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STAYED BRIDGES

Hassan I. Hegab(1), Osama M. Tawfik(2), Mohammed T. Nemir(3),

and Hesham E. Nour Eldeen(4)

ABSTRACT

A finite element formulation expressing both the geometric nonlinearity and time dependent

factors of cable stayed bridges is implemented. The formulation is used to design special software

NTDA which can perform a full geometric nonlinear time dependent analysis of prestressed

concrete cable stayed bridges. The considered time dependent factors are creep, shrinkage, aging

of concrete, and relaxation of prestressing steel. While the time independent ones are large

displacement, P-delta effect and sag of the stays. A numerical application is presented to

highlight the effect of time dependent factors.

Keywords: Cable Stayed Bridges, Creep , Geometric Nonlinear Analysis , Prestressed Concrete

, Shrinkage , Steel Relaxation ,Time Dependent Analysis .

1.

INTRODUCTION

The objective of this research is to present a full static geometric time dependent nonlinear

analysis of prestressed concrete cable-stayed bridges. The time-dependent effects considered are

creep, shrinkage, and aging of concrete. Time-independent effects considered are large

displacements, P-delta effect in girders and pylons, and sag effect in cable stays. Moreover, both

time dependent and independent losses in the prestressing forces are included.

The main difference between this research and previous studies is that, whereas most of the

earlier works were devoted to geometric nonlinearity, time-dependent analysis, separately, the

present research accounts for their combination (9,13,17). Furthermore, it takes their interacting

relation into consideration.

A complete finite element formulation is implemented taking into account both of the geometric

nonlinearity and time dependent factors. Based on the formulated algorithm, computer software

NTDA is designed. NTDA can perform a complete geometric nonlinear time dependent analysis

of prestressed concrete cable stayed bridges along consequent observation times.

2.

The principle of superposition is considered valid if the following conditions are maintained (3,4,8):

i.

the stresses are less than 45% of the concrete strength.

ii.

appreciable reductions in strain magnitude due to unloading do not occur.

1

iv. there is no large, sudden, stress increase long after the initial loading.

Pursuant to the above mentioned conditions and since cable-stayed bridges are generally

designed to remain linear elastic, the principle of superposition will be applied in this

investigation.

The total strain can be found by the superposition of elastic, creep, shrinkage, and thermal strains,

if any. This can be expressed as follows:

[1]

( t ) = E ( t ) + C ( t ) + S ( t ) + T ( t )

where,

( t ) is the total strain,

E ( t ) is the instantaneous elastic strain,

C ( t ) is the creep strain,

T ( t ) is the thermal strain,

3.

The structural behaviour of cable-stayed bridges is believed to be nonlinear, even time effects are

ignored. This is due to three main reasons of geometric nonlinearity, namely; large displacements

and P-delta effect of the deck and pylons, besides sag of the stay cables.

Both of large displacements and P-delta effect of the deck and pylons can be accounted for

through establishing a geometric stiffness matrix together with using an iterative procedure to

solve the nonlinear equations arising through the finite element analysis.

To account for the sag of the stays, the cable stay is idealised to a straight linear elastic element

using an equivalent modulus of elasticity. This concept was firstly introduced by Ernst and has

been verified by several other investigators (7,8,11,12,16). The equivalent modulus of elasticity E eq

is given by:

E eq =

where,

and

4.

(wc Lh ) (Ti + T f ) AE

1+

24Ti 2T f2

wc is the own weight of the cable,

Lh is the horizontal projection of the cable,

A is the cross-sectional area of the cable,

Ti is the initial tensile force in the cable during the load increment,

T f is the final tensile force in the cable during the load increment.

2

[2]

In addition to the geometric nonlinear effects, several time-dependent nonlinear effects influence

the behaviour of prestressed concrete cable-stayed bridges. The time-dependent nonlinear effects

considered in this investigation are creep, shrinkage, aging of concrete, losses in the post

tensioning prestressing forces, and relaxation of prestressing steel.

4.1

Creep Strain Model

For constant uniaxial stress, , the strain may be written as:

(t j ) = .J (t j , t o ) + o (t j )

where,

[3]

is a constant uniaxial stress,

J (t j , t o ) is the compliance (creep) function which represents the strain at

time t j due to a unit constant stress which has been acting since time t o .

And

ACI-209 (1) recommends the following expression to calculate the creep coefficient, (t j , t o ) :

(t j , t o ) =

(t j t o ) 0.6

10 + (t j t o ) 0.6

(t o )

[4]

where,

And

This ultimate creep coefficient, (t o ) , is a function of the environmental humidity, loading age,

minimum thickness of structural member, slump, cement content, percent of fine aggregate, and

air content(11015).

The creep function is given by:

1

[5]

J (t j , t o ) =

1 + (t j , t o )

E c (t o )

where, E c (t o ) is the modulus of elasticity at the age of application of load to.

Since stresses and strains are continually changing during the bridge lifetime, the expression

presented by Eq. 3 for creep must be adapted to situations of varying stresses. Using the principle

of superposition, the strain due to any stress history (t ) may be obtained by regarding the

history as the sum of increments d ( t o ) applied at increments of time, t o . Accordingly, Eq. 4

may then be rewritten as:

tj

( t ) = J ( t j ,t o ).d ( t o ) + o ( t j )

[6]

The numerical implementation of the integral ing Eq. 4 can be accomplished by using step-bystep time integration (18) as follows:

i

d ( i )

d ( j )

( i + 1 ) =

[ 1 + J ( t i +1 ,t i )] +

[ J ( t i +1 ,t j ) J ( t i ,t j )]

E( i )

E( j )

j =1

where,

i + 1 is the end of the current time interval,

i is the end of the previous time interval,

[7]

and

j represents time intervals prior to i.

The first term on the right side of Eq. 7 accounts for the summation of the instantaneous and

creep strain in the time interval i to (i+1). The summation term accounts for the creep increment

of strain over the time interval i to (i+1) due to all previous increments of stress. To avoid the

necessity of retrieving the entire stress history for each new time interval, Eq. 5 can be converted

to a rate-type creep law. This can be done by approximating the kernel ( J (t j , t i )) by the socalled degenerate kernel which takes the following form (3,4,5,7,8,17):

m

J (t j , t o ) = ai (t o ) 1 e

i =1

where,

( t j t o ) i

[8]

t o is the time of loading,

i are retardation times which govern the shape of the creep curve,

And

The following procedure (13) is then used to get a best-fit approximation of the data with the

degenerate kernel:

1. Choose the number, m, of coefficients, ai ( t ) , and retardation times, i (i=1,m), on a trial

basis.

2. Choose a particular loading age, t o .

3.

4.

Calculate values of the creep function, J ( t j ,t o ) , using Eq. 5 while j = 1, 2, .., n.

1 e ( t1 to ) / 1 1 e ( t1 to ) / 2 K K 1 e ( t1 to ) / m a1( t o ) J ( t1 ,t o )

( t t ) /

( t t ) /

( t t ) /

1 e 2 o 1 1 e 2 o 2 K K 1 e 2 o m a2 ( t o ) J ( t 2 ,t o )

M =

[9.a]

M

M

M

M

M

M

M

M

( tn to ) / 1

( tn to ) / 2

( tn to ) / m a ( t ) J ( t ,t )

1 e

K K 1 e

1 e

m o n o

or symbolically;

[9.b]

[A]n,m {a}m,1 = {b}n,1

6.

Solve the above system of over-determinate equations using the method of least squares as

follows:

[A]Tm,n [A]n,m {a}m,1 = [A]Tm,n {b}n,1

[10]

7.

8.

[A]m ,n {b}n ,1

T

[11]

Optimum values for m and i are based on the following criteria:

ai ( t ) , which is the ultimate creep strain, closely matches the ultimate creep strain.

( t t ) / i

The contributions of all ai ( t )1 e j o

terms are approximately equal.

The following coefficients, used by Van Zyl (18,20), Shushkewich (17), and Cluley (7,8) have been

found to have the best correlation with the ACI-209 (1) data and, henceforth, will be applied in

this investigation:

m=3

1 / 1 = 0.1

1 / 2 = 0.01

1 / 3 = 0.001

4.2

Shrinkage Strain Model

The shrinkage strain model, proposed by ACI-209(1) is a direct relation. This model is

mathematically easy to apply using a step-by-step numerical technique. ACI-209(1) recommends

the following expressions to calculate shrinkage strain at time t, from the start of drying time to:

(t t o )

sh (t , t o ) =

sh

(for moist curing)

35 + (t t o )

[12]

(t t o )

sh (t , t o ) =

sh

(for steam curing)

55 + (t t o )

where,

sh is the ultimate shrinkage.

The ultimate shrinkage depends on the age of the concrete member, relative humidity, member

thickness, and the composition of concrete. The procedure of calculating of the ultimate

shrinkage is detailed in ACI-209(1).

4.3

Aging of Concrete Model

Aging of concrete is intricately associated with creep and shrinkage. The most important effect of

aging is the changing stiffness of concrete over time. In general, this modification of stiffness is

represented by a modulus of elasticity, which is a function of time. ACI-209(1) recommends the

following two equations to expressed the increase the compressive strength and accordingly the

modulus of elasticity with regard to time.

E c (t o ) = 42.8 10 6 3 f cu 28

[13]

fcu 28 is the 28-days compressive strength of the concrete.

to

[14]

and f cu (t o ) =

f cu 28

A + Bt o

where, f cu (t o ) is the compressive strength of the concrete at the age of application of load to.

Ec is in GPa ,

fcu(to) , fcu 28 are in MPa,

is the density of concrete in (Kg/m3),

and

A and B depend on the type of cement and curing conditions as shown in table 1.

Constants of Eq. 14

Type of cement

Curing condition

A

B

4.00

0.85

Moist

I

1.00

0.95

Steam

III

2.30

0.70

Moist

Steam

0.92

0.98

4.4

Losses in the Prestressing Forces

Losses of prestressing force depend on the properties of the materials used in the bridge, the

environment, and the stress levels at various loading stages. Accurate estimates of the

prestressing losses require recognition that losses resulting from different sources are

interdependent. Actual losses, greater or smaller than the computed values, have a little effect on

the design strength of the member. However, they affect the service load behaviour, i.e.

deflections, camber, and cracking load. At service loads, overestimation of prestressing losses

can be almost as underestimation, since the former can result in excessive camber and horizontal

movement.

In this investigation, the equations recommended by the AASHTO(2) are directly applied. The

considered prestressing forces losses are those resulting from friction, anchorage slip, and

relaxation of the tendons together with elastic shortening, creep, and shrinkage of the concrete

member.

4.5

Steel Relaxation Model

The phenomenon of the relaxation of the stay cables and prestressing steel is quite similar to the

creep of concrete. Stress relaxation of stay cables and prestressing steel is the loss in their stress

when they are prestressed and maintained at a constant strain for a period of time.

The effect of relaxation on stays and prestressing steel is commonly evaluated by a relaxation

test. The relaxation under constant strain as in a constant length test is referred to as intrinsic

relaxation, f pr . The intrinsic relaxation at any time for low relaxation strands is expressed by(3,9)

f pr

f po

where:

log (r t o ) f po

0.55

f

45

py

[15]

f po is the stress at time to ,

f po

In case of

< 0.55 , which is the case of stay cables, the relaxation effect is negligible.

f py

And

5.

5.1

The deck and pylons of the bridge are idealised to three-dimensional beam-column elements. The

beam-column element used is a two-nodes element with seven degrees of freedom at each node,

three displacements, three rotations, and the warping of the cross section (11,12,14,16).

To account for the P-delta effect, the elastic stiffness matrix [K E ] is modified by a geometric

stiffness matrix [K G ] to get the tangent stiffness matrix [K T ] ,

[KT ] = [K E ] + [K G ]

[16]

Moreover, the analysis is carried out in an iterative procedure to account for the large

displacements developed in cable-stayed bridges due to their inherent slenderness (11,12, 16).

The applied elastic stiffness matrix takes into account the linear torsional-flexural interaction,

while the geometric stiffness matrix takes into account the nonlinear torsional-flexural interaction

together with the P-delta effect. These two matrices are originally derived by M. Nemir(14) for

open sections and developed by H. Nour Eldeen to adopt the behaviour of box sections(16). The

same matrices are used by H. Hegab et al.(1112)

5.2

Implementation for Creep Strain

The numerical implementation of creep strain in beams is accomplished with the application of

the following general equations during each time step (3,4,7,8),

( t r t r 1 ) = i ( t r 1 ) 1 e ( t r t r 1 ) / i

i ( t r

i ( t o

where,

and

i =1

) = i ( t r 1 )e ( t r t r 1 ) / i

[17.a]

+ ai ( t r 1 )( t r 1 )

[17.b]

[17.c]

)=0

t r is the time in days at the end of the current time interval,

t r 1 is the time in days at the end of the previous time interval,

(t r t r 1 ) is the creep strain increment over the current time interval,

i (t r 1 ) is the hidden material value which stores the past stress history,

i is the retardation time which serves to adjust the creep curve so as to fit

the ACI committee 209 (1) data or the experimental values if available,

ai (t r 1 ) is the pseudo-elastic modulus which is analogous to Youngs

modulus,

(t r 1 ) is a step function change in stress at time t r 1 .

The specialization of Eqs 17.a through 17.c for the axial loads of a beam-column element takes

the following form(3,4,7,8):

m

N ( t r t r 1 ) = iN ( t r 1 ) 1 e ( t r t r 1 ) / i

i =1

where,

And

[18.a]

N ( t r 1 )

iN ( t r ) = iN ( t r 1 )e ( t r t r 1 ) / i + ai ( t r 1 )

Ac

[18.b]

iN ( t o ) = 0

[18.c]

N

N

is the increment in axial load at the beginning of the current time

interval,

is the beam cross sectional area.

Ac

Equivalent joint loads due to the axial creep strain in Eq. 18.a are found as follows:

N ( t r ) = N ( t r t r 1 ) Ac Ec ( t r 1 )

where,

And

N

Ec

[19]

is the effective concrete modulus of elasticity at the beginning

of the current time interval.

The specialization of Eqs 17.a through 17.c for the bending moment loads of a beam-column

element takes the following form(3,4,7,8):

m

M ( t r t r 1 ) = iM ( t r 1 ) 1 e ( t r t r 1 ) / i

i =1

where,

[20.a]

M ( t r 1 )

iM ( t r ) = iM ( t r 1 )e ( t r t r 1 ) / i + ai ( t r 1 )

Ic

[20.b]

iM ( t o ) = 0

[20.c]

M

M

is the increment of moment at the beginning of the current time

interval,

And

is

the moment of inertia of the beam.

Ic

Equivalent joint loads due to the axial creep strain in Eq. 20.a are found as follows:

M ( t r ) = M ( t r t r 1 )I c Ec ( t r 1 )

where,

[21]

5.3

Implementation for Shrinkage Strain

Effect of shrinkage is performed by using equivalent nodal forces, which requires an incremental

time analysis. Accordingly, the following rectification of Eq. 12 is essential:

For concrete which has been moist cured for 7 days:

t

t r 1

( sh )u

[22.a]

sh ( t r ) = r

35 + t r 35 + t r 1

t

t r 1

( sh )u

sh ( t r ) = r

55 + t r 55 + t r 1

The resulting equivalent axial joint loads are:

FxA = EAc ( sh ( t r ))

FxB = EAc ( sh ( t r ))

Equivalent joint loads at all remaining degrees of freedom are equal to zero.

5.4

[22.b]

[23.a]

[23.b]

The authenticity and relevance of the analysis of a prestressed concrete member rests, first and

foremost, on the appropriate modelling of the tendon. Several different modelling schemes are

used to represent prestressing tendons.

In this investigation, prestressing tendons are modelled using a discrete modelling scheme(6). In

this scheme the tendon is modelled with a truss element connected to the beam-column element

through rigid links as shown in Fig. 1.

tendon element

rigid link

i

ei

ej

rigid link

j

beam-column elemnent

Fig. 1: Tendon idealization

In this modelling scheme, there is an implicit interaction between the deformation of the hosting

concrete segment and the force in the tendon, irrespective of the cause of deformation. As a

result, this scheme, directly, accounts for the losses due to creep and shrinkage.

5.5

Implementation for Aging of Concrete

Aging is accounted for by modifying the modulus of elasticity of the concrete as a function of

time. ACI-209(1) proposed the interpolation functions for the modulus of elasticity as explained

by Eqs. 13 and 14.

5.6

Stay Cable Modelling

Based on the concept of equivalent modulus of elasticity, stays are idealised to cable elements.

Consequently, the stiffness matrix in local coordinates for the cable element is given by(11,12,16):

AE eq 1 1

[24]

K=

L 1 1

where, Eeq is the equivalent modulus of elasticity defined by Eq. 2.

6.

COMPUTER PROGRAM

Based on the derived mathematical modelling of the time-dependent and independent factors, a

computer program NTDA is designed and programmed in FORTRAN Power station

environment. NTDA is an innovative designed software which can perform full time dependent

geometric nonlinear analysis together with stage analysis, however stage analysis is out of the

scope of this investigation. The combination of all these factors is the most important advantage

which gives NTDA the superiority over most of the available commercial software that can

perform time-dependent analysis.

7.

NUMERICAL APPLICATION

For the sake of numerical studies, a quite long span cable stayed bridge is chosen. The general

arrangement of the bridge is shown on Fig. 2. The bridge is analysed applying the finite element

formulation presented hereinbefore and using the designed computer program NTDA to perform

the analyses.

Dim. In Meters

Fig 2: General arrangement of the bridge and cross section of the deck

7.1.

Geometric Nonlinear Time-Independent Analysis

In this case of analysis, all the time dependent factors are suppressed and only the geometric

nonlinear factors are activated. The bridge is analysed under the effect of the permanent applied

load (henceforth it will be abbreviated as PAL). This PAL consists of the combination of dead

load (DL), superimposed dead load (SDL), and the prestressing forces induced in the stays.

7.2.

Geometric Nonlinear Time-Dependent Analysis

In this case of analysis, all the geometric nonlinear factors together with the time dependent

factors are activated and exercised. The bridge is checked at several intermediate observation

times. The last observation time is set after twenty years of construction.

7.3.

Comparisons Between The Two Different Analyses

To have a complete clear understanding of the effect of the time dependent factors, the following

categorised numerical comparisons are organised. The comparisons are performed between the

two cases of analyses as mentioned hereinbefore, namely; geometric nonlinear time independent

analysis and geometric nonlinear time dependent analysis. The comparisons are derived with

regard to deck vertical deflections, deck normal stresses, stay forces, and pylon elastic shortening.

7.3.1 Comparison of Deck Vertical Deflection

This comparison demonstrates that while the time factors affect strongly the vertical

displacement along the deck, time dependent factors preserve the configuration of the deformed

shape of the deck. This effect is very remarkable within the distance possessing high deflection

values where it goes to an increase of 40%. Fig. 3.b shows the details of this comparison.

A) General arangement

-300

-250

-200

-150

-100

-50

50

Vl. displacement

one stage analysis discarding time effect

-300

-250

-200

-150

-100

100

-50

(mm)

0

-100

-200

-300

-400

7.3.2 Comparison of Deck Normal Stresses

This comparison denotes that time dependent factors preserve the configuration of the normal

stress distribution along the deck. This comparison verifies that time dependent factors

redistribute the normal stress along the deck. On the side span, time dependent factors tend to

reduce the top fibres stress and increase the bottom fibres stress. This redistribution reaches its

maximum effect on the top fibres by a reduction of 23.5% at the side pier location. In contrast, it

reaches its maximum effect on the bottom fibres by an increase of 9.5% at 7 m apart from the

side piers. With regard to the main span, time dependent factors tend to increase the top fibres

stress and decrease the bottom fibres stress within almost the half span near to the side pier. This

redistribution reaches its maximum effect on the bottom fibres by a reduction of 29% at a

distance of 200 measured from the pylon. In contrast, it reaches its maximum effect on the top

fibres by an increase of 2.5% only at same position. With the half of the main span near to the

pylon, time dependent factors tend to reduce the stress at both top and bottom fibres. This

redistribution reaches its maximum effect near to the pylon with a reduction of 1.8% at the top

fibres accompanied with a reduction of 7.7% at the bottom fibres. Figures 4.b and c show the

details of this comparison.

A) General arangement

-300

-250

-200

-150

-100

-50

50

instantaneous analysis

5

-300

-250

-200

-150

-100

-50

0

-5

-10

-15

.. instantaneous analysis

-300

-250

-200

-150

-100

-50

0

-5

-10

-15

-20

7.3.3 Comparison of Cable Forces

With regard to the cable force point, the comparison denotes that the general trend is that the

cable forces are reduced due to the time effect. This reduction reaches 12% at S33. However in

some cables, from S9 to S19, the forces are slightly increased. This increase is limited to 3% at

S14. Fig. 5 illustrates this comparison.

7.3.4 Comparison of Pylon Elastic Shortening

Table2 shows the elastic shortening of the pylon resulting from the two different methods of

analysis.

Table 2: Elastic shortening of the pylon

Analysis method

Pylon elastic shortening mm

geometric nonlinear time independent analysis and

44

geometric nonlinear time dependent analysis after 20 69

years

8.

CONCLUSIONS SUGGESTIONS FOR FUTURE STUDIES

The following conclusions can be extracted from the present investigation:

1. Time dependent factors have a significant effect on the deck stresses as well as stay cable

forces.

2. However the time dependent factors affects the displacements strongly, they preserve the

configuration of the deformed shape of the bridge.

3. As time dependent effects have a grand effect on the displacement of the deck and the

elastic shortening of the pylons, they should be carefully considered to calculate the

camber to achieve the required bridge profile.

With respect to areas of further research the following points should be considered:

1. Research into the refinement of creep and shrinkage predictions would help to fine tune

analyses such as that performed by the program developed for this research

2. Other areas of further research would be in developing computer routines which

automatically optimise the adjustments for camber and post-tensioning force levels which

are currently performed on an interactive basic in the program used for this research.

3. Investigation for the cases when the cracked sections are allowed to be used in the deck

and the properties of the cross section vary due to the cracking is required.

4. Research for time dependent analysis of cable stayed bridges with composite deck cross

section is suggested.

5. Numerical studies for the cases of having materials with different time dependent

parameters composing the bridge, such as steel deck with concrete pylons.

Geometric nonlinear time independent analysis

6000

5000

Stay Force KN

4000

3000

2000

1000

33

31

29

27

25

23

21

19

17

15

13

11

0

Stay No.

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1.

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2.

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5.

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7.

8.

9.

10.

11.

12.

13.

14.

15.

16.

17.

18.

19.

20.

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