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GATECounsellor RcPP1 Solution

1. (D) Concept: If determinant

then rank is

else maximum of order of any non-

zero determinant cofactor of the matrix.


by substituting values from each option we get

2. (B) Concept: Definition of linear equation:

Where P and Q are

Solution: Replacing B and C from options.

Only option (B) results in standard form of Linear equation
3. (A) Solution: These are standard formulae for solving Linear Differential Equations.
4. (B) Concept and Solution:
As Zener breakdown takes place because of the existence of high electric which initiate direct
rapture of bonds without the collision of particles. This occurs at fields approx equal to
, for highly doped diodes. Hence, both p & n side are very heavily doped to obtain
high electric field.
5. (C) Concept and Solution:
Due to doping barrier potential exists and hence in order to align the conduction bands on both
sides we need to apply a voltage equal to built-in voltage .

6. (B) Concept: CDF function should be monotonically non-decreasing and right-continuous.

Solution: CDF is not a monotonically increasing (strictly increasing) since there is a possibility of
it being constant in some interval.
Reference: Properties of cdf, Principles of Communication Systems, Taub and Schilling.
7. (D) Concept: The given condition is required for distortion-less detection using synchronous
detection method.
8. (B) Concept: Modulation index,
= frequency deviation which is proportional to amplitude of message signal as
, K is constant.
= maximum frequency in the message signal

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9. (D) Concept: Quantization noise power =

where = step-size.

Solution: Since step-size is reduced by a factor of 8, quantization noise power will be reduced by
by proportionality relation.
Reference: Pulse Code Modulation, Principles of Communication Systems, Taub and Schilling
10. (A)
11. (D) Concept: Simplify the expression using Boolean laws
12. (B) Solution:
Starting Address of Memory: 0000H
4kB = 212 Bytes => ROM will take 212 bytes space
So, Address Range: 0000H (0 decimal) to 0FFFH (212-1 decimal)
16kB = 214 Bytes => RAM1 will take 214 Bytes space
So, Address Range: (ROM max address +1) to (ROM max address + 0x3FFF)
= 1000H to 4FFFH
4kB = 212 Bytes => RAM2 will take 212 bytes space
So, Address Range: (RAM1 max address +1) to (RAM1 max address + 0x0FFF)
= 5000H to 5FFFH
13. (A) Solution:


diode is forward biased, so


diode is reverse biased, so

Reference: Electronics Devices and Circuit Theory by Boylestead or any basic Electronics book

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14. (C) Concept and Solution: Half-wave rectifier

Here current flows only for half wave cycle,

Maximum current is

= maximum input voltage/resistance =

So rms value =

c m n
15. (D) Concept: Cut off frequency of rectangular waveguide is fmn =

2 a b

where a and b are the dimensions of waveguide (a>b), m and n are the mode number, c is the
speed of light.
For TE10, f10 = c/2a and f01 = c/2b. so, f01/ f10 = a/b =2

16. (B) Concept: Directivity in the case of end fire array is D = 4L/ where L = (N-1)d.
N stands for number of isotropic antennas.
Solution: 4L/ = 30. L/= 7.5.

Z L jZ 0 tan l
where Z0 is
Z 0 jZ L tan l

17. (a) Concept: Input Impedance of a Transmission line is Zin= Z0

characteristic Impedance, ZL is load impedance, = 2/ is phase shift constant, l is length of

Solution: Given l = /8, l = /4. ZL = 0 since short circuited. So Zin= jZ0.
Even if the frequency is changed, l remains same. So no change in input impedance.
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18. (A) Concept: Transformation of signal parameters.
Concept-I : Scale, reversal then shift.
Scaling: x1(t)=x(nt)
All time axis(divide by n) will either compress or expand. Here Compress.

Reversal: x1(t)=x(-t)
Mirror image wrt y-axis

Shifting: x1(t)=x(t+n)
Shift the signal by n units on left side if x1(t)=x(t+n) and right side if x1(t)=x(t-n).

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Concept-II: Shift then Scale and reversal.

19. (C) Concept :

is an unit impulse function which defined as,


Scaling Property:

: if we substitute 0 directly into
; which is
is an impulse defined between
to . So here we use L'Hospital's rule.
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20. (D) Concept: Shifting property of Fourier Transforms.

21. (B) Concept: Harmonic(Sinusoidal) inputs always produces harmonic outputs with scaling
factor of system response.
Let x(t)=

y(t)= x(t)

h(t) =


Hence, Verified.
22. (B) Concept: Break points in Root locus diagrams,

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23. (a) Concept: Signal Flow Graphs and State Space Analysis

So, state equation is,

Standard equation:
Comparing above equations, we get A as [-1]

The above system is of the order 1. So the order of the state matrix is also 1.
24. (D) Concept: Series RC circuit solving using Laplace or time-domain.
Voltage across capacitor:

at t=0,

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25. (c) Solution:
Given, I= 2U(-t)+5U(t) For T<0 , I = 2 amp and for T>0, I=5 amp
At T<0, when switch is at position 1 we draw the circuit diagram into two parts.
Left hand side of the circuit:


The voltage across the resistance (or two series capacitors) is 5 volt after a long time.
Let voltage across capacitor 1F be V1 ,
V1+Vx = 5
When capacitor are connected in series charge remain same so we can write
Q1 = Q2
C1V1 = C2Vx
4 V1 = Vx
Solving above equation we get, Vx =4 volts
Right Hand side of the circuit:

By solving Right side of the circuit we can calculate the value of

(0-) as,

After a long time, inductor will act as short circuit and capacitor act as open circuit, so 2A
current equally divide into 3ohm resistance and

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Now switch is at position 2, for T>0, I=5amp

KCL at node , at



KCL at node B,
, (Using equation

Differentiate the equations wrt t,

Circuit at T( ):
In this case, inductor will act as short circuit and capacitors as open circuit.
So, current 5A will equally divide into 3ohm resistance.
So, Voltage across 3ohm resistance is 3*5/2 = 7.5 V.
Now, This voltage appears across two capacitors of 1F connected in series.
So, Voltage across 1F capacitor = 7.5/2 = 3.75V

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2 Mark Questions
26. (D) Concept: A vector

27. (A) Concept:

has a pole of order

is said to be Solenoidal Function if




has simple pole at

Also since

is finite and nonzero.

Hence residues are

28. (D) Solution:

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Taking a,b,c, common from





from column

in second matrix


29. (B) Concept:

General Formula for nth stage solution of

by Regula falsi method is


Negative and

= Positive

Root lies between 2 and 3


-0.59794 and

= 0.23136

The root lies between 2.72102 and 3


We get,
= 2.74021
Reference: Numerical methods, Higher Engg. Mathematics, B. S. Grewal

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30. (B) Concept: Zener breakdown takes place at a lower voltage than the avalanche breakdown
voltage . So
Since in Zener breakdown rapture of bonds takes place directly due to
high electric field so the electric field needed for Zener breakdown is higher than avalanche
breakdown . So
31. (A) Concept: As
and width of depletion region in material
So in emitter base junction, width of depletion region in base is more than of emitters as
Similarly for base collector junction, width of depletion region in collector side is more than that
present in base as
32. (C)Concept: Bandwidth is defined as frequency band in which a signal can be transmitted
without distortion (Practically not possible). We can also say mathematically it is the reciprocal
of the total duration of the signal.
Practical transmission bandwidth is equal to Roll off factor * 1/Total duration of the signal.
Here, In T1 system(it implies sampling frequency is 8KHz) 24 independent voice inputs are time
multiplexed. Given that each sample is represented by 8bits.
Bandwidth required= 24 * 8000Sample/second * 8 bits/sample = 1.536*106 bits/second.
33. (A) Concept: For matched filter, impulse response
Output of matched filter =
Solution: g(-t) will be like option (c), h(t) = g(T-t) will be like option (b). After convolution,
output will be triangular positive as in (a)
Reference: Matched filter, Communication systems, Simon Haykin
34. (A) Concept: Given circuit is Ring Oscillator with 3 inverters.
Number of inverters is always odd in Ring Oscillator. The fundamental Frequency of Ring
Oscillator =
where N = No of inverters and = propagation delay of an inverter.
35. (B)Concept and Solution: 5 Bit ring counter is a MOD-5, so it divides the 100MHz by 5,
therefore after Ring counter frequency becomes 20MHz, 2 Bit parallel counter is a MOD-4
counter, it will divide it by 4 so we have 5MHz frequency after parallel counter, again MOD-5
ripple counter = MHz =1MHz and 5 Bit Johnson is a MOD-10, This gives frequency as

MHz =


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36. (a) Concept: Instruction set of 8085 microprocessor
Solution: SIM Instruction interprets the Accumulator as follows













Since A is loaded with 2A H.

If SDE (D6) =1, it enables the serial output. So serial output is disabled.
If MSE (D3) =1, it enables the functions of bits D2 ,D1 ,D0. So functions are enabled.
If Mx= 0 then the corresponding interrupt is enabled else masked or disabled. Here M6.5(D1)=1. So
RST 6.5 is disabled.
Reference: 8085 Microprocessor by Gaonkar
37. (A) Concept: Bypass capacitor acts as short in ac analysis & act as open in dc analysis .So
they are generally used to short out degeneration resistance (at emitter/source) to have a large
38. (C) Concept: Voltage divider bias makes the current
and hence least sensitive.

almost independent of variation in

39. (B) Concept: VSWR = ZL/Z0 = 2 (from the given data). We will measure the minimum
impedance of the line at which VSWR is . (Required VSWR = 1/ VSWR calculated from data).

So, ZL,min = Required VSWR * Z0 = .5*50 =25.

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40. (B) Concept and Solution:
Intrinsic Impedance of B

2 =

/ = 0 r / 0 r = r / r *120 = 80

Reflection Coefficient

2 1
where 2 = 2 / 2 and 1 = 1 / 1 .
2 1

Similar to above calculations 1 = 60 . Hence = 1/7.

Transmission coefficient
T = 1 + = 8/7.

Phase Shift constant of A = A = 2/. Here is not directly given. But equation of E is given.

General equation is of form E = E0 cos(wt-x) z . Hence = 6.

41. (A) Concept: The mapping from s to z-plane is done by using the equation z = e

Solution: Here T=1/3 since the sampling frequency is 3Hz.

Pole x: s=0 => z=10.
s= -3 j(/2) => z=

( / 6) .

Similarly zeroes also can be mapped.

42. (A) Solution:

43. (A) Solution:

Circular convolution of two functions is defined as,

Here, we need to do circular shifting operation over a period N.



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{1,-7,-5,3} Circularly mirror image wrt y axis
{3,1,-7,-5} Circularly shift

signal to 1 unit right hand side


{ -36, -6, 44, 14}

44. (A) Concept: Stability criterion in Nyquist plots.

Solution: As the Open Loop system is stable, P=0
From Nyquist plot N=0

Number of poles on RHS plane =Z=0

Therefore system is stable

45. (B) Concept and Solution:

State Space equation:

For system to be controllable,

Then the given system is uncontrollable

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46. (D) Concept:

Pole Moment figures: (See the directions of curve)

(A) Here, Real part is constant and
increases so decreases.
decreases (see above relations)i.e. transient
response improved.
As, decreases
increases Less Stable

(B) Real Part is increasing,

constant =>
(C) cos

constant =>


constant but


have slight variations.

constant No effect on Stability


(D) increases from zero to one



decreases More Stable

= constant

decreases settling time decreases

increases and

decreases More stable
has slight variation.

47. (A) Concept:

1. Transmission Parameter is represented as

2. For Cascade Network Overall T parameter is Multiplication of Individual N/W parameter.

T parameter of network in dotted line is
Overall T Parameter is

(calculated) and




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48. (A) Concept and Solution:


Let the current flowing into the circuit at the node be . Since the infinite network is
symmetrical about current I in going from x to infinity, will be equally distributed in all
branches connected with x node xQ, xT, xP, xY.
The current ' ' then return from infinity and is taken from the network at the node .
Again by symmetry, the current flowing along

are each

Hence, the total current flowing along xy is

So, the voltage between and

So, the effective Resistance

49. (b) Concept: At resonance

Solution: The frequency at which
at which


are taking equal values is the resonance point and

50. (A) Solution:

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Here, from equivalent diagram,

(Using potential divider rule)

51. (B) Solution: From above figures,

Input Resistance:
For output resistance set

So resistance seen at output is

Rout = 4k
Reference: Microelectronics Circuits by Sedra and Smith or Integrated Electronics by MillmanHalkias
52. (A) Concept and Solution: By Poissons equation


, So by putting in above equation and integrate,

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electric field must be zero at the end of depletion region, So

Maximum magnitude of E = EMAX =

53. (C) Solution: Now

Integrating from x=-d to x=+d we get


54. (C) Concept: Implement Huffman coding,

Dont forget to arrange all messages in decreasing order of probabilities at each step.

0.1 0010
0.1 0011


Average code word length L=




0.6 0
0.4 1

= 0.4*1+0.2*2+0.2*3+0.1*4+0.1*4 = 2.2 bits

55. (C) Concept:

Coding efficiency,


By source coding theorem,

= minimum possible value of L.


is source entropy. Hence,

Average minimum possible length = Entropy= H(X)

= 2.122
So, = H(X)/L = 2.122/2.2 = 0.9645

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56. (D) Solution: obsessed: attracted
Intimate: close (nearly same use)
Evanescent(vanish): permanency (opposite meaning)
Articulate (clear and distinct /capable of speech): speech
Enclose: parenthesis (parenthesis encloses)
Obsessed: attracted(nearly same use)
57. (C) Solution: conciliatory
Polemical means controversial argument or against some opinion.
Lavish- expended or limitless
Imitative-derivative, not original
Attractive- adorable
Hence most opposite meaning word is conciliatory
58. (C) Solution: harmful
Deleterious means harmful.
59. (B) Solution: not, apart
Disperse means scatter or not together. Hence the answer is apart.
60. (B) Solution:
Units digit in the product = units digit of
gives unit digit as
Thus 7116 gives unit digit 1 and
gives unit digit
Thus the required unit digit is
61. (D) Solution: I, II and III
Federal law requires hospitals to treat anyone who walks in.
The finance committee balked at the hefty price and killed the bill, another casualty of a
failed legislative session.
Unfortunately, the problem of access to medical care for those of limited means is not
going to go away anytime soon and, despite the well-intended regulations, too-full
hospitals compromise everyone's welfare
The above three statements from the passage clearly indicate that, all the three options
are one of the factors which has contributed to the overburdening of hospitals.
62. (D) Solution: 6.00pm
Let speed of Ram is x and that of Hari is y. After 3hrs of Ram started from A (6.00
am) and after 2hrs Hari started from B (7.00 am), both meet at 9.00 am. So during their
meet distance travelled by Ram is 3x and by Hari is 2y. Again they meet at 11.00 am
2hrs from 9.00 am. During this 2 hr distance travelled by Ram is 2x.

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And distance travelled by Hari is 2y. As Ram has reached B and again turns back
towards A and then they both meet at 11.00am, the distance covered in terms of y is
2y(from 1st meeting to B) +2y(from B to 1st meeting point)+2y(from 1st meeting point to
2nd meeting point)= 6y.
Thus 2x=6y => x=3y
Thus total distance between A and B is 3x+2y=11y
Hari has already covered 4y distance. For covering remaining 7y distance, he needs 7
hrs. So the time is 11.00 am +7hrs= 6pm.
63. (B) Solution: 250
Starting from zero time (time=0min.), the person thinks for first 5min. (time=5min.)
then types 50 lines of code in next 5 min.(time=10min.), then take brake for 5
min.(time=15min.), then again types the remaining 50 lines (of 10 min. typing) for next
5min.(time=20min.). The procedure goes. In first 20 min. he writes 100 lines. Then he
thinks for 5 min. (time=25 min.). Again takes break for next 5 min. (as its already 10
min. to take break)(time=30min.), then types for 10 min. (time=40min.). Now he has
completed 200 lines of codes in 40 min.. We have 20 min. remaining. Then he takes
break for 5 min. (time=45min.) thinks for 5 min. (time=50min.) and got time to type for
next 5 min.(time=55min.) as last 5min. is for break time(time=60min.). Thus he can
write maximum 250 lines.
64. (A) Solution: 24

There are 8 corners cubes are of three sided coloured. Central 4 cubes in all the six faces
are 1 sidedcoloured cubes. Remaining visible border cubes are two side coloured cubes.
Hence, 8 cubes from front side +8 cubes from back side + 4 from left side + 4 cubes from

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right side = 24 cubes (all two side colored cubes are covered in these 24 cubes including
top and bottom faces)
65. (B) Solution: 3
Let's mark the balls using numbers from 1 to 12 and these special symbols:
x? means I know nothing about ball number x;
xL means that this ball is maybe lighter than the others;
xH means that this ball is maybe heavier than the others;
x. means this ball is "normal".
At first, lay on the left pan balls 1? 2? 3? 4? and on the right pan balls 5? 6? 7? 8?.If there
is equilibrium, then the wrong ball is among balls 9-12. Put 1. 2. 3. on the left and 9? 10?
11? on the right pan.If there is equilibrium, then the wrong ball is number 12 and
comparing it with another ball it can find out if it is heavier or lighter.If the left pan is
heavier, 12 is normal and 9L 10L 11L. weigh 9L and 10L. If they are the same weight,
then ball 11 is lighter than all other balls.If they are not the same weight, then the
lighter ball is the one up.If the right pan is heavier, then 9H 10H and 11H and the
procedure is similar to the former text.
If the left pan is heavier, then 1H 2H 3H 4H, 5L 6L 7L 8L and 9. 10. 11. 12. Now lay on
the left pan 1H 2H 3H 5L and on the right pan 4H 9. 10. 11.If there is equilibrium, then
the suspicious balls are 6L 7L and 8L. Identifying the wrong one is similar to the former
case of 9L 10L 11L. If the left pan is lighter, then the wrong ball can be 5L or 4H.
Compare for instance 1. and 4H. If they weigh the same, then ball 5 is lighter than all the
others. Otherwise ball 4 is heavier. If the left pan is heavier, then all balls are normal
except for 1H 2H and 3H. Identifying the wrong ball among 3 balls was described
In all possible way at least 3 times we have to weigh to find out which one is odd one.

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