā hma ṇā m ā tule rakkhanti Brahmins protect uncles.

3. V āṇ ij ā kassake paharanti Merchants hit farmers.

Exercise 2

4. Translate into English:

   

1. Tath ā gato dhamma ŋ bh ā sati.

14.

Sig ā lā g ā ma ŋ ā gacchanti.

2. Br ā hma ṇā odanaŋ bhuñjanti.

15.

Br ā hma ṇā sah ā yake āharanti.

3. Manusso suriya ŋ passati.

16.

Bh ū p āl ā sugata ŋ vandanti.

4. Kum ā rā sig ā le paharanti.

17.

Y ā cak ā sayanti.

5. Y ā cak ā bhatta ŋ y ā canti.

18.

Mitt ā sunakhe haranti.

6. Kassak ā ā v āṭ e kha anti.

19.

Putto canda ŋ passati.

7. Mitto g ā ma ŋ ā gacchati.

20.

Kassako gā ma ŋ dh ā vati.

8. Bh ū p ā lo manusse rakkhati.

21.

V āṇ ijā rukkhe chindanti.

9. Putt ā pabbata ŋ gacchanti.

22.

Naro sig ā la ŋ vijjhati.

10. Kum ā ro Buddha ŋ vandati.

23.

Kum ā ro odana ŋ bhuñjati.

11. V āṇ ij ā patte ā haranti.

24.

Y ā cako so aŋ paharati.

12. Puriso vih ā ra ŋ gacchati.

25.

Sah ā yak ā pabbate ā ruhanti.

13. Kukkur ā pabbata ŋ dhā vanti.

 

5.

Translate into P ā li:

 

1. Men go to the monastery.

14.

The merchant cooks rice.

2. Farmers climb mountains.

15.

Sons worship the uncle.

3. The brahmin eats rice.

16.

Kings protect men.

4. The Buddha sees the boys.

17.

The Buddha comes to the

5. Uncles take away bowls.

monastery.

6. The son protects the dog.

18. The men descend.

7. The king worships the Buddha.

19. Farmers dig pits.

8. The merchant brings a boy.

20. The merchant runs.

9. Friends salute the brahmin.

21. The dog sees the moon.

10. Beggars beg rice.

22. Boys climb trees.

11. Merchants shoot jackals.

23. The brahmin brings the bowl.

12. Boys climb the mountain.

24. The beggar sleeps.

13. The farmer runs to the village.

25. The king sees the Buddha.

VOCABULARY

1. Masculine nouns ending in -a

ratha

ā da

p

ā vaka

assa ā s āṇ a cora

p

s

vehicle,

chariot

foot

disciple

horse

rock, stone

thief

saka a

cart

hattha

hand

magga

path

d

ī pa

island, lamp

sama a

recluse, monk

sagga

heaven

miga

deer

sara

arrow

kakaca

saw

khagga

sword

pa ṇḍ ita

wise man

 

2. Declension of masculine nouns ending in -a (contd.)

Instrumental case: The case ending -ena is added to the nominal base to form the

instrumental singular. The case ending -ehi is added to form the instrumental plural; -ebhi is another archaic case ending that is sometimes added. A noun thus inflected expresses the idea ‘by', ‘with' or ‘through'. Singular:

1. nara + ena = narena (by means of the man)

2. m ā tula + ena = m ātulena (with the uncle)

3. kassaka + ena = kassakena (through the farmer)

Plural:

1. nara + ehi = narehi (narebhi)

2. m ā tula + ehi = m ātulehi (m ātulebhi)

3. kassaka + ehi = kassakehi (kassakebhi)

Saddhi ŋ / saha meaning ‘with' is also used with the instrumental case. They are not normally used with nouns denoting things.

3. Examples in sentence formation

Singular:

1. Sama o narena saddhiŋ g āmaŋ gacchati.

The monk goes to the village with the man.

2. Putto m ā tulena saha canda ŋ passati.

The son sees the moon with his uncle.

3. Kassako kakacena rukkhaŋ chindati.

The farmer cuts the tree with a saw. Plural:

1. Sama ṇā narehi saddhi ŋ g ā maŋ gacchanti.

Monks go to the village with men.

2. Putt ā m ā tulehi saha candaŋ passanti.

Sons see the moon with uncles.

pg. 4

3. Kassak ā kakacehi rukkhe chindanti.

Farmers cut trees with saws.

Exercise 3

4. Translate into English:

1. Buddho s ā vakehi saddhi ŋ vih ā ra ŋ gacchati.

2. Puriso puttena saha dī paŋ dh ā vati.

3. Kassako sarena sig ā la ŋ vijjhati.

4. Br ā hma ṇā m ā tulena saha pabbata ŋ ā ruhanti.

5. Putt ā p ā dehi kukkure paharanti.

6. M ā tulo puttehi saddhi ŋ rathena g ā ma ŋ ā gacchati.

7. Kum ā r ā hatthehi patte ā haranti.

8. Coro maggena assa ŋ harati.

9. Kassako āv āṭ a ŋ oruhati.

10.

Bhū p āl ā pa ṇḍ itehi saha sama e passanti.

11.

Pa ṇḍ ito bh ūpā lena saha Tath ā gata ŋ vandati.

12.

Putt ā sah ā yena saddhiŋ odana ŋ bhuñjanti.

13.

V āṇ ijo p ā s āṇ ena miga ŋ paharati.

14.

Sunakh ā p ā dehi āvāṭe kha anti.

15.

Br āhmao puttena saha suriya ŋ vandati.

16.

Kassako so ehi saddhiŋ rukkhe rakkhati.

17.

Sugato s ā vakehi saha vih ā ra ŋ ā gacchati.

18.

Y ā cako pattena bhatta ŋ ā harati.

19.

Pa ṇḍ itā sagga ŋ gacchanti.

20.

Kum ā r ā assehi saddhi ŋ g ā ma ŋ dh ā vanti.

21.

Coro khaggena nara ŋ paharati.

22.

V āṇ ijo saka ena d īpe ā harati.

23.

Ass ā maggena dh āvanti.

24.

Sig āl ā migehi saddhi ŋ pabbata ŋ dhā vanti.

25.

Bhū p ālo pa ṇḍ itena saha manusse rakkhati.

5.

Translate into P ā li:

1.

The recluse sees the Buddha with his friend.

2.

Disciples go to the monastery with the Buddha.

3.

The horse runs to the mountain with the dogs.

4.

The boy hits the lamp with a stone.

5.

Merchants shoot deer with arrows.

6.

Farmers dig pits with their hands.

7.

Boys go to the monastery by chariot with their uncle.

8.

The brahmin cooks rice with his friend.

9.

The king protects the island with wise men.

10. Kings worship monks with their sons.

11. Thieves bring horses to the island.

12. Disciples climb mountains with men.

13. Merchants cut trees with farmers.

14. The beggar digs a pit with a friend.

15. The brahmin sees the moon with his uncles.

16. The thief hits the horse with a sword.

17. The son brings rice in a bowl.

18. Boys run to the mountain with their dogs.

19. Merchants come to the village by carts with farmers.

20. Uncles come to the monastery by chariots with their sons.

21. Jackals run to the mountain along the road.

22. Dogs dig pits with their feet.

23. The man carries a saw in his hand.

24. Recluses go to heaven.

25. The Buddha comes to the village with his disciples.

pg. 5

 

Lesson 4

VOCABULARY 1. Masculine nouns ending in -a

dh ī vara

fisherman

maccha

fish

piaka

amacca

minister

up ā saka

lay devotee

p

ā s ā da

d

ā raka

child

s

āṭ aka

garment

rajaka

sappa

serpent

pañha

question

suka / suva

sop ā na

stairway

ū kara / var ā ha

s

pig

Verbs

 

patati

falls

dhovati

washes

icchati

asati

bites

pucchati

questions

pakkosati

khā dati

eats

hanati

kills

otarati

leaves, sets

 

nikkhamati

out

basket

palace

washerman

parrot

wishes,

desires

calls,

summons

descends

2. Declension of masculine nouns ending in -a (contd.)

Ablative case:

Case endings - ā / -mh ā / -sm ā are added to the nominal base to form the ablative singular.

Case ending -ehi is added to form the ablative plural; -ebhi is an archaic ending that is also used. Singular:

1. nara + ā / mh ā / smā = nar ā / naramh ā / narasm ā (From the man)

2. m ā tula + ā / mh ā / smā = m ā tulā / m ā tulamhā / m ā tulasm ā (From the uncle)

3. kassaka + ā / mh ā / smā = kassak ā / kassakamh ā / kassakasm ā (From the farmer)

Plural:

1.

nara + ehi = narehi (narebhi) (From men)

2.

m ā tula + ehi = m ātulehi (m ā tulebhi) (From uncles)

3.

kassaka + ehi = kassakehi (kassakebhi) (From farmers)

3.

Examples in sentence formation

Singular:

1. Y ā cako naramh ā bhatta ŋ y ā cati.

The beggar asks for rice from the man.

2. Putto m ā tulamh ā pañha ŋ pucchati.

The son asks a question from the uncle.

3. Kassako rukkhasm ā patati.

The farmer falls from the tree. Plural:

1. Y ā cak ā narehi bhatta ŋ y ā canti.

Beggars ask for rice from men.

2. Putt ā mā tulehi pañhe pucchanti.

Sons ask questions from uncles.

3. Kassak ā rukkhehi patanti.

Farmers fall from trees.

Exercise 4 4. Translate into English:

pg. 6

1. Cor ā g ā mamh ā pabbataŋ dhā vanti.

2. D ā rako m ātulasm ā odana ŋ y ā cati.

3. Kum ā ro sop ā namhā patati.

4. M ā tul ā s āṭ ake dhovanti.

5. Dh ī var ā pi akehi macche ā haranti.

6. Up ā sak ā samaehi saddhi ŋ

vih ā rasmā nikkhamanti.

7. Br ā hma o kakacena rukkha ŋ

chindati.

8. Kum ā r ā mittehi saha bhū p āla ŋ

passanti.

9. V āṇ ijo assena saddhi ŋ pabbatasm ā

oruhati.

10. Y ā cako kassakasmā so a ŋ y ā cati.

11. Sapp ā pabbatehi g āma ŋ otaranti.

12. Amacc ā sarehi mige vijjhanti.

13. Coro gā mamhā sakaena s āṭ ake

harati.

14. Bh ū p ā lo amaccehi saddhiŋ rathena

p ā s ā daŋ ā gacchati.

15. S ū karā p ā dehi āv āṭe kha anti.

16. Kumā ro sah āyakehi saha s āṭ ake

dhovati.

17. Sama ṇā g āmamh ā up ā sakehi

saddhi ŋ nikkhamanti.

18. Kukkuro piakamh ā macchaŋ

kh ādati.

19. Mitto puttamh ā sunakha ŋ y ācati.

20. Buddho s ā vake pucchati.

21. Amacc ā paṇḍ itehi pañhe pucchanti.

22. Rajako sah āyena saha s āṭ akaŋ

dhovati.

23. Macch ā pi akamhā patanti.

24. Corā p ā s āṇehi varā he paharanti.

25. Amacco p ās ādamh ā suvaŋ āharati.

5.

Translate into P ā li:

Verbs

1. Horses run from the village to the

mountain.

2. Merchants come from the island to

the monastery with lay devotees.

3. Thieves shoot pigs with arrows.

4. The lay devotee questions (about)

the dhamma from the recluse.

5. The child falls from the rock with a

friend.

6. The dog bites the child.

7. Ministers set out from the palace

with the king.

8. The man brings a deer from the

island.

9. The farmer gets down from the tree.

10. Dogs run along the road with

horses.

11. Boys take away lamps from

merchants.

12. The thief gets down from the

stairway.

13. Merchants bring parrots from

mountains.

14. The horse hits the serpent with its

foot.

15. The uncle, with his friends, sees

recluses from the mountains.

16. Merchants bring horses to the

palace from the island.

17. The minister questions the thief.

18. The farmer eats rice with the

washerman.

19. The child falls from the stairway.

20. The fisherman climbs the mountain

with his uncle.

21. The beggar, together with his dog,

sleeps.

22. Kings protect islands with their

ministers.

23. The king worships the Buddha from

his palace.

24. The man kills a serpent with a

sword.

25. Fishermen bring fish to the village

in carts.

26. Pigs run from the village to the

mountain.

27. Lay devotees ask questions from the

wise man.

28. The son brings a parrot from the

tree.

29. Wise men go to the monastery.

30. Disciples go along the road to the

village.

VOCABULARY

Lesson 5

1. Masculine nouns ending in -a

ā pasa

t

ī ha ā nara / makka a

v

s

kudd ā la

hermit

lion

monkey

hoe

nara / makka ṭ a v s kudd ā la hermit lion monkey hoe vejja doctor

vejja

doctor

aja

goat

mañca

bed

rodati

cries

labhati

gets, receives

pavisati

enters

ā dad ā ti

takes

k

īḷ ati

plays

ā ka ḍḍ hati

drags

pajahati

gives up,

 

abandons

2. Declension of masculine nouns ending in -a (contd.)

Dative case:

Case endings - ā ya / -ssa are added to the nominal base to form the dative singular. The case ending - āna ŋ is added to form the dative plural. Singular:

1. nara + ā ya / ssa = nar āya / narassa (for or to the man)

2. m ā tula + ā ya / ssa = m ā tulā ya / m ātulassa (for or to the uncle)

3. kassaka + ā ya / ssa = kassak ā ya / kassakassa (for or to the farmer)

Plural:

1.

nara + ā na ŋ = narā naŋ (for or to men)

2.

m ā tula + ā na ŋ = m ātul ā naŋ (for or to uncles)

3.

kassaka + ā na ŋ = kassak ā naŋ (for or to farmers)

3.

Examples in sentence formation

Singular:

1. Dh ī varo nar ā ya macchaŋ āharati.

The fisherman brings a fish for the man.

2. Putto m ā tulassa odanaŋ dad āti.

The son gives rice to the uncle.

3. V āṇ ijo kassakassa aja ŋ dad ā ti.

The merchant gives a goat to the farmer. Plural:

1. Dh ī var ā nar ā na ŋ macche āharanti.

Fishermen bring fish for men.

2. Putt ā m ā tul ā na ŋ odana ŋ dadanti.

Sons give rice to uncles.

3. V āṇ ij ā kassak ā naŋ aje dadanti.

Merchants give goats to farmers.

pg. 7

Exercise 5:

5. Translate into P ā li:

4. Translate into English:

1. V āṇ ijo rajakassa s āṭ aka ŋ dad ā ti.

2. Vejjo ā cariyassa d ī paŋ ā harati.

3. Mig ā p ā s āṇ amh ā pabbata ŋ dh ā vanti.

4. Manuss ā Buddhehi dhamma ŋ

labhanti.

5. Puriso vejj ā ya saka a ŋ ā ka ḍḍ hati.

6. D ā rako hatthena y ā cakassa bhatta ŋ

ā

7. Y ā cako ā cariy ā ya ā v āṭ a ŋ kha ati.

8. Rajako amacc ā na ŋ s āṭ ake dad ā ti.

9. Br ā hma o s ā vak ā na ŋ mañce ā harati.

10. V ā naro rukkhamh ā patati, kukkuro

v

11. Dh ī var ā pi akehi amacc ā na ŋ

macche ā haranti.

12. Kassako v āṇ ijā ya rukkha ŋ chindati.

13. Coro kudd ālena ā cariy ā ya ā v āṭ a ŋ

kha ati.

14. Vejjo putt ā na ŋ bhatta ŋ pacati.

15. T ā paso luddakena saddhi ŋ bh ā sati.

16. Luddako tā pasassa d ī pa ŋ dad ā ti.

harati.

ā nara ŋ ḍ asati.

17. S īh ā mige hananti.

18. Makka o puttena saha rukkha ŋ

ā

19. Sama ṇā up ā sakehi odana ŋ labhanti.

20. D ā rak ā rodanti, kum ā ro hasati,

m ā tulo kum ā ra ŋ paharati.

21. V ā nar ā pabbatamh ā oruhanti,

rukkhe ā ruhanti.

22. Corā ratha ŋ pavisanti, amacco

ratha ŋ pajahati.

23. Ā cariyo dā rak ā ya rukkhamh ā suka ŋ

ā

24. Luddako pabbatasm ā aja ŋ

ā

25. T ā paso pabbatamh ā s ī ha ŋ passati.

26. V āṇ ijā kassakehi l ā bha ŋ labhanti.

27. Luddako v āṇ ij ā na ŋ var ā he hanati.

28. T ā paso ā cariyamh ā pañhe pucchati.

29. Putto mañcamh ā patati.

30. Kum ā r ā sah ā yakehi saddhi ŋ

nah ā yanti.

ruhati.

harati.

ka ḍḍ hati.

pg. 8

1. Merchants bring horses for

ministers.

2. The hunter kills a goat for the

merchant.

3. The man cuts trees with a saw for

the farmer.

4. Deer run away from the lion.

5. The king worships the Buddha along

with lay devotees.

6. Thieves run from villages to the

mountains.

7. The washerman washes garments for

the king.

8. The fisherman brings fish in baskets

for farmers.

9. The teacher enters the monastery,

sees the monks.

10. The serpent bites the monkey.

11. Boys drag the bed for the brahmin.

12. Thieves enter the palace together

with men.

13. Farmers get fish from fishermen.

14. Pigs go from the island to the

mountain.

15. The king abandons the palace, the

son enters the monastery.

16. The lion sleeps, the monkeys play.

17. The teacher protects his sons from

the dog.

18. Hunters shoot deer with arrows for

ministers.

19. Children desire rice from the uncle.

20. The doctor gives a garment to the

hermit.

21. The merchant brings a goat by cart

for the teacher.

22. Sons see the moon from the

mountain.

23. Wise men get profit from the

dhamma.

24. Monkeys leave the village.

25. The son brings a parrot for his

friend from the mountain.

26. The doctor enters the monastery.

27. The jackal runs from the village to

the mountain along the road.

28. The cart falls off the road, the child

cries.

29. The ministers go up the stairway,

the doctor comes down the stairway.

30. Wise men ask questions from the

Buddha.

Lesson 6

1. Declension of masculine nouns ending in -a (contd.)

Genetive case: The inflections of the genitive case are very similar to those of the dative case. The case ending -ssa is added to the nominal base to form the genitive singular. The case ending -ā naŋ is added to form the genitive plural. Singular:

1. nara + ssa = narassa (of the man)

2. m ā tula + ssa = m ā tulassa (of the uncle)

3. kassaka + ssa = kassakassa (of the farmer)

Plural:

1. nara + ā na ŋ = narā na ŋ (of the men)

2. m ā tula + ā na ŋ = m ātul ā naŋ (of the uncles)

3. kassaka + ā na ŋ = kassakā na ŋ (of the farmers)

2. Examples in sentence formation

Singular:

1. Narassa putto bhatta ŋ y ā cati.

The man's son asks for rice.

2. M ā tulassa sah āyako ratha ŋ ā harati.

The uncle's friend brings the vehicle.

3. Kassakassa s ū karo d ī pa ŋ dh ā vati.

The farmer's pig runs to the island. Plural:

1. Nar ā naŋ putt ā bhatta ŋ y ā canti.

Sons of the men ask for rice.

2. M ā tul ā na ŋ sah ā yak ā rathe ā haranti.

Uncles' friends bring vehicles.

3. Kassak ā na ŋ s ūkar ā d ī pe dhā vanti.

Farmers' pigs run to the islands.

pg. 9

Exercise 6:

3. Translate into English:

1.

Kassakassa putto vejjassa sah ā yena

16.

Vejjassa sunakho ā cariyassa

saddhi ŋ ā gacchati.

sop ā namhā patati.

2.

Br ā hma assa kudd ā lo hatthamhā

17. Rajak ā rukkhehi oruhanti.

patati.

18. Y ā cakassa dā rakā rodanti.

3.

Migā ā v āṭehi nikkhamanti.

19. Luddakassa putt ā corassa d ā rakehi

4.

V āṇ ij ā na ŋ ass ā kassakassa g ā maŋ

saddhi ŋ k īḷanti.

dh ā vanti.

20.

T āpaso Tathā gatassa s āvak āna ŋ

5.

M ā tulassa mitto Tathā gatassa s āvake

odanaŋ dadā ti.

vandati.

21.

Sama ṇā ācariyassa hatthena s āṭake

6.

Amacco bh ū p ā lassa khaggena

labhanti.

sappa ŋ paharati.

22.

Coro v āṇ ijassa sah āyakasm ā assaŋ

7.

V āṇ ij ā g ā me manuss ā naŋ piakehi

y

ā cati.

macche ā haranti.

23.

Up āsak ā Tathā gatassa s āvakehi

8.

Coro vejjassa saka ena mittena saha

pañhe pucchanti.

g

ā mamh ā nikkhamati.

24.

P ā s āṇamh ā migo patati, luddako

9.

Up ā sakassa putt ā sama ehi saha

hasati, sunakh ā dhā vanti.

vih ā ra ŋ gacchanti.

25.

Vejjassa patto puttassa hatthamh ā

10. Y ā cako amaccassa s āṭakaŋ icchati.

patati.

11. Mitt āna ŋ mā tulā t āpas ā naŋ odana ŋ

26.

Kumā ro m ātul ā naŋ putt ānaŋ

dadanti.

hatthena odanaŋ dad āti.

12.

Dh ī varassa kakacena coro kukkuraŋ

27.

Sar ā luddakassa hatthehi patanti,

paharati.

mig ā pabbataŋ dhā vanti.

13.

Bh ū p ā lassa putto amaccassa assa ŋ

28.

Bh ū p ā lassa putto amaccehi saddhiŋ

ā

ruhati.

p

ā s ā dasmā oruhati.

14.

Pa ṇḍ itassa putt ā Buddhassa

29.

Vejjassa soo kassakassa s ū karaŋ

s

ā vakena saha vihā ra ŋ pavisanti.

asati.

15.

Suriyo manusse rakkhati.

30.

Dh ī varo manuss ānaŋ macche

 

ā

harati, l ā bhaŋ labhati.

4. Translate into P ā li:

Lesson 7

1. The brahmin's sons bathe with the

minister's son.

2. Uncle's friend cooks rice with the

farmer's son.

3. The fisherman brings fish to the

king's palace.

4. The king calls the ministers' sons

from the palace.

5. The merchant's chariot falls from the

mountain.

6. The king's ministers set out from the

palace with the horses.

7. The brahmin's doctor gives garments

to the hermits.

8. The hunter's dogs run from the

mountain to the village.

9. The merchant brings a bed for the

doctor's child.

10. Deer run from the mountain to the

village.

11. The teacher's child falls from the

farmer's tree.

12. The dog eats fish from the

fisherman's basket.

13. The disciples of the Buddha go from

the monastery to the mountain.

14. The hunter kills a pig with an arrow

for the minister's friends.

15. The child gets a lamp from the

hands of the teacher.

16. The doctors' teacher calls the

child's uncle.

17. The boy brings rice in a bowl for

the monk.

18. Men go to the village of the lay

devotees.

19. Pigs run away from jackals.

20. Monkeys play with the deer.

21. The wise man comes to the king's

island with the merchants.

22. The farmer's children go to the

mountain by their uncles' chariots.

23. Garments fall from the carts of the

merchants.

24. The recluse gets a bowl from the

king's hands.

25. The washerman brings garments

for the man's uncle.

26. King's ministers eat rice together

with the teacher's friends.

27. Wise men protect the islands of the

kings from the thieves.

28. Boys bring baskets for the

fishermen from farmers.

29. The farmer's horse drags the

doctor's vehicle away from the road.

30. Monks enter the village of the

teacher.

VOCABULARY

1.

Masculine nouns ending in -a

n

ā vika

sailor

ā

k ā sa

deva / sura

deity, god

loka

saku a

bird

k

ā ka

sappurisa

virtuous man

asappurisa

d

ū ta

messenger

go a

Verbs

 

ā

hi ṇḍ ati

wanders

carati

sannipatati

assembles

viharati

j

ī vati

lives

ti

ṭṭhati

crosses

 

tarati

(water)

uttarati

sky

world

crow

wicked man

ox, bull

walks

dwells

stands

comes out (of water)

samudda

ā

nivā sa

k

loka

ā ya

nis ī dati

vasati

uppatati

pas ī dati

ocean, sea

light

house

body

sits

lives

flies, jumps

up

becomes glad,

is pleased

with

2. Declension of masculine nouns ending in -a (contd.)

Locative case:

Case endings -e / -mhi / -smiŋ are added to the nominal base to form the locative singular. The case ending -esu is added to form the locative plural. Singular:

1. nara + e / mhi / smi ŋ = nare, naramhi, narasmi ŋ (in / on / at the man)

2. m ā tula + e / mhi / smi ŋ = mā tule, m ātulamhi, m ā tulasmiŋ (in / on / at the uncle)

3. kassaka + e / mhi / smi ŋ = kassake, kassakamhi, kassakasmi ŋ (in / on / at the farmer)

Plural:

1.

nara + esu = naresu (in / on / at men)

2.

m ā tula + esu = m ātulesu (in / on / at uncles)

3.

kassaka + esu = kassakesu (in / on / at farmers)

3.

Examples in sentence formation

Singular:

1. Sappo narasmi ŋ patati.

The snake falls on the man.

2. Putto m ā tulamhi pas ī dati.

The son is pleased with the uncle.

pg. 10

3.

V āṇ ijo kassakasmi ŋ pas ī dati.

5. Translate into P ā li:

The merchant is pleased with the farmer. Plural:

1. Sapp ā naresu patanti.

Snakes fall on men.

2. Putt ā mā tulesu pas īdanti.

Sons are pleased with their uncles.

3. V āṇ ij ā kassakesu pas ī danti.

Merchants are pleased with farmers.

Exercise 7:

4. Translate into English:

1. Br ā hma o sah ā yakena saddhi ŋ

rathamhi nis īdati.

2. Asappuris ā corehi saha gā mesu

caranti.

3. V āṇ ijo kassakassa niv ā se bhatta ŋ

pacati.

4. Bh ū p ā lassa amacc ā d ī pesu manusse

rakkhanti.

5. Sugatassa s ā vak ā vih ā rasmi ŋ vasanti.

6. Makka o rukkhamh ā ā v āṭasmi ŋ

patati.

7. Suriyassa āloko samuddamhi patati.

8. Kassak ā na ŋ go ṇā g ā me ā hi ṇḍ anti.

9. Vejjassa d ā rako mañcasmiŋ sayati.

10. Dh ī var ā samuddamh ā pi akesu

macche ā haranti.

11. S īho p ā s āṇasmi ŋ tiṭṭhati, makka ṭā

rukkhesu caranti.

12. Bh ū p ā lassa d ūto amaccena saddhi ŋ

samudda ŋ tarati.

13. Manuss ā loke j ī vanti, dev ā sagge

vasanti.

14. Mig ā pabbatesu dhā vanti, saku ṇā

ā k ā se uppatanti.

15. Amacco khagga ŋ bh ū pā lassa

hatthamh ā ā dad ā ti.

16. Ā cariyo m ā tulassa niv ā se

mañcamhi puttena saha nis ī dati.

17. T ā pas ā pabbatamhi viharanti.

18. Up ā sak ā sama ehi saddhi ŋ vih āre

sannipatanti.

19. K ā k ā rukkhehi uppatanti.

20. Buddho dhamma ŋ bh ā sati,

sappuris ā Buddhamhi pas ī danti.

21. Asappuriso khaggena n ā vikassa

d

22. Puriso sarena saku a ŋ vijjhati,

saku o rukkhamh ā āv āṭ asmiŋ patati.

23. Manuss ā suriyassa ā lokena loka ŋ

passanti.

24. Kassakassa go ṇā magge sayanti.

25. Go assa k ā yasmi ŋ k ā ko ti ṭṭ hati.

26. Migā d ī pasmi ŋ p ā s āṇ esu nis ī danti.

27. Saku o n ā vikassa hatthamh ā

ā v āṭ asmi ŋ patati.

28. Sappuriso n ā vikena saha

samuddamh ā uttarati.

29. Kudd ā lo luddakassa hatthamh ā

ā v āṭ asmi ŋ patati.

30. Suriyassa ā lokena cando bh ā sati

(shines).

ū ta ŋ paharati.

pg. 11

1. The lion stands on the rock in the

mountain.

2. Thieves enter the house of the

teacher.

3. Children run from the road to the

sea with friends.

4. Uncle's oxen wander on the road.

5. Birds sit on the tree.

6. The ox hits the goat with its foot.

7. Jackals live on the mountain.

8. The king worships the feet of the

Buddha with his ministers.

9. The uncle sleeps on the bed with his

son.

10. The fisherman eats rice in the

house of the farmer.

11. The king's horses live in the island.

12. The virtuous man brings a lamp for

the hermit.

13. The doctor brings a garment to the

teacher's house.

14. The monkey plays with a dog on the

rock.

15. The garment falls on the farmer's

body.

16. The hunter carries arrows in a

basket.

17. Disciples of the Buddha assemble in

the monastery.

18. The washerman washes the

garments of the ministers.

19. Birds fly in the sky.

20. The virtuous man comes out of the

sea together with the sailor.

21. Deities are pleased with the

Buddha's disciples.

22. Merchants cross the sea together

with sailors.

23. The good man protects the dog

from the serpent.

24. Crows fly from trees in the

mountain.

25. The pig pulls a fish from the

fisherman's basket.

26. The light of the sun falls on the

men in the world.

27. Deities go through the sky.

28. Children play with the dog on the

road.

29. The wicked man drags a monkey

from the tree.

30. The king's messenger gets down

from the horse.

Lesson 8

1. Declension of masculine nouns ending in -a (contd.)

Vocative Case: The uninflected nominal base is used as the vocative singular. The case ending -ā is added to form the vocative plural. Singular:

1.

nara (O man)

2.

m ā tula (O uncle)

3.

kassaka (O farmer)

Plural:

nara + ā = nar ā (O men)

m ā