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The information contained in this data book has been compiled from

various sources by Scientific-Atlanta, Inc. Scientific-Atlanta, Inc. is


furnishing this data book as a convenience and easy reference for its
customers and other parties.
Scientific-Atlanta, Inc. makes no warranties, express, implied or
statutory, and assumes no liabilitywhatsoever, to any person or
entity as to the information contained herein or the accuracy or
completeness of such information.
Users are cautioned to consult the original source of the information
contained herein.

THE BROADBAND
DATA BOOK

Scientific-Atlanta
Transmission Network Systems
5030 Sugarloaf Parkway
Lawrenceville, GA 30044-2869
Telephone 770 236 7000
www.scientificatlanta.com

Revision 13

December 2001

TABLE OF CONTENTS
Section
Worldwide Sales & Service directory......................1
Cable and off-air frequency charts..........................2
RF characteristics of TV signals..............................3
CSO and CTB plots ...................................................4
Equalizer loss/tilt data ..............................................5
RF taps & passives characteristics.........................6
Cable Modem signals ...............................................7
Digital signal measurements ...................................8
Coaxial cable characteristics ...................................9
Fiber cable characteristics .....................................10
Optical passives ......................................................11
Optical link performance ........................................12
Broadband parameters...........................................13
System performance calculations.........................14
Weights and Measures ...........................................15

SCIENTIFICATLANTA
NORTH AMERICAN SALES OFFICES
California
11667 Westview Parkway
San Diego, CA 92126

Tel: 858 586 6295


Fax: 858 860 6443

920 Hampshire Rd., Suite 28A


West Lake Village, CA 91361

Tel: 805 495 9886


Fax: 805 495 2909

Colorado
61 Inverness Dr. East, Suite 100
Englewood, CO 80112

Tel: 303 790 0585


Fax: 303 790 6640

Delaware
1517 North Rodney Street
Wilmington, DE 19806

Tel: 302 655 9499


Fax: 302 655 9499

Florida
2111 South Westshore Blvd.
Tampa, FL 33629

Tel: 813 636 4009


Fax: 813 636 0360

Georgia (Southeast Sales Office)


4344 Shackleford Road
Norcross, GA 30091-6850

Tel: 770 903 2530


Fax: 770 903 2591/2520

Illinois
1251 Frontenac Road
Naperville, IL 60563

Tel: 630 778 2998/2900


Fax: 630 420 7393

1-1

Missouri
12444 Powerscourt Dr., Suite 300
St. Louis, MO 63131

Tel: 314 965 6580


Fax: 314 965 6592

New Jersey
400 Lanidex Plaza
Parsippany, NJ 07054

Tel: 201 515 6900


Fax: 201 515 6905

North Carolina
707 South 2nd St.
Wilmington, NC 28401

Tel: 678 427 8375


Fax: 910 254 3483

Pennsylvania
517 Hubler Road
State College, PA 16801

Tel: 814 466 7952


Fax: 814 466 7953

Texas
14001 Dallas Parkway, Suite 1200
Dallas, TX 75240

Tel: 972 934 6548


Fax: 972 934 6792

CANADA
120 Middlefield Rd., Unit 1
Scarborough, Ontario M1S 4M6Tel:

416 299 6888


Fax: 416 299 7145

CARIBBEAN
250 NW 207 Way
Pembroke Pines, Florida 33029

1-2

Tel: 954 447 2641


Fax: 954 447 7468

SCIENTIFICATLANTA
SOUTH AMERICAN SALES OFFICES
Argentina (South American Region Headquarters)
Scientific-Atlanta Argentina, S.A.
Tel: 54 11 4325 2800
Carlos Pellegrini 1149, Piso 11
Fax: 54 11 4325 5900
Capital Federal C1009ABW
Buenos Aires
(George Stromeyer, V.P. & Managing Director)

Brazil
Scientific-Atlanta do Brasil Ltda.
Rua do Rocio, 220 Conj. 61
Cep 04552-904 Vila Olimpia
Sao Paulo, SP
(Ricardo De Saboya)

Tel: 55 11 3845 9154


Fax: 55 11 3845 2514

Colombia
Scientific-Atlanta Argentina, S.A.,
Sucursal Colombia
Carrera 45 No. 56-42
Apartment 202
Bogota
(Hugo Ardila)

Tel: 57 1 347 0881


Fax: 57 1 606 1334

Mexico
Scientific-Atlanta Ventas y Servicios,
S.A. de C.V.
Alfonso Napoles Gandara No. 50
Col. Santa Fe, 4 floor
Mexico City, D.F.
CP01210
(Alvaro Martin)

1-3

Tel: 52 5 261 8619


Fax: 52 5 261 8699

SCIENTIFICATLANTA
EUROPE, MIDDLE EAST AND AFRICA
SALES OFFICES
Germany (EMEA Region Headquarters)
Scientific-Atlanta Europe GmbH
Westerbachstrae 28
61476 Kronberg
(Paul Coxon, V.P. & Managing Director)

Tel: 49 6173 928 000


Fax: 49 6173 928 150

Denmark
Scientific-Atlanta Arcodan A/S
Augustenborg Landevej 7
DK-6400 Snderborg
(Flemming Toft)

Tel: 45 73 12 2150
Fax: 45 73 12 3907

Poland
Scientific-Atlanta Eastern Europe Sp.z.o.o.
ul. Krupnicza 6/8
PL-50-075 Wroclaw
(Piotr Morawski)

Tel: 48 71 341 7562


Fax: 48 71 343 9631

Spain
Scientific-Atlanta Iberia, S.L.
Cardenal Marcelo Espnola, 8 F-1
28016 Madrid
(Enrique Vilar-Gietz)

Tel: 34 91 383 49 20
Fax: 34 91 383 49 21

United Kingdom
Scientific-Atlanta Western Europe Ltd.
Home Park Estate
Kings Langley, Hertfordshire WD4 8LZ
(Trevor Marriott)
1-4

Tel: 44 1923 266 133


Fax: 44 1923 269 018

SCIENTIFICATLANTA
ASIA/PACIFIC SALES OFFICES
Singapore (Asia Pacific Region Headquarters)
Scientific-Atlanta (Singapore) Pte. Ltd. Tel: 65 733 4314
1 Claymore Drive, # 08-11
Fax: 65 733 2706
Orchard Towers
Singapore 229594
(William H. Katherman, V.P. & Managing Director)
Australia
Scientific-Atlanta Pty Ltd.
Unit 2, 2 Aquatic Drive
French's Forest
New South Wales 2086
(Robert Blythman)

Tel: 61 29 452 3388


Fax: 61 29 451 4432

People's Republic of China


Scientific-Atlanta, Inc.
Suite 1905-07
No. 888 Yishan Road
Shanghai, 200233 China
(Benjamin Wu)

Tel: 86 21 6432 0290


Fax: 86 21 6432 0291

Hong Kong
Scientific-Atlanta (HK) Ltd.
Unit 3607 36/F
Tower 1, Lippo Center
89 Queensway Road, Admiralty
Hong Kong
(Peter Nguyen)
1-5

Tel: 852 2522 5059


Fax: 852 2522 5624

India
Scientific-Atlanta, Inc. Liaison Office
U & I Centre
F-41 South Extension, Part 1
Ring Road
New Delhi 110 049
(Akhil Mathur)

Tel: 91 11 462 1586


or 461 8331
Fax: 91 11 462 3305

Japan
SA Japan, K.K.
Level 5 Shinjuku 1 Land Tower
Nishi-Shinjuku
Shinjuku-Ku, Tokyo 163-1305

Tel: 81 3 5908 2153


or 2154
Fax: 81 3 5908 2155
(Peter Schalkwijk)

Korea (Republic of)


Scientific-Atlanta Korea Co. Ltd.
30th floor ASEM Tower
159-1 Samsung-Dong
Kangnam-Gu, Seoul 135-798
(Steve Lim)

1-6

Tel: 82 2 6001 3146


Fax: 82 2 6001 3003

SciCare Broadband Services provides end-to-end service


and support solutions to Scientific-Atlanta customers. Our
installation and integration teams, project managers,
engineers and technicians help customers manage network
upgrades, key service launches, training and special
projects. Call 888.SCI.CARE or visit our website at
www.scientificatlanta.com/scicare for more information on
the following services:
Technical Assistance/Phone Support
800.722.2009 (press 2)
Post-sales technical support on all Scientific-Atlanta
products.
Network Support Center (Subscriber products)
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Launch Services and Integration
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Application Service Provider (ASP)
Design and Walkout Services
Digital Headend Integration
Digital System Launch
Headend and Hub Integration and Design
VOD Launch
1-7

Operational Efficiency Program


Headend Expansion Assessments
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Operational Assessments
Support and Maintenance Services
Customer Network Expansions
Digital Network Support Agreements (NSAs)
Preventative Maintenance Programs
Prisma IP Maintenance Agreements
SciConnection Online Network Monitoring
Traditional Plant Services (Sweep and Certification, Fiber
Splicing)
Scientific-Atlanta Institute (SAI)
800.722.2009 (press 3)
www.scientificatlanta.com/training
SAI is a leader in providing interactive and hands-on training
programs to broadband network professionals. We offer
more than 30 technical courses, advanced digital training
services, certification programs and broadband training
consulting services.
From installation and integration to project management and
training, SciCare Broadband Services can help customers
with any network challenges they face.
Powerful Networks. Expert Solutions.
1-8

FREQUENCY CHARTS
CATV channels
EIA channel
designation
new
old
T7
T8
T9
T10
T11
T12
T13
2
3
4
1
5
6
95
96
97
98
99
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34

none
none
none
none
none
none
none
2
3
4
A-8
5
6
A-5
A-4
A-3
A-2
A-1
A
B
C
D
E
F
G
H
I
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
J
K
L
M
N
O
P
Q
R
S
T
U

North America

Standard

Incremental

Harmonic

Video

Audio

Video

Audio

7.0000
13.0000
19.0000
25.0000
31.0000
37.0000
43.0000
55.2500
61.2500
67.2500
NA
77.2500
83.2500
91.2500
97.2500
103.2500
109.2750
115.2750
121.2625
127.2625
133.2625
139.2500
145.2500
151.2500
157.2500
163.2500
169.2500
175.2500
181.2500
187.2500
193.2500
199.2500
205.2500
211.2500
217.2500
223.2500
229.2625
235.2625
241.2625
247.2625
253.2625
259.2625
265.2625
271.2625
277.2625
283.2625

11.5000
17.5000
23.5000
29.5000
35.5000
41.5000
47.5000
59.7500
65.7500
71.7500
NA
81.7500
87.7500
95.7500
101.7500
107.7500
113.7750
119.7750
125.7625
131.7625
137.7625
143.7500
149.7500
155.7500
161.7500
167.7500
173.7500
179.7500
185.7500
191.7500
197.7500
203.7500
209.7500
215.7500
221.7500
227.7500
233.7625
239.7625
245.7625
251.7625
257.7625
263.7625
269.7625
275.7625
281.7625
287.7625

NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
55.2625
61.2625
67.2625
73.2625
79.2625
85.2625
91.2625
97.2625
103.2625
109.2750
115.2750
121.2625
127.2625
133.2625
139.2625
145.2625
151.2625
157.2625
163.2625
169.2625
175.2625
181.2625
187.2625
193.2625
199.2625
205.2625
211.2625
217.2625
223.2625
229.2625
235.2625
241.2625
247.2625
253.2625
259.2625
265.2625
271.2625
277.2625
283.2625

NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
59.7625
54.0027
58.5027
65.7625
60.0030
64.5030
71.7625
66.0033
70.5033
77.7625
72.0036
76.5036
83.7625
78.0039
82.5039
89.7625
84.0042
88.5042
95.7625
90.0045
94.5045
101.7625
96.0048 100.5048
107.7625 102.0051 106.5051
113.7750 Cannot lock to comb
119.7750 ref: refer to FCC regs.
125.7625 120.0060 124.5060
131.7625 126.0063 130.5063
137.7625 132.0066 136.5066
143.7625 138.0069 142.5069
149.7625 144.0072 148.5072
155.7625 150.0075 154.5075
161.7625 156.0078 160.5078
167.7625 162.0081 166.5081
173.7625 168.0084 172.5084
179.7625 174.0087 178.5087
185.7625 180.0090 184.5090
191.7625 186.0093 190.5093
197.7625 192.0096 196.5096
203.7625 198.0099 202.5099
209.7625 204.0102 208.5102
215.7625 210.0105 214.5105
221.7625 216.0108 220.5108
227.7625 222.0111 226.5111
233.7625 228.0114 232.5114
239.7625 234.0117 238.5117
245.7625 240.0120 244.5120
251.7625 246.0123 250.5123
257.7625 252.0126 256.5126
263.7625 258.0129 262.5129
269.7625 264.0132 268.5132
275.7625 270.0135 274.5135
281.7625 276.0138 280.5138
287.7625 282.0141 286.5141

2-1

Video

Audio

CATV channels
EIA channel
designation
new
old
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
61
62
63
64
65
66
67
68
69
70
71
72
73
74
75
76
77
78
79
80
81

V
W
AA
BB
CC
DD
EE
FF
GG
HH
II
JJ
KK
LL
MM
NN
OO
PP
QQ
RR
SS
TT
UU
VV
WW
XX
YY
ZZ
63
64
65
66
67
68
69
70
71
72
73
74
75
76
77
78
79
80
81

North America (contd)

Standard

Incremental

Harmonic

Video

Audio

Video

Audio

Video

Audio

289.2625
295.2625
301.2625
307.2625
313.2625
319.2625
325.2625
331.2750
337.2625
343.2625
349.2625
355.2625
361.2625
367.2625
373.2625
379.2625
385.2625
391.2625
397.2625
403.2500
409.2500
415.2500
421.2500
427.2500
433.2500
439.2500
445.2500
451.2500
457.2500
463.2500
469.2500
475.2500
481.2500
487.2500
493.2500
499.2500
505.2500
511.2500
517.2500
523.2500
529.2500
535.2500
541.2500
547.2500
553.2500
559.2500
565.2500

293.7625
299.7625
305.7625
311.7625
317.7625
323.7625
329.7625
335.7750
341.7625
347.7625
353.7625
359.7625
365.7625
371.7625
377.7625
383.7625
389.7625
395.7625
401.7625
407.7500
413.7500
419.7500
425.7500
431.7500
437.7500
443.7500
449.7500
455.7500
461.7500
467.7500
473.7500
479.7500
485.7500
491.7500
497.7500
503.7500
509.7500
515.7500
521.7500
527.7500
533.7500
539.7500
545.7500
551.7500
557.7500
563.7500
569.7500

289.2625
295.2625
301.2625
307.2625
313.2625
319.2625
325.2625
331.2750
337.2625
343.2625
349.2625
355.2625
361.2625
367.2625
373.2625
379.2625
385.2625
391.2625
397.2625
403.2625
409.2625
415.2625
421.2625
427.2625
433.2625
439.2625
445.2625
451.2625
457.2625
463.2625
469.2625
475.2625
481.2625
487.2625
493.2625
499.2625
505.2625
511.2625
517.2625
523.2625
529.2625
535.2625
541.2625
547.2625
553.2625
559.2625
565.2625

293.7625
299.7625
305.7625
311.7625
317.7625
323.7625
329.7625
335.7750
341.7625
347.7625
353.7625
359.7625
365.7625
371.7625
377.7625
383.7625
389.7625
395.7625
401.7625
407.7625
413.7625
419.7625
425.7625
431.7625
437.7625
443.7625
449.7625
455.7625
461.7625
467.7625
473.7625
479.7625
485.7625
491.7625
497.7625
503.7625
509.7625
515.7625
521.7625
527.7625
533.7625
539.7625
545.7625
551.7625
557.7625
563.7625
569.7625

288.0144
294.0147
300.0150
306.0153
312.0156
318.0159
324.0162
330.0165
336.0168
342.0171
348.0174
354.0177
360.0180
366.0183
372.0186
378.0189
384.0192
390.0195
396.0198
402.0201
408.0204
414.0207
420.0210
426.0213
432.0216
438.0219
444.0222
450.0225
456.0228
462.0231
468.0234
474.0237
480.0240
486.0243
492.0246
498.0249
504.0252
510.0255
516.0258
522.0261
528.0264
534.0267
540.0270
546.0273
552.0276
558.0279
564.0282

292.5144
298.5147
304.5150
310.5153
316.5156
322.5159
328.5162
334.5165
340.5168
346.5171
352.5174
358.5177
364.5180
370.5183
376.5186
382.5189
388.5192
394.5195
400.5198
406.5201
412.5204
418.5207
424.5210
430.5213
436.5216
442.5219
448.5222
454.5225
460.5228
466.5231
472.5234
478.5237
484.5240
490.5243
496.5246
502.5249
508.5252
514.5255
520.5258
526.5261
532.5264
538.5267
544.5270
550.5273
556.5276
562.5279
568.5282

2-2

CATV channels
EIA channel
designation
new
old
82
83
84
85
86
87
88
89
90
91
92
93
94
100
101
102
103
104
105
106
107
108
109
110
111
112
113
114
115
116
117
118
119
120
121
122
123
124
125
126
127
128
129
130
131
132
133

82
83
84
85
86
87
88
89
90
91
92
93
94
100
101
102
103
104
105
106
107
108
109
110
111
112
113
114
115
116
117
118
119
120
121
122
123
124
125
126
127
128
129
130
131
132
133

North America (contd)

Standard

Incremental

Harmonic

Video

Audio

Video

Audio

Video

Audio

571.2500
577.2500
583.2500
589.2500
595.2500
601.2500
607.2500
613.2500
619.2500
625.2500
631.2500
637.2500
643.2500
649.2500
655.2500
661.2500
667.2500
673.2500
679.2500
685.2500
691.2500
697.2500
703.2500
709.2500
715.2500
721.2500
727.2500
733.2500
739.2500
745.2500
751.2500
757.2500
763.2500
769.2500
775.2500
781.2500
787.2500
793.2500
799.2500
805.2500
811.2500
817.2500
823.2500
829.2500
835.2500
841.2500
847.2500

575.7500
581.7500
587.7500
593.7500
599.7500
605.7500
611.7500
617.7500
623.7500
629.7500
635.7500
641.7500
647.7500
653.7500
659.7500
665.7500
671.7500
677.7500
683.7500
689.7500
695.7500
701.7500
707.7500
713.7500
719.7500
725.7500
731.7500
737.7500
743.7500
749.7500
755.7500
761.7500
767.7500
773.7500
779.7500
785.7500
791.7500
797.7500
803.7500
809.7500
815.7500
821.7500
827.7500
833.7500
839.7500
845.7500
851.7500

571.2625
577.2625
583.2625
589.2625
595.2625
601.2625
607.2625
613.2625
619.2625
625.2625
631.2625
637.2625
643.2625
649.2625
655.2625
661.2625
667.2625
673.2625
679.2625
685.2625
691.2625
697.2625
703.2625
709.2625
715.2625
721.2625
727.2625
733.2625
739.2625
745.2625
751.2625
757.2625
763.2625
769.2625
775.2625
781.2625
787.2625
793.2625
799.2625
805.2625
811.2625
817.2625
823.2625
829.2625
835.2625
841.2625
847.2625

575.7625
581.7625
587.7625
593.7625
599.7625
605.7625
611.7625
617.7625
623.7625
629.7625
635.7625
641.7625
647.7625
653.7625
659.7625
665.7625
671.7625
677.7625
683.7625
689.7625
695.7625
701.7625
707.7625
713.7625
719.7625
725.7625
731.7625
737.7625
743.7625
749.7625
755.7625
761.7625
767.7625
773.7625
779.7625
785.7625
791.7625
797.7625
803.7625
809.7625
815.7625
821.7625
827.7625
833.7625
839.7625
845.7625
851.7625

570.0285
576.0288
582.0291
588.0294
594.0297
600.0300
606.0303
612.0306
618.0309
624.0312
630.0315
636.0318
642.0321
648.0324
654.0327
660.0330
666.0333
672.0336
678.0339
684.0342
690.0345
696.0348
702.0351
708.0354
714.0357
720.0360
726.0363
732.0366
738.0369
744.0372
750.0375
756.0378
762.0381
768.0384
774.0387
780.0390
786.0393
792.0396
798.0399
804.0402
810.0405
816.0408
822.0411
828.0414
834.0417
840.0420
846.0423

574.5285
580.5288
586.5291
592.5294
598.5297
604.5300
610.5303
616.5306
622.5309
628.5312
634.5315
640.5318
646.5321
652.5324
658.5327
664.5330
670.5333
676.5336
682.5339
688.5342
694.5345
700.5348
706.5351
712.5354
718.5357
724.5360
730.5363
736.5366
742.5369
748.5372
754.5375
760.5378
766.5381
772.5384
778.5387
784.5390
790.5393
796.5396
802.5399
808.5402
814.5405
820.5408
826.5411
832.5414
838.5417
844.5420
850.5423

2-3

CATV channels
EIA channel
designation
new
old
134
135
136
137
138
139
140
141
142
143
144
145
146
147
148
149
150
151
152
153
154
155
156
157
158

134
135
136
137
138
139
140
141
142
143
144
145
146
147
148
149
150
151
152
153
154
155
156
157
158

North America (contd)

Standard
Video

Audio

853.2500 857.7500
859.2500 863.7500
865.2500 869.7500
871.2500 875.7500
877.2500 881.7500
883.2500 887.7500
889.2500 893.7500
895.2500 899.7500
901.2500 905.7500
907.2500 911.7500
913.2500 917.7500
919.2500 923.7500
925.2500 929.7500
931.2500 935.7500
937.2500 941.7500
943.2500 947.7500
949.2500 953.7500
955.2500 959.7500
961.2500 965.7500
967.2500 971.7500
973.2500 977.7500
979.2500 983.7500
985.2500 989.7500
991.2500 995.7500
997.2500 1001.7500

Incremental
Video

Audio

853.2625 857.7625
859.2625 863.7625
865.2625 869.7625
871.2625 875.7625
877.2625 881.7625
883.2625 887.7625
889.2625 893.7625
895.2625 899.7625
901.2625 905.7625
907.2625 911.7625
913.2625 917.7625
919.2625 923.7625
925.2625 929.7625
931.2625 935.7625
937.2625 941.7625
943.2625 947.7625
949.2625 953.7625
955.2625 959.7625
961.2625 965.7625
967.2625 971.7625
973.2625 977.7625
979.2625 983.7625
985.2625 989.7625
991.2625 995.7625
997.2625 1001.7625

Harmonic
Video

Audio

852.0426 856.5426
858.0429 862.5429
864.0432 868.5432
870.0435 874.5435
876.0438 880.5438
882.0441 886.5441
888.0444 892.5444
894.0447 898.5447
900.0450 904.5450
906.0453 910.5453
912.0456 916.5456
918.0459 922.5459
924.0462 928.5462
930.0465 934.5465
936.0468 940.5468
942.0471 946.5471
948.0474 952.5474
954.0477 958.5477
960.0480 964.5480
966.0483 970.5483
972.0486 976.5486
978.0489 982.5489
984.0492 988.5492
990.0495 994.5495
996.0498 1000.5498

NOTE:
The EIA channel numbers are those recommended by a joint
committee of the Electronics Industries Association and the
National Cable Television Association (NCTA).

2-4

CATV channels

Japan
(NTSC; standard M)
Channel width: 6 MHz

Ch. No.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
C13
C14
C15
C16
C17
C18
C19
C20
C21
C22
C23
C24
C25
C26
C27
C28
C29
C30
C31
C32
C33
C34
C35
C36

CATV
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36

Video
91.25
97.25
103.25
171.25
177.25
183.25
189.25
193.25
199.25
205.25
211.25
217.25
109.25
115.25
121.25
127.25
133.25
139.25
145.25
151.25
157.25
165.25
223.25
231.25
237.25
243.25
249.25
253.25
259.25
265.25
271.25
277.25
283.25
289.25
295.25
301.25

Audio Ch. No.


95.75
C37
101.75
C38
107.75
C39
175.75
C40
181.75
C41
187.75
C42
193.75
C43
197.75
C44
203.75
C45
209.75
C46
215.75
C47
221.75
C48
113.75
C49
119.75
C50
125.75
C51
131.75
C52
137.75
C53
143.75
C54
149.75
C55
155.75
C56
161.75
C57
169.75
C58
227.75
C59
235.75
C60
241.75
C61
247.75
C62
253.75
C63
257.75
U13
263.75
U14
269.75
U15
275.75
U16
281.75
U17
287.75
U18
293.75
U19
299.75
U20
305.75
U21

CATV
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
61
62
63
64
65
66
67
68
69
70
71
72

Video
307.25
313.25
319.25
325.25
331.25
337.25
343.25
349.25
355.25
361.25
367.25
373.25
379.25
385.25
391.25
397.25
403.25
409.25
415.25
421.25
427.25
433.25
439.25
445.25
451.25
457.25
463.25
471.25
477.25
483.25
489.25
495.25
501.25
507.25
513.25
519.25

Audio
311.75
317.75
323.75
329.75
335.75
341.75
347.75
353.75
359.75
365.75
371.75
377.75
383.75
389.75
395.75
401.75
407.75
413.75
419.75
425.75
431.75
437.75
443.75
449.75
455.75
461.75
467.75
475.75
481.75
487.75
493.75
499.75
505.75
511.75
517.75
523.75

NOTE:
The Chrominance subcarrier is located 3.57561149 MHz above the
video carrier.

2-5

CATV channels

Japan (cont'd)
Channel width: 6 MHz

Ch. No.
U22
U23
U24
U25
U26
U27
U28
U29
U30
U31
U32
U33
U34
U35
U36
U37
U38
U39
U40
U41
U42

CATV
73
74
75
76
77
78
79
80
81
82
83
84
85
86
87
88
89
90
91
92
93

Video
525.25
531.25
537.25
543.25
549.25
555.25
561.25
567.25
573.25
579.25
585.25
591.25
597.25
603.25
609.25
615.25
621.25
627.25
633.25
639.25
645.25

Audio Ch. No.


529.75
U43
535.75
U44
541.75
U45
547.75
U46
553.75
U47
559.75
U48
565.75
U49
571.75
U50
577.75
U51
583.75
U52
589.75
U53
595.75
U54
601.75
U55
607.75
U56
613.75
U57
619.75
U58
625.75
U59
631.75
U60
637.75
U61
643.75
U62
649.75

2-6

CATV
94
95
96
97
98
99
100
101
102
103
104
105
106
107
108
109
110
111
112
113

Video
651.25
657.25
663.25
669.25
675.25
681.25
687.25
693.25
699.25
705.25
711.25
717.25
723.25
729.25
735.25
741.25
747.25
753.25
759.25
765.25

Audio
655.75
661.75
667.75
673.75
679.75
685.75
691.75
697.75
703.75
709.75
715.75
721.75
727.75
733.75
739.75
745.75
751.75
757.75
763.75
769.75

CATV channels

People's Republic of China


(PAL; standard D/K)
Channel width: 8 MHz

Ch. No.
Z1
Z2
Z3
Z4
Z5
Z6
Z7
DS6
DS7
DS8
DS9
DS10
DS11
DS12
Z8
Z9
Z10
Z11
Z12
Z13
Z14
Z15
Z16
Z17
Z18
Z19
Z20
Z21
Z22
Z23
Z24
Z25
Z26
Z27
Z28
Z29
Z30
Z31
Z32
Z33
Z34
Z35
Z36
Z37
DS13
DS14
DS15

Video
112.25
120.25
128.25
136.25
144.25
152.25
160.25
168.25
176.25
184.25
192.25
200.25
208.25
216.25
224.25
232.25
240.25
248.25
256.25
264.25
272.25
280.25
288.25
296.25
304.25
312.25
320.25
328.25
336.25
344.25
352.25
360.25
368.25
376.25
384.25
392.25
400.25
408.25
416.25
424.25
432.25
440.25
448.25
456.25
471.25
479.25
487.25

Audio
118.75
126.75
134.75
142.75
150.75
158.75
166.75
174.75
182.75
190.75
198.75
206.75
214.75
222.75
230.75
238.75
246.75
254.75
262.75
270.75
278.75
286.75
294.75
302.75
310.75
318.75
326.75
334.75
342.75
350.75
358.75
366.75
374.75
382.75
390.75
398.75
406.75
414.75
422.75
430.75
438.75
446.75
454.75
462.75
477.75
485.75
493.75

Ch. No.
DS16
DS17
DS18
DS19
DS20
DS21
DS22
DS23
DS24
Z38
Z39
Z40
Z41
Z42
DS25
DS26
DS27
DS28
DS29
DS30
DS31
DS32
DS33
DS34
DS35
DS36
DS37
DS38
DS39
DS40
DS41
DS42
DS43
DS44
DS45
DS46
DS47
DS48
DS49
DS50
DS51
DS52
DS53
DS54
DS55
DS56

2-7

Video
495.25
503.25
511.25
519.25
527.25
535.25
543.25
551.25
559.25
567.25
575.25
583.25
591.25
599.25
607.25
615.25
623.25
631.25
639.25
647.25
655.25
663.25
671.25
679.25
687.25
695.25
703.25
711.25
719.25
727.25
735.25
743.25
751.25
759.25
767.25
775.25
783.25
791.25
799.25
807.25
815.25
823.25
831.25
839.25
847.25
855.25

Audio
501.75
509.75
517.75
525.75
533.75
541.75
549.75
557.75
565.75
573.75
581.75
589.75
597.75
605.75
613.75
621.75
629.75
637.75
645.75
653.75
661.75
669.75
677.75
685.75
693.75
701.75
709.75
717.75
725.75
733.75
741.75
749.75
757.75
765.75
773.75
781.75
789.75
797.75
805.75
813.75
821.75
829.75
837.75
845.75
853.75
861.75

CATV channels

Europe
(PAL; standard B/G)
Channel width: 7 and 8 MHz

Ch. No.

Video

Audio

7 MHz channel spacing


E2
48.25
53.75
E3
55.25
60.75
E4
62.25
67.75
S2
S3
S4
S5
S6
S7
S8
S9
S10

112.25
119.25
126.25
133.25
140.25
147.25
154.25
161.25
168.25

117.75
124.75
131.75
138.75
145.75
152.75
159.75
166.75
173.75

E5
E6
E7
E8
E9
E10
E11
E12

175.25
182.25
189.25
196.25
203.25
210.25
217.25
224.25

180.75
187.75
194.75
201.75
208.75
215.75
222.75
229.75

S11
S12
S13
S14
S15
S16
S17
S18
S19
S20

231.25
238.25
245.25
252.25
259.25
266.25
273.25
280.25
287.25
294.25

236.75
243.75
250.75
257.75
264.75
271.75
278.75
285.75
292.75
299.75

Ch. No.

Video

Audio

8 MHz channel spacing


S21
303.25
308.75
S22
311.25
316.75
S23
319.25
324.75
S24
327.25
332.75
S25
335.25
340.75
S26
343.25
348.75
S27
351.25
356.75
S28
359.25
364.75
S29
367.25
372.75
S30
375.25
380.75
S31
383.25
388.75
S32
391.25
396.75
S33
399.25
404.75
S34
407.25
412.75
S35
415.25
420.75
S36
423.25
428.75
S37
431.25
436.75
S38
439.25
444.75
S39
447.25
452.75
S40
455.25
460.75
S41
463.25
468.75
E21
E22
E23
E24
E25
E26
E27
E28
E29
E30
E31
E32
E33
E34
E35

471.25
479.25
487.25
495.25
503.25
511.25
519.25
527.25
535.25
543.25
551.25
559.25
567.25
575.25
583.25

476.75
484.75
492.75
500.75
508.75
516.75
524.75
532.75
540.75
548.75
556.75
564.75
572.75
580.75
588.75

NOTE:
The channels E2 through E69 are designated K2 through K69 in
Germany.

2-8

CATV channels
Ch. No.

Video

Europe (cont'd)
Audio

8 MHz channel spacing


E36
591.25
596.75
E37
599.25
604.75
E38
607.25
612.75
E39
615.25
620.75
E40
623.25
628.75
E41
631.25
636.75
E42
639.25
644.75
E43
647.25
652.75
E44
655.25
660.75
E45
663.25
668.75
E46
671.25
676.75
E47
679.25
684.75
E48
687.25
692.75
E49
695.25
700.75
E50
703.25
708.75
E51
711.25
716.75
E52
719.25
724.75

Ch. No.

Video

Audio

8 MHz channel spacing


E53
727.25
732.75
E54
735.25
740.75
E55
743.25
748.75
E56
751.25
756.75
E67
759.25
764.75
E58
767.25
772.75
E59
775.25
780.75
E60
783.25
788.75
E61
791.25
796.75
E62
799.25
804.75
E63
807.25
812.75
E64
815.25
820.75
E65
823.25
828.75
E66
831.25
836.75
E67
839.25
844.75
E68
847.25
852.75
E69
855.25
860.75

NOTE:
The channels E2 through E69 are designated K2 through K69 in
Germany.

2-9

CATV channels

United Kingdom
(PAL; ITU-R* standard I)
Channel width: 8 MHz

Video

Audio

Video

Audio

Video

Audio

8.0
16.0
24.0
32.0
40.0
48.0
56.0
64.0
72.0
80.0
88.0
96.0
104.0
112.0
120.0
128.0
136.0
144.0
152.0
160.0
168.0
176.0
184.0
192.0
200.0
208.0
216.0
224.0
232.0
240.0
248.0
256.0
264.0
272.0
280.0
288.0

14.0
22.0
30.0
38.0
46.0
54.0
62.0
70.0
78.0
86.0
94.0
102.0
110.0
118.0
126.0
134.0
142.0
150.0
158.0
166.0
174.0
182.0
190.0
198.0
206.0
214.0
222.0
230.0
238.0
246.0
254.0
262.0
270.0
278.0
286.0
294.0

296.0
304.0
312.0
320.0
328.0
336.0
344.0
352.0
360.0
368.0
376.0
384.0
392.0
400.0
408.0
416.0
424.0
432.0
440.0
448.0
456.0
464.0
472.0
480.0
488.0
496.0
504.0
512.0
520.0
528.0
536.0
544.0
552.0
560.0
568.0
576.0

302.0
310.0
318.0
326.0
334.0
342.0
350.0
358.0
366.0
374.0
382.0
390.0
398.0
406.0
414.0
422.0
430.0
438.0
446.0
454.0
462.0
470.0
478.0
486.0
494.0
502.0
510.0
518.0
526.0
534.0
542.0
550.0
558.0
566.0
574.0
582.0

584.0
592.0
600.0
608.0
616.0
624.0
632.0
640.0
648.0
656.0
664.0
672.0
680.0
688.0
696.0
704.0
712.0
720.0
728.0
736.0
744.0
752.0
760.0
768.0
776.0
784.0
792.0
800.0
808.0
816.0
824.0
832.0
840.0
848.0
856.0
864.0

590.0
598.0
606.0
614.0
622.0
630.0
638.0
646.0
654.0
662.0
670.0
678.0
686.0
694.0
702.0
710.0
718.0
726.0
734.0
742.0
750.0
758.0
766.0
774.0
782.0
790.0
798.0
806.0
814.0
822.0
830.0
838.0
846.0
854.0
862.0
870.0

2 - 10

Off-air channels
CHAN

North America
(ITU-R standard M; NTSC)

BW (MHz)

VIDEO

CHROMA

AUDIO

Lo VHF
2
3
4
5
6

54-60
60-66
66-72
76-82
82-88

55.25
61.25
67.25
77.25
83.25

58.83
64.83
70.83
80.83
86.83

59.75
65.75
71.75
81.75
87.75

Hi VHF
7
8
9
10
11
12
13

174-180
180-186
186-192
192-198
198-204
204-210
210-216

175.25
181.25
187.25
193.25
199.25
205.25
211.25

178.83
184.83
190.83
196.83
202.83
208.83
214.83

179.75
185.75
191.75
197.75
203.75
209.75
215.75

470-476
476-482
482-488
488-494
494-500
500-506
506-512
512-518
518-524
524-530
530-536
536-542
542-548
548-554
554-560
560-566
566-572
572-578
578-584
584-590
590-596
596-602
602-608
608-614
614-620

471.25
477.25
483.25
489.25
495.25
501.25
507.25
513.25
519.25
525.25
531.25
537.25
543.25
549.25
555.25
561.25
567.25
573.25
579.25
585.25
591.25
597.25
603.25
609.25
615.25

474.83
480.83
486.83
492.83
498.83
504.83
510.83
516.83
522.83
528.83
534.83
540.83
546.83
552.83
558.83
564.83
570.83
576.83
582.83
588.83
594.83
600.83
606.83
612.83
618.83

475.75
481.75
487.75
493.75
499.75
505.75
511.75
517.75
523.75
529.75
535.75
541.75
547.75
553.75
559.75
565.75
571.75
577.75
583.75
589.75
595.75
601.75
607.75
613.75
619.75

UHF
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38

2 - 11

Off-air channels
CHAN

North America (contd)

BW (MHz)

VIDEO

CHROMA

AUDIO

620-626
626-632
632-638
638-644
644-650
650-656
656-662
662-668
668-674
674-680
680-686
686-692
692-698
698-704
704-710
710-716
716-722
722-728
728-734
734-740
740-746
746-752
752-758
758-764
764-770
770-776
776-782
782-788
788-794
794-800
800-806
806-812
812-818
818-824
824-830
830-836
836-842
842-848
848-854
854-860
860-866
866-872
872-878
878-884
884-890

621.25
627.25
633.25
639.25
645.25
651.25
657.25
663.25
669.25
675.25
681.25
687.25
693.25
699.25
705.25
711.25
717.25
723.25
729.25
735.25
741.25
747.25
753.25
759.25
765.25
771.25
777.25
783.25
789.25
795.25
801.25
807.25
813.25
819.25
825.25
831.25
837.25
843.25
849.25
855.25
861.25
867.25
873.25
879.25
885.25

624.83
630.83
636.83
642.83
648.83
654.83
660.83
666.83
672.83
678.83
684.83
690.83
696.83
702.83
708.83
714.83
720.83
726.83
732.83
738.83
744.83
750.83
756.83
762.83
768.83
774.83
780.83
786.83
792.83
798.83
804.83
810.83
816.83
822.83
828.83
834.83
840.83
846.83
852.83
858.83
864.83
870.83
876.83
882.83
888.83

625.75
631.75
637.75
643.75
649.75
655.75
661.75
667.75
673.75
679.75
685.75
691.75
697.75
703.75
709.75
715.75
721.75
727.75
733.75
739.75
745.75
751.75
757.75
763.75
769.75
775.75
781.75
787.75
793.75
799.75
805.75
811.75
817.75
823.75
829.75
835.75
841.75
847.75
853.75
859.75
865.75
871.75
877.75
883.75
889.75

UHF
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
61
62
63
64
65
66
67
68
69
70
71
72
73
74
75
76
77
78
79
80
81
82
83

2 - 12

VHF off-air channels


ITU-R standards B,D,I & L
Channel BW (MHz)

Video

Audio

Europe (standard B); 7 MHz spacing


E2
47 54
48.25
53.75
E3
54 61
55.25
60.75
E4
61 68
62.25
67.75
S2
111-118
112.25
117.75
S3
118-125
119.25
124.75
S4
125-132
126.25
131.75
S5
132-139
133.25
138.75
S6
139-146
140.25
145.75
S7
146-153
147.25
152.75
S8
153-160
154.25
159.75
S9
160-167
161.25
166.75
S10
167-174
168.25
173.75
E5
174-181
175.25
180.75
E6
181-188
182.25
187.75
E7
188-195
189.25
194.75
E8
195-202
196.25
201.75
E9
202-209
203.25
208.75
E10
209-216
210.25
215.75
E11
216-223
217.25
222.75
E12
223-230
224.25
229.75
S11
230-237
231.25
236.75
S12
237-244
238.25
243.75
S13
244-251
245.25
250.75
S14
251-258
252.25
257.75
S15
258-265
259.25
264.75
S16
265-272
266.25
271.75
S17
272-279
273.25
278.75
S18
279-286
280.25
285.75
S19
286-293
287.25
292.75
S20
293-300
294.25
299.75
Australia (standard B); 7 MHz spacing
0
45 52
46.25
51.75
1
56 63
57.25
62.75
2
63 70
64.25
69.75
3
85 92
86.25
91.75
4
94101
95.25
100.75
5
101-108
102.25
107.75
5A
137-144
138.25
143.75
6
174-181
175.25
180.75
7
181-188
182.25
187.75
8
188-195
189.25
194.75
9
195-202
196.25
201.75
10
208-215
209.25
214.75
11
215-222
216.25
221.75

2 - 13

Channel BW (MHz)

Video

Audio

Italy (standard B); 7 MHz spacing


A
52.5-59.5
53.75
59.25
B
61 68
62.25
67.75
C
81 88
82.25
87.75
D
174-181
175.25
180.75
E
182.5-189.5 183.75
189.75
F
191-198
192.25
197.75
G
200-207
201.25
206.75
H
209-216
210.25
215.75
H1
216-223
217.25
222.75
H2
223-230
224.25
229.75
Morocco (standard B); 7 MHz spacing
M4
162-169
163.25
168.75
M5
170-177
171.25
176.75
M6
178-185
179.25
184.75
M7
186-193
187.25
192.75
M8
194-201
195.25
200.75
M9
202-209
203.25
208.75
M 10
210-217
211.25
216.75
New Zealand (standard B);
7 MHz spacing
1
44 51
45.25
2
54 61
55.25
3
61 68
62.25
4
174-181
175.25
5
181-188
182.25
6
188-195
189.25
7
195-202
196.25
8
202-209
203.25
9
209-216
210.25
10
216-223
217.25

50.75
60.75
67.75
180.75
187.75
194.75
201.75
208.75
215.75
222.75

People's Rep. of China (standard D);


8 MHz spacing
1
48.5-56.5
49.75
56.25
2
56.5-64.5
57.75
64.25
3
64.5-72.5
65.75
72.25
4
76.0-84.0
77.25
83.75
5
84.0-92.0
85.25
91.75
6
167-175
168.25
174.75
7
175-183
176.25
182.75
8
183-191
184.25
190.75
9
191-199
192.25
198.75
10
199-207
200.25
206.75
11
207-215
208.25
214.75
12
215-223
216.25
222.75

VHF off-air channels


2 - 14

ITU-R standards B,D,I & L


Channel BW (MHz)

Video

Audio

OIRT* (standard D); 8 MHz spacing


RI
48.5-56.5
49.75
56.25
R II
58 66
59.25
65.75
R III
76 84
77.25
83.75
R IV
84 92
85.25
91.75
RV
92 100
93.25
99.75
R VI
174-182
175.25
181.75
R VII
182-190
183.25
189.75
R VIII
190-198
191.25
197.75
R IX
198-206
199.25
205.75
RX
206-214
207.25
213.75
R XI
214-222
215.25
221.75
R XII
222-230
223.25
229.75
Ireland (standard I); 8 MHz spacing
IA
44.5-52.5
45.75
51.75
IB
52.5-60.5
53.75
59.75
IC
60.5-68.5
61.75
67.75
ID
174-182
175.25
181.25
IE
182-190
183.25
189.25
IF
190-198
191.25
197.25
IG
198-206
199.25
205.25
IH
206-214
207.25
213.25
IJ
214-222
215.25
221.25
South Africa (standard I);
8 MHz spacing
4
174-182
175.25
181.25
5
182-190
183.25
189.25
6
190-198
191.25
197.25
7
198-206
199.25
205.25
8
206-214
207.25
213.25
9
214-222
215.25
221.25
10
222-230
223.25
229.25
11
230-238
231.25
237.25
(12)
238-246
not defined
13
246-254
247.25
253.25
* OIRT: Organisation Internationale
de Radiodiffusion-Tlvision.
This organisation represented the
broadcasters of Eastern European
countries. In 1993 it was incorporated
into the European Broadcasting
Union (EBU).

2 - 15

Channel

BW (MHz)

Video

Audio

France (standard L); 8 MHz spacing


A
41 49
47.75
41.25
B
49 57
55.75
49.25
C
57 65
63.75
57.25
C1
53.75-61.75
60.50
54.0
174.75-182.75
1
176.0
182.50
182.75-190.75
2
184.0
190.50
190.75-198.75
3
192.0
198.50
198.75-206.75
4
200.0
206.50
206.75-214.75
5
208.0
214.50
214.75-222.75
6
216.0
222.50
Japan (standard M); 6 MHz spacing
J1
90 96
91.25
95.75
J2
96 102
97.25
101.75
J3
102-108
103.25
107.75
J4
170-176
171.25
175.75
J5
176-182
177.25
181.75
J6
182-188
183.25
187.75
J 7*
188-194
189.25
193.75
J 8*
192-198
193.25
197.75
J9
198-204
199.25
203.75
J 10
204-210
205.25
209.75
J 11
210-216
211.25
215.75
J 12
216-222
217.25
221.75
* Channel spacing is 4 MHz

2 - 16

UHF off-air channels


ITU-R standards G,H,I,K & L
CHANNEL
P.R.
China
UHF band IV
Europe
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35

13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24

Not
defined

36
37

AUDIO
BW (MHz)

VIDEO

470-478
478-486
486-494
494-502
502-510
510-518
518-526
526-534
534-542
542-550
550-558
558-566
566-574
574-582
582-590

G,H

K,L

471.25
479.25
487.25
495.25
503.25
511.25
519.25
527.25
535.25
543.25
551.25
559.25
567.25
575.25
583.25

476.75
484.75
492.75
500.75
508.75
516.75
524.75
532.75
540.75
548.75
556.75
564.75
572.75
580.75
588.75

477.25
485.25
493.25
501.25
509.25
517.25
525.25
533.25
541.25
549.25
557.25
565.25
573.25
581.25
589.25

477.75
485.75
493.75
501.75
509.75
517.75
525.75
533.75
541.75
549.75
557.75
565.75
573.75
581.75
589.75

590-598
598-606

591.25
599.25

596.75
604.75

597.25
605.25

597.75
605.75

606-614
614-622
622-630
630-638
638-646
646-654
654-662
662-670
670-678
678-686
686-694
694-702
702-710
710-718
718-726
726-734
734-742
742-750
750-758
758-766
766-774
774-782
782-790
790-798
798-806
806-814

607.25
615.25
623.25
631.25
639.25
647.25
655.25
663.25
671.25
679.25
687.25
695.25
703.25
711.25
719.25
727.25
735.25
743.25
751.25
759.25
767.25
775.25
783.25
791.25
799.25
807.25

612.75
620.75
628.75
636.75
644.75
652.75
660.75
668.75
676.75
684.75
692.75
700.75
708.75
716.75
724.75
732.75
740.75
748.75
756.75
764.75
772.75
780.75
788.75
796.75
804.75
812.75

613.25
621.25
629.25
637.25
645.25
653.25
661.25
669.25
677.25
685.25
693.25
701.25
709.25
717.25
725.25
733.25
741.25
749.25
757.25
765.25
773.25
781.25
789.25
797.25
805.25
813.25

613.75
621.75
629.75
637.75
645.75
653.75
661.75
669.75
677.75
685.75
693.75
701.75
709.75
717.75
725.75
733.75
741.75
749.75
757.75
765.75
773.75
781.75
789.75
797.75
805.75
813.75

UHF band V
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
61
62
63

25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50

2 - 17

UHF off-air channels


ITU-R standards G,H,I,K & L (contd)
CHANNEL

AUDIO

P.R.
China
UHF band V
64
51
65
52
66
53
67
54
68
55
69
56
57
58
Not
59
defined
60
61
62
Europe

BW (MHz)

VIDEO

814-822
822-830
830-838
838-846
846-854
854-862
862-870
870-878
878-886

815.25
823.25
831.25
839.25
847.25
855.25
863.25
871.25
879.25

886-894
894-902
902-910

887.25
895.25
903.25

G,H

K,L

820.75
828.75
836.75
844.75
852.75
860.75

821.25
829.25
837.25
845.25
853.25
861.25

821.75
829.75
837.75
845.75
853.75
861.75
869.75
877.75
885.75
893.75
901.75
909.75

ITU-R standard B
CHAN

BW (MHz)

VIDEO

CHROMA

AUDIO

526-533
533-540
540-547
547-554
554-561
561-568
568-575
575-582

527.25
534.25
541.25
548.25
555.25
562.25
569.25
576.25

531.68
538.68
545.68
552.68
559.68
566.68
573.68
580.68

532.75
539.75
546.75
553.75
560.75
567.75
574.75
581.75

UHF band IV
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35

UHF band V
36
37
38
67
68
69

582-589
583.25
587.68
589-596
590.25
594.68
596-603
597.25
601.68
------- Other channels with 7 MHz spacing ------799-806
806-813
813-820

800.25
807.25
814.25

804.68
811.68
818.68

588.75
595.75
602.75
805.75
812.75
819.75

Refer to Section 3 for more information on the RF structure of the TV signal


in each Standard.

2 - 18

RF CHARACTERISTICS OF TV SIGNALS
General
There are many different TV standards in use around the world,
defining in detail the baseband and RF structure of the signal, but for
the broadband engineer and technician the key parameters are the
bandwidth, the dimensions of the lower (vestigial) and upper
sidebands, and the frequency and amplitude relationships of the
vision (luminance), color (chrominance) and audio subcarriers.
In terms of these parameters, the vast majority of TV transmissions
fall into just six categories, which are illustrated in the following
diagrams.
Note that these diagrams do not define such parameters as field
frequency, line frequency, or color encoding technique, which
distinguish the NTSC, PAL and SECAM systems.
The letters B, G, M, etc. are referred to as TV standards, and the
encoding techniques (NTSC, PAL, etc.) are referred to as systems.

Standard:
B
D
G
H
I
K
K1
L
M
N

can be used with these Systems:


PAL, SECAM
SECAM
PAL, SECAM
PAL, SECAM
PAL
SECAM
SECAM
SECAM
NTSC, PAL
PAL

NTSC:
National Television Standards Committee (U.S.A.)
PAL:
Phase Alternating Line
SECAM: Squentielle mmoire
3-1

6 MHz
0 dB

M, N

Cs

USB

Cc

+3.58

-0.75

-16 dB

-1.25

-7 dB

+4.50
+4.75

VSB

+4.20

Cv

7 MHz

Cv
VSB

0 dB

8 MHz

USB

Cs

+5.50
+5.75

Cc

+4.43

-0.75

-1.25

-16 dB

+5.00

B (7 MHz)
G (8 MHz)

-10 dB

8 MHz
VSB

0 dB

USB

Cs

-10 dB

+4.43

-0.75

-1.25

D, K

Cc

3-2

+6.00

-16 dB

+6.50
+6.75

Cv

8 MHz
VSB

0 dB

USB

Cs

+5.50

Cc

+4.43

-1.25

-16 dB

+5.00

-10 dB

+6.75

Cv

8 MHz
0 dB

USB

Cs

-10 dB

+4.43

-1.25

Cc

+5.50

-16 dB

+6.75

VSB

+6.00

Cv

8 MHz
VSB

0 dB

USB

Cs

-10 dB

+4.43

-1.25

K1, L

Cc

3-3

+6.00

-16 dB

+6.50
+6.75

Cv

Systems and Standards by Country


Country

System Std.

Country

System Std.

Afghanistan
Albania
Algeria
Argentina
Angola
Australia
Antigua & Barbuda
Austria
Azores (Portugal)
Bahamas
Bahrain
Bangladesh
Barbados
Belgium
Belize
Bermuda
Bolivia
Brazil
Bosnia
Brunei
Bulgaria
Burma (Myanmar)
Cambodia
Cameroon
Canada
Canary Islands
Central African Rep.
Chad
Chile
China
Colombia
Congo
Costa Rica
Cuba
Cyprus
Czech Republic
Denmark
Dominican Rep.
Ecuador
Egypt
Eire (Ireland)

PAL
PAL
PAL
PAL
PAL
PAL
NTSC
PAL
PAL
NTSC
PAL
PAL
NTSC
PAL
NTSC
NTSC
NTSC
PAL
PAL
PAL
SECAM
NTSC
SECAM
PAL
NTSC
PAL
SECAM
SECAM
NTSC
PAL
NTSC
SECAM
NTSC
NTSC
PAL
SECAM
PAL
NTSC
NTSC
SECAM
PAL

El Salvador
Equatorial Guinea
Estonia
Ethiopia
Finland
France
French Guiana
Gabon
Germany
Ghana
Gibraltar
Greece
Greenland
Granada
Guadeloup
Guam
Guatemala
Haiti
Honduras
Hong Kong
Hungary
Iceland
India
Indonesia
Iran
Iraq
Israel
Italy
Ivory Coast
Jamaica
Japan
Jordan
Kenya
Korea (P.D.R.)
Korea (South)
Kuwait
Laos
Latvia
Lebanon
Liberia
Libya

NTSC
PAL
PAL
PAL
PAL
SECAM
SECAM
SECAM
PAL
PAL
PAL
SECAM
NTSC
NTSC
SECAM
NTSC
NTSC
SECAM
NTSC
PAL
PAL
PAL
PAL
PAL
SECAM
SECAM
PAL
PAL
SECAM
NTSC
NTSC
PAL
PAL
PAL
NTSC
PAL
PAL
PAL
PAL
PAL
PAL

D
B/G
B
N
I
B
M
B/G
B
M
B
B
M
B/G
M
M
N
M
B/H
B
D
N
M
B
M
B
K
K
M
D
M
D
M
M
B/G
D/K
B/G
M
M
B
I

3-4

M
B
B/G
B
B/G
L
K
K
B/G
B
B
B/G
M
M
K
M
M
M
M
I
B/G
B
B
B
B
B
B/G
B/G
K
M
M
B
B
D
M
B/G
M
B/G
B/G
B
B

Country

System Std.

Country

System Std.

Lithuania
Luxembourg
Malaysia
Mali
Malta
Martinique
Mauritius
Mexico
Monaco
Mongolia
Montenegro
Morocco
Mozambique
Nepal
Netherlands
New Zealand
Nicaragua
Niger
Nigeria
Norway
Oman
Pakistan
Panama
Paraguay
Peru
Philippines
Poland
Portugal
Puerto Rico
Qatar
Reunion
Romania
Russian Federation
Rwanda
St Kitts & Nevis
St Lucia
St Vincent
Samoa
Saudi Arabia
Senegal
Sierra Leone

PAL
PAL
PAL
SECAM
PAL
SECAM
SECAM
NTSC
SECAM
SECAM
PAL
SECAM
PAL
PAL
PAL
PAL
NTSC
SECAM
PAL
PAL
PAL
PAL
NTSC
PAL
NTSC
NTSC
PAL
PAL
NTSC
PAL
SECAM
PAL
SECAM
SECAM
NTSC
NTSC
NTSC
NTSC
SECAM
SECAM
PAL

Singapore
Slovakia
Slovenia
Somalia
South Africa
Spain
Sri Lanka
Sudan
Surinam
Swaziland
Sweden
Switzerland
Syria
Tahiti
Taiwan
Tanzania
Thailand
Tonga
Trinidad y Tobago
Tunisia
Turkey
Uganda
Ukraine
U. A. Emirates
United Kingdom
U.S.A.
Uruguay
Uzbekistan
Venezuela
Vietnam
Virgin Islands (U.S.)
Yemen (A.R.)
Yemen (P.D.R.)
Yugoslavia
Zaire
Zambia
Zimbabwe

PAL
SECAM
PAL
PAL
PAL
PAL
PAL
PAL
NTSC
PAL
PAL
PAL
SECAM
SECAM
NTSC
PAL
PAL
NTSC
NTSC
SECAM
PAL
PAL
SECAM
PAL
PAL
NTSC
PAL
SECAM
NTSC
PAL
NTSC
PAL
PAL
PAL
SECAM
PAL
PAL

B/G
B/G
B
K
B/G
K
B
M
L/G
D
B/H
B
G
B
B/G
B/G
M
K
B
B/G
B/G
B
M
N
M
M
D/K
B/G
M
B
K
G
D
K
M
M
M
M
B
K
B

3-5

B
D/K
B/G
B
I
B/G
B
B
M
B/G
B/G
B/G
B
K
M
I
B
M
M
B
B
B
D
B/G
I
M
N
D
M
M
M
B
B
B/H
K
B
B

Noise Measurement Bandwidth


When measuring or specifying Carrier-to-Noise Ratio, it is important
to define the bandwidth in which the noise is specified.
The bandwidths for various television systems are as shown in the
following table.
System
Video bandwidth*
Noise bandwidth

I
6.75
5.08

B, G
5.75
4.75

* including lower sideband

3-6

K1, L
7.25
5.58

D, K
6.75
5.75

M, N
4.95
4.00

COMPOSITE SECOND ORDER and


COMPOSITE TRIPLE-BEAT products
This section contains graphs which show the relative magnitudes of
CSO and CTB distortion products under various international
standard channel plans, with different numbers of channels. The
graphs are not intended to provide absolute measures of CSO and
CTB; rather, they can be used to assess the relative magnitudes of
these distortion products as channel loading changes, and to
determine the frequencies at which the maximum number of
distortion beats will be found.
The channel plans are:
CENELEC

allocations A, B, C, D and E (in accordance with


EN 50083-3, Annex 'C')
PAL B/G
with 59, 64, 89 and 96 channels
PAL I (U.K.) with 64 and 81 channels
NTSC M
with 79 and 110 channels
In all cases, the distortion products at frequencies up to
approximately 870 MHz have been plotted, even though the channel
loading in any given case may not extend to that frequency. It should
also be noted that the scaling of the x- and y-axes of each graph is
linear.
Only those CSO distortion products lying above the video carrier
frequency are plotted.

4-1

Number of beats

Composite Triple-Beat: CENELEC allocations

4-2

50

100

150

200

250

300

48.25

120

200

280

360

Group A
520
Frequency (MHz)

440

Groups A & B

Groups A, B, C & D

600

Groups A, B, C, D & E

680

760

840

Groups A, B & C

920

Number of beats

Composite Second Order: CENELEC allocations

4-3

10

15

48.25

120

200

280

Groups A, B, C, D & E

Groups A, B, C & D

Groups A, B & C

Groups A & B

Group A

360

520
Frequency (MHz)

440

600

680

760

840

920

Number of beats

Composite Triple-Beat: PAL B/G channel plans

4-4

500

1000

1500

2000

48.25

110

190

270

89 channels

510
Frequency (MHz)

430

59 channels

64 channels

350

96 channels

590

670

750

830

Number of beats

Composite Second Order: PAL B/G channel plans

4-5
0

20

40

60

80

100

48.25

110

190

270

59 channels

64 channels

89 channels

96 channels

350

510
Frequency (MHz)

430

590

670

750

830

Number of beats

Composite Triple-Beat: PAL I channel plans

4-6

500

1000

1500

2000

2500

72

144

224

304

464
Frequency (MHz)

384

64 channels

81 channels

544

624

704

784

864

Number of beats

Composite Second Order: PAL I channel plans

4-7

50

100

150

72

144

224

304

384

64 channels

544
Frequency (MHz)

464

624

704

784

81 channels

864

Number of beats

Composite Triple-Beat: NTSC M channel plans

4-8

1000

2000

3000

4000

5000

55

145

235

325

505
Frequency (MHz)

415

79 channels

110 channels

595

685

775

865

Number of beats

Composite Second Order: NTSC M channel plans

4-9

50

100

150

55

145

235

325

505
Frequency (MHz)

415

595

685

79 channels

775

110 channels

865

EQUALIZER LOSS/TILT DATA


General
The loss data contained in this section are taken from the
specifications of the 'GainMaker' amplifier accessories. This RF
amplifier family can be configured for 750 or 870 MHz downstream
operation, and any of the most popular upstream frequency ranges: 5
to 40, 5 to 42, 5 to 55, or 5 to 65 MHz.
Scientific-Atlanta equalizers have a 'dB' value that represents the
loss of the coaxial cable at the highest frequency. Thus a 750 MHz,
13.5 dB equalizer will compensate for a length of cable that has a
loss of 13.5 dB at 750 MHz.

Reverse Equalizer Loss Tables


42 MHz family
(The 42 MHz reverse equalizers can be used in systems with either
5 40 or 5 42 MHz upstream bandwidths. The loss characteristics
at both 40 and 42 MHz are given in the following table, and the
equalizer values at both these frequencies are printed on the
equalizers themselves)
Eq. value
Eq. value
Insertion loss at:
Tilt
Tilt
at 40 MHz (dB) at 42 MHz (dB) 5 MHz 40 MHz 42 MHz 5-40 MHz 5-42 MHz
0
0.0
1
1.0
1.7
1.0
1.0
0.7
0.7
2
2.0
2.3
1.0
1.0
1.3
1.3
3
3.1
3.0
1.0
0.9
2.0
2.1
4
4.1
3.6
1.0
0.9
2.6
2.7
5
5.1
4.3
1.0
0.9
3.3
3.4
6
6.1
4.9
1.0
0.9
3.9
4.0
7
7.2
5.6
1.0
0.8
4.6
4.8
8
8.2
6.2
1.0
0.8
5.2
5.4
9
9.2
6.9
1.0
0.8
5.9
6.1
10
10.2
7.5
1.0
0.8
6.5
6.7
11
11.3
8.2
1.0
0.7
7.2
7.5
12
12.3
8.9
1.0
0.7
7.9
8.2

5-1

55 MHz family
Eq. value
at 55 MHz (dB)
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12

Insertion loss at:


5 MHz
55 MHz
1.7
1.0
2.4
1.0
3.1
1.0
3.8
1.0
4.5
1.0
5.2
1.0
5.9
1.0
6.7
1.0
7.4
1.0
8.1
1.0
8.8
1.0
9.5
1.0

Tilt
5 - 55 MHz
0.7
1.4
2.1
2.8
3.5
4.2
4.9
5.7
6.4
7.1
7.8
8.5

Insertion loss at:


5 MHz
65 MHz
1.7
1.0
2.5
1.0
3.2
1.0
3.9
1.0
4.7
1.0
5.4
1.0
6.1
1.0
6.9
1.0
7.6
1.0
8.3
1.0
9.0
1.0
9.8
1.0

Tilt
5 - 65 MHz
0.7
1.5
2.2
2.9
3.7
4.4
5.1
5.9
6.6
7.3
8.0
8.8

65 MHz family
Eq. value
at 65 MHz (dB)
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12

5-2

Forward Equalizer Loss Tables


750 MHz family
Eq. value
(dB)
0.0
1.5
3.0
4.5
6.0
7.5
9.0
10.5
12.0
13.5
15.0
16.5
18.0
19.5
21.0
22.5
24.0
25.5
27.0

Insertion loss at (MHz):


52
70
86
550
2.1
2.1
2.0
1.2
3.3
3.2
3.1
1.5
4.4
4.3
4.2
1.7
5.6
5.3
5.2
2.0
6.7
6.4
6.2
2.2
7.9
7.5
7.2
2.4
9.0
8.6
8.3
2.7
10.2
9.7
9.3
2.9
11.3 10.8 10.3
3.2
12.4 11.9 11.4
3.4
13.6 12.9 12.4
3.6
14.7 14.0 13.5
3.9
15.9 15.1 14.5
4.1
17.0 16.2 15.5
4.4
18.2 17.3 16.6
4.6
19.3 18.4 17.6
4.9
20.5 19.4 18.6
5.1
21.6 20.5 18.7
5.3

600
1.2
1.4
1.5
1.7
1.9
2.1
2.2
2.4
2.6
2.8
3.0
3.1
3.3
3.5
3.7
3.8
4.0
4.2

650
1.1
1.2
1.4
1.5
1.6
1.7
1.8
1.9
2.1
2.2
2.3
2.4
2.5
2.6
2.8
2.9
3.0
3.1

750
1.0
1.0
1.0
1.0
1.0
1.0
1.0
1.0
1.0
1.0
1.0
1.0
1.0
1.0
1.0
1.0
1.0
1.0

600
1.3
1.6
1.9
2.1
2.4
2.7
3.0
3.3
3.6
3.9
4.1
4.4
4.7
5.0
5.3
5.6
5.8
6.1

650
1.2
1.5
1.7
1.9
2.1
2.4
2.6
2.8
3.1
3.3
3.5
3.7
4.0
4.2
4.4
4.7
4.9
5.1

750
1.1
1.2
1.4
1.5
1.6
1.7
1.9
2.0
2.1
2.2
2.3
2.5
2.6
2.7
2.8
2.9
3.1
3.2

Total tilt
52-750 MHz
1.1
2.3
3.4
4.6
5.7
6.9
8.0
9.2
10.3
11.4
12.6
13.7
14.9
16.0
17.2
18.3
19.5
20.6

870 MHz family


Eq. value
(dB)
0.0
1.5
3.0
4.5
6.0
7.5
9.0
10.5
12.0
13.5
15.0
16.5
18.0
19.5
21.0
22.5
24.0
25.5
27.0

Insertion loss at (MHz):


52
70
86
550
2.2
2.1
2.1
1.3
3.3
3.2
3.2
1.7
4.5
4.4
4.2
2.0
5.7
5.5
5.3
2.4
6.9
6.6
6.4
2.7
8.0
7.7
7.5
3.1
9.2
8.8
8.5
3.4
10.4 10.0
9.6
3.7
11.6 11.1 10.7
4.1
12.8 12.2 11.8
4.4
13.9 13.3 12.8
4.8
15.1 14.4 13.9
5.1
16.3 15.5 15.0
5.5
17.4 16.7 16.1
5.8
18.6 17.8 17.2
6.1
19.8 18.9 18.2
6.5
21.0 20.0 19.3
6.8
22.1 21.1 20.4
7.2

5-3

870
1.0
1.0
1.0
1.0
1.0
1.0
1.0
1.0
1.0
1.0
1.0
1.0
1.0
1.0
1.0
1.0
1.0
1.0

Total tilt
52-870 MHz
1.2
2.3
3.5
4.7
5.9
7.0
8.2
9.4
10.6
11.8
12.9
14.1
15.3
16.4
17.6
18.8
20.0
21.1

Inverse Equalizer Loss Tables


Inverse equalizers perform a function exactly opposite to that of the
standard equalizers: they have a 'cable' loss characteristic, so that
the higher frequencies are attenuated more than the lower.
They are used in amplifiers that are 'short-spaced', where it would be
impossible to obtain the required output tilt without some additional
'down-tilt' at the input. The inverse equalizer value is the loss of a
length of cable, at the highest frequency, that would produce the
same amount of tilt.
For 750 or 870 MHz applications
Inverse eq.
870 MHz
value (dB)
1.5
3.0
4.5
6.0
7.5
9.0
10.5
12.0
13.5
15.0

Inverse eq.
750 MHz Insertion loss at (MHz):
52
70
86 550
value (dB)
1.4
1.0 1.1 1.1 1.8
2.9
1.0 1.1 1.2 2.7
4.2
1.0 1.2 1.3 3.5
5.5
1.0 1.2 1.4 4.3
6.9
1.0 1.3 1.5 5.2
8.4
1.0 1.3 1.6 6.0
9.8
1.0 1.4 1.7 6.8
11.1
1.0 1.4 1.8 7.6
12.6
1.0 1.5 1.9 8.5
13.8
1.0 1.5 2.0 9.3

5-4

600 650 750 870


1.9 1.9 2.1 2.2
2.8 2.9 3.1 3.3
3.7 3.8 4.2 4.5
4.6 4.8 5.2 5.7
5.4 5.7 6.3 6.9
6.3 6.7 7.3 8.0
7.2 7.6 8.4 9.2
8.1 8.6 9.4 10.4
9.0 9.5 10.5 11.6
9.9 10.4 11.5 12.7

RF PASSIVES
CHARACTERISTICS
The data in this section refer to Scientific-Atlanta outdoor taps and
passives, and the Series 9900 TF Signal Manager modules. They are
taken from Scientific-Atlanta published data sheets and, while every
effort has been made to ensure accuracy in transcription, errors
sometimes occur, and therefore these tables should be used for
quick-reference purposes only. For system design work, it is
strongly recommended that the original data be used.

Surge-Gap Passives
The Scientific-Atlanta Surge-Gap series of passives are highcurrent devices for use in networks which may incorporate customerpremise equipment powered from the coaxial cable plant. They
incorporate circuitry which allows them to tolerate voltage surges up
to 6 kV.
Two- and Three-way Splitters
Part number:

Frequency
5
40
50
Maximum
450
insertion
550
loss (dB)
750
870
1000

712971
2-way
balanced

712972
3-way
balanced

4.4
4.0
4.0
4.2
4.3
4.5
4.7
4.9

6.1
5.6
5.6
6.1
6.2
6.5
6.6
6.9

712973
3-way
unbalanced
Low
High
7.5
7.2
7.2
7.8
7.9
8.0
8.1
8.3

3.9
3.8
3.8
4.1
4.2
4.6
4.7
4.9

NOTES:
Surge-Gap splitters can pass 60 or 90v 50/60Hz power at a current of 15A.
Return loss (all ports) is typically 18 dB (15 dB worst-case)

6-1

Surge-Gap Passives (continued)


Directional Couplers and Power Inserter
Part number:

712968
DC-8

712969
DC-12

712970
DC-16

712974
Pwr Inserter

Frequency
5
40
50
Maximum
450
Insertion
550
loss (dB)
750
870
1000

1.9
1.7
1.7
1.9
2.0
2.2
2.4
2.5

1.1
1.1
1.1
1.2
1.3
1.5
1.7
1.9

1.1
1.0
1.0
1.1
1.2
1.4
1.5
1.6

0.9
0.7
0.7
0.7
0.7
0.8
0.9
1.0

Frequency
5
40
50
Maximum
450
Tap
550
loss (dB)
750
870
1000

9.3
9.1
9.1
9.1
9.1
9.3
9.4
9.5

13.8
13.3
13.3
13.2
13.1
13.2
13.2
12.9

17.0
16.5
16.6
16.7
16.6
17.0
17.1
16.8

NOTES:
DCs can pass 60 or 90v 50/60Hz power at a current of 15A.
Power Inserter can pass 60 or 90v 50/60Hz power at 20A through input port; 15A
through output ports.
Return loss (all ports) is typically 18 dB (15 dB worst-case)

Multimedia Taps
These Scientific-Atlanta taps are also for use in networks which may
incorporate customer-premise equipment powered from the coaxial
cable plant. They are capable of carrying a continuous throughcurrent of 12A, and they contain an AC/RF bypass switch that
provides uninterrupted service to downstream customers when the
faceplate is removed.

6-2

Multimedia Taps (continued)


Two-way Taps
Tap value
Model No. SAT MM 2-

Maximum
Insertion
loss (dB)

Tap
loss (dB)

Frequency
5 - 10
11 - 300
301 - 400
401 - 450
451 - 600
601 - 750
751 - 900
901 - 1000
Frequency
5 - 10
11 - 1000

4.0
4.0

11

14

17

20

23

26

29

3.2
3.0
3.6
3.5
3.6
4.1
4.0
4.5

1.9
1.8
2.5
2.5
2.6
2.8
3.3
3.4

1.3
1.3
1.8
1.8
1.8
2.0
2.2
2.4

1.1
1.1
1.6
1.6
1.6
1.7
1.9
2.0

0.8
1.0
1.4
1.4
1.4
1.4
1.7
1.9

0.8
1.0
1.4
1.4
1.4
1.4
1.7
1.9

0.8
1.0
1.4
1.4
1.4
1.4
1.7
1.9

0.8
1.0
1.4
1.4
1.4
1.4
1.7
1.9

8.5 11.0 14.0 16.5 19.5 22.5 25.5 28.5


8.5 11.0 14.0 17.0 20.0 23.0 26.0 29.0

Four-way Taps
Tap value
Model No. SAT MM 4-

Maximum
Insertion
loss (dB)

Tap
loss (dB)

Frequency
5 - 10
11 - 300
301 - 400
401 - 450
451 - 600
601 - 750
751 - 900
901 - 1000
Frequency
5 - 10
11 - 1000

11

14

17

20

23

26

29

3.2
3.0
3.2
3.6
3.8
4.3
4.8
5.1

2.1
2.1
2.4
2.5
2.5
2.8
3.0
3.3

1.4
1.4
1.8
1.9
1.9
2.0
2.3
2.5

1.1
1.1
1.7
1.7
1.7
1.7
1.7
2.2

0.9
0.9
1.4
1.4
1.4
1.4
1.7
2.0

0.9
0.9
1.4
1.4
1.4
1.4
1.7
2.0

0.9
0.9
1.4
1.4
1.4
1.4
1.7
2.0

8.0 12.0 14.5 16.5 19.5 22.5 25.5 28.5


8.0 12.0 14.5 17.0 20.0 23.0 26.0 29.0

6-3

Multimedia Taps (continued)


Eight-way Taps
Tap value
Model No. SAT MM 8-

Maximum
Insertion
loss (dB)

Tap
loss (dB)

Frequency
5 - 10
11 - 300
301 - 400
401 - 450
451 - 600
601 - 750
751 - 900
901 - 1000
Frequency
5 - 10
11 - 1000

11

14

17

20

23

26

29

3.7
3.9
3.9
4.1
4.6
5.1
5.4
5.4

2.2
2.0
2.5
2.6
2.7
2.9
3.2
3.5

1.3
1.4
1.7
1.9
1.9
1.9
2.4
2.7

0.9
1.1
1.5
1.6
1.6
1.6
1.9
2.2

0.9
1.1
1.5
1.6
1.6
1.6
1.9
2.2

0.9
1.1
1.5
1.6
1.6
1.6
1.9
2.2

11.0 15.0 17.5 20.0 23.0 26.0 29.0


11.5 15.5 18.0 20.5 23.5 26.5 29.0

NOTES:
The following taps are self-terminating:
Two-way, 4dB
Four-way, 8dB
Eight-way, 11dB
Taps are capable of passing 60 or 90v 60Hz power at a current of 12A.
Return loss (feeder ports): typically 18 dB (16 dB worst-case)

In-Line Equalizer (with Reverse Conditioning)


This unit, identical in size to a directional coupler, provides in-line
equalization for feeders, compensating for 9 dB of cable. It also
contains diplex filters and a reverse attenuator pad socket, allowing
the user to increase the through-loss in the reverse path and thus to
narrow the range of transmission levels (or window) from cable
modems.
In the following table, the through-loss (insertion loss) of the LEQ-RC
is specified with a 0 dB reverse pad installed. Pads are the standard
Scientific-Atlanta type, available in 1 dB steps.
If reverse conditioning alone is required, the equalizer can be
bypassed.
6-4

In-line Equalizer (continued)

Cable
equalization (dB)

Maximum
Insertion
loss (dB)

Flatness (dB)

Equalization mode

Equalization
bypassed

Frequency
5 42
51 - 750
5
10
40
42
51
54
100
450
550
750
870

0
9
0.7
0.6
1.0
1.3
9.5
9.3
8.5
5.1
4.4
3.0
2.1

0
0
0.7
0.6
1.0
1.3
1.4
1.3
1.3
1.3
1.4
1.7
1.9

Frequency
5 - 42
51 - 750

0.65
0.65

0.65
0.65

NOTES:
The LEQ-RC is capable of passing 60 or 90v 60Hz power at a current of 12A.
Return loss: typically 17 dB (16 dB worst-case)

Multimedia Stretch Taps


These Scientific-Atlanta taps provide the current-carrying capability
and AC/RF bypass switch feature of the standard Multimedia units,
but are offered in a 9-inch housing which permits system upgrades
without the need for extension connectors. In addition, the tap value
is selected by means of a plug-in directional coupler, which can be
reversed if the direction of signal flow in the feeder must be changed.

6-5

Multimedia Stretch Taps (continued)


Two-way Taps
Tap value
Model No. SAT ST2-

Maximum
Insertion
loss (dB)

Tap
loss (dB)

Frequency
5
40
50
450
550
750
860
1000
Frequency
5 - 550
550 - 1000

4.5
4.5

11

14

17

20

23

26

29

3.4
3.3
3.3
4.2
4.0
4.2
4.6
4.9

2.0
1.5
1.5
2.5
2.6
3.1
3.2
3.2

1.3
1.0
1.0
1.7
1.8
2.0
2.1
2.2

1.0
0.8
0.8
1.6
1.6
1.7
1.8
2.0

0.9
0.8
0.8
1.2
1.3
1.6
1.7
1.7

0.9
0.8
0.8
1.2
1.3
1.6
1.7
1.7

0.9
0.8
0.8
1.2
1.3
1.6
1.7
1.7

0.9
0.8
0.8
1.2
1.3
1.6
1.7
1.7

8.0 11.5 13.5 17.0 19.5 22.5 25.5 29.0


8.5 11.5 13.5 17.0 19.5 22.5 25.5 29.0

Four-way Taps
Tap value
Model No. SAT ST4-

Maximum
Insertion
loss (dB)

Frequency
5
40
50
450
550
750
860
1000

Tap
loss (dB)

Frequency
5 - 550
550 - 750
750 - 1000

11

14

17

20

23

26

29

3.4
3.3
3.3
4.2
4.0
4.2
4.6
4.9

2.0
1.5
1.5
2.5
2.6
3.1
3.2
3.2

1.3
1.0
1.0
1.7
1.8
2.0
2.1
2.2

1.0
0.8
0.8
1.6
1.6
1.7
1.8
2.0

0.9
0.8
0.8
1.2
1.3
1.6
1.7
1.7

0.9
0.8
0.8
1.2
1.3
1.6
1.7
1.7

0.9
0.8
0.8
1.2
1.3
1.6
1.7
1.7

8.0 11.0 15.0 17.0 20.0 22.5 25.5 28.5


8.0 11.5 15.0 17.0 20.0 22.5 25.5 28.5
8.5 12.0 15.0 17.0 20.0 22.5 25.5 28.5

6-6

Multimedia Stretch Taps (continued)


Eight-way Taps
Tap value
Model No. SAT MM 8-

Maximum
Insertion
loss (dB)

Frequency
5
40
50
450
550
750
860
1000

Tap
loss (dB)

Frequency
5 - 750
750 - 860
860 - 1000

11

14

17

20

23

26

29

3.4
3.3
3.3
4.2
4.0
4.2
4.6
4.9

2.0
1.5
1.5
2.5
2.6
3.1
3.2
3.2

1.3
1.0
1.0
1.7
1.8
2.0
2.1
2.2

1.0
0.8
0.8
1.6
1.6
1.7
1.8
2.0

0.9
0.8
0.8
1.2
1.3
1.6
1.7
1.7

0.9
0.8
0.8
1.2
1.3
1.6
1.7
1.7

11.5 14.0 17.5 20.0 23.0 26.0 29.0


12.0 15.5 18.0 20.0 23.0 26.0 29.0
12.5 16.0 18.5 20.5 23.0 26.0 29.0

NOTES:
The following taps are self-terminating:
Two-way, 4dB
Four-way, 8dB
Eight-way, 11dB
Taps are capable of passing 60 or 90v 60Hz power at a current of 12A.
Return loss (feeder ports): typically 16 dB, 10 to 1000 MHz.

6-7

Series 9900 RF Signal Manager


This product-line comprises a family of modular splitters, combiners
and couplers which allow the construction of RF signal handling
networks in Headend or Hub environments. A simple 19-inch rackmount chassis provides a housing for the modules and permits RF
cabling to be laid out in a neat and uncluttered manner. Modules are
color-coded for easy identification.
Separate modules are provided for downstream and upstream
frequency ranges.
Two-way splitter/combiner modules
Reverse
Freq. range (MHz):
Insertion loss (dB)
Return loss (dB), ports
1 and 2
Return loss (dB),
common port
Port-to-port isolation (dB)
Ingress isolation (dB)
Dual devices isolation (dB)

5-70

Forward
50-550

550-750

750-870

870-1000

3.7 max
3.3 typ

4.0 max
3.7 typ

4.2 max
3.8 typ

4.3 max
3.9 typ

4.5 max
4.2 typ

24

23

23

23

21

24
32
100 min
110 typ
> 70

23
32
100 min
110 typ
> 70

23
32
100 min
110 typ
> 65

23
32
100 min
110 typ
> 60

21
30
100 min
110 typ
> 60

Four-way splitter/combiner modules


Reverse
Freq. range (MHz):
Insertion loss (dB)
Return loss (dB), ports
1 to 4
Return loss (dB),
common port
Port-to-port isolation (dB)
Ingress isolation (dB)

5-70
7.1 max
6.8 typ
25 min
30 typ
25 min
28 typ
32 min
38 typ
100 min
110 typ

Forward
50-550
8.0 max
7.6 typ
22 min
26 typ
20 min
24 typ
30 min
34 typ
100 min
110 typ

6-8

550-750
8.2 max
7.7 typ
22 min
26 typ
20 min
24 typ
30 min
34 typ
100 min
110 typ

750-870
8.3 max
7.8 typ
22 min
26 typ
20 min
24 typ
30 min
34 typ
100 min
110 typ

870-1000
8.4 max
7.9 typ
22 min
26 typ
20 min
24 typ
30 min
34 typ
100 min
110 typ

Series 9900 RF Signal Manager (continued)


Eight-way splitter/combiner modules
Reverse
Freq. range (MHz):
Insertion loss (dB)
Return loss (dB), ports
1 to 8
Return loss (dB),
common port
Port-to-port isolation (dB)
Ingress isolation (dB)

Forward

5-70

50-550

550-750

750-870

870-1000

10.6 max
10.2 typ
25 min
30 typ
25 min
28 typ
32 min
38 typ
100 min
110 typ

11.8 max
11.3 typ
22 min
26 typ
20 min
24 typ
30 min
34 typ
100 min
110 typ

12.2 max
11.5 typ
22 min
26 typ
20 min
24 typ
30 min
34 typ
100 min
110 typ

12.4 max
11.9 typ
22 min
26 typ
20 min
24 typ
30 min
34 typ
100 min
110 typ

12.8 max
12.0 typ
22 min
26 typ
20 min
24 typ
30 min
34 typ
100 min
110 typ

10dB directional coupler modules


Reverse
Freq. range (MHz):
Insertion loss (dB)
Input to tap ins. loss (dB)
Return loss (dB), all ports
Port-to-port isolation (dB)
Ingress isolation (dB)
Dual devices isolation (dB)

Forward

5-70

50-550

550-750

750-870

870-1000

1.0 max
0.7 typ
9.6 min
10.0 max
24
31
100 min
110 typ
> 70

1.3 max
1.0 typ
9.5 min
10.0 max
23
31
100 min
110 typ
> 70

1.4 max
1.1 typ
9.5 min
10.0 max
23
31
100 min
110 typ
> 65

1.6 max
1.2 typ
9.5 min
10.0 max
23
31
100 min
110 typ
> 60

1.8 max
1.3 typ
9.3 min
10.0 max
21
31
100 min
110 typ
> 60

20dB directional coupler modules


Reverse
Freq. range (MHz):
Insertion loss (dB)
Input to tap ins. loss (dB)
Return loss (dB), all ports
Port-to-port isolation (dB)
Ingress isolation (dB)
Dual devices isolation (dB)

Forward

5-70

50-550

550-750

750-870

870-1000

0.7 max
0.4 typ
19.6 min
20.0 max
24
39
100 min
110 typ
> 70

0.9 max
0.5 typ
19.5 min
20.0 max
23
39
100 min
110 typ
> 70

1.0 max
0.6 typ
19.5 min
20.0 max
23
39
100 min
110 typ
> 65

1.0 max
0.6 typ
19.5 min
20.0 max
23
39
100 min
110 typ
> 60

1.2 max
0.8 typ
19.3 min
20.0 max
21
35
100 min
110 typ
> 60

6-9

CABLE MODEM SIGNALS


General
This section contains information on the electrical characteristics of
the downstream and upstream signals in cable modem systems, as
defined by DAVIC (Digital Audio-Visual Council) and DOCSIS (Data
Over Cable Service Interface Specifications)
Because DAVIC also provides specifications for unidirectional
(downstream only) transmission of MPEG-2 encoded video signals,
information on the structure of these signals is included in this section.
The data were derived from the following documents:
For DAVIC:

Lower Layer Protocols and Physical Interfaces,


DAVIC 1.4 Specification Part 8: 1998

For DOCSIS: Radio Frequency Interface Specifications,


SP-RFIv1.1-I06-001215 (December 15, 2000)
These two specifications provide for the transmission of digital
signals over broadband networks using a range of phase- and
amplitude modulation schemes, the basic characteristics of which are
summarized below:
QPSK (Quaternary Phase-Shift Keying)
The data to be transmitted is sampled in blocks of two bits, which can
have four different values (00, 01, 10, 11). These blocks are
transmitted by shifting the phase of a carrier into four possible states.
Thus the signaling rate (also referred to as the Symbol Rate, and
expressed in Baud) is half the transmission rate (expressed in bits
per second).
16-QAM (16-level Quadrature Amplitude Modulation)
The data to be transmitted is sampled in blocks of four bits, which can
have 16 different values. Both the phase and the amplitude of a carrier
are shifted to define each of these possible values. The signaling rate is
thus one quarter of the transmission rate.
7-1

Cable modem signals (contd)


64-QAM (64-level Quadrature Amplitude Modulation)
The data to be transmitted is sampled in blocks of six bits, which can
have 64 different values. Both the phase and the amplitude of a
carrier are shifted to define each of these possible values.The
signaling rate is thus one sixth of the transmission rate.
256-QAM (256-level Quadrature Amplitude Modulation)
The data to be transmitted is sampled in blocks of eight bits, which
can have 256 different values. Both the phase and the amplitude of a
carrier are shifted to define each of these possible values.The
signaling rate is thus one eighth of the transmission rate.
In general, the more 'compression' that is achieved by increasing the
complexity of the modulation scheme, and thus transmitting more
data at a given signaling rate, the more susceptible will the signal be
to noise in the transmission medium.

DOCSIS signal characteristics


The following characteristics represent a very small subset of the
complete signal descriptions found in the DOCSIS specification
documents. Shown here are only those characteristics that have
direct relevance to the broadband system Technician or Engineer
when calculating bandwidth requirements and signal levels.
Downstream transmission rates and bandwidths:
Symbol rate
(MSps)

Transmission
rate1 (Mbps)

Channel spacing
(MHz)

64-QAM
modulation

5.056941
6.952000

30.341650
41.712000

6
8

256-QAM
modulation

5.360537
6.952000

42.884296
55.616000

6
8

7-2

DOCSIS signal characteristics (contd)

Symbol rate
(MSps)

Transmission
rate1 (Mbps)

Channel width2
(MHz)

QPSK
modulation

0.160
0.320
0.640
1.280
2.560

0.320
0.640
1.280
2.560
5.120

0.200
0.400
0.800
1.600
3.200

16-QAM
modulation

Upstream transmission rates and bandwidth:

0.160
0.320
0.640
1.280
2.560

0.640
1.280
2.560
5.120
10.240

0.200
0.400
0.800
1.600
3.200

NOTES:
1. The 'transmission rate' is the rate at which binary digits are
transported. The rate at which useful information is transmitted will
always be less than this figure, because of the existence in the
signal of overhead bits. In the downstream signal path, the
overhead accounts for approximately 10% of the transmitted
signal, and in the upstream signal path the figure is approximately
15%.
2. In the case of upstream signals, the 'channel width' is the 30dB
bandwidth.

7-3

DOCSIS signal characteristics (contd)


Downstream frequency ranges and signal levels,
NTSC systems with 6 MHz channel spacing:
Output of CMTS1

Input to Cable Modem

Frequency

91 to 857 MHz

91 to 857 MHz

Signal level

50 to 61 dBmV

-15 to +15 dBmV

Upstream frequency ranges and signal levels,


NTSC systems with 6 MHz channel spacing:

Frequency

Output of
Cable Modem

Input to CMTS1

5 to 42 MHz

5 to 42 MHz

QPSK: 8 to 58 dBmV
16-QAM: 8 to 55 dBmV

Signal level

160 kSps:
320 kSps:
640 kSps:
1280 kSps:

-16 to +14 dBmV


-13 to +17 dBmV
-10 to +20 dBmV
-7 to +23 dBmV

2560 kSps:

-4 to +26 dBmV

Downstream frequency ranges and signal levels,


European systems with 7/8 MHz channel spacing:
Output of CMTS1

Input to Cable Modem

Frequency

112 to 858 MHz

112 to 858 MHz

Signal level

110 to 121 dBV

7-4

64-QAM:
256-QAM:

43 to 73 dBV
47 to 77 dBV

DOCSIS signal characteristics (cont'd)


Upstream frequency ranges and signal levels,
European systems with 7/8 MHz channel spacing:

Frequency

Output of
Cable Modem

Input to CMTS1

5 to 65 MHz

5 to 65 MHz

QPSK:
16-QAM:

68 to 118 dBV
68 to 115 dBV

Signal level

0.160 MSps:
0.320 MSps:
0.640 MSps:
1.280 MSps:

44 to 74 dBV
47 to 77 dBV
50 to 80 dBV
53 to 83 dBV

2.560 MSps:

56 to 86 dBV

NOTES:
1. The CMTS is the Cable Modem Termination System, located at
the Headend or a Hub, which transmits signals to, and receives
signals from the Cable Modems.

DAVIC signal characteristics


The following characteristics represent a very small subset of the
complete signal descriptions found in the DAVIC specification
documents. Shown here are only those characteristics that have
direct relevance to the broadband system Technician or Engineer.
DAVIC Specification Part 8 defines both bi-directional and unidirectional signals on broadband coaxial networks. The unidirectional signal specification refers to the downstream transmission
of MPEG-2 transport stream packets and ATM cells.
A. Uni-directional transmission
The specification defines modulation using 16-QAM, 64-QAM and
256-QAM, and two 'grades' of QAM levels:
Grade 'A':
Grade 'B':

16- and 64-QAM


16-, 64- and 256-QAM
7-5

DAVIC signal characteristics (cont'd)


Transmission rates and bandwidths:
Symbol rate
(MSps)

Transmission
rate (Mbps)

Useable data
rate1 (Mbps)

Channel
spacing
(MHz)

16-QAM

5.304
6.952

21.216
27.808

19.448
25.491

6
8

64-QAM

5.304
6.952

31.824
41.712

29.172
38.236

6
8

256-QAM

5.304
6.952

42.432
55.616

38.896
50.981

6
8

NOTE:
1. The useable data rate is reduced by approximately 0.5% when
the High Reliability Marker (HRM) is used.
The RF level of a DAVIC uni-directional signal, measured at the
input to the receiver (set-top terminal), must be:
for 16- and 64-QAM:
for 256-QAM:

-8 to +20 dBmV
+2 to +20 dBmV

The receiver must be capable of operating over a frequency range


of 54 to 1000 MHz.
B. Bi-directional transmission
QPSK modulation only is specified for both the downstream and
upstream signal paths in Part 8 of the DAVIC standard. Both the
bi-directional signals and the unidirectional signal described in 'A',
above, may co-exist on the same broadband network.
Several 'grades' of downstream and upstream service are defined,
referring to the data transmission rate.

7-6

DAVIC signal characteristics (cont'd)


Downstream transmission rates and bandwidths:
Symbol rate
(MSps)

Transmission
rate (Mbps)

Channel
spacing
(MHz)

Grade 'A' service

0.772

1.544

Grade 'B' service

1.544

3.088

Upstream transmission rates and bandwidths:


Symbol rate
(MSps)

Transmission
rate (Mbps)

Channel
spacing
(MHz)

Grade 'A' service

0.128

0.256

0.2

Grade 'B' service

0.772

1.544

Grade 'C' service

1.544

3.088

Downstream frequency ranges and signal levels:


Output of transmitter

Input to receiver
(subscriber terminal)

Frequency

70 to 130 MHz

70 to 130 MHz

Signal level

Not specified

-18 to +15 dBmV

Upstream frequency ranges and signal levels:


Output of transmitter
(subscriber terminal)

Input to receiver

Frequency

8 to 26.5 MHz

8 to 26.5 MHz

Signal level

25 to 53 dBmV

See Note 1

7-7

DAVIC signal characteristics (cont'd)


NOTE:
1. The RF level at the input to the receiver is not specified, but a
carrier-to-noise ratio at this point of 20 dB is required
(measured in the Nyquist bandwidth of the signal, which is
equal to the symbol rate expressed in Hertz).

7-8

DIGITAL SIGNALS
Measurement of signal level
Digitally-modulated RF signals using QPSK, QAM and COFDM formats have
characteristics similar to those of White Noise, and must be measured with the
aid of a spectrum analyzer. Frequency-selective level meters will give unreliable
results. Many modern spectrum analyzers designed for the Broadband industry
incorporate a useful feature known as channel power measurement, which
permits the direct reading of digital signal power; however, a method using a
general-purpose spectrum analyzer, will be described here. A detailed
description of the procedures can be found in the CENELEC standard EN 500837, "System Performance", upon which the following text is based.
The digital signal should be centered in the spectrum analyzer display, with the
resolution bandwidth of the analyzer set to 100 kHz. (NOTE: the resolution
bandwidth of a spectrum analyzer is effectively the bandwidth of the filter in the
IF stage of the instrument. It is selected either by the operator or by internal
optimization software. For this reason, the resolution bandwidth is often referred
to as the IF bandwidth of the analyzer). The horizontal sweep should be
adjusted so that the shape of the signal is clearly visible, as shown in the
following diagram:

0
-10
-20
-30
-40
-50
-60
-70
-80
-90
-100
10.0

12.0

14.0

16.0

18.0

20.0

22.0

24.0

26.0

28.0

30.0

(This diagram, and those that follow, were generated by software, and are not
actual images of spectrum analyzer displays. This was done in order to improve
clarity and avoid unnecessary clutter. Nevertheless, the diagram is a realistic
representation of a QPSK signal, having a data rate of approximately 4.6 Mbps.
The horizontal scale of the display is 2 MHz per division, and the vertical scale is
10 dB per division).

8-1

Signal level measurement (contd)


The display should then be smoothed by switching in the video filter, which
effectively averages the peak-to-valley excursions of the signal:

0
-10
-20

'Peak'
signal level

-30
-40
-50
-60
-70
-80
-90
-100
10.0

12.0

14.0

16.0

18.0

20.0

22.0

24.0

26.0

28.0

30.0

Equivalent signal
bandwidth

The average power as displayed on the analyzer should now be adjusted to


arrive at a true indication of signal power. First, the reading given by the analyzer
must be corrected to compensate for the characteristics of the analyzers IF filter
and logarithmic detector: these correction factors are usually supplied by the
instrument manufacturer and included with the User Guide or other relevant
documentation. A correction factor of between 1.5 and 2.0 dB is typical. The
result is the energy of the signal measured in the resolution bandwidth of the
analyzer. This figure will be identified as PRBW in the subsequent text, and the
resolution bandwidth will be identified as BWR.
Next, the total signal energy must be calculated, and this requires a knowledge of
the bandwidth of the signal. As shown in the figure above, the analyzers markers
or graticule can be used to measure the bandwidth at points 3 dB below the
average level. This is referred to as the 'equivalent signal bandwidth', and will be
designated here as BWE.
The total signal energy is then given by PT, where

BWE

PT = PRBW +10. log


BWR

8-2

Signal level measurement (contd)


It should be noted that the measurement just described is actually a
measurement of the signal power PLUS the noise power, but the noise
contribution can be ignored if the level of the noise outside the digital signal
channel is 15 dB below the signal level, or lower.

Measurement of signal-to-noise ratio


The signal level should be measured as described above, and the value of PRBW
determined. Then the noise in the same channel should be measured, using the
same resolution bandwidth and video filter, by turning off the signal. This figure
will be designated NRBW.
The signal-to-noise ratio is then S/N, where
S/N = PRBW - NRBW
Again it should be noted that the noise level measured by this technique is
actually the true noise PLUS the noise contribution of the spectrum analyser
itself. The input to the analyzer should be disconnected and terminated. If the
apparent noise level falls by more than 10 dB, then no correction to the
measured value is necessary. If the reduction ('delta') is less than 10 dB,
however, a correction to the measured value must be applied.
The following table provides a convenient listing of correction factors for a range
of values of 'delta':
'delta':

1.5

2.0

3.0

4.0

5.0

6.0

7.0

8.0

9.0

10.0

Correction: 5.35

4.33

3.02

2.20

1.65

1.26

0.97

0.75

0.58

0.46

The correction is applied by subtracting it from the the measured value NRBW.

Measured vs Calculated Bandwidth


The accuracy of the bandwidth measurement, as described above, can be
verified by comparison with the calculated bandwidth of the digital signal.
The Nyquist Bandwidth of the signal (designated here as BWN) is equal to the
symbol-rate expressed in Hertz. Now the symbol-rate is the rate at which the
amplitude, the phase or the frequency of the carrier (or some combination of
these characteristics) is being changed, and this is not necessarily equal to the
data rate.

8-3

Measured vs calculated bandwidth (cont'd)


In the more complex modulation schemes, the digital data is sampled in blocks
of bits, and the numeric value of each block is then used to determine the
characteristics of the carrier.
For example, in QPSK modulation, the data is sampled in blocks of two bits.
There are four possible values of each sample; 00, 01, 10 and 11, so the phase
of the carrier can occupy four different states. This results in a symbol-rate which
is exactly half the data rate, and hence the symbol-rate for the hypothetical
QPSK signal in the figure above is obtained by dividing the data rate of 4.6 Mbps
by two, giving 2.3 MSps (million symbols per second). In Hertz, this gives a value
for BWN of 2.3 MHz.
The following table gives the symbol-rate for various signal types:
Modulation Type

Symbol-rate

FSK

= bit rate

BPSK

= bit rate

QPSK

= bit rate 2

16 QAM

= bit rate 4

64 QAM

= bit rate 6

256 QAM

= bit rate 8

Assuming that the digital signal is shaped using raised-cosine filtering, and
assuming that this filtering is equally distributed between transmitter and
receiver, the 3 dB bandwidth of the signal, when measured by a spectrum
analyzer as described above, will be approximately equal to the Nyquist
bandwidth.

Recommended Levels in HFC Networks


In a typical HFC network designed for both analog and digital signals, the analog
video channels will be carried in the 50 to 550 MHz range, and the remainder of
the bandwidth will be allocated to digital traffic, which will consist primarily of
either 64 QAM or 256 QAM modulated signals.

8-4

Recommended levels (contd)


Scientific-Atlanta recommends that 64 QAM signals be carried at a level 10 dB
below the corresponding analog video carrier level*, and 256 QAM signals at
6 dB below video carrier. (The levels of the digital signals are as defined in the
previous subsection).
Tests have shown that the average power of a 64 QAM signal is approximately 6
dB greater than the carrier of an analog video signal in the same bandwidth.
Therefore, setting the 64 QAM signals at 6 dB below video carrier peak will result
in the same overall power across the entire system bandwidth.
These recommendation are clarified in the diagrams on the following pages,
which show the arrangement of analog and digital channels in an NTSC network.
* "Video carrier level" must be interpreted as the peak envelope power of the
analog video signal.

8-5

Recommended levels (contd)

33 digital channels
(64-QAM; 6 MHz each)

750

10 dB

700
650
600
550

450

78 analog NTSC channels

400
350
300
250
200
150
100

- 14

- 12

- 10

-8

-6

-4

-2

ref

+2

50

Recommended Levels: 64 QAM Signals


8-6

Frequency (MHz)

500

Recommended levels (contd)

33 digital channels
(256-QAM; 6 MHz each)

750

6 dB

700
650
600
550

450

78 analog NTSC channels

400
350
300
250
200
150
100

- 14

- 12

- 10

-8

-6

-4

-2

ref

+2

50

Recommended Levels: 256 QAM Signals


8-7

Frequency (MHz)

500

COAXIAL CABLE CHARACTERISTICS


The data in this section are taken from the manufacturers published
data sheets. While every effort has been made to ensure accuracy in
transcription, errors sometimes occur, and therefore these tables
should be used for quick-reference purposes only. For system
design work, it is strongly recommended that the manufacturers
original data be used.
All figures in the cable loss tables represent losses at 68F (20C).
As temperature decreases from this reference, cable attenuation
decreases by approximately 1.0% for every 10F (5.56C) drop in
temperature.
As temperature increases from the 68F reference, cable attenuation
increases by approximately 1.2% for every 10F (5.56C) rise in
temperature.
Trilogy Communications MC2
Cable dia. (in):
dB loss per 100

0.440

0.500

0.650

0.750

1.00

ft

ft

ft

ft

ft

0.17
0.56
1.44
1.54
1.64
1.81
1.90
2.13
2.22
2.36
2.49

0.56
1.84
4.72
5.05
5.38
5.94
6.23
6.99
7.30
7.76
8.19

0.14
0.48
1.23
1.32
1.40
1.55
1.63
1.83
1.91
2.03
2.15

0.46
1.57
4.04
4.33
4.60
5.09
5.36
6.00
6.28
6.68
7.07

0.11
0.38
0.99
1.06
1.13
1.25
1.34
1.50
1.56
1.67
1.77

0.36
1.25
3.25
3.48
3.71
4.10
4.41
4.92
5.13
5.49
5.81

0.10
0.34
0.86
0.91
0.97
1.08
1.11
1.25
1.30
1.39
1.47

0.33
1.12
2.82
2.99
3.18
3.54
3.65
4.10
4.28
4.57
4.82

0.07
0.24
0.65
0.70
0.74
0.82
0.87
0.97
1.02
1.09
1.16

0.23
0.79
2.13
2.30
2.43
2.69
2.86
3.18
3.36
3.59
3.82

ft

ft

ft

ft

6.40

1.55

5.09

1.00

3.28

0.69

2.26

0.41

1.35

Frequency (MHz)
5
55
350
400
450
550
600
750
800
900
1000

Loop resistance per


ft
1000
Copper-clad
aluminum center
1.95
conductor

Maximum attenuation data taken from Manufacturers data sheets. Contact


Manufacturer for detailed information.

9-1

Coaxial Cable Characteristics (contd)


Times Fiber Communications T10 cable
Cable dia. (in):
dB loss per 100

0.500

0.625

0.750

0.875

1.00

ft

ft

ft

ft

ft

0.16
0.55
1.43
1.53
1.63
1.82
1.91
2.16
2.35
2.53

0.52
1.80
4.69
5.02
5.35
5.97
6.27
7.09
7.69
8.30

0.13
0.45
1.18
1.27
1.35
1.51
1.58
1.79
1.95
2.11

0.43
1.46
3.87
4.17
4.43
4.95
5.18
5.87
6.40
6.92

0.11
0.37
0.97
1.05
1.12
1.25
1.31
1.48
1.61
1.74

0.36
1.21
3.18
3.44
3.67
4.10
4.30
4.86
5.28
5.71

0.09
0.32
0.84
0.91
0.97
1.09
1.14
1.29
1.41
1.53

0.30
1.04
2.76
2.99
3.18
3.58
3.74
4.23
4.83
5.02

0.08
0.29
0.78
0.84
0.90
1.01
1.06
1.21
1.33
1.44

0.26
0.95
2.56
2.76
2.95
3.31
3.48
3.97
4.35
4.72

ft

ft

ft

ft

5.58

1.10

3.61

0.75

2.46

0.56

1.80

0.41

1.40

Frequency (MHz)
5
55
350
400
450
550
600
750
870
1000

Loop resistance per


ft
1000
Copper-clad
aluminum center
1.70
conductor

Maximum attenuation data taken from Manufacturers data sheets. Contact


Manufacturer for detailed information.

CommScope Parameter III


Cable dia. (in):
dB loss per 100

0.500

0.625

0.750

0.875

1.00

ft

ft

ft

ft

ft

0.16
0.40
0.54
1.43
1.53
1.63
1.82
1.91
2.16
2.34
2.52

0.52
1.31
1.77
4.69
5.02
5.35
5.97
6.27
7.09
7.68
8.27

0.13
0.32
0.46
1.18
1.27
1.35
1.50
1.58
1.78
1.93
2.07

0.43
1.05
1.51
3.87
4.17
4.43
4.92
5.18
5.84
6.33
6.79

0.11
0.26
0.37
0.97
1.05
1.12
1.24
1.31
1.48
1.61
1.74

0.36
0.85
1.21
3.18
3.44
3.67
4.07
4.30
4.86
5.28
5.71

0.09
0.23
0.33
0.84
0.91
0.97
1.08
1.14
1.29
1.41
1.53

0.30
0.75
1.08
2.76
2.99
3.18
3.54
3.74
4.23
4.63
5.02

0.08
0.21
0.31
0.78
0.84
0.90
1.01
1.06
1.21
1.34
1.44

0.26
0.69
1.02
2.56
2.76
2.95
3.31
3.48
3.97
4.40
4.72

ft

ft

ft

ft

5.64

1.10

3.51

0.76

2.49

0.55

1.81

0.40

1.31

3.96

0.79

2.59

0.56

1.83

0.41

1.35

Frequency (MHz)
5
30
55
350
400
450
550
600
750
865
1000

Loop resistance per


ft
1000
Copper-clad
1.72
aluminum
1.20
Solid Copper

Maximum attenuation data taken from Manufacturers data sheets. Contact


Manufacturer for detailed information.

9-2

Coaxial Cable Characteristics (contd)


CommScope Quantum Reach
Cable dia. (in):
dB loss per 100

0.540

0.715

0.860

1.125

ft

ft

ft

ft

0.14
0.34
0.47
1.23
1.32
1.40
1.56
1.64
1.85
2.00
2.17

0.46
1.12
1.54
4.03
4.33
4.59
5.12
5.38
6.07
6.56
7.12

0.11
0.27
0.36
0.97
1.05
1.12
1.25
1.31
1.49
1.62
1.75

0.36
0.89
1.18
3.18
3.44
3.67
4.10
4.30
4.89
5.31
5.74

0.09
0.23
0.32
0.83
0.88
0.95
1.06
1.10
1.24
1.33
1.44

0.30
0.75
1.05
2.72
2.89
3.12
3.48
3.61
4.07
4.36
4.72

0.07
0.17
0.23
0.65
0.70
0.75
0.84
0.89
1.01
1.11
1.20

0.23
0.56
0.76
2.13
2.30
2.46
2.76
2.92
3.31
3.64
3.94

ft

ft

ft

0.42

1.38

Frequency (MHz)
5
30
55
350
400
450
550
600
750
865
1000

Loop resistance per


ft
1000
Copper-clad
aluminum center
1.61
conductor

5.28 0.997 3.27 0.724 2.37

Maximum attenuation data taken from Manufacturers data sheets.


Contact Manufacturer for detailed information.

Times Fiber Communications T10 Drop Cable


Cable type:
dB loss per 100

RG-59

RG-6

RG-611

RG-11

ft

ft

ft

ft

0.81
1.45
1.78
4.48
4.81
5.13
5.72
6.00
6.78
7.33
7.50
7.73
7.95

2.66
4.76
5.84
14.7
15.8
16.8
18.8
19.7
22.2
24.0
24.6
25.4
26.1

0.61
1.17
1.44
3.65
3.92
4.17
4.65
4.87
5.50
5.93
6.07
6.25
6.43

2.00
3.84
4.72
12.0
12.9
13.7
15.3
16.0
18.0
19.5
19.9
20.5
21.1

0.56
1.00
1.20
2.98
3.20
3.41
3.80
3.99
4.50
4.85
4.96
5.11
5.25

1.84
3.28
3.94
9.77
10.5
11.2
12.5
13.1
14.8
15.9
16.3
16.8
17.2

0.36
0.75
0.93
2.36
2.53
2.69
3.01
3.16
3.58
3.88
3.97
4.10
4.23

1.18
2.46
3.05
7.74
8.30
8.82
9.87
10.4
11.7
12.7
13.0
13.4
13.9

ft

ft

ft

179

34.1

112

23.5

77.1

16.1

52.8

Frequency (MHz)
5
30
50
350
400
450
550
600
750
862
900
950
1000

Loop resistance per


ft
1000
Copper-clad steel
center conductor;
54.5
QUADSHIELD

Maximum attenuation data taken from Manufacturers data sheets.


Contact Manufacturer for detailed information.

9-3

Loss Ratio Table


The following table provides the ratios of cable losses between the
commonly-encountered upper frequency limits of CATV systems.
Using this table, the increase in cable loss encountered during a
drop-in upgrade can be simply calculated. For example, if a
550 MHz system is to be upgraded to 750 MHz, and trunk amplifiers
are currently spaced at 22 dB intervals, the new cable loss will be
(22 x 1.19) = 26.18 dB
Upgrade to:
from
216
270
300
330
400
450
550
600
625
750
870

450

550

600

625

750

870

1000

1.47
1.33
1.26
1.18
1.07

1.64
1.48
1.40
1.32
1.19
1.11

1.73
1.56
1.48
1.39
1.25
1.17
1.05

1.77
1.59
1.51
1.42
1.28
1.20
1.08
1.02

1.96
1.76
1.67
1.57
1.42
1.33
1.19
1.13
1.11

2.14
1.93
1.82
1.72
1.55
1.45
1.30
1.24
1.21
1.09

2.30
2.08
1.97
1.85
1.67
1.56
1.40
1.33
1.30
1.18
1.08

(Loss ratios are calculated using the CommScope


Parameter III cable specifications, and taking an average
over the range of cable diameters)

9-4

FIBER CABLE CHARACTERISTICS


Mechanical Structure

Plastic jacket
(Color coded)

Glass core

Glass cladding

A single fiber cable consists of a glass core surrounded by a


concentric glass cladding; the two glasses having different
refractive indeces so that light is confined to the core by total
internal reflection. The protective plastic jacket is colorcoded so that individual fibers can be identified in multiplefiber bundles (tubes).
Typical dimensions of the fiber are:
Plastic jacket:
Glass cladding:
Glass core:

250
125
62.5 (multimode)
10 (singlemode)

( is one micrometer, or one millionth of a meter; 250 is


therefore the equivalent of one-quarter of a millimeter. It is
frequently referred to as micron)
A fiber pigtail has an additional protective plastic coating
with a diameter of 900, and a Kevlar sheath, bringing the
total diameter up to approximately 2500 (2.5mm).
10 - 1

Fiber cable characteristics (contd)

Multi-fiber cables are used when traversing any significant


distance. The principal types are Loose Tube, and Tight
Buffered cables, as illustrated below.
(Cable construction details and nomenclature are taken from
Siecor Corporation publications)
Loose Tube Cable Cross-Section
Central member
Loose buffer tube
Fiber bundle
Tensile strength member
Inner sheath
Steel-tape armor (optional)
Outer sheath (optional)

Loose tube cables contain hollow buffer tubes with one or


more fibers inside each tube.
Tight Buffered Cable Cross-Section
Fiber
Buffer
Tensile strength member
Central member
Overcoat
Outer jacket

Tight buffered cables have a 900 micrometer () diameter


plastic coating applied directly to each fiber.
10 - 2

Fiber cable characteristics (contd)

In general, loose-tube cables are used in outdoor


installations, where the isolation of the individual fibers from
external stress maximizes the cable life. On the other hand,
tight buffered cables have their main application in indoor
environments. These cables are typically more sensitive to
adverse temperatures and external forces than the loosetube design, but are desirable because of their increased
flexibility, smaller bend radius, and easier handling
characteristics. (Applications information taken from Siecor
Corporation publications)
Color Coding of Fibers
For multi-fiber cables, a color coding scheme is used to
distinguish individual fibers. In loose tube construction, up to
12 fibers can be placed in each tube, and they are coded as
follows (in accordance with EIA/TIA-598; Color Coding of
Fiber Optic Cables):
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

Blue
Orange
Green
Brown
Slate
White

7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.

Red
Black
Yellow
Violet
Rose
Aqua

Buffer tubes containing fibers are also color coded in


accordance with the same EIA/TIA standard:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

Blue
Orange
Green
Brown
Slate
White

7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.

Red
Black
Yellow
Violet
Rose
Aqua

10 - 3

Loss Characteristics of Fiber Optic Cables


The information contained in this section, addresses only the
transmission of linearly-modulated optical signals at
1310 nm and 1550 nm through singlemode fibers. In
designing optical links for Broadband networks, ScientificAtlanta uses conservative estimates of fiber performance,
and the contribution of associated optical components. Thus
the information which follows should be used when specific
details of actual plant performance are unknown: in many
cases the true performance of an optical link will be better
than that indicated by the conservative figures given here.
Loss Characteristics of Fiber Optic Cables (contd)
Fiber loss:
Splice loss:
Connector loss:
Sag & storage:

0.35 dB per km (0.56 dB/mile) at 1310 nm*


0.25 dB per km (0.40 dB/mile) at 1550 nm
0.05 dB per km (fusion splices)
0.15 dB for each mechanical splice
0.25 dB for each super FC-PC connector set
Add 4% to fiber length

* For standard CATV dual-window fiber.

10 - 4

Loss Characteristics of Fiber Optic Cables (contd)

The following tables use the figures given above to compute


optical losses for a range of path lengths.
1310 nm
Path
length Fiber with
with
splices
connectors
mi km loss

Path
length
mi
km

Fiber with
with
splices
connectors
loss

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12

13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24

7.28
7.84
8.40
8.96
9.52
10.08
10.64
11.20
11.76
12.32
12.88
13.44

1.6
3.2
4.8
6.4
8.0
9.6
11.2
12.8
14.4
16.0
17.6
19.2

0.56
1.12
1.68
2.24
2.80
3.36
3.92
4.48
5.04
5.60
6.16
6.72

0.64
1.28
1.92
2.56
3.20
3.84
4.48
5.12
5.76
6.40
7.04
7.68

1.14
1.78
2.42
3.06
3.70
4.34
4.98
5.62
6.26
6.90
7.54
8.18

20.8
22.4
24.0
25.6
27.2
28.8
30.4
32.0
33.6
35.2
36.8
38.4

8.32
8.96
9.60
10.24
10.88
11.52
12.16
12.80
13.44
14.08
14.72
15.36

8.82
9.46
10.10
10.74
11.38
12.02
12.66
13.30
13.94
14.58
15.22
15.86

1550 nm
Path
Path length
length Fiber with
with
Fiber with
with
mi km loss splices connectors mi
km loss splices connectors
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12

1.6
3.2
4.8
6.4
8.0
9.6
11.2
12.8
14.4
16.0
17.6
19.2

0.40
0.80
1.20
1.60
2.00
2.40
2.80
3.20
3.60
4.00
4.40
4.80

0.48
0.96
1.44
1.92
2.40
2.88
3.36
3.84
4.32
4.80
5.28
5.76

0.98
1.46
1.94
2.42
2.90
3.38
3.86
4.34
4.82
5.30
5.78
6.26

13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24

10 - 5

20.8
22.4
24.0
25.6
27.2
28.8
30.4
32.0
33.6
35.2
36.8
38.4

5.20
5.60
6.00
6.40
6.80
7.20
7.60
8.00
8.40
8.80
9.20
9.60

6.24
6.72
7.20
7.68
8.16
8.64
9.12
9.60
10.08
10.56
11.04
11.52

6.74
7.22
7.70
8.18
8.66
9.14
9.62
10.10
10.58
11.06
11.54
12.02

OPTICAL PASSIVES
Singlemode Multiband Couplers and Splitters
The data in this section represent the specifications of the fused
couplers and splitters available from Scientific-Atlanta. Two-way
splitters/couplers are available either unconnectorized, or in LGXcompatible modules.
1 x 2 fused coupler/splitter specifications:

Split ratio
50 / 50
55 / 45
60 / 40
65 / 35
70 / 30
75 / 25
80 / 20
85 / 15
90 / 10
95 / 05

Unconnectorized
Packaged and connectorized*
Maximum
Typical
Maximum
insertion loss (dB) insertion loss (dB) insertion loss (dB)
3.6 / 3.6
3.9 / 3.9
4.1 / 4.1
3.1 / 4.0
3.4 / 4.3
3.6 / 4.5
2.6 / 4.6
2.9 / 4.9
3.1 / 5.1
2.2 / 5.2
2.5 / 5.5
2.7 / 5.7
1.9 / 5.8
2.2 / 6.1
2.4 / 6.3
1.7 / 6.6
2.0 / 6.9
2.2 / 7.1
1.3 / 7.6
1.6 / 7.9
1.8 / 8.1
1.0 / 9.0
1.3 / 9.3
1.5 / 9.5
0.8 / 11.0
1.1 / 11.3
1.3 / 11.5
0.5 / 14.0
0.8 / 14.3
1.0 / 14.5

* Connector losses of 0.3 dB (typical) and 0.5 dB (maximum) apply


to SC/UPC and SC/APC connectors
The theoretical loss in decibels through one leg of an optical coupler
can be calculated from the numerical value of the loss as follows:
Loss through port A (in dB) = 10log(FA)
Where

FA = numerical loss, expressed as a fraction


(for example; 35% becomes 0.35)

11 - 1

Couplers and Splitters (contd)


The actual optical loss through a directional coupler will be higher
than the value obtained from this formula, since factors such as
backscatter, polarization effects, temperature/humidity changes,
aging, wavelength dependence, etc. add to the loss.
1 x n fused coupler/splitter specifications:
Split
(equal)

Typical
ins. loss (dB)

1x33
1x43
1x53
1x63
1x73
1x83
1 x 10 3
1 x 12 3
1 x 16 3
2x44

6.1
7.5
8.8
9.7
10.7
11.1
12.4
13.3
14.7
8.0

Packaged and connectorized1


Maximum
Maximum
ins. loss (dB)
uniformity (dB)
6.3
7.7
9.0
9.9
10.9
11.3
12.6
13.5
14.9
7.7

Maximum PDL2

1.5
1.4
1.8
2.4
2.6
2.1
2.5
3.1
2.8
1.8

0.2
0.3
0.4
0.4
0.4
0.4
0.5
0.5
0.6
0.35

1. Connector losses of 0.3 dB (typical) and 0.5 dB (maximum) apply


to SC/UPC and SC/APC connectors.
2. Polarization-dependent loss.
3. Available in single, double, and triple-wide LGX-compatible
modules or in a 19-inch rack-mount chassis.
4. Available only in single-wide LGX-compatible modules.
1 x n planar coupler/splitter specifications:
Split
(equal)
1x6
1x82
1 x 10
1 x 12
1 x 16

Typical
Maximum
insertion loss (dB) insertion loss (dB)
9.2
10.4
11.5
12.4
13.6

10.2
11.6
12.7
13.5
14.8

Uniformity
1.6
1.8
1.9
1.9
2.0

1. Connector losses of 0.3 dB (typical) and 0.5 dB (maximum) apply


to SC/UPC and SC/APC connectors.
2. Also available with E-2000 connectors. Typical and maximum
insertion losses same as for SC/APC connectors.
11 - 2

Connectors
The optical connectors shown below are those encountered most
frequently in the broadband industry. They are used on ScientificAtlanta PRISMA optoelectronic products as indicated in the righthand column
Usage
Type
E2000

Type
SC

Optional on all
Prisma II active
optical modules, and
planar couplers/
splitters
SC/APC is standard
on all Prisma II
products, including
DWDM modules and
couplers/splitters.
SC/UPC is optional
on all active
modules, and on
fused couplers/
splitters

Optional on all
Type FC Prisma II active
optical modules

11 - 3

OPTICAL LINK PERFORMANCE


Carrier-to-Noise Ratio
This section provides formulas for the calculation of Carrier-to-Noise
Ratio (CNR) in optical systems based on DFB lasers. The
contribution of optical amplifiers (EDFAs) is given, but of course
would be excluded in 1310nm systems. Worked examples are also
presented.

1. Laser Noise
The relative intensity noise (RIN) produced by a laser is caused by
the spontaneous emission of photons, and results in the production
of non-coherent light.
The CNR due to laser RIN is given by the formula:

CNRRIN

m2
=
2 . B. (RIN)

where
m is the single-channel modulation index, and
B is the noise measurement bandwidth (4 MHz for NTSC systems)
In decibel notation,
CNRRIN = 20.log(m) 10.log(2.B) (RIN)
With a typical loading of 78 NTSC channels and 33 QAM signals, the
per-channel OMI will be 3.58% (=0.0358). Therefore,
CNRRIN = 20.log(0.0358) 10.log(8.106) (RIN)
and for a typical laser the RIN is 160 dB/Hz, therefore
CNRRIN = -97.95 + 160 = 62.05 dB
12 - 1

2. EDFA Noise
Noise in an optical amplifier is also produced by the spontaneous
emission of photons, and is referred to as Amplified Spontaneous
Emission (ASE).
The CNR due to ASE is given by the formula:
CNREDFA =

SNRIN . m2
2 .B .F

where
SNRIN is the amplifier input Signal-to-Noise Ratio, and
F is the amplifier Noise Factor.
.PIN
The input signal-to-noise ratio is given by: SNR =
2 .h . c
where
is the laser wavelength in meters,
PIN is the EDFA optical input power in watts,
h is Planck's constant (6.63 x 10-34 J.s), and
c is the velocity of light (3 x 108 m.s-1)
(1.55 x 106 ) .PIN
Therefore SNRIN =
= (3.896 x 1018 ) .PIN
34
8
2 .(6.63 x 10 ) .(3 x 10 )
( 4.87 x 1011) .m2 .PIN
If the bandwidth (B) is 4 MHz, then CNREDFA =
F
The EDFA Noise Factor (F) is obtained from the Noise Figure (NF) by
the identity NF = 10.log(F). Then, converting to decibel notation, and
bearing in mind that 'dBm' is referenced to milliwatts,
CNREDFA = 116.87 + 20.log(m) + PIN 10.log(103) NF
A value of the Noise Figure for a typical EDFA is 5.5 dB, with an
optical input power of +5 dBm, and with m = 0.0358,
CNREDFA = 116.87 28.9 + 5 30 5.5 = 57.47 dB
12 - 2

3. Receiver Noise
Step 1: determination of receiver responsivity
The responsivity, , of a receiver in Amperes per Watt is given by
=

. q .
h .c

where
is the quantum efficiency of the detector,
q is the electron charge in coulombs,
is the wavelength in meters,
h is Planck's constant (6.63 x 10-34 J.s), and
c is the velocity of light (3 x 108 m.s-1)
Assuming a typical value for of 0.8, the responsivity will be
=

0.8 x (1.60 x 1019 ) .(1.55 x 106 )


= 1.0 A.W-1
34
8
(6.63 x 10 ) .(3 x 10 )

Step 2: determination of receiver Shot Noise


The receiver Shot Noise is due to the random occurrence of photons
and electrons and is given by:
CNR shot

m2 . . PIN
=
4 . q .B

where is the receiver responsivity, as determined in Step 1, and


m, PIN, q, and B are as previously defined.
Then CNRshot =

m2 .(1.0) .PIN
= (3.91x 1011) .m2 .PIN
19
6
4 .(1.6 x 10 ) .( 4 x 10 )

12 - 3

Receiver noise (cont'd)

Expressed in decibel notation, and recalling that 'dBm' is referenced


to milliwatts,
CNRshot = 115.92 + 20.log(m) + PIN 10.log(103)
For a typical input power of 0 dBm, and a per-channel modulation
index of 0.0358,
CNRshot = 57.0 dB

Step 3: determination of receiver Thermal Noise


The receiver Thermal Noise is generated in the resistor and amplifier
following the detector, and is given by:

CNR therm =

(m . . PIN )2
2

2 . in . B

where in2 is the 'thermal noise equivalent current' of the amplifier, and
m, , PIN, and B are as previously defined.
The thermal noise in the amplifier immediately following the
photodetector is characterized by a quantity called the 'thermal noise
equivalent current'; it has the dimensions of picoAmperes per Hz, or
pA.Hz-
In the formula given above, however, the current is assumed to be
expressed in Amperes, and so a factor of 10-12 must be included. A
typical value for a transimpedance amplifier with a GaAsFET input
stage is 7.0 pA.Hz-
Using the values of and B from previous pages,
2

CNRtherm

m2 .(1.0)2 .PIN
2
=
= (1.79 x 1015 ) .m2 .PIN
12 2
6
2 .(7.0 x 10 ) .( 4 x 10 )
12 - 4

Receiver noise (cont'd)

If PIN is expressed in dBm, then for PIN2 a correction factor of 10-6


must be included. If the modulation index is 0.0358, and the optical
input power is 0 dBm, then, in decibel notation:
CNRtherm = 10.log(1.79 x 1015) + 20.log(0.0358) + 0 10.log(106)
= 63.61 dB

4. Overall Noise
The CNR for a complete optical link can then be calculated by
combining the figures for the transmitter, the optical amplifier and the
receiver:

CNR
CNRtotal = 10 .log 10 10

RIN

CNR EDFA

10

+ 10

CNR shot

10

+ 10

CNR therm

10

+ 10

Using the examples given above, the overall CNR would be:

10 .log 106.205 + 105.747 + 105.700 + 106.361 = 10.log 4.84 x 10 6

= 53.15 dB

5. Optical Modulation Index


Optical Modulation Index (OMI) is a measure of the degree of
modulation of the optical carrier by an RF signal. It is dfined
mathematically as the ration of the peak RF modulating current to the
average modulating current:
OMI =

Irf ,peak
Imod

12 - 5

Optical modulation index (cont'd)

The RF modulating current, Irf,peak, can be written as:


Vrf ,peak

Irf ,peak =

75

2 . Vrf ,rms .k
75

where Vrf,rms is the input to the laser matching circuit, and k is the
laser match factor. The average laser drive current, Imod, can be
written as:

Imod =

Popt

where Popt is the average output optical power, and is the laser
slope efficiency. Therefore the OMI, m, can be written as:
m=

2 . Vrf ,rms .k .
Popt . 75

The OMI is directly proportional to laser input voltage, and therefore if


the input voltage changes by a certain ratio, the OMI will change by
the same ratio:
m Vrf ,rms , therefore

m1 V1
=
m2 V2

If V1 and V2 are expressed in terms of dBmV, then


m1
=
m2

V1
20

10
V2
20

10

or

V1 V2

20

m1
= 10
m2

Conversely, a change in OMI will require a change in drive voltage:


m
V1 V2 = 20 .log 1
m2
12 - 6

Optical modulation index (cont'd)

The OMI referred to in the preceding text is the per channel OMI;
another useful parameter is the composite rms OMI, denoted by the
symbol . The approximate value of is given by:
= m.

N
2

where N is the number of channels. This approximation is only valid


when N is substantially greater than 10 and when the channels are of
equal amplitude. For a smaller number of channels, the composite
OMI is additive on a peak voltage basis, for the worst case.

12 - 7

BROADBAND PARAMETERS
The Decibel
The decibel (dB) provides a means of representing large power
ratios as manageable, small numbers, and allows the overall gains
and losses in a module or a network to be calculated by addition
and subtraction, rather than by multiplication and division.
The original unit was the Bel (named after Alexander Graham
Bell), and the decibel is one-tenth of a Bel. Thus the ratio of two
power levels is calculated as follows:
Ratio of power P1 to
power P2, in dB:

P1

P2

= 10log

If voltage, rather than power levels are known, and provided that
the impedance is constant, the power ratio can be calculated as
follows:
Ratio of power produced by
voltage V1 to power produced
by voltage V2, in dB:

V1

V2

= 20log

Power and Voltage Conversion


dBmV
0 dBmV defines the power produced when a voltage of
1 mV (rms) is applied across a defined impedance (75 in the
broadband industry).

13 - 1

Therefore a measurement of 'x dBmV' in a defined impedance


indicates that the power being measured is x dB greater than that
produced when a voltage of 1 mV is applied across the same
impedance.
To convert x dBmV
to millivolts:

Signal level in millivolts = 10

x

20

dBV
Similarly, a measurement of x dBV in a defined impedance
indicates that the power being measured is x dB greater than that
produced when a voltage of 1 V (rms) is applied across the same
impedance.
To convert x dBV
to microvolts:

Signal level in microvolts = 10

x

20

To convert dBmV to dBV, add 60 to the dBmV reading:


x dBmV = (x+60) dBV

mW
To determine the power, in milliwatts, which is represented by a
reading in dBmV, assuming an impedance of 75:

To convert x dBmV
to milliwatts:

Signal power in milliwatts =

13 - 2

x

10 10

75 1000

dBm
A measurement of x dBm indicates that a particular signal has a
power of x dB greater than (or above) 1 milliwatt. A negative dBm
value indicates that the signal is less than (below) 1 milliwatt.
To convert x dBm
to milliwatts:

Signal power in milliwatts = 10

x

10

Power expressed in dBmV can be converted to power expressed


in dBm, as follows (the impedance is assumed to be 75:
To convert x dBmV
directly to dBm:

10
10

Signal power in dBm = 10 log


75 1000

The inverse operation is also possible:


To convert x dBm
directly to dBmV:

Signal level in dBmV


x

= 10 * log 75 * 1000 * 10 10

Impedance Mismatch
It frequently happens that the input impedance of a measuring
device (spectrum analyzer; field strength meter, etc.) does not
match the impedance of the system under test. In such a case, a
correction must be made to the reading displayed on the
instrument.

Correction (in dB) = 10 log Zi


ZS

13 - 3

Where Zi is the impedance of the instrument, and ZS is the


impedance of the system under test.

Table of Conversions
The following table lists the conversions between different units of
measurement for the range of signal levels commonly
encountered in Broadband networks. The equations described in
the previous two pages were used in the compilation of this table.
dBmV mV
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25

1.0
1.1
1.3
1.4
1.6
1.8
2.0
2.2
2.5
2.8
3.2
3.5
4.0
4.5
5.0
5.6
6.3
7.1
7.9
8.9
10.0
11.2
12.6
14.1
15.8
17.8

dBV
60
61
62
63
64
65
66
67
68
69
70
71
72
73
74
75
76
77
78
79
80
81
82
83
84
85

mW

Less
than
0.0010

0.0011
0.0013
0.0017
0.0021
0.0027
0.0033
0.0042

dBm

dBmV

mV

dBV

mW

dBm

-48.8
-47.8
-46.8
-45.8
-44.8
-43.8
-42.8
-41.8
-40.8
-39.8
-38.8
-37.8
-36.8
-35.8
-34.8
-33.8
-32.8
-31.8
-30.8
-29.8
-28.8
-27.8
-26.8
-25.8
-24.8
-23.8

26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50

20.0
22.4
25.1
28.2
31.6
35.5
39.8
44.7
50.1
56.2
63.1
70.8
79.4
89.1
100.0
112.2
125.9
141.3
158.5
177.8
199.5
223.9
251.2
281.8
316.2

86
87
88
89
90
91
92
93
94
95
96
97
98
99
100
101
102
103
104
105
106
107
108
109
110

0.0053
0.0067
0.0084
0.0106
0.0133
0.0168
0.0211
0.0266
0.0335
0.0422
0.0531
0.0668
0.0841
0.1059
0.1333
0.1679
0.2113
0.2660
0.3349
0.4216
0.5308
0.6682
0.8413
1.0591
1.3333

-22.8
-21.8
-20.8
-19.8
-18.8
-17.8
-16.8
-15.8
-14.8
-13.8
-12.8
-11.8
-10.8
-9.8
-8.8
-7.8
-6.8
-5.8
-4.8
-3.8
-2.8
-1.8
-0.8
0.2
1.2

13 - 4

Field Strength (leakage)


Leakage from a Broadband network is measured using a standard
dipole antenna connected to a signal level measuring device such
as a spectrum analyzer.
If the signal level of a particular video carrier measured in such a
way is x dBmV, then the actual field strength is given by the
following formula:

Field strength in microvolts per meter (V/m) =

21 F10

x

20

Where F is the frequency, in MHz, of the video carrier being


measured.

Cable Loss Ratio


The ratio of the attenuation in coaxial cable, expressed in dB, at
two frequencies is approximately equal to the square root of the
ratio of the frequencies:

Approximate cable loss ratio =

FH

FL

Example: A 100 ft. length of 0.5 inch coaxial cable has a loss of
1.32 dB at 300 MHz. What is the loss at 600 MHz?
Approximate cable loss ratio =

600

=
300

2 = 1.414

Therefore the approximate loss at 600 MHz is 1.32 x 1.414


= 1.87 dB.

13 - 5

Exact Cable Loss Ratio


A more accurate determination of cable loss ratio can be obtained
from the formula:

Lf =
Where

L0 f f
+

1+ f 0 f 0

= loss, in dB, at the desired frequency;


= loss, in dB, at the reference frequency;
= cable shape factor;
= reference frequency in MHz, and
= desired frequency in MHz

Lf
L0

f0
f

Cable shape factor () is a parameter associated with a particular


type and manufacturer of cable. In practice, the value of is
determined empirically.

BER (Bit Error Ratio)


In a digital communications link, Bit Error Ratio is defined as the
ratio of the number of defective bits received to the total number of
bits transmitted:
Bit Error Ratio =

Number of defective bits


Number of bits transmitted

For example, if a BER test-set displays a reading of 2.3e-8, this


means that the Bit Error Ratio is 0.000000023
The Bit Error Rate is calculated by taking the reciprocal of the Bit
Error Ratio. In the above example, a Bit Error Ratio of 2.3e-8
means that errors are being received at the rate of one defective
bit in every 4.35 x 107 bits received,

= 4.35 x 107
8

2.3 x 10

because

13 - 6

SYSTEM PERFORMANCE CALCULATIONS


Types of Impairment
The performance of a Broadband network is usually defined in terms of the
unwanted distortion and noise components produced in the network, and their
effects on video signals. Even when the network is no longer a pure CATV
system and is, instead, carrying a mixture of services, it is still common practice
to define network quality by reference to the relationship between distortion,
noise, and a reference video signal level.
Broadband engineers recognize five primary imperfections in network
performance, all measured relative to the video carrier level: total random noise,
composite triple-beat, composite second-order beat, cross-modulation, and hum
modulation. In the following section, these parameters are defined, and the rules
for calculating total network performance are given.

Noise
All amplifiers generate noise, and a broadband network is also susceptible to
noise from external sources. The combined noise level is measured relative
to video carrier level:

Carrier-to-Noise Ratio (CNR) is defined as the ratio (in


decibels) of the peak video carrier power to the average
noise power, normalized to a specified bandwidth.
The noise performance of a single amplifier is most commonly specified as
the noise figure:

To convert Noise Figure


(NF) to CNR:
Where

CNR = 65.2 - 10.log(f) + Li - NF

f = measurement bandwidth in MHz

Li = amplifier input level (dBmV)


and the temperature is assumed to be 68F (20C)
Values of f for a number of different television systems are as follows:
System
Video bandwidth*
Noise measurement bandwidth

I
6.75
5.08

* Includes lower sideband

14 - 1

B, G
5.75
4.75

K1, L
7.25
5.58

M, N
4.95
4.00

Example: for an amplifier with a Noise Figure of 9 dB and an NTSC input


signal at a level of +20 dBmV, the resultant CNR at 68F is
65.2 - 6 + 20 9 = 70.2 dB (always expressed as a positive quantity, in dB).

Composite Triple-Beat (CTB)


The output of an ideal amplifier would be an exact replica of the input signal:
such an amplifier would be referred to as perfectly linear. In practice, of
course, amplifiers deviate from perfect linearity, and the result, in the case of
a broadband, multi-channel signal, is an output containing a large number of
low-level unwanted components. These components are an aggregate of
input signal harmonics, and interactions between input signals.
One category of such signals comprises the so-called triple beat
components, which result from harmonics and interactions of the form:

3f1
f1 f 2 f 3
2f1 + f2
2f1 - f2
where f1, f2 and f3 are the frequencies of any three input signals. It will be seen
that, in a large-capacity network, the number of such combinations which fall
inside the network pass-band is very large. The totality of all the spurious
signals that result from these combinations is referred to as the Composite
Triple-Beat, and triple-beat groupings generally lie at, or close to, the video
carriers.
Therefore:

Composite Triple-Beat (CTB) is defined as the ratio (in


decibels) of the peak video carrier power to the peak of
the aggregate distortion signal lying at the video carrier
frequency.
This parameter is measured with unmodulated video carriers, and with the
carrier in the channel of interest turned off.
Broadband equipment manufacturers specify the CTB performance of their
amplifiers at a specific output level (for example, +46 dBmV). This is because
CTB varies as the input level to the internal amplifier module (usually a hybrid
gain block) is raised or lowered. This effect will be discussed in detail later in
this section.

14 - 2

Composite Second Order (CSO)


Another category of unwanted signal components produced by an amplifier
consists of the second order beat components, which result from harmonics
and interactions of the form:

2f1
f 1 + f2
f1 - f 2
where f1 and f2 are the frequencies of any two input signals. The number of
such combinations in a large-capacity network is less than that produced by
third-order distortions, but is nevertheless significant. The totality of all the
spurious signals that result from these combinations is referred to as the
Composite Second Order beat, and CSO groupings generally lie at either
0.75 or 1.25 MHz above and below the video carriers. Therefore:

Composite Second Order (CSO) is defined as the ratio (in


decibels) of the peak video carrier power to the peak of
the aggregate distortion signal lying at 0.75 MHz or
1.25 MHz relative to the video carrier frequency.
This parameter is measured with unmodulated video carriers.
As in the case of Composite Triple Beat, Broadband equipment
manufacturers specify the CSO performance of their amplifiers at a specific
output level (for example, +46 dBmV). This is because CSO varies as the
input level to the internal amplifier module (usually a hybrid gain block) is
raised or lowered. This effect will be discussed in detail later in this section.

Cross Modulation (XMOD)


Non-linearities in amplifier also give rise to Cross-Modulation, which is the
unwanted modulation of any particular video carrier by the signals being
carried in other channels in the system. Because each video channel contains
a constant, high-level signal component at the horizontal line frequency
(15.734 kHz in the NTSC system), this is the most noticeable component of
Cross-Modulation. Therefore:

Cross Modulation (XMOD) is defined as the ratio of the


peak-to-peak amplitude of the modulation, on the test
carrier (caused by the signals on other carriers), to the
peak level of the carrier.

14 - 3

Cross modulation (contd)


It is usually measured on an unmodulated carrier, with all other carriers in the
system being synchronously modulated to a depth of 100% by a square-wave
at the horizontal line-rate.
The Cross Modulation performance of a single amplifier is specified at a given
output level, and changes as that level is raised or lowered.

Hum Modulation
This form of distortion is a result of the unwanted modulation of a particular
video carrier by components of the system power supply. Therefore:

Hum Modulation is defined as the ratio (in decibels) of the


peak video carrier power to the peak of the unwanted
modulation sidebands at 50 or 60 Hz and harmonics
(depending on power-line frequency), relative to the video
carrier frequency.
It practice, Hum Modulation is measured as the percentage depth of
modulation of a video carrier, using an oscilloscope, then converted to
decibels.

To convert percentage
modulation to decibels:

Hum modulation in dB

M
20 log

100

Where M = modulation depth expressed as a percentage.

14 - 4

Single Amplifier Performance


As mentioned above, the noise and distortion performance of a particular
amplifier are always stated at a specific output signal level and tilt. If an amplifier
is operated with different output characteristics, the noise and distortion
performance figures will change. These relationships are described below:

Effect of Changing Output Level


If amplifier output level is changed, but tilt remains as specified in the
manufacturers recommendations, then the following modifications to amplifier
performance must be made:
CNRnew = CNRref + (Lnew - Lref)
Where

CNRnew
CNRref
Lnew
Lref

= new Carrier-to-Noise ratio;


= reference (old) Carrier-to-Noise ratio;
= new amplifier output level, and
= reference (old) amplifier output level

CTBnew = CTBref - 2(Lnew - Lref)


Where

CTBnew
CTBref

CSOnew
CSOref

XMODnew
XMODref

(CSO given as a positive number)

= new Composite Second Order, and


= reference (old) Composite Second Order

XMODnew = XMODref - 2(Lnew - Lref)

Where

(CTB given as a positive number)

= new Composite Triple-Beat, and


= reference (old) Composite Triple-Beat

CSOnew = CSOref - (Lnew - Lref)


Where

(CNR given as a positive number)

(XMOD given as a positive number)

= new Cross Modulation, and


= reference (old) Cross Modulation

Thus it can be seen that Carrier-to-Noise ratio is improved when amplifier


output level is raised, whereas all distortions are worsened.

14 - 5

Effect of Changing Tilt


If amplifier tilt is changed, but output level at the high-frequency end of the
spectrum remains as specified in the manufacturers recommendations, then
modifications to amplifier performance must be made. The following formulas
are based on empirical data. In all cases, tilt is assumed to be positive; that
is, the signal level at the high-frequency end of the spectrum is greater than
that at the low-frequency end. An increase in tilt is therefore equivalent to a
decrease in the signal level at the low-frequency end.
Carrier-to-Noise ratio at the high frequency end of the spectrum remains
unchanged. At the low-frequency limit,
CNRnew = CNRref - (Tnew - Tref)
CNRnew
CNRref
Tnew
Tref

(CNR given as a positive number)

= new Carrier-to-Noise ratio;


= reference (old) Carrier-to-Noise ratio;
= new amplifier output tilt, and
= reference (old) amplifier output tilt.

CTBnew = CTBref + 0.8(Tnew - Tref) (CTB given as a positive number)


Where

CTBnew
CTBref

= new Composite Triple-Beat, and


= reference (old) Composite Triple-Beat

CSOnew = CSOref +0.33(Tnew - Tref) (CSO given as a positive number)


Where

CSOnew
CSOref

= new Composite Second Order, and


= reference (old) Composite Second Order

XMODnew = XMODref +0.5(Tnew - Tref) (XMOD given as a positive


number)
Where

XMODnew
XMODref

= new Cross Modulation, and


= reference (old) Cross Modulation

In summary, Carrier-to-Noise ratio at low frequencies is worsened when


amplifier output tilt is increased, whereas all distortions are improved.

14 - 6

Cascade Performance
Identical Amplifiers and Operating Levels
For a cascade of identical amplifiers, all operating with the same output level
and tilt, end-of-line (EOL) performance can be easily calculated as follows:
For Carrier-to-Noise ratio and Composite Second Order,
CNREOL = CNRAMP - 10log(N)
CSOEOL = CSOAMP - 10log(N)
Where

(CNR and CSO given as a positive


numbers)

N = number of amplifiers in cascade

For Composite Triple-Beat, Cross Modulation and Hum Modulation,


CTBEOL

= CTBAMP

XMODEOL

= XMODAMP - 20log(N)

HMODEOL

= HMODAMP - 20log(N)

- 20log(N)
(CTB, XMOD and HMOD
given as positive numbers)

Dissimilar Amplifiers and/or Operating Levels


When calculating the end-of-line performance for a cascade of different
amplifier types, or identical amplifiers which operate with different output
levels and tilts, a more complex calculation is required.
For Carrier-to-Noise ratio and Composite Second Order,
CNR
CNR
CNR1

3
2

10

10
10

CNREOL = 10 log 10
+10
+10
+

Where CNR1, CNR2, CNR3 etc. are the Carrier-to-Noise performance figures
for the separate amplifiers in the cascade.

14 - 7

Dissimilar Amplifiers and/or Operating Levels (contd)


And,
CSO
CSO
CSO1

3
2

10

10
10

CSOEOL = 10 log 10
+10
+10
+

Where CSO1, CSO2, CSO3 etc. are the Composite Second Order
performance figures for the separate amplifiers in the cascade.
NOTE: It is assumed that both CNR and CSO are expressed as positive
numbers.
For Composite Triple-Beat, Cross Modulation and Hum Modulation,
CTB
CTB
CTB1

3
2

20

20
20

CTBEOL = 20 log 10
+10
+10
+

XMOD 1

XMOD 2
XMOD 3

20
20
20
XMODEOL= 20 log 10
+ 10
+ 10
+

HMOD 1

HMOD 2
HMOD 3

20
20
20
HMODEOL = 20 log 10
+ 10
+ 10
+

CTB1, CTB 2 , CTB 3 , etc.

Where XMOD , XMOD , XMOD , etc. are the CTB, XMOD and HMOD

1
2
3
HMOD ,HMOD ,HMOD , etc.
1
2
3

performance figures for the separate amplifiers in the cascade.


NOTE: It is assumed that CTB, XMOD and HMOD are expressed as positive
numbers.

14 - 8

WEIGHTS and MEASURES


The following tables provide conversions between U.S. units
and their metric equivalents. Metric units are defined by the
SI (Systme International), which came into effect in October
1960.
The tables are by no means exhaustive: they include only
those weights and measures which are related, directly and
indirectly, to the broadband industry.
Length (general)
metric to U.S.
1 millimeter (mm)
1 centimeter (cm)
1 meter (m)
1 kilometer (km)
U.S. to metric
1 inch (in)
1 foot (ft)
1 yard (yd)
1 mile (mi)

= 10 mm
= 100 cm
= 1000 m

= 0.0394 inch
= 0.3937 inch
= 1.0936 yard
= 0.6214 mile

= 12 in
= 3 ft
= 1760 yd

= 25.400 mm
= 30.48 cm
= 0.9144 m
= 1.6093 km

(The SI standard unit of length is the meter)


Length (optics)
1 angstrom ()
1 nanometer (nm)
1 micrometer (m)

= 10-10 m
= 10-9 m
= 10-6 m

= 10
= 1000 nm

(The micrometer is frequently referred to as the micron)

15 - 1

Weights & measures (contd)


Area
metric to U.S.
1 square centimeter (cm2)
1 square meter (m2)
1 square kilometer (km2)

= 10 cm

= 106 m2
= 100 hectare

U.S. to metric
1 square inch (in2)
1 square foot (ft2)
1 square yard (yd2)
1 acre (ac)

= 144 in2
= 9 ft2
= 4840 yd2

1 square mile (mi2)

= 640 ac

= 0.1550 sq inch
= 10.7639 sq foot
= 1.1960 sq yard
= 247.105 acre
= 0.3861 sq mile
= 6.4516 cm2
= 0.0929 m2
= 0.8361 m2
= 4046.86 m2
= 0.4047 hectare
= 259 hectare

(The SI standard unit of area is the square meter)


Mass
metric to U.S.
1 gram (g)
1 kilogram (kg)
1 tonne (t)

= 1000 g
= 1000 kg

= 0.0353 ounce
= 2.2046 pound
= 2204.6 pound
= 0.9842 ton

(The tonne is sometimes referred to as the metric ton)


U.S. to metric
1 ounce (oz)
1 pound (lb)
1 ton

= 16 oz
= 2240 lb

= 28.35 g
= 0.4536 kg
= 1016.05 kg
= 1.0161 tonne

(The SI standard unit of mass is the kilogram)


15 - 2

Weights & measures (contd)


Volume
metric to U.S.
1 cubic centimeter (cm3)
1 deciliter (dl)
1 liter (l)

= 100 cm3
= 1000 cm3

1 cubic meter (m3)

= 1000 l

U.S. to metric
1 cubic inch (in3)
1 fluid ounce
1 pint (pt)

= 1.8047 in3
= 16 fl. ounce

1 gallon (gal)
1 cubic foot (ft3)
1 cubic yard (yd3)

= 8 pint
= 7.4844 gallon
= 27 cu. foot

= 0.0610 cu. inch


= 0.0338 fl. ounce
= 3.3814 fl. ounce
= 2.1134 pints
= 0.2642 gallon
= 0.0353 cu. foot
= 35.3147cu. foot
= 1.3079 cu. yard
= 16.3871 cm3
= 29.5735 cm3
= 4.7318 dl
= 0.4732 l
= 3.7854 l
= 28.3168 l
= 0.7646 m3

(The SI standard unit of volume is the cubic meter,


although the liter is more popular)
Moment of force (torque)
metric to U.S.
1 Newton meter (N.m)

= 7.2307 ft - lb

U.S. to metric
1 foot - pound (ft - lb)

= 0.1383 N.m

(One foot-pound is the torque produced by a one-pound


force acting at the end of a one-foot crank)

15 - 3