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Marketing Management

1.0 Executive Summary


The main objectives of this study was to choose one determinant that have influence on
consumer behavior. There are three sub sections of this study based on the main objectives.
First is to discuss the origin and how the determinants influences the consumer. Second is
the usefulness of the determinants for marketer in explaining consumer behavior. Third, the
specific product that suited the determinant chosen. Next sections will explain in details
work undertaken in completing each sections
1.1 Origin of determinant and how it influence consumer
For this sections, I will search for history of the factor that I choose. The history will covers
the origin and evolutions of the theory. Besides that I will also explains the factors
definitions from past study and research. Next I will find out how the factors influence
consumer behavior. Several examples will be given to show the influence of the theory in
real world applications.
1.2 Usefulness of determinants for marketer
After choosing the determinants, I will finds article, journal and news that reflects the
practical used of the determinants in real world applications. Practical applications will be
based on real events happens in an organizations and countries. Examples given for this
sections will be from marketer point of view. The main objectives is to explains how
marketer manipulate the factors for their work
1.3 Suitable product for the factors
Last topic of this study is too choose suitable product based on the factors. In order to
decide the product, I will analyze the factor in details to identify the most important aspect.
Based on the analysis, I will choose the most suitable product. The aims for this sections is
to analyze the relationship between the products and the determinants. In additions, I will

choose product from Malaysia industry. This is done through sales and report status on
Malaysia news and article.
1.4 Evidence
To support subject and topic above, several examples will be given. This examples will be
the supporting arguments to either denies or confirm the subject. Evidence will be collected
from past research, event and study. Evidence will used to covers all sections of the study,
especially on proving the theory and practicality of the determinant.
1.5 Observations and Commentary
Observations and commentary will be conducted after all the above subjects is covered.
The objectives is to observe the topic and put personal comment on the issues. The
comment will be based on my personal experience and knowledge. It is important to note
that commentary based on the observations is only within the theory selected and not
covers the whole theory.
1.6 Identifications of key issues learned.
The last sections of this study will covered new informations and knowledge that I learned
while undertaking this study. Focus of this sections will be on new knowledge and
informations learned while identifying key issues.
1.7 Secure positions of competitive positioning
Competitive positioning is about how a marketer positions their product in the market by
creating values or recognition. There are four criteria that need to be considered in
competitive positioning: Market profile, market segments, competitive analysis and method
for delivering values (Ansari, 1994). Market profile is the characteristic of the market, such
as the size, competitors and stage. Next is market segments, which is the profile or
categorizations of the consumers. Third criteria is competitive analysis of the product and
services, for examples in form of SWOT analysis. Lastly is the method to distribute the
values to the consumer, or in other words method to deliver the strategies.

2.0 Research and Resources


The main subject of this topic is to choose one determinant of consumer buyer behavior,
this can either be an internal or external variable which influences consumer buyer decision
making. Hence, the first topic that will be covered is to identify determinant of consumer
behavior.
2.1 Consumer Behavior
First of all, it is better to understand the term consumer behavior before going in-depth of
its determinant. One of definitions of consumer behavior is the reasons and logic that
underline purchasing decisions and consumption patterns, it explains the processes
through which buyers make decisions (Sahney, n.d). Another definitions is the mental,
emotional and physical activities that people engage in when selecting, purchasing, using
and disposing of products and services so as to satisfy needs and desires (Priest et al,
2013). Based on both definitions, consumer behavior is basically the behavior of consumer
when they decide to buy a product or services.
2.2 Determinant of Consumer behavior
Consumer behavior can be classified into several categories. Four determinants disciplines
were identified for this topic, economic, sociological, behavior and psychological
(Ushadevi, 2013). Each disciplines have its own factors that can influence consumer
behavior. For examples, economic theory covers income factors, while sociological covers
elements such as family and culture. On the other hands, behavior fields includes personal
criteria such as age, lifestyles, and personality. Psychological disciplines entail factors such
as motivations, perceptions and beliefs
For this study, I have choose lifestyle as determinant factors for consumer behavior when
making decisions. Next sections will explains the origin of the determinant theory and how

it influence consumer behavior. In additions, lifestyle factors will be the main theory used
to answer all other questions in this study.
2.3 Lifestyle factors: Personal and behavior determinants
Lifestyles factors fall under personal and behavior disciplines. Basically, this disciplines is
about the consumer characteristic. For example their hobby, interest lifestyles, self-concept
and personality. Each factors is derived from the person characteristic, but it will gives
different impact. In other words, certain factors will be put in higher priority compared to
others. This scenarios is the same as what explained in Maslow hierarchy of needs.
For examples, a consumer in the age range of 50 years old will have different behavior
when buying food compared to consumer in range of 20 years old. The age factors here will
make the 50 years old consumer consider their health concerns, while the young will eat
what they want. However, if the 50 years old consumer have the personality of junk food
lovers, he or she will still buy same food as 20 years old consumer. This is because, his
behavior is affected more by personality rather than age.
Lifestyle factors is recognized since the sixteenth century (Anderson, 1984). It can be found
in poems, writings and paintings. The art shows that human in the 16 th century have shown
signs on individuality through lifestyles. As they wear different clothes, eat different food
and enjoy different types of recreation activities. The lifestyle concept then goes through
time, until in the late 1950s where researcher founds out that it have effect on consumer
behavior. Several notable researcher are Lazer (1963) and Berkman (1978)
Lazer defines lifestyles as consumer characteristic mode of living. Which means, a
consumer that enjoy lifestyles of interior design will frequency change their home furniture.
In additions, consumer that enjoy travelling will prefer to rent house on short term since
they will travel a lot. On the other hand, Berkman definitions of lifestyles is unified
patterns of behavior that both determine and are determined by consumption. This
definitions clearly states that consumer behavior on consumption reflect their lifestyles. For

examples, consumer that buy a lot of accessories, such as gold and diamonds will reflect
that she enjoy famous and high standard lifestyles.

2.4 How lifestyles influence consumer behavior


Hence the questions is how exactly lifestyles influence consumer? First of all, lifestyle will
determine the involvement of consumer in buying the product (Novak, n.d). If the product
is highly related with the consumer lifestyles, hence they might be fully involved in buying
decisions. The consumer will put more efforts in understanding the product. In additions,
they will also compared it with other similar product, in order to know which one is better.
This efforts is the influence of lifestyle, in situations where lifestyles is not a factors, the
consumer might blatantly buy the product for its functionality.
In additions, lifestyles also influence consumer determinations on getting the product. If the
product is essentials to the consumer lifestyles, they will make it as necessity. Even when
they cant afford it financially. For examples, female with high interest in designer shoes
will spend a lot of money for a shoes. In reality, their monthly salary is not enough to afford
one. But they will goes extra mile to use credit card or loans in order to buy the shoes.
Wang (2014) study lifestyles effect on women behavior in buying designer shoes, and the
result shows that style and brand name are more important for women in buying a designer
shoes rather than comfort and durability. This is because, the consumer prefer designer
shoes as fashion statement for their lifestyles, and not as a shoes for the foot.
2.5 How useful lifestyles for marketer.
From marketer perspectives, lifestyles serves different purpose. First of all, lifestyles can be
used to profile consumer. Burns and Foxman (1988) have profile women based on their
shopping behavior. This profile is used later as guidance on what type of product suitable
for the consumer. In other words, it will make the marketer understand more about their
consumer based on lifestyles profiling. In additions, lifestyles can also be used by marketer
as indicator to introduce new product. For instances, if the sales of hiking bag pack is

increasing, then marketer can used it as indicator that there are more consumer that have
interest in hiking. Hence they can start to sell other hiking equipment such as gloves, tent
and camp. This indicator is very useful, especially if the marketer want to predict future
trends in market.
Another useful functions of lifestyles data for marketer is to develop suitable strategies in
persuasions. One of marketer job is to persuade consumer into buying their product. For
this, they will develop strategies by manipulating informations. If the marketer know the
consumer lifestyles, they will know what product characteristic should be highlight and
what should be avoided. For examples, characteristic such as durability should be
highlighted to consumer that prefer outdoor lifestyles. Since they are used to buy product
that have good durability.
2.6 Product category suitable for Lifestyles factors
In my opinion, the most suitable product for lifestyles is fashions item, such as shoes,
tudung, jeans, and blouse. This is because fashions is not stagnant. It keep changing from
time to time. Hence the consumer will keep buying new product and they will gain
satisfactions with each purchase. In additions, consumer will enjoy the excitement of
following new trends and showing it off to their friends. However, consumer must be alerts
of the latest trends and buy product accordingly. They cant be left behind in trends, or they
will be labeled as not fashionable anymore.
There are several fashions item in the worlds, such as blouse, shoes, jeans, t-shirts, bag and
other apparels. From the list, I decide to go with Hijab, or in Bahasa Malaysia, Tudung.
The reasons I choose this product because of the fact that Malaysia is a Muslim countries,
where wearing Hijab is considered a must for women. Hence the target market is secured
and wont change dramatically.
In additions, there are changes in Hijab trends in Malaysia. A news article by Boo (2015),
cite a comment by Dato Nik Aziz Nik Mat, leader of Muslim political party in Malaysia.
His comment is Muslim women in Malaysia start wearing Tudung in 1970 and the trend

start rising in 1990s. This shows that Hijab had only become a fashion items in 1990s.
Furthermore, FAREEDA Managing Director said that his company earn RM 30 million
revenue in 2013. In additions, he also remark that in 2013, there are still very few
competitors in the markets. All this informations supports the arguments that Hijab is a
great fashions item in Malaysia, with large and stable consumer.
3.0 Summary
This sections will summarizes all key aspects discussed in previous sections: lifestyles as
determinant for consumer behavior, how its useful for marketer and what product suits the
factors. Evidence from article, journal, book and news will be provided in this sections to
supports each key aspects.
Xue (1999) have conduct a study to investigate food related web visitors from life styles
characteristic. The objectives is to finds out particular life styles characteristic that have
higher probability to shop food online. Results of the research shows participants with
characteristic of liking variety in life and like trying new things have high interest with
buying foods online. This findings supports the factors of lifestyles as determinant for
consumer buying behavior. Another evidence to support this factors is Chen (2012)
research on factors that influence Chinese consumer when buying organic product. Results
of the research depicts lifestyles as one of important factors on influencing consumer
behavior. Two lifestyles characteristic that have high significant impact are self-indulgence
and variety seeking. Self-indulgence characteristic is defines as impulsive buying behavior
and variety seeking is the habits of findings new product.
Second key aspect is usefulness of lifestyles as determinant for consumer behavior from
marketer point of view. Satish (2012) have write a review of lifestyle marketing which
establishing relationships between products offered in the market and targeted lifestyle
groups based on past study and research. Examples given by Satish is US beer, cosmetics
and credit card company have categorizes consumer lifestyles based on their purchase
behaviors. Results of the joint arrangements shows that heavy users of cosmetics (female)

is heavy smokers and like to make long distance phone call. This data then used by beer
companies to promote their beer as the drinks to goes while smoking.
Another functionality of lifestyles for marketer is to be used when positioning new products
or repositioning existing products (Satish, 2012). Examples given by Satish is Johnsons
and Johnsons efforts to repositions their product from baby to adults market. Johnsons and
Johnsons products offer the same effects which is wanted by adults that have interest in
managing their skin and hair. Hence they repositions their product by repackaging and
changing their tone in promotions. The appeal have change from product which is safe for
baby into natural healthy look for adults market.
Third topic set in this study is suitable product for lifestyles factors. As discussed before, I
choose Hijab as one of fashions item in Malaysia based on two reasons. First reasons is
Hijab is considered a necessity for Female Malaysian, hence the market is stable. Next
reasons is Hijab have become a fashions, which means the market is expanding. Norazah
(2014) have conduct a research through questionnaires to identify celebrity influence on
consumer buyer behavior. Based on results, physical attractiveness of the celebrity while
wearing the product will have the most impact on consumer. One of celebrities highlighted
with this factors is Yuna, a singer in Malaysia that start her own Hijab trend.
Norazah findings is aligned with Suparno (2016), which examine factors that need to be
considered before purchasing a Hijab for Indonesian University students. Among all the
factors, model was chosen as the most important factors with 70% vote from total
participant. This factors overcome other factors by majority: Comfort 20%, and Price 10%.
Model factors represents the style and color of the Hijab. The students will consider to buy
the Hijab if the Model suitable with their fashion styles. It is important for the students to
buy latest trends Hijab to keep up to date with current fashions.
Another evidence to support Hijab as product influenced by lifestyle factors is the
reintroductions o contemporary hijab in 2010 (Hassim, 2014). This is considered as
repositioning of new stylish and colorful Hijab replacing the old Hijab which is much
simpler. Muslim women in Malaysia have embrace Hijab as fashion items and make it as

one of their lifestyle merchandise. In additions, the rise of Hijab sales have establish a new
culture or community named hijabster or hijabsita, which is considered as Modern
Muslimah (Female Muslim) community that enjoy contemporary and cosmopolitan
fashions.

4.0 Conclusion and Findings


This part will conclude all the key topic discussed in previous sections. First of all I will
conclude the theory of determinant of consumer behavior. Four disciplines of consumer
behavior determinants were selected in this study: economic, sociological, personal and
psychological. Next step is to choose one determinants from the four, which is lifestyles
from personal disciplines. Lifestyle was a concept developed in the 16 th century through
poetry and drawing. However, it matures trough time and become one of determinants of
consumer behavior.
Several article have been reviewed in order to explain this theory. One of examples will be
Lazer (1963) that states lifestyles as consumer mode of livings. It reflects lifestyles as
characteristic of the consumer. Another definitions on lifestyles as determinants is said by
Berkman, lifestyles is unified pattern of behavior that both determine and determined by
behavior. This definitions explains that consumer consumption can be used as indicator
for their lifestyles.
After determining lifestyles factors origin and definitions, the topic focus on how it
influences consumer. This is explained by Novak (n.d) that states lifestyles will increase
consumer involvement when purchasing a product. Consumer will finds more informations
on the product and they will also make comparison with other product. Besides that,
lifestyles will also increase consumer determinations in purchasing. Especially if the
consumer have huge interest on the product. Examples given in the study is for women
spending most of their income to buy designer shoes.

Next topic on the list is how useful lifestyles informations for marketer in practical. Burns
and Foxman (1988) used consumer lifestyles data to profile consumer. Afterwards, they use
the consumer preferences as guidance on what product suitable to be promoted to them. In
additions, lifestyles is also useful when organizations decides to positions their new product
or repositions their existing product. This have been done by Johnson and Johnsons when
they decide to repositions their baby lotion and shampoo for adult market. This strategy
was developed when Johnson and Johnsons realizes that their product have the same
characteristic wanted by adult that have interest in natural healthcare product.
Third topic discussed in the study is suitable product for lifestyles factor. First of all,
lifestyles can be divided into three categories, Activities, Interest, and Opinions. In my
opinion, interest will have the most significant impact because it is about what the
consumer desire. Based on this conclusion, Fashions merchandise will be the most
suitable product. Reason for this is, fashions is keep changing from time to time. Hence,
consumer will be offered new desires frequently. It is like a never end journey for the
consumer, unless they lost all interest in fashion world.
Nonetheless, there are varieties of fashions product, such as shoes, bag, clothes, and jeans. I
decides to choose one of fashionable product in Malaysia at the moment, which is Hijab or
Tudung. One of the reasons for my decisions is fashion item need to be wanted by
consumer. Wanted here means the consumer keep asking for the merchandise, which means
the demand is increasing. Furthermore, it also means the market is developing and bring in
huge revenue. To support this argument, I have cite a statement by FAREEDA managing
directors that said his company earns RM 30 million revenues in 2013. In additions, the
managing director also said that in 2013, the market is still booming and there are less
competitiors.
5.0 Critical observations and Commentary
Main topic of this study is determinant of consumer behavior and how it influence
consumer and its usefulness for marketer. Based on my observations of theory and practical
examples discussed in this study, there are several ambiguous areas. I will start with

determinant theory itself. There are four major disciplines of consumer behavior
determinant and each determinants have its own distinct factors. For instance, economic
determinants include income factors, while sociological insert factors such as role and
reputations in society.
My comment on the whole theory is, does it takes only one determinants when deciding to
choose a product? Which means, is it applicable to use one specific determinants for
buying all sort of product? For examples, when I purchase a car, I consider determinants
across several disciplines, such as pricing (economic), styles (personal) and my family
opinion (sociological). Indeed, I did list the determinants on priority: prices is the most
important followed by styles and then family opinions. But, the weight percentage for price
is not huge, that I will consider to buy a car just because it is cheap. Factors such as styles
and family opinion might be more important if it is supported by solid arguments. For
instance, I decide to buy Proton Exora for RM 55 thousands since it is the cheapest MPV.
However, my family insists on Perodua Alza, because they said it is more spacious and
comfortable. After inspections, I finds out that it is more comfortable compared to Proton
Exora. In the end, I spend around RM 59 thousands on Perodua Alza, which is RM 4
thousands more expansive than Proton Exora.
Another comment is on practicality of lifestyles determinant theory. Examples given in this
study is marketer used lifestyles informations from consumer to segment and profile them.
In my opinion, it is a great strategies since the marketer have narrow down the target
market into smaller segments. For instances, marketer can analyzes lifestyles informations
on consumer that like to buy Hiking product. Results of the analysis, might shows other
similar interest, shared by the consumer, such as enjoy travelling or prefer product for
durability. This will then create new profile for the consumer: Hiking enthusiast that also
enjoy travelling.
6.0 Identifications of key issues learned through the study
I have learned several new topic and subject while doing this study. First of all is the
availability of complex determinants of consumer behavior. For instances, determinants

such as psychological and sociological. I always assume that consumer with high income
purchase expansive product because they can afford it. However, sociological determinants
explains that consumer behavior in purchasing product is influence by factors such as
reputations and fame in the society, and not because they have high income.
Another new knowledge that I learn is psychographics data. Before doing this study, I only
aware that marketer collect demographic informations such as age, religion, race and
income. This information then be used to categorize consumer. However, while studying
lifestyle factors, I learn that marketer collect psychographic informations, such as
personality, values, opinions, attitudes, interest and lifestyles. This informations is used by
marketer to profile consumer into specific segments. For examples, first the consumer is
categorizes based on their demographic factors, such as age. Then the consumer is profiled
based on their interest, for instances outdoor or indoor activities. As results the marketer
now have profile of consumer that prefer outdoor or indoor activities based on their age.
Lastly, is the existence of strategies to position product based on consumer behavior.
Examples given in this study: Johnson and Johnsons repositioning their baby lotions and
shampoo. They decide to implement this strategies after realizing adults have interest on
their product. Before doing this study, i only know that a product is designed for specific
target market. However, Johnsons and Johnsons have widen their target market by changing
packaging and promotions method.

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