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1. A Plant-Based Diet Has Impressive Benefits (Intro)

Sharon Palmer -was the author and is a registered dietician, food and nutrition writer, and a
plant based nutrition expert.

Recent research indicates that youre better off focusing on plants rather than
heavy-meat diets, Focus on:
o Whole grains
o Legumes
o Fruits

(CAUSE): People who eat a plant based diet

(EFFECT): Live longer, have less cancer, less heart disease, weigh less, and
have healthier diets.

Also have a lower Carbon Footprint

TECH TERM: Carbon Footprint: Noun: The amount of greenhouse gases and specifically
Carbon Dioxide emitted by something (As a persons activities or a products manufacture and
transport) during a given period.

2. Adventist Health Study

Culmination: Noun: The end or final result of something.

Synonyms: Acme, apex, apogee, capstone, climax, crest, crown, height, head, high
tide, meridian, ne plus ultra, noon, noontime, peak,pinnacle, sum, summit, tip-top,
top, zenith

AHS-2 is more than 50 years of research combined that was conducted at Loma Linda
University on members of the Seventh-day Adventist religious denomination.

These people had a very healthy lifestyle which is why researches were
interested in them.
o They all were abstinent from alcohol and cigarettes as well as high rates of
o 35 % were vegetarian compared to the 4 % in the general population.
o Scientists were able to study the multiple types of dietary patterns among
the Adventists without the impact of outside factors such as alcohol and

AHS-2 was one of the most comprehensive diet studies ever done.
o The research was done by a 50-page questionnaire on subjects all over
United states and Canada. The questionnaire was about lifestyle, diet and
TECH TERM: Plant-based diet: Simply means a diet based on plants.
There were 5 types of plant-based diets in the AHS-2 study:
1. Vegans- Eat no animal products
2. Lacto-Ovo vegetarians- who eat no meat, but do eat eggs or dairy foods, or both.
3. Pesco-Vegetarians- Who eat fish, but other meats 1 or fewer times per month.
4. Semi-Vegetarians- who eats meats aside from fish occasionally, but less than weekly.
5. Non-Vegetarians- Who eat meats aside from fish at least 1 time per week.

3. Plant-Based Eaters Eat Differently

The AHS-2 study was led by Gary Frasier, PhD, MPH at Loma Linda University.

His reports stated that for many years researchers were convinced that various
types of plant-based diets only gave moderate health differences.

Among the dietary patters, a progressively beneficial relationship was noticed.


Inadequate research was the reason

Vegan was shown to provide the best benefit compared with non-vegetarians.

Some observations included:

Plant protein and Soy protein is greater in vegans than non-vegetarians.
TECH TERM: Protein: A substance found in foods (such as meat, milk, eggs, and beans) that is

an important part of the human diet.

Omega-3 fatty acids. 2 types of Omega-3 fatty acids are lower in vegans and

EPA (eicosapentaenoic acid)

DHA (docosahexaenoic acid)

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And ALA (alpha-linolenic acid) is much higher in vegans and vegetarians (by about 2
gs/ day)
Higher levels of EPA and DHA are found in their body fat.
Higher levels of plant Omega-3s result in higher levels in the body.
TECH TERM: Omega-3: C20 H30 O2; being composed of polyunsaturated fatty acids that have
the final double bond in the hydrocarbon chain between the third and fourth carbon atoms from
the end of the molecule opposite that of the carboxyl group and are found especially in fish, fish
oils, green leafy vegetables, and some nuts and vegetables.

Saturated fat intake is very low in vegans.

TECH TERM: FAT: The soft flesh on the bodies of people and animals that helps keep the body

warm and is used to store energy; an oily solid or liquid substance in food; an amount that is more
than what is usual or needed.

Micro Nutrients, beta-carotene, and vitamin C intake is much higher in

vegans; however, Vitamin B12 is low.

Vitamin B12 is usually taken as a supplement instead.

TECH TERM: Vitamin B12: is a complex cobalt containing compound C63H88CoN14O14P that occurs
especially in liver.it is essential to normal blood function, neural function, and growth. It is used
especially in treating pernicious and other anemias and in animal feed as a growth factor. Vitamin
B12 is also called cyanocobalamin; Any of several compounds similar to B 12 in action but having
different chemistry.
TECH TERM: Micro Nutrient: an organic compound essential in minute amounts to the growth
and health of an animal/ humans; is a TRACE ELEMENT.
TECH TERM: Beta-carotene: a natural element that is found in dark green and dark yellow
fruits and vegetables and that helps your body grow and be healthy.
TECH TERM: Vitamin C: a water soluble vitamin C6H8O6 found especially in fruits and leafy
vegetables or is made synthetically and is used in the prevention of scurvy and also as an antioxidant for foods Also called Ascorbic Acid.

Calcium intake is very low in vegans, but not in lacto-ovo vegetarians.

TECH TERM: Calcium: A substance that is found in most plants and animals and is especially
important in people for the growth of strong bones.

4. Plant-Based Diet Offers Benefits (LIST)

The more plant-based the diet, the greater the benefit.

A progressively beneficial relationship was observed between the 5 dietary patters .

Vegan showed the most benefits compared with non-vegetarian. Followed by lactoovo vegetarians, pesco-vegetarians, and semi-vegetarians.

Fraser found that all these areas were progressively more beneficial per the type of diet
1. Weight: a progressive weight increase was seen from a vegan diet toward a non-

vegan diet. The Average BMI (Body Mass Index) for each type of diet were:
Vegans- 23.6
Lacto-ovo vegetarians- 25.7
Pesco-vegetarians- 26.3
Semi-vegetarians- 27.3
Non-vegetarians 28.8
BMI over 25 is overweight; Over 30 is obese
TECH TERM: Body Mass Index: A measurement that shows the amount of fat in your body
based on your height and weight.

2. Cardiovascular disease: Vegan dietary pattern offers the least risk compared

with non-vegetarian in Levels of cholesterol, and incidence of high blood pressure

and metabolic syndrome.
TECH TERM: Cardiovascular: of or relating to the heart and blood vessels.
TECH TERM: Cholesterol: A substance that is found in the body of people and animals.
TECH TERM: Metabolic Syndrome: a syndrome marked by the presence of usually 3 or more
of a group of factors (high blood pressure, abdominal obesity, high triglyceride levels, low HDL
levels, and High fasting levels of blood sugar) that are linked to increased risk of cardiovascular
disease and type 2 diabetes (also called insulin-resistance syndrome)
3. Type 2 diabetes: prevalence of type 2 diabetes among vegans (2.9%) and lactoovo vegetarians (3.2%) was half that of non-vegetarians 7.6%.
TECH TERM: Type 2 Diabetes: A common form of diabetes that typically develops especially
in adults and most often obese individuals and is characterized by hyperglycemia resulting from

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impaired insulin utilization coupled within the bodys inability to compensate with increased
insulin production (also called non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus)
4. Inflammation: Similar trend progressing from vegans to non-vegetarians. The Creactive protein is a measure of inflammation.
TECH TERM: C-reactive protein: a protein present in blood serum in various abnormal

states. (as inflammation or neoplasia)

TECH TERM: Neoplasia: The formation of tumors; a tumorous condition
5. Cancer: Vegans and lacto-ovo vegetarians had risk of cancer versus nonvegetarians. For gastrointestinal cancers, vegetarians as a group had a 24%
reduction in risk (lacto-ovo was the best)
TECH TERM: Gastrointestinal: of or relating to the stomach and intestines.
TECH TERM: Cancer: a serious disease caused by cells that are not normal and that
can spread to one or more areas of the body.
6. Longevity: a 12 percent reduction in risk of all-cause mortality in all types of
vegetarians compared to non-vegetarians.
7. Healthy Behaviors: compared to non-vegetarians, vegans and vegetarians:
Watch less television
Sleep more
Consume more fruits and vegetables
More low-glycemic foods
Less low-saturated fat

Compared with

5. Carbon Footprint
non-vegetarians, the greenhouse gas emissions for each diet are:
Vegans: 41.7% lower
Lacto-ovo: 27.8% lower
Pescatarians: 23.8% lower
Semi-vegetarians: almost 20% lower