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AMERICAN

JOURNAL OF NUMISMATICS

VOLUME LIII, TH I KD (FINAL) PART

LAMPSAKOS ; THE GOLD STATERS,

SILVER AND BRONZE COINAGES

I » v AGNUS BALDWIN

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ADDENDA

ícf. p. 63, note 1) .

1. Of these unique pieces without the ethnic, the drachm

op. cit., pl. ii, 1) seems certainly to be transitional in style, and

coins (ibid., pl. ii, 1-3) therefore may be regarded as sporad the Fifth Century. However, this does not affect our main that the coins of our Group B are to be placed at about the of the Fourth Century, and that their " archaism " is not a

such as occurs in the transitional period, but a deliberate rev

next Century. Compare further Dr. Regling's remarks on

nology in his review of Dr. Gaebler's paper (Zeit. f. Num.

373) . This writer would assign the extremely scarce issue

pl. ii, 2, 3) to 464-454; the coins that seem rightly to head t

" obols " and ' ' diobols ' ' (ibid., pl. ii, 4, 5 = our Pl. VI, 2 415. In the period 405-387, Gaebler's third subdivision, h

clude not only the "diobols" (ibid., pl. ii, 26-34 = our Pl.

but also part of the "obols," while the great majority of th

he would place between 387 and 365. The smaller denomi

suggests, probably began earlier than the larger pieces, were

contemporaneously with these latter, and survived them

interesting point of view, and it may be noted that the coin

VI, 19 and 30 would easily pass as contemporaneous issues

reverses indicate. The distinction in style, Dr. Regling t

have been maintained as a method of distinguishing the tw

nations.

(cf. Catalogue of Types, No. 17c) .

2. The Maenad head, No. 17c, formerly Caruso, was sold again in Sotheby's Cat. "A Russian Nobleman", June, 1924, No. 176, and is

now in the Newell Collection.

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THE

GOLD STATERS OF LAMPSAKOS

By AGNES BALDWIN

Attribution of the Electrum Staters of Lampsakos

At the time of the publication of the writer's paper on "The Electrum

Coinage of Lampsakos",1 it was proposed to follow this up with a revis

paper on the gold stater coinage, which had formed the subject of an earlie

essay by the writer, appearing in the Journal Internationale de Numi

matique,2 1902. The plates for this new publication of the beautiful go staters have long been ready, but many causes have operated to delay i

In the meantime, since the issue of the monograph on the electrum staters

their attribution to Lampsakos has been strongly attacked by the lat

M. Svoronos in his work on the early Paionian coinages of the district whi

was later called Macedonia.3 With his accustomed originality and bread

of vision, M. Svoronos has uncovered a whole new chapter in Greek numi

matics. Besides re-attributing and assigning to definite mint-places an

tribes many of the uncertain silver coins known vaguely as Thrako-Mace- donian, he suggests a new home for many gold (electrum) issues previousl

attributed to Asia Minor. Most of these gold coins are anepigraphic an

have always been classed as Uncertain of Asia Minor (loc. cit., pl. xv, 17-2

pl. xvi, 1-27). 4 But now, besides removing from Asia Minor the ver

primitive electrum coins which bear chiefly geometrical or floral designs as types, M. Svoronos proposes to assign to Macedonia also the well-known

electrum staters bearing the familiar types of Lampsakos and Chios, forepa

of Pegasus and Sphinx.

There are probably few attributions of uninscribed electrum state

whose place is regarded as more securely established than the Chian a

Lampsakene staters. In the writer's monograph on the electrum coins

Lampsakos, the sound basis for the attribution of the latter coins was ther

1 American Numismatic Society Monograph, No. 1, 1914, hereafter referred to as " Electrum Coinage."

2 Abbreviated to J. I. N.

3 L'Hellénisme primitif de la Macédoine, J. I. N. 1919.

4 In addition to the instances of a northern provenance cited by M. bvoronos, the small hnd oí archaic

gold coins noted in the Cat. H. P. Borrell, 1852, should be cited. Types of Svoronos, pl. xvi, 1-3, a square

in relief, pl. xvi, 10, raised square with crescents, were found in the vicinity of Saloniki. Other archaic gold coins from this find bear the types, rude Gorgon head, head of a horse and head of a fish, Borrell, 39-42.

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2 The American Journal of Numismatics

set forth - the fact that the electrum state

the arms of the city, as the later gold state

common to other cities of Mysia, and amply c

the town by an inscription relating to Lamp

figure of the half-Pegasos1; the entirely palpa uninscribed electrum and gold, and the bronz and, finally, the very valuable evidence for t

electrum staters - namely, the inscriptions

that Lampsakos struck staters in electrum an

Centuries b.c., respectively.2 These inscript had an electrum stater currency c. 450 b.c.,

c. 350 b.c. ; and, when there are at hand coins

ments, it is difficult to imagine that any wri propose to separate the electrum issues from

the gold and yet will not allow the electrum

the electrum staters, both those of Milesia

(217 grains) with the palmette symbol (fig.

weight, -stater of 15.36 gr. (237 grains) wit

type (fig. 2) , to Myrkinos in the Pangaian dis

Fig. i
Fig. i
Fig. 2*
Fig. 2*

On account of the difference in weight standard and the difference in

types, both obverse and reverse, it has long been considered doubtful whether

the palmette staters belong to the mint of Lampsakos. They were excluded

from the regular series in the writer's article on the electrum coinage, as it

is difficult to fit them into the series and because they appear to belong

rather with a group of electrum staters with varying obverses of uncertain

mint, but of homogeneous fabric, alloy, weight and incuse type, which

Mr. P. Gardner and M. Jameson regard as the coinage of the Ionian Revolt.4

1 Electrum Coinage, p. 12.

2 Electrum Coinage, p. 10. Inscr. Gr., I, 301-311. The date of the earliest of these Accounts of the

Epista tai of Athens has now been fixed as 447 b.c. (Woodward, Jour. Hell. Stud. 1914, p. 277). They

contain mention of seventy Lampsakene and twenty-seven Kyzikene "gold", i.e. electrum, staters, since

Xpv<r6 s is naturally used to déscribe electrum. Pure gold coins were not coined as early as this. The

Boiotian inscription of 355-351 b.c. refers to the gold staters. Inscr. Gr., VII, 2418.

8 This coin is the Pozzi specimen, Cat. Pozzi, pl. lxvii, 2225. It is very close in style to Nos. 9-11

Electrum Coinage, Pl. I, and may be classed as No. 10a of Group I.

4 Jour. Hell. Stud. 1911, p. 151 f., Rev. Num. 1911, p. 60 f., and Electrum Coinage, p. 24 f.

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The Gold Staters of Lamps akos 3

Although the Revolt theory seems to hav

M. Svoronos points out the weak points o

assign all of the staters of this class to

not incumbent upon the writer to defen

it is, and plausible, too, in many respects

to the originators of the theory. Our firs

staters, which are very awkward to expla mint, but with the heavier staters which

stituting the regular issues of Lampsakos,

the Attic inscriptions.

It would seem that the special reason w these staters to Paionia, is his interpreta

grams, which occur on these staters, as th

or rulers. Having already in his first es

theory of the close political and comm Miletos, the leading city of Ionia, and Sixth Century b.c., and having thereaf

influence upon the art of the Paionian co

tyrant, Histiaios of Miletos, M. Svoron

sakene stater with the monogram A.2

when M. Svoronos was writing his epoch edly revolutionize many of our basic the he had not seen the writer's paper on th

Otherwise, he might have hesitated to

represented the initial letters of the nam was dynast of Myrkinos, situated at the

early part of the Fifth Century; for th

another monogram on these same state

that a particular one must represent

obliged to provide tyrant's names begin

fii (AE)5; and, also, to provide an hist

their issuing electrum coinage in Paionia, and learnedly done in the case of Aristag

1 Num. de

la

Peonie,

J. I. N. 1913,

p. 193.

2 Electrum Coinage, Pl. I, 5, on the neck of the horse and

speaks of this stater as unedited (loc. cit., p. 238, No. 3), b

the present writer to whom M. Jameson kindly sent a

Jameson Collection and other letters and a monogram on

hitherto unpublished, were first made known in the writer

3

Electrum Coinage, Pl. I, 2.

4

Loc. cit., PL

I,

4.

6

Loc. cit., PL

I,

3.

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4 The American Journal of Numismatics

As regards the attribution of the staters of

I below the horse,1 to Boges, general of Xer

distinctly like an afterthought - a sort of theory. Furthermore, the I staters are not

earlier Lampsakene staters of c. 525-500 B.c.,

which is too late for the governorship of

satrap of Myrkinos for Xerxes should sign hi of the king's name, is very improbable. It is a M. Svoronos even pushes his theory so far

the type, a half-Pegasos enclosed in a vine w

myths and Pegasos and the vine are shown by

in the Pangaian district. But we have good

renown of the Lampsakene vineyards. Strabo,

town, says "For their country abounds with v

their confines, namely, the territory of the P

It was for this reason that Xerxes assigned

supply him with wine"4. The coin types of to the importance of Dionysiac cults there.

ful, occurs on the gold staters, and the Maena

on Greek coins, is quite a distinctive featu

Histiaia in Euboia which was called ■7ro'v<r Homer5, the Maenad head wreathed with th

so at Lampsakos the frequent occurrence of t

the vine was widely cultivated there, Thou

sakos, èèótcei yàp TroXvoLVorarov r&v Tore elvai

Priapos6, who is represented on the later coina

beginning c. 190 b.c. and on the Imperial is

whose chief product was the grape. As to Peg

termined its choice as parasema of the city,

(witness the later coinage), that we need not urgent arguments in favor of a Paionian habi

silver coinage of Lampsakos was struck on

1

Electrum Coinage, PL I, 12a-k.

2

Loc. cit.y p. 13 f.

3 Geogr., Bk. XIII, 12.

4

So also Plutarch, Them. 29: Thouk. I, 138, and Athenaeus I,

5

Iliad II, 537.

6

Athen. 1, 54, Ti/aStcu ôè ir apà Aa/juf/aicrivoís ó IIpfa7ros ó aùrò

by the Lampsakenes, being identical with Dionj'scs."

7 According to Gruppe, Griech. Mythologie, I, p. 166, Pegasos,

Poseidon and Medusa at the source of Okeānos, is an image of t sea and commerce, Pegasos is an eminently suitable badge of a g

Lampsakos.

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The Gold Staters of Lampsakos 5

the heavy weight electrum staters as is

these issues (see below).

Having now reestablished the tradition

to Lampsakos, let us consider the light-

suggests that the palmette stater (see abo

tyrant of Miletos, in the town of My

when this city belonged personally to

Paionian origin is based upon the gener

to have been issued in a country of gold

that the Pegasos myth is strongly loc

Pangaion.

Now, just at the psychological moment there has come to our knowl-

edge a stater of the palmette class, lacking, however the characteristic $ symbol, (fig. 1) as is also the case with the Vienna specimen.2 This

stater, fig. 3, recently acquired by Mr. E. T. Newell who kindly allows its

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

publication here, is unique in bearing on the obverse two symbols common

to the coinage assigned by M. Svoronos to Paionia. These are the symbols

which M. Svoronos calls the Pangaian rose, below the horse, and a four-

pointed star, -J-, to the left of the type.3

The style of the obverse of this stater is very close indeed to that of the half-Pegasos of the Vienna stater. In fact the same obverse die, altered later by the addition of the two symbols, may have been used in striking

these staters, a point not quite demonstrable to a satisfactory degree on

account of the worn condition of the obverse of the new coin. The reverses

of both staters are at any rate unquestionably from the same die. As has

been noted, they differ from the other Pegasos staters of this group in not

bearing the palmette symbol. They are a shade earlier in style, and the

smaller, deeper incuse also distinguishes them from the other issues (Elee-

1 Histiaios' tenure of Myrkinos could not have been for long. Cf. P. N. Ure's remarks in the Origin

of Tyranny, p. 61, "Just after the Persian conquest of Thrace and Paionia, Histiaeus of Miletus, one of

the Persians king's Greek vassals, almost succeeded in securing from the Great King possession of Myrcinus,

a mining centre in the district from which Peisistratus had got so much wealth. He was in fact granted the gift by Darius, who however, was persuaded by the far-sighted Megabazus to recall it."

2 Electrum Coinage, Pl. II, 1.

3 J. I. N. 1919, pl. i, 10, 11; pl. ii, 10, 11, 13-15, Derrones; pl. iii, 1, 2, 23, Laiaioi, etc.; pl. xvi, 28

32-34, 39, 43, etc. Pierians of Mt. Pangaion.

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6 The American Journal of Numismatics

trum Coinage, Pl. II, 2-3 f., and p. 30). Now a belong to the same mint, and as the newly d

which M. Svoronos has shown to be distinc

seem to be no alternative but to attribute them to a mint in the Paionian

region - whether to Myrkinos or not, is uncertain with the evidence at

present available. The date at which Myrkinos was held by Histiaios,

according to M. Svoronos, 513-493 b.c. is appropriate for the style.

These two staters, however, are not the coins which M. Svoronos

selected as examples of the coinage of Myrkinos under the tyranny of

Histiaios.1 The coins which he cites (op. cit., p. 237, pl. xvii, 27) are those

bearing the palmette (fig. 1). If these half-Pegasos staters which, according

to the Revolt theory, are the Lampsakene issues of the Ionian Revolt coinage,

are to be transferred to the Paionian region, all of the other electrum staters

of the same fabric and weight belonging to the Revolt group, must be given

the same origin, and M. Svoronos has found a Paionian mint for each type.

This means the total abandonment of the Ionian League theory heretofore so generally accepted. The discussion of the arguments which M. Svoronos brings to bear in

his brilliant attack upon this theory (op. cit., p. 211 f.) is not properly speaking

a Lampsakene question, and need not detain us long. There can be no

doubt that M. Svoronos has shown up with great skill the weak points of

this theory. Whether, however, his new attributions constitute a better

solution of the problem than the Revolt theory supplied, seems at present

an open question. They are very daring and very ingenious, and after

reading the counter-arguments one cannot help feeling one's confidence in the Revolt theory considerably shaken, even though this theory is so well

supported by the provenance of certain specimens, namely those which

occurred in the Vourla (Klazomenai) hoard.2

As we have given two of the Pegasos staters of the light-weight class to

Paionia on the ground of symbols alone, it is but natural to investigate the

palmette symbol which occurs on the remaining Pegasi. This symbol is

rare on Greek coins, although so common in Greek architectural decoration

and in vase-painting. A survey of the origin and evolution of this decorative

motive in Greek art enables one to recognize as identical a number of var-

iants on the coins which at first glance are quite dissimilar. On Greek

pottery of Rhodos, Naukratis, Melos and other wares of the Ionian class,

the motive occurs in a developed, fully Hellenized form. In Perrot and

1 The Vienna stater (Sestini, Stateri Antichi, p. 62, No. 1) was first published in Electrum Coinage,

Pl. II, 1, which had not been seen by M. Svoronos when he wrote his Hellénisme primitif, and the stater

with the Paionian symbols first became known a few months after the appearance of his great work.

2 Rev. Num. 1911, p. 60.

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The Golo Staters op Lampsakos 7

Chipiez's History of Art, IX, p. 452, it is st ultimate origin of the design, is to be foun

decorative design was derived from the con in the familiar tree-of-life designs (see War

However, from the fact that the palmette

tion with the lotus forms (Perrot et Chipiez

palmette combination), on the early Ionia

Ionian wares, on Corinthian vases (Perrot e de fleurs de lotus et de palmettes"), and th tecture and vase-painting down to the lates

with Goodyear,1 to seek the origin of the p

undoubtedly a form of purely local deve

influence of Egyptian capital-forms which

and papyrus motives.2 Even in Mycenean

figs. 198, 202) the Egyptian fleur-de-lis wi

Cypriote products. Early Cypriote coins

the palmette motive, and the lotus with sp

survival from early Cypriote art.3

The palmette occurs on the following a

of Paionia (Svoronos, op. cit., pl. i, 10, 11; pl

large triskeles which forms the reverse ty

pl. i, 12) below the ox-cart on the obvers

pl. xiv, 11, 12), a half-palmette which Svor after Imhoof-Blumer, Monn. gr., p. 105, N

symbole curieux occurred also on the octodr

man in cart drawn by two oxen (Svoronos,

longue palme ou aplustre"); Mende, in Macedonia, (Cat. Naville IV,

Geneva, 1922, pl. xviii, 438) under the Dionysiac ass of the obverse; Idalium,

Cyprus (British Museum Catalogue, pl. v, 38) beneath the body and raised

Museum Catalogue, pl. v, 38) beneath the body and raised Fig. 4 1 Grammar of the

Fig. 4

1 Grammar of the Lotus, pl. xi, 1.

2 Dussaud, Les Civilisations Pre-helléniques, p. 303 f .

3 Idalium, B.M.C. Cyprus, pl. v, 3-8. Poulsen, Der Orient und die frühgriechische Kunst, p. 29,

also assigns the same origin to the formal palmette device of Cypriote art, although he ascribes this art

to the Phoenicians.

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8 Tuk Amkkicax Jovknal of Numismatics

fore-paw of the Sphinx; and finally, the Pegas

discussion. Later in the Fifth Century are the fo 450-424 b.c., a rare tetradrachm type, recently k

of coins found at Mende, fig. 4, (Cat. Naville I

f. Num., xxxiv, pl. iii, 26) with a design of four p

reverse; Salamis and Paphos, Cyprus, 480-450 b.

in a corner of the reverse, British Museum Catal

6-9)1; Thasos, 411-350 b.c. (Cat. Naville, vi, Be a drachm with "enclosed" palmette on reverse

exergue of the reverse (British Museum Catalo

vignette) a palmette in the center, with lateral h to explain the half-palmettes of the Crestonian a

cited; Metapontum, 466-413 b.c. (British Museu

No. 86, vignette), symbol, in field, of the freer often called "honeysuckle pattern"; Corinth, 420 Catalogue, Corinth, p. 15, pl. iv, 7-9) various desi From the foregoing we may conclude that wh

so rare on coins, is found quite frequently in

district at an early date as well as in Cyprus, whic

the art motive was first evolved, still there is

regarding this symbol on the Pegasos staters (an

Electrum Coinage, Pl. II, 5, on which it is also

northern mint. One might be tempted to spec

with the triskeles, a solar symbol, on the Derr

instance it alternates with the ©, a Paionian s

ibid., pl. ii, 7) and in another instance occupies th

as a stellar design, an undeniable sun symbol ( palmette had in this locality, a symbolic solar

be appropriate for the Mende coins on which

found,3 and also for the horse and cock types

question, which may also have a solar signific

speculation, for apart from these coincidences w

1 The B. M. C. Cyprus, states that the reverse type of Paphos is der

(B. M. C. Caria, pl. xxxv, 1-5) which is similar. But as the types of Ia

Caria, p. cl.) it would rather seem the other way about. The type, e

Cyrene (Num. Chron. 1891, pl. 1-7), was imitated from the Cypriote

this special form was at home.

2 Archaic coins of Kyme in Aiolis, B. M. C. Troas, pl. xix, 5-7 ex

incuse which may have its origin in the palmette-lotus chain design

3 Compare M. Svoronos1 interesting theories regarding the cul

Pangaian region, loc. cit., p. 127 f. and p. 181 f.

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Tuk Goij> Staters ok Lamtsakos 9

THE GOLD STATERS

Plates I-IV

SEQUENCE OF TYPES

Only three new types of Lampsakene gold staters have become known in the long interval since the publication of the writer's first paper on the subject in 1902. These are, namely, the stater with the head of a youthful

Perseus (?), Pl. I, 5, which is in Paris.1 Another example was seen in the

Pozzi Collection some years ago, but this did not appear in the recent sale

of Dr. Pozzi 's coins. The second bears the figure of a kneeling archer in

Oriental costume, PI. I, 9, was acquired in 1895 by Herr Arthur Lübbecke of Braunschweig, and has since passed with his collection into the Berlin

Cabinet. Through the courtesy of the late Dr. Dressel, the writer was

permitted some years ago to describe this beautiful and remarkable new

type.2 The third new type is a stater bearing the head of a youthful

Dionysos wreathed with ivy leaves and berries (see below, fig. 15), a recent acquisition of M. Jameson, who most generously has allowed it to be pub- lished here for the first time. The Perseus head and kneeling archer staters

belong to the earliest group of the coinage, while the youthful Dionysos

stater is one of the latest issues.

In the former paper on these staters, the coins with figure-types were described before those with head-types, since the series admittedly starts

with two figure-types, Herakles strangling the serpents and Helle on the

ram, the reverses of which show the winged half-horse to the left as on the

Fifth Century electrum staters, PI. I, 1, 2, and because the majority of the

figure-types are earlier in style than the head-types.3

No attempt was made, however, to arrange the whole series with a

uniform reverse type in chronological order. In the case of such a coinage lasting less than a century (c. 390-330 b.c. or as some writers have thought,

394-350 b.c.)4, it seemed hardly possible to discover differences of style

sufficiently marked to enable one to determine the order of the issues. But

in casting about for a more satisfactory arrangement, an intensive study

of the details of the reverses, and of the sizes of flans and types, coupled with the study of the style of the obverses, has furnished the clue to the order of the issues. It is rather remarkable that there is only a single case

1 First published by Babelon, Traité II2, No. 2547, pl. clxxi, 14.

2 An Unedited Gold Stater of Lampsakos, Zeit. f. Num. xxxii, p. 1 f, pl. i, 1.

3 The scheme of classification of the Lampsakene gold staters was published in 1915 in the article

cited in Note 2. This article contains also the writer's view of the dates to be assigned to the gold stater

series. Much of the argument that follows as to the chronological succession of the issues, and the date of

the staters is matter repeated from that article, though not in the same form.

4 Head, Hist. Num.2, p. 529. Wroth, B. M. C. Mysia, p. xx f.

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10 The American Journal of Numismatics

where two different obverse types have been

reverse die. This case is the reverse die of the Paris stater of the Herakles

and serpent type and the two staters bearing the Helle on the ram type,

Pl. I, 2, 3, and 4. But it seems reasonable to hope that as new specimens

of Lampsakene staters appear, more die connections will be found which

will then serve as a sure guide to the order of the issues. The chronological scheme here outlined, while perhaps not infallible since it is based chiefly on the data afforded by the details of the reverses, is convincing enough

when one follows step by step the evolution of the style of the Pegasos.

Besides the evidence furnished by the style of the coins, size of their flans,

and size of their types, there is also that presented by the two principal finds

of Lampsakene staters the Asia Minor and Avola hoards; and the analysis

of these finds entirely bears out the conclusions reached by the study of

style.

The earliest issues which include both figure-types and head-types are

those coins which have in general smaller size flans and types. Without

intending to draw a hard and fast line between the groups, it may be said

that the coins on PI. I, Nos. 1-21, all fall within the earliest group. The

second group of coins is characterized by a much more advanced type of

Pegasos - the horse's head is better proportioned, a "ladder" design now

appears on the right wing and also on the left wing, or what represents the

left wing in an abbreviated scheme. The coins of this second group are in

general of a medium size of flans and types as compared with the third and

last group. They may be said to extend down to Pl. II, 27. It is difficult

to say just where we consider the middle style to end for it merges so easily

into the third style. However, the first coin of the middle group, the earliest

of the Hermes head types (Pl. I, 22) is a connecting link between the earliest

and the middle styles, for the "ladder" pattern is not yet worked out on the

wings of the Pegasos of this coin. The second Hermes type shows the

cross-hatching on the feathered portions of the wings which is usually found

on all the succeeding coins and is only omitted when the style begins to

degenerate, as it does most markedly at the end of the third group. This

type, therefore, is a satisfactory starting point for the middle group.

The middle group shows a Pegasos whose head is in better proportion to the body than on coins of the earliest group. The style of the obverses is delicate and compact as on the coins of the first group. When we reach the third group, whose beginning is somewhat hard to define exactly but

which may be said to start with Type 28 of Pl. II, we meet with a style which

for breadth and nobility cannot be surpassed. The Zeus, Nike, Aktaion

and Hekáte types are of an incomparable dignity and beauty. The reverses

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The Gold Staters of Lampsakos 11

now reach the highest development whic

of the Zeus and Nike issues. From this t

begins to decline. The carefully evolv

wings, with fine cross-hatching and "la

hands of less conscientious artisans than

the type. Carelessness in the striking

III, 12, 14, 16-18), while the obverse d

fine art. On the types following the more marked decline in the reverse s

revealing a quite inferior Pegasos to that

of staters, which though awkward are n

types, Dionysos, Pl. III, 21 and Persep

ably rough style.

In spite of the lack of die connectio

obverse types, there can be no uncertai general lines, for there does exist such

dies of certain different obverses as t

identical dies would. For example, the A

die which resembles that of Pl. I, 26, so

to distinguish the two dies. The same m

9 and 10, in which the treatment of t

The reverse of Pl. I, 15, is like these tw the treatment of the wings of the Pega

of the preceding reverses in the treatment

now begins to appear as though separa

on the far wing which gives this effec

almost without exception. The revers alike to admit of any hesitation as to

consecutive issues. The reverses of the

29 and 30, are almost but not quite id

other reverses in the rendering of the

noticeable similarity in style on the o

grouped together. The Maenad head o

which is the most advanced in style, Pl

with the Hermes and Apollo heads, P

Nike heads, Pl. II, 30 and 31, and Pl. III, PL III, 18 and 19, might be by the same Here and there one finds deviations f

Pegasos wing is treated quite independ

type, Pl. II, 18, 19; it follows no traditio

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12 The American Journal op Numismatics

large. The head of Dionysos, however, is smal

well in style with the satrapal head of the coins

This is a case where we might suppose that m

set of dies that would couple up and give a mor

Yet reverses of individual style are found no

whole series. An example is Pl. II, 28, where than usual in proportion - the wings also. An with the "archaic" Athena head, Pl. III, 29; it on the coinage. The head which is directly co

Athens, in profile to left, however, is quite akin

This would fall at the very close of the Lampsak

dating, and the reverse may consequently be acc

as those here classed as the latest issue, Pl. II

breaking away from the traditional scheme o

are already manifested in some of the precedin

After the Nike type of PL III, 2, the Pegas

fine and carefully perfected style characteristic

and of the first examples of the third group.

head, Pl. I, 21, which by reason of its small flan

obverse and reverse types, may perhaps belon has been placed. It might precede the facing

it could hardly come earlier. Note the way in w the feathered end of the near wing curls over t The following reverses selected from the thr

staters fall, are representative of the evolution i

to the chronological order of the issues. This

to the stylistic development of the wing of the S

later Fifth Century coins of Chios.

of the wing of the S later Fifth Century coins of Chios. Fig. 5 Fig. 5,

Fig. 5

Fig. 5, Helle on the ram (Pl. I, 3), exhibits a Pegasos of semi-archaic

style. The reverse die is identical with that of the Herakles and serpents type

(Pl. I, 2), and these are the earliest reverse dies, as the direction of the horse

to the left and the kinship with the electrum staters indicate (type with ī,

Electrum Coinage, Pl. I, 12a f.). By this we mean that the more natural-

istic feathered form of the wing found on the archaic electrum staters is

still retained.

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The Gold Staters of Lampsakos 13

The Gold Staters of Lampsakos 13 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Figs. 6 and 7, kneeling archer

Fig. 6

The Gold Staters of Lampsakos 13 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Figs. 6 and 7, kneeling archer

Fig. 7

Figs. 6 and 7, kneeling archer and Nike sacrificing a ram (Pl. I, 9 and

10), of strikingly similar style, exhibit some advance over the earlier types,

but the wing behind the horse is not yet separated from the truncation of

the body, and the feathered portions of the wings are still more or less

naturalistic, as on the archaic electrum coins. The reverse type is now

turned to the right, and this direction remains unchanged in all the suc-

ceeding gold issues, as well as on all other silver and bronze issues struck

hereafter.

as on all other silver and bronze issues struck hereafter. Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 8,

Fig. 8

all other silver and bronze issues struck hereafter. Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 8, Maenad head

Fig. 9

Fig. 8, Maenad head (Pl. I, 19) shows the beginning of the separation

of the far wing from the body of the horse and the feathered parts of the wings conventionally schematized.

Fig. 9, Hermes' head (Pl. I, 25) marks the complete development of

the schematic treatment of the wings, a sort of "ladder" pattern running down the middle of the right wing and finishing off the inside of the left wing, and fine cross-hatching appearing on the feathered portions of both

wings.

appearing on the feathered portions of both wings. Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 10, Zeus head

Fig. 10

appearing on the feathered portions of both wings. Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 10, Zeus head

Fig. 11

Fig. 10, Zeus head (Pl. II, 22) shows the same details of treatment and

a larger size of type and flan.

Fig. 11, Zeus with sceptre (Pl. III, 2) of still larger size of type and

flan, exhibits the highest development of style in a finely proportioned

vigorous Pegasos, of which several different dies exist.

The wing of the Sphinx on the coins of Chios shows a similar evolution from the archaic style, which also prevails through the transitional period, although this "modernization" is effected suddenly (in the tetradrachms of

c. 440-420 b.c.) and not by degrees as in the Lampsakene coins.

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14 The American Journal of Numismatics

14 The American Journal of Numismatics F i g . 1 2 Fig. 13 Fig. 14

Fig. 12

14 The American Journal of Numismatics F i g . 1 2 Fig. 13 Fig. 14

Fig. 13

American Journal of Numismatics F i g . 1 2 Fig. 13 Fig. 14 Fig. 12,

Fig. 14

Fig. 12, Aktaion head (Pl. III, 14), Fig. 13, Kabeiros head (Pl. Ill, 26),

and Fig. 14, Aphrodite (?) head (Pl. III, 33), illustrate the gradual decline

in style which is most evident in the carelessly done reverse of the Kabeiros

head - a beautiful type, and the sadly inferior style of the Aphrodite (?)

staters.

Enough has been said in justification of our arrangement of the staters

from the standpoint of style. It was mentioned earlier that the evidence

of two hoards containing Lampsakene staters confirmed our arrangement.

Sometime ago, Six1, taking the style of the reverses as a guide, had arranged

the twenty types known to him in a chronological order which in many

points corresponds with our own. Mr. Hill, of the British Museum, was

once kind enough to give the writer a letter written to the late Mr. Wroth by Six, dated Amsterdam, May 18, 1892, in which the distinguished numis-

matist, to whom our science is indebted for so many of its most original and

learned contributions,2 outlined his idea of the grouping of the Lampsakene

staters into two groups, according to the two finds. Lübbecke3 also, and

Greenwell,4 in publishing these finds which were made about 1888 at Avola,

near Syracuse, and in Asia Minor, probably in the Troad, made very just

observations upon the differences of style shown by the coins in the finds.

Of the latter hoard, Löbbecke wrote that all of the staters appeared to be

later than those of the Avola hoard, the flan of the former being larger and

flatter, and the incuse square almost disappearing - the workmanship in

certain staters showing already that a decline in style had set in. Greenwell wrote of the facing Satyr head which came from the Avola find, "This fine stater of Lampsacus, of an earlier issue than some of those presently to be

noticed,5 formed part of a hoard lately found in Sicily." And, again, in

discussing the Asia Minor find, he wrote, "Two of them appear to belong

to the later issue of gold staters of Lampsacus, and probably do not date

from a time earlier than that of Philip II of Macedón."

1 Num. Chron. 1888, p. 111.

* It was Six who first called attention to the Boiotian inscription of the middle of the Fourth Century

b.c., which mentions gold staters of Lampsakos (Electrum Coinage, p. 10), as this letter proves.

3

Zeit. f. Num. 1890, p. 179.

4

Num. Chron. 1890, p. 25.

6

Namely, those from the Asia Minor hoard.

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The Gold Staters of Lamps akos 15

The Avola find1 contained seven diffe

type, Apollo seated (Pl. I, 6), and the h

Demeter r. (PI. I, 15), Hermes 1. (PI. I, 22

(Pl. II, 8) and Maenad 1. with sakkos (Pl

contained these seven types: Athena 1. (P

(Pl. II, 10), Zeus with sceptre (Pl. Ill, 2)

(Pl. III, 19), Kabeiros 1. (Pl. III, 25

or 27

The contents of these two hoards cor

nouncedly earlier and later styles noti

rather easily discerned at first view, for staters which are of the later style, whi

none of the earlier staters. The most i

that the two staters common to both ho

sakkos types, belong to our middle gro

late character of the two hoards respecti

the types of an intermediate group are co

If, therefore, we can date the Athena have been consecutive issues from their

the latest staters in the Avola hoard, we

as the probable date of deposit. Now th

besides the Lampsakene staters, one hu

Corinth and her colonies, fourteen hun

one gold stater of Abydos, and four P

quite logically enough from his informa

c. 320 b.c., the limit furnished by the

on the suggestion of Sir Arthur Evans,4 a composite one, made up of two separat

in Sicily at about this same time. If th

separate finds - one composed of gold

period represented by the coins in the g

1 Num. Chron. 1890, p. 25; Zeit. f. Num. 1890, p. 169 f

2 There were fourteen staters in the hoard but five of

were duplicates of the seven above enumerated.

3 Num. Chron. 1890, p. 26 f.; Zeit. f. Num., 1890, p. 17

4 Num. Chron. 1891, p. 297, note 22. " According to m

been discovered in the same Sicilian district within the la

two hoards of very different composition, one apparently

and the other from the beginning of the Third. The c

belong to two distinct hoards, one of early gold coins incl

and Abydos and a Persian daric; the other of the late silv

Dr. P. Orsi, in the latest account of this hoard, Att

gold coins were contained in one clay vase, the silver in ano

that this report may have been incorrect and that there

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16 The American Journal of Numismatics

413 b.c., the date of the Syracusan gold coins, to

assign to the Athena and Maenad heads, the la

according to the criteria of style.

It so happens that these two types are very reverses to the staters bearing a head of a Pe

This type follows in our scheme next but one1

The Persian satrap type appears in three example

esting coins. The specimen, Pl. II, 15, from th

Glasgow, was long the only example known. La

acquired the stater, Pl. II, 16; and M. Jameson

Pl. II, 17. The Glasgow coin does not give any s than a typical head of a satrap, but the two ne

decidedly that portraiture is here intended, for

both these heads. This portrait can hardly be

Orontas, who was satrap of Mysia and Ionia,

struck silver coins at Lampsakos bearing a head of A

not dissimilar in style to the Athena head on the

the reverse the Lampsakene arms, a fore-part

OPONTA.3

The occasion of the issue of these satrapal

undoubtedly as Six first pointed out, and Babel

the revolt of the satraps against Artaxerxes I

Orontas issued the staters of Lampsakos with the

occasion of the revolt against the Persian King, c with Athena and Maenad heads were issued just b

our sequence of types be correct.

A consideration of the style of the coins wh

group will perhaps serve to strengthen this conc

on that rather unstable and shifting basis of s

staters begins, according to our arrangement, al Hera and Zeus staters (Pl. II, 30 f.) which represe

of art on Lampsakene staters. The Zeus head,

was clearly the earliest die, Pl. II, 31-35, is one of

1 A facing helmeted head of Athena, Pl. II, 14, intervenes.

2 Babelon, Traite II2, p. 105 f, explains the gold issue as insurrecti

of any royal inscription or type. The head has been ascribed to Tiss but in the Hist. Num.2, p. 597, this eminent authority agrees with

former satraps come too early in the Fourth Century for this Lamp classification, was struck c. 360 b.c., and Spithridates, a third possibi

coins from our mint, comes too late, since his coins were probably st

Codomannus when the latter was preparing to resist the invasion of

3 Babelon, Traite II2, pl. lxxxviii, 15.

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The Gold Staters of Lamps akos 17

of the die-sinker, a majestic yet genial t

(Pl. Ill, 3-7), excellent as they seem by th

more expressionless than the first die, this

type first created was merely copied ove

Nike, of Herakles as Omphale, of Aktaion a

plane of excellence. These types are the

series and, given the number of types whic

admitted beginning of the coinage, c. 390

seem to suit the style of these staters and t

we have drawn from the study of the re soundly based date is that which we can i

seems likely, bears the portrait head of

issues is correct, the latest coins of the Avol

to 362 b.c., which furnishes us with an app

this hoard.

The date of deposit of the Asia Minor hoard will depend upon the date

which is chosen for the end of the Lampsakene issues since it contained

examples of staters, which, according to our arrangement, are the latest of

the series. The date given in the British Museum Catalogue for the lower

limit of the stater coinage is "c. 350 b.c." This date according to the

foregoing hypotheses would be much too early. Six and Babelon have

supposed that the stater coinage of Lampsakos was not immediately ended by the appearance of Philip's staters, c. 359-336 b.c., but only when Alex-

ander's staters had begun to flood the markets of Asia Minor. This view

seems in itself more probable, and, it should be noted, is that accepted also for the period of cessation of the issues of electrum at Kyzikos.1 Further- more, there are two staters in the third group which ex hypothesi would

be subsequent to c. 350 b.c., which bear types quite possibly referring to Alexander the Great. These are, namely, the stater with a youthful male

head without attributes, Pl. IV, 22, and the Zeus Ammon head, PL III, 23,

both unique coins in the Paris cabinet. The former has been called an

Achilles head, but this is obviously a mere guess. The head is the only

male head in the series which has no defining attribute to enable us to

describe it as that of some deity. There is also a female head without

attributes in the series which has been called that of the eponomous heroine

of Lampsakos, who was called Lampsake. This is far from being an improb-

able suggestion since the local nymph is one of the commonest of all the

Greek coin types. For the male head without attributes, we are at a loss

for a name. It can scarcely be a personification like that of the founder,

1 Cf. Die Elektron Prägung von Kyzikos by H. v. Fritze in Nomisma VII.

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18 The American Journal of Numismatics

for in this case the reputed founder was a woma

shown at Lampsakos in Plutarch's day. Six onc

represented Alexander the Great. He consider

type and the Maenad head with the flying hai Alexander's reputed father whom he claimed

mother, Olympias, about whose participation in

Bacchic cult many stories were told. The inte

head as that of Olympias may easily be dismissed

it is one of the early staters, not one of the late

ceded that the reverse of the young male head w

nameless, has a somewhat Alexandrine charact

of the same style as that of the Zeus Ammon sta

a period which we should regard as towards the

being so, there is some reason for thinking that

Alexander, the former being a sort of disguised

as Six ingeniously imagined, have been chosen by

tude to Alexander for his forebearance in spar victorious march into Asia Minor in 334 b.c.1

connected with Alexander and only three more

are known, we may assume that the coinage This dating harmonizes with the supposition

satrapal portrait stater, and perhaps also the A

this type would then fall into the exact middle o

and its style quite suits such a date.

The discussion of the date of the beginning of

up in connection with the discussion of the fi

serpent - the type which gives us the data fo

coinage began.

A valuable test of the order of the Lampsakene

is afforded by the opportunity to place an unpu and to see whether the style of the reverse and obverse, size of type and flan, height of relief,

stater, No. 38, fig. 15 (see Cat. of Types), a

is very easily recognized as one of the latest issu

obverse and reverse. The Pegasos is done in th

close of the series - a style which, at first g

earliest issues in the treatment of the wings, bu

not the early imperfect style but the debased sty

perfection of the coins of the middle and third

1 Droysen, Hist, de l'Hellénisme, I, p. 189.

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The Gold Staters of Lampsakos 10

of Pegasos is found in the staters, PL mation to our stater is the reverse of

This position in the series is entirely i

the obverse type and flan, and the br

mary treatment of the hair, the large siz

these features of the bearded Dionysos lacks the delicacy of the early Maenad

female Satyr, Pl. III, 13, it is dignified a of the Lampsakene types with the excep

nian coinage Pl. III, 29, it has beauty an

CATALOGUE OF TYPES

Í Infant Herakles, nude, kneeling to r., strangling a serpent

arm raised, 1. lowered ; crepundia over 1. shoulder and under r. arm Forepart of a winged horse to 1., rounded wings, feathered, 1 ered ; 1. wing in three sections, the one joining the body plain, mid one feathered ; row of dots at termination of horse's body.

a. 18 X 14mm. 8.44 gr. Boston (Green well- Warren); I -a.1 Plate I, 1

Cat. Ivanoff, No. 192 (S. W. & H., June, 1863); Brandis, Münz. -Mass. u. Gewichtswesen, p. 409; Greenwell, Num. Chron. 1880, p. 1*2, pl. i, 11; Gardner, Types of Greek Coins, p. 33, pl. xvi, 8; Regling, Sammlung Warren, No. 1002, pl. xxiii ; Gardner, Gold Coinage of Asia, in the Pro-

ceedings of the British Academy, III, 1908, pl. ii, 9; Jour. Inter, de Num. (hereinafter abbre-

viated to J. I. N.) 1902, la, pl. i, 1.

b. 16mm. 8.43 gr. (pierced). Paris (Old Collection); II-/3. Platel, 2

Pellerin, Recueil, II, p. 51, pl. xlix, 22; Sestini, Lettere e Dissertazioni (Livorno, 1779) IV,

p. 70, pl. v, 2; Eckhel, Doctrina Num. Vet. II, p. 456; Mionnet, Cat. d'Empreintes, p. 42, No. 827,

and Descr. de Méd. II, p. 559, No. 284; Sestini, Stateri Antichi, p. 64, No. 13, pl. vi, 10; Wadd-

ington, Rev. Num. 1863, pl. x, 5; Brandis, op. cit ., p. 409; Babelon, Traité II2, No. 2529, pl.

clxx, 28; J. I. N. 1902, No. Ib, pl. i, 2.

a and Ķ different obverse and reverse dies.

2 Helle, wearing chiton and himation, seated sidewise on a ram which advances

to 1. with raised fore-legs.

Similar.

a .2 16mm. 8.41 gr. Berlin (Prokesch-Osten) ; I -a. Plate I, 3

Prokesch-Osten, Arch. Zeitung, 1849 (Denk. u. Forsch. No. 10, p. 97), pl. x, 2; Gerhard, ibid., 1853 (D. u. F. No. 58, p. 116), pl. lviii, 9; Prok.-O., Inedita meiner Sammlung, 1854, No.

282, p. 50, pl. iv, 8; Brandis, op. cit., p. 410; Zeit. f. Num. 1877, p. 5; J. I. N. 1902, 2a, pl. i, 3.

1 The Roman and Greek numerals following the weight and present location of each coin in- dicate the obverse and reverse dies in serial numbering for each type, and their combinations.

2 Example a was purchased in 1848 at Livadhia (Lebedeia, Boiotia), by Prokesch-Osten who describes another specimen (Arch. Zeit. 1849, p. 97) of the same weight but less well preserved,

which he bought in Orchomenos and ceded to H. P. Borrell, in Smyrna. This second specimen

is doubtless the de Luynes coin, 6.

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20 The American Journal of Numismatics

b. 16mm. 8.44 gr. Paris (de Luynes); II-a. Plate I, 4

Brandis, op. cit., p. 410; Babelon, Traité II2, No. 2530, pl. clxx, 29; Cat. Borrell, No. 134

(S. & W., London, 1852); J. I. N. 1902, 2b, pl. i, 4.

a and b , different obverse dies but same reverse die. Reverse die of Type 2 iden-

tical with that of Type 1 ř, the only case in the whole series where the same reverse

die is combined with two different obverse dies.

3 Young male head, Perseus (?), helmeted 1., hair falls in loose locks; visor of

helmet ends in a volute ornament ; above volute is a small wing ; below the wing, a

volute.

Similar, horse to r., r. wing raised, 1. lowered ; middle section of r. wing

widens out from a row of dots to an even row of feathers.

a. 16mm. 8.40 gr. Paris; unique.1 Plate I, 5

Babelon, Traité II2, No. 2547, pl. clxxi, 14. (" tête imberbe d'A

4 Orpheus, wearing " Phrygian " cap, with flaps at back

girdled at waist, and himation thrown back from shoulders, s r. elbow on knee and supports chin with r. hand ; on 1. knee hangs a strap ; ground line. Similar, no row of dots at termination of horse's body.

а. 16mm. 8.40 gr. Berlin (Löbbecke) ; I -a. Platel, 6

From the Avola Find. Lübbecke, Zeit. f. Num. 1890, p. 170, No. 9, pl. vi (

1902, 4b, pl. i, 7.

б. 16mm. 8.43 gr. Paris (Waddington) ; II-/3. Plate I, 7.

Babelon, llev. Num. 1897, p. 319, No. 868, pl. vii, 12 = Inv. Wadd. pl. ii, 12, and Traite II2, No. 2532, pl. clxx, 31; J. I. N. 1902, 4a, pl. i, 6.

a and 6, different obverse and reverse dies.

5 Thetis or a Nereid, semi-nude, limbs draped, hair long, seated to 1. on dolphin

to r., holding in r. hand knemides, and on 1. arm, a shield (arms of Achilles?).

Similar.

a . 16mm. 8.41 gr. Paris (Old Coll.) ; unique. Plate I, 8

Mionnet, Cat d'Empreintes, p. 42, No. 825; Sestini, Lett, e Diss. (Berlin, 1805),

pl. iii, G, and Stateri Antichi, p. 65, No. 16, pl. vi, 13; Mionnet, Deser, de Méd. II

285; Brandis, op. cit., p. 410; Babelon, Traité II2, No. 2531, pl. clxx, 30; Imlioof-Blumer, J. I. N. 1908, p. 134, pl. viii, 44; J. I. N. 1902, 3a, pl. i, 5.

6 An archer kneeling to r. on r. knee, 1. elbow resting on 1. knee, holding in 1.

hand an upright bow, together with an arrow ; his r. arm drawn back from the body

hangs down with open palm ; he wears a cap with loose flaps bound with a ribbon of

which the ends are tied in a bow-knot ; a long-sleeved chiton girdled at the waist ;

anaxyrides , and shoes turned up at the toe ; over the chiton, he wears a close-fitting jacket of some padded material or leather, laced down the front, with short caps over the arms ; ground line.

Similar.

1 Another example was once in the Pozzi Collection, but it was possibly not genuine. It

does not appear in the Pozzi Sale Catalogue, 1920.

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Tuk Gold Staters of Lamps ak os 21

a . 16ram. 8.42 gr. Berlin (Löbbecke) ; unique. Plate I, 9

J. I. N. 1902, p. 8, and Zeit. f. Num. xxxii, pp. 1-14, pl. i, 1.

7 Nike, winged, semi-nude, with drapery about the legs, kneels 1. on a ram seat to 1. ; .with her 1. hand she seizes 1. horn of ram, and holds back its head, while in

r. hand, she holds a knife pointed at the ram's throat.

Similar.

a. 16mm. 8.42 gr. London (formerly Sir H. Weber) ; unique. Plate I, 10

Greenwell, Num. Chron. 1885, p. 10, pl. i, 9; Babelon, Traité II2, No. 2534, pl. clxx, 33;

Head, Hist. Num. p. 529, fig. 276; J. I. N. 1902, 6a, pl. i, 9.

The example in Cat. Monn. gr. ant., No. 509, pl. xi (Rollin et Feuardent, Paris,

May, 1910), weighing only 3.40 gr., was a forgery and withdrawn from the sale.

8 Head of a Satyr, facing, slightly to 1., with straight hair brushed back from

the forehead, and flowing beard cropped short between the long drooping moustache, and with pointed animal's ears.

Similar.

a. 15mm. 8.41 gr. Berlin (Löbbecke) ; I-a. Platel, 11

From the Avola Find. Löbbecke, Zeit. f. Num. 1890, p. 169, No. 3, pl. vi (x),

1902, 32b, pl. iii, 16.

b. 15mm. 8.43 gr. Paris (Waddington) ; 1-ß. Plate I, 12

Babelon, Rev. Num. 1897, p. 318, No. 851, pl. vii, 9 = Inv. Wadd. pl. ii, 9, and Trai

No. 2561, pl. clxxii, 5; J. I. N. 1902, 32c, pl. iii, 17.

c. 16mm. 8.39 gr. Boston (Greenwell-Warren) ; II-ß. Plate I, 13

From the Avola Find. Greenwell, Num. Chron. 1890, p. 25, pl. iii, 11; Regling, Samm. War- ren, No. 1011, pl. xxiii; J. I. N. 1902, 32a, pl. iii, 15.

d. 16mm. 8.33 gr. Jameson, Paris ; II-ß. Plate I, 14

Cat. Sandeman, No. 236, pl. iv (S. W. & II., London, June, 1911); Cat. Jameson, N

pl. xcv (Paris, 1913).

a-d, two obverse dies - a and 6, c and d identical ; two reverse dies -

d, identical.

9 Head of Demeter r., wearing corn wreath, hair rolled.

1$ Similar.

a. 15mm. 8.38 gr. Berlin (Löbbecke) ; I-a. Plate I, 15

From the Avola Find. Löbbecke, Zeit. f. Num. 1890, p. 169, No. 4, pl. vi (x), 4; J.

1902, 17b, pl. ii, 10.

b. 14mm. 8.42 gr. London; II-ß. Plate I, 16

From the Avola Find. Wroth, Num. Chron. 1890, p. 324, No. 24, pl

Mysia, No. 23, pl. xix, 1; Farnell, Cults of the Greek States, III, Coin P

II2, No. 2545, pl. clxxi, 12; Num. Chron. 1891, p. 116; J. I. N. 1902,

a and 6, different obverse and reverse dies.

JO Head of Dionysus 1., bearded, wearing ivy wreath with a

over the forehead.

IÇ? Similar.

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22 The American Journal of Numismatics

a. 16mm. 8.41 gr. London (formerly Sir H. Weber

Greenwell, Num Chron. 1893, p. 85; Weber, Num. Chron. 1

Babelon, Traité II2, No. 2553; J. I. N. 1902, 24a, pl. iii, 1.

ti Head of a Maenad 1., hair rolled, loose locks falli

wreath with berries, ear-ring with a single pendant, and n

Similar.

a. 17mm. 8.42 gr. Berlin (Fox) ; I -a. Platel, 18

Numismata Antiqua (Pembroke Coll.), 1740, pl. iv, 9; Sestini, Stateri A pl. vi, G; Cat. Pembroke, No. 880 (Sotheby, London, July, 1848); Brandis,

Num. Ilell. (As. Gr.) p. 72; Six, Num. Chron. 1888, p. Ill, No. 9; Babelo

pl. clxxi, 24; J. I. N. 1902, 27a, pl. iii, 10.

b. 16mm. 8.45 gr. (Formerly Philipsen) ; II-/3. Plate I, 19

Cat. Philipsen, No. 1791, pl. xxi (Hirsch XXV, Munich, Nov. 1909); Cat. Monn. gr.

pl. xxix, 794 (Naville et Cie, Geneva, 1922).

c. 18mm. 8.38 gr. Jameson, Paris; III-ß. Platei, 20

Found in Egypt. Babelon, Traité II2, No. 2550, pl. clxxi, 23; Cat. Jameson

lxxiii, Paris, 1913. From the Avierino Coll. = (?) Dr. Eddé, Ras. Num. 1909, p. 55.

a-c , three obverse dies ; two reverse dies - b and e identical.

'2 Head of young Pan 1., beardless, with a goat's horn.

Similar.

a. 16mm. 8.37 gr. Boston (Perkins); unique. Platel, 21

Found in Crete. Svoronos, J. I. N. 1899, p. 301, pl. IA', 12; Cat. of Perkins Col

428; Babelon, Traité II2, No. 2500, pl. clxxii, 4; J. I. N. 1902, 31a, pl. iii, 14.

Í3 Head of young Hermes 1., hair short, wearing flat petasos, without

top of which, a button ; band of petasos visible.

B? Similar, but middle section of r. wing has now evolved into a " lad

tern " which begins to be seen also on the lowered 1. wing.1

a. 16mm. 8.45 gr. Berlin (Löbbecke) ; I -a. Plate I, 22

From the Avola Find. Löbbecke, Zeit. f. Num. 1890, pl. vi (x), 7; J. I. N. 190

ii, 12.

b. 17mm. 8.55 gr. (Formerly O'Hagan) ; ll-ß. Plate I, 23

Cat. O'Hagan, No. 535, pl. ix (S. W. Sc IL, London, May, 1908).

c . 16mm. 8.38 gr. Jameson, Paris (formerly Duruflé) ; III-7. Plat

Cat. Jameson, No. 1430, pl. lxxiii (Paris, 1913).

d. 17mm. 8.45 gr. Paris (Waddington) ; IV-7. Platel, 25

Babelon, Rev. Num. 1897, p. 318, No. 800, pl. vii, 4 = Inv. Wadd. pl. ii, 4, and T

No. 2540, pl. clxxi, 13; J. I N. 1902, 18a, pl. ii, 11.

e. 18mm. 8.40 gr. Boston (Green well- Warren) ; V-S. Plate I, 26

Greenwell, Num. Chron. 1897, p. 258, pl. xi, 11; Regling, Samm. Warren, No. 1013, pl.

xxiii; J. I. N. 1902, 18c.

a-e , five obverse dies ; four reverse dies - c and d identical.

1 The feathered end of the wing also from now on shows a fine cross-hatching visible first on types Nos. 11 and 12.

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The Gold Staters of Lampsakos 23

Í4 Head of Apollo 1., hair rolled, wearing a

lette, or fillet, which passes over his front hair,

either side.

jy Similar.

a . 17mm. 8.40 gr. Munich; I -a. Plate I, 27

Sestini, Stateri Antichi, p. 63, No. 9, pl. vi, 7; Mionnet, Descr. de 544; Brandis, op. cit. p. 410; Six, Num. Chron. 1888, p. Ill, No. 7, also Traité II2, No. 2543, pl. clxxi, 9; J. I. N. 1902, 15a, pl. ii, 6.

b. 18mm. 8.41 gr. Jameson, Paris (formerly Warren); II-/3. Platel, 28

Cat. Jameson, No. 1440, pl. lxxiii (Paris, 1913); Regling, Samm. Warren, No. 1010, pl.

xxiii; Cat. Well-known Amateur (Warren), No. 99, pl. iii (S. W. & H., London, May, 1905);

Babelon, Traité II2, No. 2543, pl. clxxi, 10.

a and ò, different obverse and reverse dies.

Í5 Head of bearded Herakles 1. in lion's scalp.

Similar.

a. 15mm. 8.40 gr. Berlin (Löbbecke) ; unique. Plate I, 29

From the Avola Find. Löbbecke, Zeit. f. Num. 1890, p. 169, No. 6, pl. vi (x), 6; Ba

Traité II2, No. 2557, pl. clxxii, 1; J. I. N. 1902, 28a, pl. iii, 11.

té Head of Demeter 1., wearing a corn wreath and veil, ear-ring with t

pendant, and necklace.

Similar.

а . 17mm. 8.50 gr. Paris (Old Coll.) ; I -a. Platel, 30

Cat. Wellenheim I, 4890 (Vienna, 1844); Six, Num. Chron. 1888, p. Ill, No. p. 310; Babelon, Traité II2, No. 2544, pl. clxxi, 11; J. I. N. 1902, 16b, pl. ii, 8.

б.1 17mm. 5.29 gr. (plated). London; II-/3. Platel, 31

Wroth, B. M. C. No. 27, pl. xix, 5; J. I. N. 1902, 16a, pl. ii, 7.

a and 6, different obverse and reverse dies.

'7 Head of a Maenad thrown back, with flying hair, wearing ivy wrea

berries over the forehead, ear-ring with triple pendant, and necklace ; interw her hair is a diadem, ends flying, sometimes fringed.

Similar.

а. 16mm. 8.44 gr. Boston (Perkins, formerly Ashburnham) ; I -a. Plate I, 32

Cat. Ashburnham, No. 151, pl. iv (S. W. & H., London, May, 1895); Cat. of Perkins Coll.

pl. v, 429; J. I. N. 1902, 25e.

б. 17mm. 8.46 gr. London; II-a. Plate I, 33

Head, Guide, p. 37, No. 15, pl. xviii, 15; B. M. C. Mysia, No. 2

25c, pl. iii, 6.

1 The second example 6, is a plated coin, which has been regarde authorities as an ancient forgery. Its appearance at first glance is n impulse is to condemn it from its brassy look as a modern product

the single-drop ear-ring), looks like ancient work, and in the absenc fabrication, it seems safe to consider it, with Wroth, as an ancient p

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24 The American Journal of Numismatics

c. 17mm. 8.46 gr. (Formerly Caruso) ; II-/3.

Cat. Monn. gr. ant. (Duruflé), No. 508, pl. xii (R. et F., Par Caruso, No. 68, pl. ii (C. & E. Canessa, Naples, June, 1923).

d . 16mm. 8.49 gr. Jameson, Paris; III-7. Platel, 34

Cat. Jameson, No. 1444, pl. lxxiv (Paris, 1913) = (?) Dr. Eddé, llass. Num. 190

e.

16mm. 8.46 gr. Cambridge (McClean) ; III-S. Plate I, 35

/.

16mm. 8.47 gr. Bement, Philadelphia ; IV-8.

Cat. Gr., Rom. u. Byz. Münzen, No. 465, pl. xv (Hirsch, XXXIV, Munich, May, 1914)

Cat. C. S. Bement Coll., pl. xvii, 256 (New York, 1921).

g . 16mm. 8.54 gr. Yakountchikoff, Petrograd (formerly Hoskier) ; V-S.

Cat. Hoskier, No. 371, pl. xiii (Hirsch XX, Munich, Nov. 1907 = Hirsch XVIII, No. 2440,

Munich, 1907).

A. 16mm. 8.45 gr.

Cat. Hirsch XII, 1904, No. 230.

i. 16mm. 8.40 gr. (Formerly Pozzi) ;

Cat. Monn. gr. ant., pl. lxvii, 2229 (Ňaville et

j. 16mm. 8.38 gr.

Cat. Monn. gr. ant., pl. xxix, 792 (Naville

k. 16mm. 8.42 gr. (Formerly Consul Weber) ; Vl-e.

1

. 16mm.

m . 16mm. 8.40 gr.

Cat. Monn. gr. ant., pl. xxix, 793 (Naville et C

w. 17mm. 8.43 gr. Berlin (Prokesch-Osten) ; VII-??. Plate II, 1

Cat. Thomas, No. 1998 (Sotheby, London, 1844); Von Saliet, Königl. Münz-kabinet, 1877, p. 86, No. 212; J. I. N. 1902, 25d.

0. 17mm. 8.48 gr. Glasgow (Hunter) ; VIII-0. Plate II, 2

Combe, Mus. Hunter, p. 165, No. 2, pl. xxxi, 23; Mionnet, Descr. de Méd. II, p.

290; Sestini, Stateri Antichi, p. 63, No. 7, pl. vi, 5; Brandis, op. cit., p. 410; Macdonald, Coll. II, p. 271, No. 4; J. I. N. 1902, 25f.

p. 17mm. 8.44 gr. Paris (Waddington) ; IX-¿. Piateli, 3

Babelon, Rev. Num. 1897, p. 318, No. 862, pl. vii, 6==Inv. Wadd., pl. ii, 6, and Traité I No. 2554, pl. clxxi, 21; J. I. N. 1902, 25b, pl. iii, 5.

q. 18mm. 8.45 gr. Paris (de Luynes) ; IX-¿. Plate II, 4

De Luynes, Choix, pl. ix, 18; Blanchet, Monn. gr., pl. v, 5; Brandis, op. cit., p.

hoof-Blumer, J. I. N. 1908, p. 130, pl. viii, 35; J. I. N. 1902, 25a, pl. iii, 4ě

a-q (seventeen specimens) nine obverse dies - b and c; d and e ; g and

p and q , identical. Ten reverse dies - a and b ; e-g , i, j ; A, Je; p, q , identical.

Í8 Head of Athena 1., wearing crested Athenian helmet with raised che

and scroll ornament ; ear-ring with triple pendant, and necklace. B? Similar.

a. 18mm. 8.42 gr. Paris (Waddington); I -a. Piateli, 5

Babelon, Rev. Num. 1897, p. 318, No. 858, pl. vii, 2 = Inv. Wadd., pl. ii, 2, and

No. 2540, pl. clxxi, 6; J. I. N. 1902, 12a, pl. ii, 1.

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The Gold Staters of Lampsakos 25

b. 17mm. 8.42 gr. Boston (Green well-Warren) ; 11-a. Plate II, 6

From the Asia Minor (Troad) Find. Greenwell, Num. Chron. 1890, p. 20, pl. iii, 12; Reg-

ling, Samm. Warren, No. 1008, pl. xxiii; J. I. N. 1902, 12b, pl. ii, 2.

c. 16mm. 8.37 gr. Glasgow (Hunter) ; III-/S. Plate II, 7

Macdonald, Hunter. Coll. II, p. 271, No. 3, pl. xlviii, 3; J. I. N. 1902, 12d.

d. 17mm. 8.42 gr. Berlin (Löbbecke) ; IV-. Plate II, 8

From the Avola Find. Löbbecke, Zeit. f. Num. 1890, p. 169, No. 5, pl. vi (x),

1902, 12c, pl. ii, 3.

a-dj four obverse dies ; two reverse dies - a and 5, c and d, identical.

Í9 Head of a Maenad 1., wearing a wreath composed of vine leaves an

of grapes, ear-ring with triple pendant, necklace and sphendone. W Similar.

a. 16mm. 8.41 gr. Jameson, Paris ; I -a. Plate II, 9

Found in Egypt. Cat. Jameson, No. 1437, pl. lxxiii; Dr. Eddé, Rass. Num.

b. 17mm. 8.42 gr. Boston (Greenwell- Warren) ; 11-ß. Plate II, 10

From the Asia Minor Find. Greenwell, Num. Chron. 1890, p. 26, pl. iii, 14; Regling,

Samm. Warren, No. 1015, pl. xxiii; J. I. N. 1902, 26c, pl. iii, 8.

c. 17mm. 8.44 gr. Paris (Waddington) ; III-ß. Plate II, 11

Babelon, Rev. Num. 1897, p. 318, No. 863, pl. vii, 7 = Inv. Wadd., pl. ii, 7, and Tr

II2, No. 2555, pl. clxxi, 22; J. I. N. 1902, 26a.

d. 16mm. 8.45 gr. Berlin (Löbbecke) ; IV-7. Plate II, 12

From the Avola Find. Löbbecke, Zeit. f. Num. 1890, p. 170, No. 8, pl. vi (x), 8

1902, 26d, pl. iii, 9.

e. 18mm. 8.40 gr. Berlin (Imhoof-Blumer) ; V-7. Plate II, 13

Imhoof-Blumer, J. I. N. 1908, p. 130, pl. viii, 34; J. I. N. 1902, 26b, pl. iii, 7.

a-e , five obverse dies; three reverse dies - b and c?, d and e , identical.1

20 Head of Athena, facing three-quarters to r., wearing triple-crested helmet,

round ear-ring, and necklace.

R? Similar.

a. 16mm. 8.42 gr. Paris (Waddington); unique. Plate II, 14

Num. Chron. 1894, p. 310; Babelon, Rev. Num. 1897, p. 318, No. 859, pl. vii, 3 = I

Wadd., pl. ii, 3, and Traité II2, No. 2541, pl. clxxi, 7; J. I. N. 1902, 18a, pl. ii, 4.

2Í Head of the Persian satrap, Orontes, 1., bearded, wearing tiara with loose,

tied flaps.

11/ Similar.

a. 17mm. 8.43 gr. Glasgow (Hunter) ; I -a. Piateli, 15

Combe, Mus. Hunter, p. 165, No. 1, pl. xxxi, 22; Sestini, Lett, e Diss. IY (Livor

p. 69, No. 1, and Stateri Antichi, p. 63, No. 5, pl. vi, 4; Mionnet, Descr. de Méd. II,

289; Leake, Num. Hell. (As. Gr.), p. 148; De Koehne, Mémoires, pl. xii, 36; Rev. N

p. 16, pl. ii, 3; Num. Zeit. 1871, p. 425; Macdonald, Hunter. Coll. II, p. 271, No. 2, p

P. Gardner, Gold Coinage of Asia, Proc. of Brit. Academy, 1908, pl. ii, 12; J. I. N. 1902

iii, 21.

1 The reverse dies c and d have become interchanged in setting up the casts.

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26 The Ameiucax Journal of Numismatics

b. 17mm. 8.43 gr. Paris; II-ß. Plate II, 16

Babelon, Traité II2, No. 2503, pl. clxxii, 7.

c. 16mm. 8.34 gr. Jameson, Paris ; III-7. Plate II, 17

Cat. Jameson, No. 1443a, pl. xcv (Paris, 1913).

a-e, different obverse and reverse dies.

22 Head of Dionysus 1., bearded, wearing ivy wreath with a bunch of ivy

over the forehead.

Similar; middle section of r. wing feathered as on types 3-12 and 32 ff.

a . 17mm. 8.30 gr. Paris (Waddington) ; I-a. Plate II, 18

Babelon, Rev. Num. 1897, p. 318, No. SGI, pl. vii, 5 = Inv. Wadd., pl. ii, 5, and Tr

No. 2553, pl. clxxi, 20; J. I. N. 1902, 24c, pl. iii, 3.

b. 18mm. 8.30 gr. Jameson, Paris (formerly Duruflé) ; I -a. Piateli

Cat. Jameson, No. 1443, pl. lxxiii (Paris, 1913).

a and 5, same obverse and reverse dies.

23 Head of Helios 1., hair in loose locks, on a radiate disk.

I i} Similar.

a. 16mm. 8.43 gr. Jameson, Paris ; I -a. Plate II, 20

Found in Egypt. Cat. Jameson, No. 1435, pl. lxxii (Paris, 1913). From t

Coll. = (?)Dr. Eddé, llass. Num. 1909, p. 50.

b. 17mm. 8.43 gr. Paris (Waddington) ; II-a. Piateli, 21

Head, Hist. Num., p. 530, fig. 281; Six, Num. Cliron. 1888, p. ill, No. 5; Babelon

Num. 1897, p. 319, No. 857, pl. vii, 11 = Inv. Wadd., pl. ii, 11, and Traité II2, No. 2551, pl. 18; J. I. N. 1902, 22a, pl. ii, 21.

a and 6, different obverse, but same reverse dies.

24 Bearded head of Zeus 1., wearing laurel wreath.

1$ Similar.

a. 18mm. 8.43 gr. Jameson, Paris ; I -a. Piateli, 22

From the Avola Find. Cat. Gr. Münzen, No. 017 (Hirsch XVI, Munich, 19

eson, No. 1438, pl. lxiii (Paris, 1913).

b. 18mm.

Head, Hist. Num., p. 530, fig. 27

8b,

pl. i,

12.

c. 17mm. 8.45 gr. Paris (de Luynes) ; III-a. Piateli, 24

De Luynes, Choix, pl. x, 17; Blanchet, Monn. gr., pl. v, 6; Brandis, op. cit

p. 4

lon, Traité II2, No. 2530, pl. clxxi, 2; J. I. N. 1902, 8c, pl. i, 13.

d . 18mm. 8.40 gr. In commerce (1902) ; IV-ß.

J. I. N. 1902, 8a, pl. ii, 11.

a-d , four obverse dies ; two reverse dies - identical.

25 Ge, wearing girdled chiton, and himation, rising 1. from the earth, holding in r. hand three ears of corn ; behind her, two ears of corn and vine bearing two bunches of grapes ; she wears corn wreath (?) ; ground line.

Similar.

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The Gold Staters of Lampsakos 27

a . 17mm. 8.37 gr

London (Payne-Knight) ; I -a. Piateli, 25

Payne-Knight, Nummi Veteres, p. 130, No. 1; Millingen, Anc. Greek Coins, p. 69, No. 1,

pl. v, 7 ; Mionnet, Descr. de Méd., Supp. V, p. 371, No. 556; Head, Guide, p. 37, No. 16, pl. xviii, 16, and Hist. Num., p. 529, fig. 277; B. M. C. Mysia, No. 26, pl. xix, 4; Gardner, Types, p. 174, pl. X. 25; Babelon, Traité II2, No. 2533, pl. clxx, 32; Gardner, Gold Coinage of Asia, Proc. Brit. Academy, 1908, pl. ii, 11; J. I. N. 1902, 7a, pl. i, 10.

b. 17mm. 8.37 gr. (Formerly Sir H. Weber, London) ; I -a. Piateli, 26

J. I. N. 1902, 7b.

a and Ķ same obverse and reverse dies.

26 Nike, winged, semi-nude, kneeling r. before a trophy ; in 1. hand, nail ; in r.

hand, a hammer with which she is about to attach a helmet to trophy ; her hair is gath- ered up into a knot on crown of her head ; she wears necklace. Ķ Similar.

a . 18mm. 8.43 gr. London (Bank of England Coll. ex H. P. Borrell) ; unique.

Plate II, 27

Found in Egypt. Cf. B. M. C. Mysia, p. 82, note; Borrell, Num. Chron. 1843, p. 155;

Brandis, op. cit., p. 410; Head, Guide, p. 37, pl. xviii, 19; Gardner, Types, p. 173, pl. x, 24; Head,

Hist. Num., p. 529, fig. 278; B. M. C. Mysia, No. 31, pl. xix, 9; Babelon, Traité II2, No. 2535,

pl. clxxi, 1; J. I. N. 1902, 5a, pl. i, 8.

27 Female head, the nymph Lampsaké (?) 1., wearing ear-ring with triple pendant,

and necklace ; hair rolled ; linear circle.

15? Similar.

a. 17mm. 8.40 gr. Paris (Old Coll.) ; I -a. Piateli, 28

Pellerin, Recueil II, p. 51, pl. xlix, 2; Sestini, Lett, e Diss. (Livorno, 1779),

Mionnet, Cat. d'Empreintes, p. 42, No. 826, and Descr. de Méd. II, p. 560, No. 2

Stateri Antichi, p. 64, No. 10, pl. vi, 8; Brandis, op. cit., p. 410; Six, Num. Chro No. 6; Babelon, Traité II2, No. 2565, pl. clxxii, 9; J. I. N. 1902, 36a, pl. iii, 23.

b. 18mm. 8.32 gr. London (formerly Sir H. Weber) ; I -a. Plate

J. I. N. 1902, 36b.

a and b , identical obverse and reverse dies.

28 Head of Hera 1., wearing Stephane decorated with a palmette, and

Similar.

a . 18mm. 8.42 gr. London (formerly Sir H. Weber) ; unique. P

Weber, Num. Chron. 1896, p. 23, pl. ii, 18; Babelon, Traité II2, No. 2538, pl. clxx N. 1902, 10a, pl. i, 19.

29 Head of Zeus 1., bearded, hair long, wearing laurel wreath ; beh

sceptre (not thunderbolt ).

IÇT Similar.

a. 19mm. 8.41 gr. Boston (Perkins) ; I -a.

Cat. of Perkins Coll., pl. v, 426; J. I. N. 1902, 9j.

b . 18mm. 8.45 gr. London; 1-ß. Piateli, 31

Erom the Asia Minor Find. Wroth, Num. Chron. 1889, p. 257, pl.

No. 28, pl. xix, 6; Journ. Hell. Studies, 1897, p. 85, pl. ii, 12; J

I. N. 1

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28 The American Journal op Numismatics

c. 19mm. 8.42 gr. Brussels (du Chastel) ; I-ß. Piateli, 32

J. I. N. 1902, 9i.

d. 18mm. 8.41 gr. London (formerly Sir H. Weber) ; I-ß. Piateli, 33

J. I. N. 1902, 9o.

e. 17mm. 8.35 gr. (Formerly Late Collector) ; I-y8.

Cat. Late Collector, No. 325, pl. vii (S. W. & H., London, May, 1900); J. I. N. 1902, 9m.

/. 18mm. 8.41 gr. Munich; I-7. Piateli, 34

Riggauer, Mitt, der bayer Num. Gesellschaft, 1901, p. 142, pl.

g . 18mm. 8.41 gr. Boston (Perkins) ; I-7. Plate II , 35

Cat. of Perkins Coll., No. 427; J. I. N. 1902, 9k.

A. 18mm. 8.42 gr. Newell, New York ; I-7.

i. 18mm. 8.42 gr. Yakountchikoff, Petrograd ; I-7. Plate III, 1

J. I. N. 1902, 9n.

j. 18mm.

Cat. Monn. gr. ant., No. 507, pl. xii (R. et F., Paris,

k. 19mm. 8.46 gr. Warren Coll. (Lewes); I-7.

Regling, Samm. Warren, No. 1005, pl. xxiii.

1 . 18mm. 8.44 gr. (Formerly Pozzi) ; I-7.

Monn. gr. ant., pl. lxvii, 2239 (Naville et Cie, Geneva, 1920).

m. 18mm. 8.40 gr. Berlin (Löbbecke) ; 1-8. Plate III, 2

From the Asia Minor Find. Löbbecke, Zeit. f. Num. 1890, pp. 8, 178, pl. i, 11; J. I. N.

1902, 9d, pl. i, 17.

n. 19mm. 8.47 gr. (Formerly Warren) ; 1-8.

Regling, Samm. Warren, No. 1004, pl. xxiii; Cat. Well-Known Amateur, Warren, No. 97,

pl. iii (S. W. & H., London, May, 1905).

o . 17mm. 8.43 gr. Paris (Old Coll.) ; 1-8.

J. I. N. 1902, 9c, pl. i, 16.

p. 18mm. 8.39 gr. New York (Metropolitan Mus., Ward) ; I-e.

Hill, Cat. of Ward Coll., p. 100, pl. xv, 611; J. I. N. 1902, 9f.

q. 18mm.

Cat. Engel-Gros, pl. iii, 57 (Paris, 1921).

r . 18mm. 8.42 gr. (Formerly O' H

Cat. O'Hagan, No. 534, pl. ix (S. W. & H.,

8 . 17mm. 8.45 gr. (Formerly Phil

Cat. Philipsen, No. 1790, pl. xxi (Hirsch X

t. 17mm. 8.40 gr. (Formerly Cons

Cat. Weber, No. 2449, pl. xxxiv (Hirsch

u. I7mm. 8.50 gr. (Formerly Hosk

Cat. Hoskier, No. 370, pl. xiii (Hirsch X

616).

v . 19mm. 8.47 gr. Paris (Waddington) ; III-e. Plate III, 3

Babelon, Rev. Num. 1897, p. 318, No. 857, pl. vii, 1 = Inv. Wadd., pl. iii, and Traité II2, No. 2537, pl. elxxi, 3; J. I. N. 1902, 9a, pl. i, 14.

w. 18mm. 8.45 gr. (Formerly Fürst Ch. v. A.) ; III-e. Plate III, 4

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The Gold Staters of Lampsakos 29

Cat. Gr. Münzen, No. 539, pl. xvi (Egger, Vienn

No. 3050, pl. 28 (Merzbacher, Munich, Nov. 1909).

X. 19mm. 8.45 gr. Jameson, Paris (for

Cat. Jameson, No. 1442, pl. lxxiii (Paris, 1913).

y. 19mm. 8.41 gr. Cambridge (McClean,

Plate III, 6 Cat. Montagu, First Part, No. 520, pl. vii (S. W. & II., London, March, 1890); J. I. N.

1902, 9p.

z. 17mm. 8.45 gr. (Formerly de Molthein) ; IV-ç.

Cat. W. de Molthein, No. 1884, pl. xiv (Ii. et F., Paris, 1895); Cat. Prowe, No. 1242, pl.

viii (Egger, Vienna, Nov. 1904); J. I. N. 1902, 9q.

aa. 18mm.

Cat. Monn. d'or antiques, pl. i, 34 (C. Piatt, Paris,

bb. 19mm. 8.42 gr. (Formerly Warren)1

Regling," Samm. Warren, No. 1003, pl. xxiii; Cat. A

No. 51 (S. W. & H., London, 1910).

cc . 18mm. 8.43 gr. Bement, Philadelphia (

Cat. C. S. Bement Coll., pl. xvii, 255 (New York,

dd. 17mm. 8.56 gr. Petrograd (Hermitage) ; V-f. Plate III, 7

a-dd (thirty specimens), five obverse dies - a-r ; %-u ; v,wē9 x-cc , identical; seven

reverse dies - b-e ; f-l ; m-o ; p-w ; x-cc .

30 Head of Nike 1., wearing wreath of myrtle (?) ; hair rolled ; small win

springs from her neck.

Similar.

a. 18mm. 8.45 gr. Yakountchikoff, Petrograd; I -a. Plate III, 8

J. I. N. 1902, 35c.

b. 17mm. 8.36 gr. Paris (de Luynes) ; II-ß. Plate III, 9

Brandis, op. -cit., p. 410; Six, Num. Chron. 1888, p. Ill, No. 10; Babelon, Traité II2, No. 2552, pl. clxxi, 19; J. I. N. 1902, 23a, pl. ii, 22.

17mm. 8.42 gr.

Cat. Monn. gr. ant., pl. xxix, 791 (Naville e

d . 17mm. 8.45 gr. London ; III-7. Plate III, 10

Wroth, Num. Chron. 1894, p. 10, pl. i, 11; Jour. Hell. Studies, 1897, p. N. 1902, 23b, pl. ii, 23.

e. 17mm. 8.38 gr. Jameson, Paris (formerly Duruflé) ; H

Cat. Jameson, No. 1441, pl. lxxiii (Paris, 1913).

a-e , three different obverse dies - b and c ; d and e, identical. verse dies - c-e , identical.

1 The stater, formerly of the Warren Collection, No. 1000 (19mm. 8.4

seen by the author in cast or photograph, and it is therefore uncertain whe

tical with any of the above thirty examples. 2 The left background of the obverse die has been cut away to make ro which appears on the coin in front of the head of Nike. The reverse die als

countermarks below and in front of the Pegasos. The inscription appe

characters, but seems indecipherable.

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30 The American Journal of Numismatics

3Í Head of Herakles, as Omphale, bearded ; hair ro

hind neck, a club, fy Similar.

a. 18mm. 8.37 gr. Boston (Green well- Warren) ; unique. Plate III, 12

Greenwell, Num. Chron. 1893, p. 84, pl. vii, 7; llegling, Samm. Warren, No. 1017, pl. xxiii; Babelon, Traité II2, no. 2558, pl. clxxii, 2; J. I. N. 1902, 29a, pl. iii, 12.

32 Head of a female Satyr 1., hair long, several stray locks over forehead and

cheek, with pointed goaťs ear ; she wears an ivy wreath with bunch of ivy leaves over forehead ; ear-ring with single pendant, and necklace.

Similar, but the middle section of r. wing is no longer of "ladder pattern",

first seen in Types 13ff., but reverts to style of earlier Types, Nos. 3ff., a narrow feath-

ered section.

a. 18mm. 8.32 gr. London; unique. Plate III, 13

Knight, Num. Yet., p. 131 (B), 6; Head, Guide, p. 37, pl. xviii, 18; He

530, fig. 282; Six, Num. Chron. 1888, p. Ill, No. 18; B. M. C. Mysia, No

lon, Traité II2, No. 2559, pi clxxii, 13; J. I. N. 1902, 30a, pl. iii, 13.

33 Head of Aktaion, beardless, hair short, curly, with stag's h

Ę7 Similar.

а. 18mm. 8.39 gr. (Formerly Warren) ; I -a.

Cat. Late Collector, No. 326, pl. vii (S. W. & H., London, May, 1900); Regling, Samm.

Warren, No. 1019, pl. xxiii; Cat. American Artist and well-known Amateur, pl. ii, 50 (S. W. &

H., London); J. I. N. 1902, 33d.

б. 18mm. 8.45 gr. London; l-ß. Plate III, 15

Wroth, Num. Chron. 1893, p. 9, pl. i, 16; Jour. Hell. Studies, 1897, N. 1902, 33a, pl. iii, 18.

c. 20mm. 8.44 gr. Boston (Greenwell-Warren) ; I-/3. Plate III, 16

Regling, Samm. Warren, No. 1018, pl. xxiii.

d. 18mm. 8.38 gr. (Formerly Pozzi) ; I-ß.

Cat. Monn. gr. ant., No. 2230, pl. lxvii (Naville et Cie., Geneva, 1920).

e . 18mm. 8.46 gr. Paris (Old Coll.); II-7. Plate III, 17

Babelon, Traité II2, No. 2562, pl. clxxii, 6; J. I. N. 1902, 33b, pl. iii, 19.

/. 17mm. 8.45 gr. Jameson, Paris (formerly Duruflé) ; II-7.1 Pla

Cat. Jameson, No. 1434, pl. lxxiii (Paris, 1913); Ann. de la Num. franç., XIV, 189 Yerbeaux, p. 21.

g, 17mm, 8.35 gr. (Formerly Fürst Ch. v. A.) ; II-7.

Cat. Gr. Münzen, No. 540, pl. xvi (Egger, Yienna, Jan. 1908).

h. 18mm. 8.40 gr. Berlin (Lübbecke); II-7. Plate III, 14

1 This Aktaion stater probably was not from the Avola (near Syracuse) hoard as M man conjectured at the meeting of the Soc. Franç. de Num., when M. Duruflé presente

before this body, for this type was not mentioned by either of the two collectors who sa

in this hoard (see the reports of Löbbecke and Greenwell in the discussion of hoards pre

Catalogue of Types). It was more probably from the Troad hoard which was found sho

fore the Avola hoard.

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The Gold Staters of Lampsakos 31

From the Asia Minor Find. Löbbecke, Zeit. f. Nu

and Regling, Die Antiken Münzen, pl. 33; J. I. N. 1902,

a-Ķ two obverse dies - a-d ; e-h, identical ; thre

34 Head of Hekáte 1., hair rolled at back and

the head ; she wears laurel wreath, ear-ring with

neck, a flaming torch.

Iff Similar.

a . 18mm. 8.40 gr. Boston (Green well-Warren) ; I-a. Plate III, 19

From the Asia Minor Find. Greenwell, Num. Chron. 1890, p. 26, pl. iii, 13; Regling,

Samm. Warren, No. 1012, pl. xxiii: J. I. N. 1902, 20a.

b. 18mm. 8.39 gr. London (formerly Sir H. Weber1); I-a. Plate III, 20

Babelon, Traité II2, No. 2549, pL clxxi, 16; J. I. N. 1902, 20b, pl. ii, 17.

a and b, same obverse and reverse dies.

35 Head of Dionysos 1., bearded, wearing ivy wreath with bunches of ivy berries

over the forehead. Similar.

a. ,17mm. 8.36 gr. Boston (Green well-Warren) ; unique. Plate III, 21

Greenwell, Num. Chron. 1893, p. 85, pl. vii, 8; Regling, Samm. Warren, No. 1014, pl. xxiii; J. I. N. 1902, 24b, pl. iii, 2.

36 Youthful head 1., beardless, hair short.

Similar.

a. 17mm. 8.40 gr. Paris (Old Coll.) ; unique. Plate III, 22

Sestini, Stateri Antichi, p. 64, No. 11, pl. vi, 9; Mionnet, Sup. Y., p. 371, No. 558, pl. lx

3; Brandis, op. cit., p. 410; Six, Num. Chron. 1888, p. Ill, No. 20; Babelon, Traité II2, No

pl. clxxii, 8; J. I. N. 1902, 35a, pl. iii, 22.

37 Head of Zeus Ammon, bearded, facing, slightly to 1., wearing ram's hor

Similar.

a. 17mm. 8.30 gr. Paris (de Luy nes) ; unique. Plate III, 23

Sestini, Lett, e Diss. IY (Livorno, 1779), p. 69 (" ex. Mus. Ainslie"), and Stateri Antich p. 63, No. 6; Millingen, Anc. Coins, p. 69, No. 2, pl. v, 8, " ex. Lord Northwick " ; Mionn

Sup. Y, p. 371, No. 557; Cat. Northwick, No. 963 (S. & W., Dec. 1859); Brandis, op. cit., p. 4 Babelon, Traité II2, No. 2539, pl. clxxi, 5; J. I. N. 1902, lia, pl. i, 20.

38 Head of youthful Dionysos, 1. with long hair wreathed with ivy, and a bun

of ivy berries over the forehead.2 Fig. 15.

ivy, and a bun of ivy berries over the forehead.2 Fig. 15. Fig. 15 1 The

Fig. 15

1 The Weber coin is the one figured in J. I. N. 1902, pl. ii, 17, not the example in the Boston Museum, formerly Greenwell-Warren.

2 This subject is new in the series, although Maenad and Dionysos heads are found in each of the distinctive styles of the coinage. The absence of ear-ring and necklace (what might appear

to be a beaded necklace on the truncation of the neck is really the curling end of the front hair),

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32 The American Journal of Numismatics

m? Similar.

a. 18mm. 8.41 gr. Jameson, Paris ; unique.

Erom the Avierino collection (?), said to have been found i

39 Head of the elder Kabeiros 1., bearded ; wearin

B? Similar.

a. 17mm. 8.37 gr. London (Payne-Knight); I -a. Plate III, 24

Sestini. Lett, e Diss. IV (Livorno, 1779), p. 69, pl. i, 2, and Stateri Antichi, p. 62, No. 4,

pl. vi, 3; Mionnet, Sup. V, p. 369, No. 543; Payne-Knight, Nummi Veteres, p. 130, No. 2; Leake,

Num. Hell. (As. Gr.), p. 72; Brandis, op. cit ., p. 410; Head, Guide, p. 37, pl. xviii, 17, and Hist. Num., p. 530, fig. 280; B. M. C. Mysia, No. 25, pl. xix, 3; J. I. N. 1902, 21c, pl. ii, 20.

b. 20mm. 8.38 gr. Boston (Greenwell-Warren) ; II-ß. Plate III, 25

Erom Asia Minor Find (?), cf. Num. Chron. 1890, p. 26; Regling, Samm. Warren, No. 1016,

pl. xxiii; J. I. N. 1902, 21a, pl. ii, 18.

c. 17mm. 8.33 gr. Paris (Waddington) ; II-7. Plate III, 26

Babelon, Rev. Num. 1897, p. 319, No. 866, pl. vii, 10 = Inv. Wadd., pl. ii, 10, and Tr

II2, No. 2550, pl. clxxi, 17; J. I. N. 1902, 21b, pl. ii, 19.

d. 19mm. 8.47 gr. New York, Metropolitan Mus. (Ward) ; II-7. Plate III,

Erom Asia Minor Find(?), cf. Num. Chron. 1890, p. 26; Hill, Cat. Ward, No. 612, pl.

J. I. N. 1902, 21d.

e. 18mm. 8.45 gr. London (formerly Sir H. Weber) ; II-7. Plate III, 28

J. I. N. 1902, 21e.

a-e , two different obverse dies - b-e , identical ; and three reverse dies, c-e , identical.1

40 Head of Athena I., wearing crested Athenian helmet ornamented with three

olive leaves and scroll, round ear-ring, and necklace. IP Similar.

a. 18mm. 8.40 gr. Boston (Greenwell- Warren) ; unique.2 Plate III, 29

Greenwell, Num. Chron. 1893, p. 85, pl. vii, 9; Regling, Samm. Warren, No. 1009, pl. xxiii; Babelon, Traité II2, No. 2542, pl. clxxi, 8; Gardner, Gold Coinage of Asia, Proc. of Brit. Acad- emy, 1908, pl. ii, 10; J. I. N. 1902, 14a, pl. ii, 5.

4Í Head of Aphrodite (?) 1., wearing wreath of lotus (?), sphendone, and ear-

ring with single pendant.

Similar.

a. 17mm. 8.42 gr. London; I -a. Plate III, 30

Wroth, B. M. C. Mysia, No. 30, pl. xix, 8; J. I. N. 1902, 19c.

b . 18mm. 8.41 gr. Paris (Waddington) ; I -a. Plate III, 31

Babelon, Rev. Num. 1897, p. 318, No. 864, pl. vii, 8 = Inv. Wadd., pl. ii, 8; J. I. N. 1902, 19e, pl. ii, 16.

c. 17mm. 8.39 gr. Paris (de Luynes) ; I -a.

Babelon, Traité II2, No. 2548, pl. clxxi, 5; J. I. N. 1902, 19d, pl. ii, 15.

and the strength of the features are in favor of considering the head as the youthful and more effeminate Dionysos, rather than a Maenad.

1 For the obverses, this is certain ; the reverses are too indistinct to be certain, but c, d and e

appear to be identical. 2 A second example has recently been seen in the market at Constantinople.

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The Gold Stateks of Lampsakos 33

d. 18mm. 8.40 gr. Jameson, Paris; I-/3. Plate III, 32

Cat. O9 Hagan, No. 530, pl. ix (8. W. & II., London, May, 190«S); pl. lxiii (Paris, 1913).

Cat.

.Jameso

e. 18mm. 8.45 gr. Berlin (Imhoof-Blumer) ; II-/8. Plate III, 33

J. I. N. 1902, 19a, pl. ii, 13.

/. 17mm. 8.41 gr. Boston (Perkins) ; II-/3.

Cat. of Perkins Coll., pl. v, 430; J. I. N. 1902, 19f.

g. 18mm. 8.41 gr. Bement, Philadelphia (formerly Sir H. Weber, London);

II-/3. Plate III, 34

J.

I. N. 1902,

19g; Ca

A. 18mm. 8.45

Plate III, 35

gr.

From the Asia Minor Find. Greenwell, Num. Chron. 1<S90, p. 27, pl. iii, 15; Ilegling, Samm.

Warren, No. 1007, pl. xxiii; Cat. Well-Known Amateur (Warren), No. 98, pl. iii (S. W. & II.,

London, May, 1905); J. I. N. 1902, 19b, pl. ii, 14.

a-A, two different obverse dies, a-d, e-h, identical ; two different reverse dies, a-c,

rf-A, identical.

THE DIES AND THEIR SEQUENCE

As remarked above under the description of Type 2, there

one case of connecting reverse dies between the changing obverses.

has been shown in discussing the sequence of types, we find reverses so

identical that they serve about as well for determining the general

of the series as though they were identical. There are a number of types and several which are represented by only two examples, and

may as well be mentioned first, and then we may turn our attentio

sequence of examples of the same type where there are more t

examples known. The unique staters are the following: Perse

Pl. I, 5; Thetis on dolphin, Pl. I, 8; Persian archer, Pl. I, 9; Nike sacr ram, Pl. I, 10; Dionysos head (small size type and flan), Pl. I, 17; Pa

Pl. I, 21; Herakles head, Pl. I, 29; Athena head facing, Pl. II,

erecting trophy, Pl. II, 27; Hera head, Pl. II, 30; head of Her

Omphale, Pl. Ill, 12; head of a female satyr, Pl. Ill, 13; Diony

(large size type and flan), Pl. Ill, 21; young male head, Pl. Ill, 2

Ammon head, Pl. Ill, 23; head of youthful Dionysos, fig. 15.

Those types of which there are only two examples known are: H

and serpents, Pl. I, 1, 2; Helle on ram, Pl. I, 3, 4; Apollo seated, P

Demeter head r., Pl. I, 15, 16; Apollo head, Pl. I, 27, 28; Demeter veiled 1., Pl. I, 30, 31; Dionysos head (medium size type and flan

18, 19; Helios head, Pl. II, 20, 21; Ge rising from earth, Pl. II,

Lampsake (?) head, Pl. II, 28, 29; Hekáte head, PI. Ill, 19, 20; Ath

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34 The American Journal of Numismatics

copied from the Athenian coins, Pl. Ill, 29. 1

known from two examples only, there is natural

which to base inferences as to the order of issue o Still in some cases there is a difference in style w

different, which gives us a clue to the order of i first instance, that of Herakles strangling the se

I, 2, has the connecting reverse die with the H and that fact settles the order of the two obve

reverse of the Boston example, Pl. I, 1, has an ea

The obverses of Helle on the ram (with identic

indeed. On the Berlin coin, Pl. I, 3, Helle is bendi the Paris example, Pl. 1, 4. The two examples of similar in style to allow any inference as to thei

are nearly identical. The same may be said of t

15, 16; but the reverse of

Pl. I, 16, is closer

to

head, Pl. I, 17, and hence is placed second. The

are of just slightly different obverse and reverse

Pl. I, 28, may be more developed, and the reverse

27, is very closely allied with the preceding H

two coins with a Demeter head (veiled), Pl. I, 3

the obverse; the reverse of the Paris coin is clo

head type placed just before it. This latter ty

well in this position, the wings of the Pegasos

first developed under the Hermes head type, and

larger than on the types placed before it, as it is

Herakles head is correctly placed in the sequence o

of Demeter veiled belongs just following. The

18, 19, are from the same pair of dies. The r

style, but as the obverse bears a head of mediu

though different, still has a general resemblance and following types with rather disproportioned

larger wing, the type is placed here. The two

20, 21, are of identical reverse dies, but the obverses

dies of which the Jameson coin, Pl. II, 20, see Pl. II, 25, 26, are from the same dies; the reve

truncation of the Pegasos has the lower corn

of the Lampsake(?) head type, Pl. II, 28, 29, are f The reverse die is crude by comparison with the is too large for the flan, and awkward in design.

1 The second example was not seen by the writer, and hence cann

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The Gold Stateks of Lampsakos 35

than the fine dies of the following Zeus h of a badly proportioned Pegasos on coins o

and Helios types, Pl. II, 18-21. The Heká

are from the same dies. The obverse is of

the Aktaion head, and the reverse has the makes its appearance in the Herakles as O staters, and which according to our chron the Zeus and Nike types of this same plat

The types represented by three or more

for an arrangement of the different di

coins with head of a Satyr facing, Pl. I, 11 die. The first coin, Pl. I, 11, has a reverse

earlier types; compare Pl. I, 10 for exam

probably made before II. The Maenad h

are from different obverse dies, but the r

examples are identical. As the obverse d

refined (note the heavy ear-ring and mor

and eye, and compare the Dionysos type

also is less advanced than those of the oth

to be the earliest. Between the other tw

there is little to choose, except that No. 1

head staters, Pl. I, 22-26, are of differe

determined chiefly by the style of the r

two, Nos. 22, 23 on the plate, are more pri

The reverses of Nos. 24 and 25 are ident

very clearly to be in accordance with o

course No. 23 may have come before No. of the five staters as its reverse is barely following Apollo type, Pl. I, 27. The state

with flying locks, rank second in the li

examples of which the Zeus with scepter,

types, according to the extant specimen

the largest issues; seventeen specimens o

the Zeus type being known. The obverse

nine, and the reverse dies, ten.1

1 While the reverse dies of the seventeen known specimen

number of obverse dies known, yet an examination of the that more reverses were needed in striking than obverses,

with two reverses a and ß; die III with y and 5. It is tr

and VI, but it was not in good condition at any time, hav When it was used in combination with V, the crack was v

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36 The American Journal of Numismatics

When we compare the Boston and London ex

with the Paris coins Pl. II, 3, 4 (same dies), the li to be parallel to that of the Maenad heads of Typ

from a head with more animal character in the ex

ized head. The head on the Paris coins is the finest of all the coins with

this head, and is one of the most beautiful Maenad heads on Greek coins. The reverses of these staters have dies very similar to those of the Athena and Maenad heads, placed after them on the plate. The Glasgow specimen,

Pl. II, 2, approaches the Paris coins most nearly in the style of both obverse

and reverse. The coins intervening between the earliest, Pl. I, 32, and

latest, Pl. II, 2-4, all appear to show a line of ascending development which

reaches its culmination in the fine style of the coins, Pl. II, 2-4. The

Atliena head staters Pl. II, 5-8, have different obverse dies, and two reverse

dies, Nos. 5 and 6, and Nos. 7 and 8 of Pl. II, identical. Their sequence

is probably as here given because of the affinity of the reverse die of Nos. 5 and 6 for that of the latest Maenad head, Pl. II, 4; and that of No. 8 for

the die of the Maenad with hair in a saccos, Pl. II, 9, which it greatly resem-

bles. This latter Maenad type appears on dies hard to distinguish from

one another.

The order of issue of the three satrapal heads, Pl. II, 15-17, is likewise

determined by the reverse dies, for No. 15 has a die of closely similar style

to the type of Athena facing, Pl. II, 14, after which it is placed, and the dies

of Nos. 16 and 17 are developments of the die of No. 15, and are rather like

the die of Nos. 18 and 19 of this plate. Furthermore the first obverse die,

No. 15, has more of the typical, and the two following obverses, Nos. 16

and 17, look more like real portraits. The dies of Type 24, Pl. II, 22-24, do not afford any data for placing them satisfactorily in a series. The

reverse die ß bears a great deal of resemblance to the reverse die of Type 26. Hence it might be the last of the four reverse dies of Type 24. But Type 26,

Nike and trophy, might be placed just before Type 24, and 24d be the first of

the Zeus heads. The heads themselves are all on about the same level of

style, though the coin on Pl. II, 24, may perhaps seem earlier than the others.

The Zeus with scepter, Type 29, PL II, 31 - Pl. III, 7, has the most

numerous examples in the whole coinage - thirty or more; and the order

of the various obverse dies which are five in number is not difficult to deter-

mine. This arises from the fact that we have among the obverses one die

go with V. The old die 5 was, however, used again with a new obverse VI. With VI there were used reverse dies 5, e, s, four to one obverse. Thus, although in this small group of coins of the same

type, the total number of reverses is not greatly in excess of the total number of obverses, the fact that the

reverse dies wore out more quickly is evident.

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The Gold Staters of Lampsakos 37

which is a most perfect die, artistically one of

a Zeus head on this scale among Greek coins, a

approach it in perfection of style. Now, that

types is as here arranged, from the most delicate

descending scale to the hard and dry style of

very obviously declining tendency in the d

The Pegasos of these Zeus staters has now

artistic and technical perfection, all parts of proportion. Note the size of the horse's head, and the fine rendering of the minute details

and ß. The dies 7 - e show a progressive decline of art. There is the

same loss of expression and carelessness in details (note the horse's mane)

that from now on begins to be apparent in the series at large. Again the

difference in style observable in obverse dies I-II as compared with the

succeeding dies is of a kind which is clearly due to copying. Note the

finesse of the rendering of the lock of hair which falls loose from the occiput

of the head in dies I, II, and the less skilful copying of this lock in dies

III, IV. Observe also how the back of the hair sags down in dies III, IV,

and the less profound expression of the eye.2

The dies of the Nike head, Type 30, PI. Ill, 8-11, however, do not

show any signs of progressive decline due to copying although two of them

are distinctly inferior to the third, PI. Ill, 10, 11. In this case the evolution of the obverse dies seems to be in an ascending scale up to the remarkably

fine die, PI. Ill, 10, 11. The other dies seem to be leading up to this one,

for there are no details repeated in the manner of the careless copyist.

Besides these reasons, there is also the fact that the style of Type 31, Herakles

as Omphale, PI. Ill, 12, is as close as could be possible to the Nike head of

die III. The similar rendering of the turned-up hair and the deep-set eye, and of the hair over the forehead - in short, the whole treatment of the hair - are the points to be noticed. The Pegasos of this Herakles type is of a style which is decidedly inferior to those of the preceding Hera, Zeus and

Nike types. From now on the horse is never engraved in the fine style

which is characteristic of our middle and early third groups. The "ladder"

1 We omit from our discussion here die V, the Petrograd specimen, PL III, 7, which is peculiar and

unlike the other dies; its reverse, too, is also quite different from the other reverse dies.

* As in the case of the Maenad head, Type 17, the disparity in the number of obverse and reverse

dies is not as great as might be expected. But the coupling of the dies gives the true answer to the question

of the relative durability of obverse and reverse dies. For die I was coupled with five reverses a - c, and

there are eighteen examples of staters bearing this obverse die - more than half of the known specimens

of the Zeus with scepter type, which of course explains why so many reverse dies cou pled with I are known.

With a sufficiently large number of examples of a given obverse die, there will regularly be found two or

more reverses which were used in combination with it.

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38 Tue American Journal of Numismatics

pattern is dropped altogether after this Herakle

to the earliest style of our first period ; careless str

in the horse's head are the rule. The obverse d

PI. Ill, 14-18, are very similar in character; in

be separated as varying dies, the sole difference the eye - the Berlin stater, No. 14, may be the s If it is die II, as seems probable, though the cast tainty impossible, then there are two obverse di nated I is the finer. This die seems likely to be fact that it is coupled with reverse die a, an unq ß or 7, and probably the earliest, since the diffe

described as a decline.

The Kabeiros head stater, Pl. Ill, 24-28, has two obverse dies only,

and of these, No. 24 is probably earlier; the reverse of this stater is of better

style than those of the other coins of this type. The last type, Aphrodite(?)

head, Pl. Ill, 30-35, has but two obverse dies I and II, and reverse dies a and ß. The connecting link which occurs in the middle of the series, No. 32, dies I- ß, indicates the sequence of the issues as die ß is most

plainly more debased than a. It is the last of the series and is vastly

inferior to the fine dies of the Zeus and Nike types, and in fact to any of

the preceding reverse dies.

CHRONOLOGY OF THE STATERS

The generally accepted date for the beginning of the issue

gold staters is c. 394 b.c. According to style, the staters d

begin in the early part of the Fourth Century b.c. and they to the middle or third quarter of this century. The reason f

commencement of the issues c. 394 b.c. is that the stater unive

to be the earliest type Pl. I, 1, "2, Herakles strangling the ser

from the type of the so-called Alliance Coinage of Asia Mi

assigned by Waddington (Rev. Num. 1863, p. 223) to t coinage issued by Rhodos, Ephesos, Knidos, lasos and S

common obverse type, the infant Herakles strangling two se

panied by the inscription 5YN, the first letters of SYN M AX

"Alliance," and varying reverse badges of the respective m

Samos; 9, Ephesos; 10, Knidos. The coins are silver tridrach

weight.

Waddington formulated the interesting theory that the Symmachia was a political alliance made by certain powerful coast towns, Ionian and

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Tuk Gold Staters of Lampsakos 39

Carian, directly after the Athenian gen

towns from Spartan control through his

This league was of an ephemeral nature be

us (Hellenica, IV, 8; 17, 22, 23), Ephesos again to Sparta. It is not mentioned by

Waddington wrote, a new member of the

has become known through the discove

Byzantion published by Dr. Regling (Ze coin, Dr. Regling argues, cannot have b

Byzantion was until that year still unde

and only when democracy was re-establ

expedition in 389, would the Alliance typ

political liberty, be appropriate.1 One

Byzantion came into the confederation

389 b.c., which would be quite extraordi

three out of the five original members, E

according to Xenophon, become parti

historians Beloch2 and Meyer3 have alway

the issue of the Alliance coins with SYN

type,4 as they do not accept the theory o

the part of these towns of Asia Minor

Knidos. This date is the year of the Pea

Greek cities, except Klazomenai, were s Artaxerxes II Mnemon, King of Persia.

Byzantion, at any rate, seems to make Spartan confederation immediately afte

tenable.

Whatever the opinion of historians may ultimately be in regard to

the date of the Alliance issues, the Lampsakene stater which borrowed the Alliance type cannot be placed any earlier than 389 b.c. for the reason that it is copied with utmost fidelity of detail from the Byzantian tridrachm. The axis of inclination of the kneeling Herakles, the coils of the serpents, position of the arms, all indicate that the Byzantian coin served as a model

1 A singular coincidence is the choice of Herakles as infant, strangling serpents, for the reverse of the

Libertas Americana Medal, 1791, designed by Benjamin Franklin, to represent the victories of the infant Republic of the United States at Yorktown and Saratoga. » Gr. Gesch., 2nd ed., 1922, III, p. 95. a Gesch. des Alterthums, V, p. 308, 310. 4 Holm, History of Greece, III, ch. iii, note 11, discusses Waddington's theory at length, concluding

that the cities of Asia Minor would not be in a position to form a defensive league after the King's peace, and further suggests that if a later date were sought, we might assume the time of the Second Athenian

Confederacy, 377, which was anti-Spartan. He was, of course, not cognizant of the Byzantian tridrachm

with SYN. Bury, History of Greece, p. 553, accepts the date 387 b.c.

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40 The American Journal op Numismatics

for the Lampsakene die-engraver. Moreover, this coi be the type which was copied at Lampsakos.

The commencement of the issue of gold staters at t

rather upsets the theory that the Persian king re

right to issue gold coin. This question on which n

divided is one which is not to be decided by any ref ancient historians, for we have no evidence of this s

M. Babelon (Traité II,2 Introd.) holds that the Pers

fered in the slightest degree with the issuing of coin

cities. Mr. Gardner maintains the theory that the ex

gold was jealously guarded by the Persian kings, and struck by Greek cities under Persian rule are instan

This in the case of Lampsakos seems rather abs

gold staters, begun probably around 387 b.c. as w

surely to have been suppressed by a monarch jealous

issue gold. Lampsakos issued electrum, as did Kyzi

tury, before Persian control was ended by the strug

Salamis; and similarly in the Fourth Century bot coinage in gold (or electrum). There does not seem

assuming that the Persian kings would not permit t electrum or gold by the cities over which they had conquest of Lydia in 546 b.c., and then explaining al

such coinage did exist, as, for example, at Chios,

exceptions. These mints certainly struck electrum

and 500 b.c. Why were they especially privileged

there are known only the very scanty issues of stat Klazomenai and Abydos which were all probably earl Persian control, 387 b.c.; Abydos struck one type Pl.

on one of the earliest Lampsakene staters, Pl. IV, prototype of the latter. But in none of the above

existence of a series of issues begun before 387 b.c. a

end at this date. If this were the case, there woul

the argument that coinage in gold was not permitted

The Lampsakene stater coinage begins with a t

Alliance silver coins, and this scarcely looks as thou

of freedom in the choice of type. The weight sta identical with that of the Persian daries. Hence w

that the Lampsakene staters were issued without an

rance as to the choice of metal, weight or type. As M

ically, "La lampsacéne était creée pour lutter contre

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The Gold Staters of Lampsakos 41

THE WEIGHT STANDARD

The recorded weights of the staters here catalogued sho

range from 8.30 to 8.56 grams. The tabulated weights of 1

are as follows:

Grams Specimens Grams Specimens Grams Specimens

8.30

3

8.40 17 8.46 4

8.32

2

8.41

15 8.47 3

8.33

2

8.42

17

8.48 1

8.34

1

8.43

12

8.49 1

8.35

2

8.44 7 8.50 3

8.36 2

8.45 19

8.54 1

8.37

7

8.55

1

8.38

6

8.56

1

8.39 5

Total coins =30 Total coins =87 Total coins =15 Total 132

More than half of the specimens weigh from 8.40 to 8.

over one-ninth weigh more than 8.45 gr., and a little under

less than 8.40. As we should expect, there are more coi

weight than there are coins of excessive weight. The norm

where between 8.40 and 8.45 gr. This is about the sam

by Dr. Regling in his analysis of the average weight of th

found was c. 8.40 gr.1 There are forty-nine coins within th

gr. as against thirty-eight within the range 8.43-8.4

accepted norm of 8.415 gr. for the Lampsakene stater whos

on the Persian daric is amply confirmed by this analysis. These are the staters, which, of pure gold and full Per struck around 387 b.c. to compete as a circulating medium which had already for a century past been the chief state

ancient world.

Naturally the coinage of an autonomous Greek city, an one of the most prominent, was not very abundant as co

of a great nation. Less than one hundred and fifty ex

beautiful staters have come down to us, and this is a ve

in comparison with the number of daries which have survi times, as many as three hundred having once been found i

near Mt. Athos. Still the inscription relating to the sum

the allies of Boeotia in the Sacred War (see above, p. 2, no realize that the Lampsakene stater coinage was of consider

as a circulating medium, for it mentions sums of five hund

four gold staters of Lampsakos, I. G. VII, 2418, 11. 10, 11,

1 Klio, 1914, p. 91 f.

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42 The American Journal of Numismatics

A aļi^cucavo) ar[aT€Îpa ç] òySoeítcovra Trérrapas, àpyvpíc

"Byzantion (contributed) eighty-four Lampsak

Attic silver drachms") and 11. 20, 21, B vtrÇávrioi [

Karím <rraTelpa[<i xpv<r]íw Aa ^aKavw

five hundred gold staters of Lampsakos."

, " Byza

The date when the Lampsakene staters ceased

in the British Museum Catalogue as c. 350 b.c. It is noted, however,

in the introduction to this catalogue (p. xxvi) that Six supposed the coinage

to have ceased about 330 b.c. This view of Six seems the more probable

as the staters would naturally not cease abruptly with the introduction

of a new stater coinage, that of Philip II, but only came to a gradual end

when Alexander's gold staters had begun to be very abundant in the markets

of Asia Minor. Six's reason for suggesting the later date was his inter-

pretation of three of the Lampsakene types as relating to Alexander. The Zeus Ammon head, PL III, 23, the Maenad head, PI. 1, 32, and the youthful

beardless head, PI. Ill, 22, he took as a group struck at the same time in honor of Alexander; Zeus Ammon, as the divine parent claimed by the

hero; the Maenad, as Alexander's real mother in the guise of a Maenad,

recalling the orgiastic worship in which Olympias was reported to indulge; and the young male head as Alexander himself in the character of the hero

Achilles.

Most of these interpretations seem fanciful, for, to begin with, the

Maenad type is only one of many Maenad heads that appear on the coinage, and was not issued at the end of the series but rather in the second group, considerably before 350 b.c. The Zeus Ammon type falls into the third and last group of the coinage according to the evidence of its reverse, and the

same may be said of the young heroic head. Now this latter is without

attributes and cannot be identified as a divine head. There is one other

case similar to it in this respect, namely, the female head, Pl. II, 28, 29,

which has been called conjecturally, Lampsake, the eponymous heroine

of the city. Of her we read in Plutarch and this is a fair conjecture. But

there is no name to be found for the young male head. Can it possibly be that the head was intended as a heroic head meant to embody Alexander's likeness? The suggestion which grows out of Six's interpretation does not

seem entirely improbable - the head has a somewhat Alexandrine char-

acter, and occurring as it does at about the date when Alexander was sub-

missively received by the inhabitants of Lampsakos, it may not be out

of the way to regard the choice of the two types, PI. Ill, 22 23, as selected out

of compliment to Alexander who spared the city when it gracefully submitted to his invasion in 334 b.c.

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The Gold Staters of Lamfsakos 43

A retrospective glance at the publication

gives an idea of the frequency with which

come to light. The earliest stater known

(Type 11), Berlin (Fox) example. In 1763

and serpents, and Lampsake were published

satrap and Maenad with diadem (Type 1

to list ten types in his Stateri Antichi. Gr additions to the types became known, bei

New types appeared occasionally in find

Avola and in the Troad about 1890. A poss

ring near Alexandria in Egypt in 1908 b

types already known. In the J. I. N. 1902,

six types, and since then only the Perse

youthful Dionysos types have been made

to thirty-nine. But as a result of the r

three groups, it becomes clear that the

formerly listed as one type are not merel

for a single issue, but are rather three chr

ing respectively to the earlier style, the

mediate style, the Paris and Jameson coins

the Boston coin, PL III, 21. These three

of the same subject treated according to t cernible in the coinage. By classifying the

more, and arrive at forty-one as our total

Of these forty-one types, sixteen are

the most numerous specimens are known

Type 17, and Zeus with scepter, Type 29

of the former, and thirty of the latter h

which has brought down to us so many mo

but it seems reasonable to infer in this cas that there were larger issues of these part

Only two instances of struck forgerie

come to the writer's attention, the Nike 1910, No. 509, an obvious case, and the fe

a number of years ago, of which the ob hair of the head unskilfully executed g

appearance.

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44 The American Journal of Numismatics

COMMENT ON THE TYPES

Type 1, Herakles kneeling to the right and strangling t

Pl. IV, 6, 7, was copied from the Alliance coinage of Byzan Samos, Pl. IV, 8, lasos, Knidos, PL IV, 10, and Ephesos, PL I in turn was borrowed from the coinage of Thebes, Pl. IV,

first occurred on the Theban staters of 446-426 b.c. (Britis

Catalogue, Central Greece, pl. xii, 7) where it appears with ot

subjects, and was used apparently in a symbolical sense as

struggle for freedom from external domination. On later

and on the pale gold issues of 426-387 b.c., Pl. IV, 3, 4, the ty

used. On one of the latter pieces, Pl. IV, 4, the infant He

longer represented as seated and facing, but kneeling (type to Alliance pieces, and wrestling with the serpents in the same f

these latter coins. The hekte of Kyzikos, Pl. IV, 5, may ha

intermediary in the transmission of the type, though not nec

type is in the facing pose seen in the Theban gold coin, Pl. IV

Incidentally the study of the Alliance issues of Knidos

some interesting points of chronology through the comparison

of Aphrodite Euploia which occur on the reverses. The head o distinguished as Euploia by the symbol, a prow, on the Allian

IV, 10-12, appears to be earlier in style than the same head

drachm series, Pl. IV, 13, where it occurs as obverse type comb

lion's head reverse. The tetradrachms, however, are dated earlier in

Head's Hist. Num.2, p. 615, and in the British Museum Catalogue ' Caria.

The prow symbol was not first placed beside the head on the tetradrachm,

for it occurs on a drachm, Pl. IV, 14, of the transitional style. The only

point against the order here suggested is the fact that the ethnic in

full KNIAIQN occurs on the Alliance issues, Pl. IV, 10, whereas on the

tetradrachms the short form KNI is used. This may have been the de-

termining reason for placing the tetradrachms before the Alliance issues.

But there is an example of an Alliance coin with KNI, Pl. IV, 11, and

the evidence of style is very strong. Knidos, according to Head, adopted

the Rhodian weight standard on which the tetradrachms are struck, about

400 b.c., following the example of Rhodos. But under Rhodos, Hist. Num.,2 p. 638, the arrangement of the issues is at variance with this

statement. After the initial silver coinage of 408-404 b.c., is placed the

Alliance coinage (of c. 394 b.c., according to the theory). Then there

follows the gold stater coinage, and next the tetradrachms of Rhodian

weight, 400-333 b.c. This places the introduction of the Rhodian standard

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The Gold Staters of Lampsakos 45

at Rhodos after the Alliance issues; or, i

as Rhodian tridrachms, as coincident w

at any rate, of the Knidian tetradrachm

for placing them quite a little later than the Alliance coins. Also, at

Ephesos and Samos, the tetradrachms of Rhodian weight, parallel to the

Rhodian tetradrachms and bearing magistrates' names in full as at Rhodos, begin after the Alliance issues.

Type 2, Helle on the ram, is a rare subject on Greek coins. The

myth of Phrixos and Helle, the children of Athamas who were about to be

sacrificed by their father to Zeus Laphystios in pursuance of an oracle, and were rescued by their mother Nephele who sent the ram with the

golden fleece, was localized at Lampsakos, as is shown by an imperial coin

type with Phrixos and Helle (Zeit; f. Num., VII, p. 25). Athamas was

said to have founded Halus in Thessaly whose coins show Phrixos or Helle

on the ram.

Type 3, youthful head in a winged helmet, is also unusual. A stater

of Kyzikos of early style has a similar subject but there is no resemblance

to the Lampsakene type. M. Babelon has called this head "Atys", but

from the circumstance that the helmet on one piece seems to have terminated

in a griffin's head, now mostly off the flan, the head seems reasonably to be

identified as a very youthful Perseus.

Type 4, Orpheus, in Phrygian cap and long garments, seated on a rock in a musing attitude and holding his lyre, was first published by

Lübbecke (Zeit. f. Num. 1890, p. 170) and thus designated because of the

Phrygian cap which is clearly indicated on the coin. The type is earlier

than the type of Apollo seated on the omphalos struck in 346 b.c. by the

Amphictyonic Council at Delphi. On the Lampsakene coin, the seat,

partly covered by the mantle thrown back, is a rock,1 not the omphalos, and

there is no laurel branch. Orpheus is represented as seated on a rock

and playing the lyre on a coin of Traianopolis in Thrace (Head, Hist. Num.2, p. 288). The musing attitude, however, reminds one of the Delphic stater.

Still the Phrygian cap and the absence of any Apolline attributes inclines

one to consider the figure as Orpheus rather than Apollo.

Type 5, Thetis on a dolphin, was probably copied from the Kyzikene

stater c. 450-400 b.c. of somewhat similar type, Pl. IV, 15, 16. On this

latter piece the Nereid or Thetis holds a wreath and shield, while on our

stater she holds greaves and a shield. This type was long ago identified

as Thetis, the sea-goddess, bearing the arms of her son Achilles. However,

on coin types representing Thetis at Larissa Kremaste in Thessaly (Head.

1 Apollo on a rock with lyre is a Sikyonian type. Head, Hist. Num.2, p. 410.

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46 The American Journal of Numismatics

Hist. Num.,2 p. 300) and of Pyrrhus, King of Epir

is riding on a hippocamp. On the former coin,

and there is therefore no doubt regarding the in however, the sea-nymph rides a dolphin, and the

cult to support the interpretation as in Thessaly,

Type 6, a kneeling archer in Oriental dress, sho

and action with the kneeling nude Apollo on the

17, 18, dating c. 450-400 b.c., of earlier style, as th

indicates. On the Lampsakene stater the kneel

done although it would be interesting to know jus

with the left foot now off the flan, as the left l

too far in advance. A similar pose is found on

and Artemis, Pl. IV, 19, 21, and at Orchomenos in Artemis, Pl. IV, 20, 22. On the silver coins of Sik

arrow with the bow in the left hand; and on t

Kyzikene stater, Apollo holds an arrow also wh

examples. On the Lampsakene stater the shaft of the archer's left hand, held horizontally. Whethe

coins of Orchomenos and Chersonesos is also ho

is not clear, and some specimens have been descri

on the ground which Artemis is about to lift

figures therefore are best described as about to s

the effect of an arrow which has just been dis Museum Catalogue Mysia (p. 26, No. 64, note) o

Type 7, Nike sacrificing a ram, is a copy of th

(British Museum Catalogue Troas, pl. xl) which

b.c., and much inferior in style. The subject i

motive with the bull as the animal of sacrifice.

The facing Satyr's head of Type 8, is probably not connected with the

facing Satyr head on gold staters of Pantikapaion as the head is so differently

treated on the latter, the neck in profile to the left and the head in three- quarters view.

Type 9, the Demeter head, is an exquisite gem-like piece of work,

and may of course equally well be designated as Persephone since a veiled

Demeter occurs soon after on the coinage. Type 10, the head of Dionysos, should be compared with the two later

heads, Types, 22, 35 (Pl. II, 18 and III, 21). Its style is quite superior to

the rather coarse work of the latest head and to the more formal rendering

of the middle type.

Type 11, the Maenad heads, like the Dionysos head just preceding, are

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The Gold Staters of Lampsakos 47

noteworthy for their successful rendering

human head.

Type 12, the small Pan head and the Hermes head, Type 13, call for

no special comment. The latter Pl. IV, 26, is probably copied from the

Kyzikene stater, Pl. IV, 25.

Type 14, the Apollo head with fillets is an unusual type. When the

Munich specimen, PL I, 27, alone was in existence, the head was variously

described as Aphrodite (the laurel wreath being supposed to be myrtle, and

the fillets, a string of pearls woven in the hair), as Demeter, and sometimes

as Apollo. The Boston specimen, Pl. I, 28, makes it clear that the head is not feminine and that it is a bandelette of wool terminating in a triple

fringe which is woven in the hair.

The next two types, Herakles in the lion's scalp and Demeter veiled,

Types 15 and 16, need not be noted particularly. Type 17, the Maenad with flying hair, is of great originality and very

interesting to study in its artistic development which culminates in the

beautiful Paris staters, Pl. II, 3, 4. The heads on all the different dies are

full of spirit and expressive of the Maenad in flight.

Type 18, the Athena head, and the facing Athena head of Type 20,

are well done though perfectly conventional renderings.

Type 19, Maenad head in a sakkos and wearing a wreath of grapes,

is entirely human in expression and it therefore seems most fitting that it

should come after the other Maenad heads.

Type 21 , the bearded head in a satrapal tiara, was formerly identified

as Pharnabazos who struck coins at Kyzikos in 410 b.c., but M. Babelon,

following Six, has more persuasively identified the head as that of Orontas,

satrap of Mysia and Ionia, c. 362-345 b.c. Bronze coins bearing the name

of this satrap,1 showing a head resembling somewhat the head on the Lamp- sakene stater, but very small, and silver coins with the name of Orontas and

the Lampsakene arms, forepart of Pegasos as reverse type, were struck at Lampsakos. The latter piece2 has for obverse type a helmeted Athena very like the head on the Lampsakene staters, Pl. II, 5-8. These staters, accord-

ing to our chronological arrangement, appear to belong to the very same

period as the satrapal staters. The date of issue of these interesting portrait

staters is, therefore, c. 362 b.c., when Orontas was in revolt against Arta-

xerxes II Mnemon, king of Persia, on which occasion the other coins of

Orontas were struck at Lampsakos.3

1 Babelon, Traité1, pl. lxxxviii, 19, 20.

2 B. M. C. Ionia, pl. xxxi, 8.

* Babelon, Traité II2, p. 105 f. Head, Hist. Num.,2 p. 597.

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48 The American Journal of Numismatics

Type 23, the head of Helios on a radiate di

found on a silver drachm of Megiste, Pl. IV, 27

the Fourth Century b.c. The type is unusual, certain that the Carian coin is later. The Lam

is an improvement on the other piece for the ra

of the disk.

Type 25, the figure of Ge, rising from the e

been modelled upon a corresponding figure o

29, 30. The pose of Ge, or Gaia, on the Kyzik

the Lampsakene; her mantle falls over the left staters she bears the same fruits of the earth, ferently disposed. On the Lampsakene coin, the

is thrown back which accentuates the impression

as does also the ground line which is uneven an

Type 28, the Hera head, is so close to the

head that here again we seem to have a case of instances the Kyzikene staters are anterior to 4

Types 29-32, Zeus with scepter, Nike head,

female Satyr, represent the four highest dev

Lampsakene staters. The symbol behind the

a thunderbolt as it has always been called, but a

is visible below the beard, Pl. II, 34, PL III, 4.

Alexander the Great, and of the kings of Syria

of Cilicia, show this type of scepter which termin

The identification of the bearded head weari

club behind the neck, Type 31, was made by Head. M. Svoronos was

formerly inclined to consider it a Pan head, from the appearance of the

front locks which resemble upright horns; the symbol behind the head

would then have to be a pedum. But the latter looks more like a club and

the Stephane is unexplained and quite anomalous on a head of Pan. The

back hair, too, is turned up in feminine fashion; compare the heads of Hera,

Pl. II, 30, of Nike, PL III, 10, and of Hekáte, Pl. III, 19. The appearance

of horns is probably accidental, and Head's brilliant identification stands. Furthermore, the Omphale legend of Herakles, of Lydian origin, according to which Herakles underwent a voluntary servitude, donning female attire

as an atonement for homicide, seems to have been localized at Lampsakos

since there exists an imperial coin type (Macdonald, Hunter. Cat. pl. xlviii,

5) of Herakles and Omphale, Pl. X, 11.

The Nike head, Type 30, has been called an Eros (J. H. S., 1897, p. 85)

on account of the wreath which seems to be certainly of myrtle. The

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The Gold Stateks of Lampsakos 49

coin from which the identification was ma

Pl. Ill, 10, but although this die has a so

dies, Pl. Ill, 8, 9, would never suggest t

feminine.

The head of a female Satyr, Type 32, w

is a most beautiful type, and the subje

hardly call it a Maenad head, for Maenads do not have pointed ears. In fact the poin

unusual in Greek art. There are a few in

in Reinach's Répertoire, but in none of

presence of the pointed ear. Several yeâ

wandering through the Musée du Louvre was rewarded by the discovery of a Fourt

Musée du Louvre was rewarded by the discovery of a Fourt marble, of which the ears

marble, of which the ears are pointed ture antique du Musée national du Lou

The nose and the bust associated with thi

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50 The American Journal of Numismatics

itself is antique.1 The sculpture is not a perfect

is a purely human type, whereas the coin show

shevelled female Satyr, characterized as female b

lace. But the subject is so rare in Greek art th

able to find it on a marble of the same period as Type 33, the head of Aktaion, is also a rare on

occurs on a Kyzikene stater of the period 450-400 blance of style between the two staters.

Type 38, the young and beardless Dionysos,

fine example of a Fourth Century rendering o

in Thrace, the youthful Dionysos type occurs on 400 b.c. (Head, Hist. Num.,2 p. 250), and this is o

of the type on coins. A beautiful head on the

of the period 400-344 b.c. (cf. the coin in the Po

is very close to our Lampsakene stater in sty

rather full, soft chin, and the hair and wreath

manner, though the gold stater is immeasurab

piece. At Kyzikos also on staters of the Fourth C

young Dionysos head occurs (Babelon, Traité,

however, is not orderly but dishevelled, and the

Lampsakene head.

Type 39, the bearded Kabeiros head, is agai

prototype, Pl. IV, 33, 34, the latter dating c. formerly described as Odysseus or Hephaistos

pilos which is also worn by Odysseus on th

Hephaistos on coins of Methana in Argolis. Ho discussed the cult of the Kabeiroi at Birytis an

Num. xxiv, p. 105 f), and has shown the existe

Kabeiros and an elder (bearded) Kabeiros at Ky

tion has been generally accepted.

Type 40, the Athena head, is copied from th

Athenian tetradrachm (British Museum Catalogu closest in style to our Lampsakene stater, Pl. IV, b.c. The head is done in the pseudo-archaic mann

Athenian issues and it at first glance looks most o

Lampsakene types. It is executed, moreover,

lacks style and beauty altogether.

1 Froehner, loc. cit., "Satyre Femelle. Buste. Les oreilles de ch

remarque sur la figure de cette femme la caractérisent comme Satyre

très rare et très interessante. (Le nez et le buste sont modernes. La

pentélique. Musée Campana. Hauteur totale 0.52.

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The Gold Staters of Lampsakos 51

The head of Type 41 is done in a curiou to say what goddess is here represented, the sakkos and hair is unidentifiable. On bud at the base of the flower, but this is

on die I, in place of the flower there is a lea

sakkos, which might pass as a lotus leaf. on the second die. If the wreath is a lotus

Aphrodite who was associated with this pl

and Nagidos, Head, Hist. Num.,2 p. 718, 72

p. 739). If the wreath

is not

a lotus, it

is

d

As evidence of cult, the Lampsakene sta special value, since they do not represent nence as usual. The distinctive badges of t of Pegasos found on the earliest coins in

the janiform female head found on the

staters bear constantly varying obverse ty

Pantheon, while the arms of the city o

parable to the choice of types on the elec

badge proper is relegated to the position

of animal and figure types are used for t are types which are found earlier on othe inferred, were suggested by those coinag

copied. At Lampsakos there are cases o

from other coinages, as already shown,

have to eliminate therefore these copied conclusions as to the principal deities wor

Of the higher Olympic gods, Zeus an

important position. A Zeus head occurs

and 31 and in the latter his head is entire scepter which is the adjunct symbol. Ath

and Pl. Ill, 29, the last, however, being head occupies the reverse of the majori

and her head is the obverse type chosen b

sakene issues (British Museum Catalog

also placed the head of Zeus on one of

Perses Achémén. pl. ix, 12). From the a

that these deities were in particular k

bronze coinage, Pl. IX, 19-24, also emplo

Demeter is found on three types, Pl. Pl. I, 30, a wreathed and veiled head, an

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;VJ Tuk American Journal of Numismatics

the ground, and on a bronze coin, Pl. IX, 35. Th

have been suggested by the Kyzikene stater, Pl. IV, triple occurrence of Demeter on the gold coins seem clusion that her cult was prominent at Lampsakos. ties are especially conspicuous on these staters, thou

Dionysos are found. Apollo occurs on the Fourth 36-30, and on later bronze, and hence his cult see

coinage of Lampsakos, however, discloses what wa

of the city, namely, that of Dionysos-Priapos. O drachms struck after the battle of Magnesia in

when Lampsakos received its autonomy from Ro

horned head occupies the obverse. On the latest

recurs again, Pl. X, 2-7, and the figure of Priapo

coins, Pl. X, 8, 17, 19. Priapos is an hypostasis of

lier. He wears the wreath of ivy leaves with berries

betoken his animal nature as a fertility god. Thi

prominent on the Imperial issues.

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The Goi.d Staters of Lampsakos 53

THE SILVER AND BRONZE COINAGES OF LAMPSAKOS

It was the writer's original plan to issue a separate art

and bronze coinages of Lampsakos thus completing th

presented on the Lampsakene electrum and gold stater

had already been gathered from the collections of London,

and Glasgow, and the plates were prepared when word wa

Dr. Gaebler in August, 1922, that he was about to publ

on the silver coins of Lampsakos left by the late Dr.

then decided to append the plates to the present article o

and restrict the text mainly to a brief summary of the c

of the issues.

The whole publication was, however, retarded in the autumn of 1922

by the writer's more extended researches in the field of the Alexandrine

and Lysimachian issues at Lampsakos, and subsequently by a complete

cessation of numismatic work, due to the agreeable but all-absorbing task

of serving on the Publication Committee of the Exhibition of American Sculp-

ture held by the National Sculpture Society on the grounds of the Numis-

matic and the adjoining Museums. Since taking up again the task of com-

pleting a much-postponed publication, the paper by Dr. Gaebler on the

silver coins has come out in Nomisma, XII, 1923. It is accompanied by two plates which do not duplicate but rather complement Pis. V and VI

here given, since so many examples have been drawn by Dr. Gaebler from

Berlin, Copenhagen, Brussels and other foreign museums, not included

in these plates. The dates assigned to the autonomous silver issues and

the arrangement of the same are practically identical in the two articles, but Dr. Gaebler's views as to the dates of certain issues, notably, the second

group of the Janiform head series, and the Alexandrine. tetradrachms diverge

considerably from those that the writer had formed, and in these two view-

points will be found a fruitful topic for discussion. The writer wishes to

express to Dr. Gaebler her appreciation of his kindness in forwarding a copy

of his paper so promptly and of his careful review of her paper on the electrum

staters (Numismatisches Literatur-Blatt, 1921, No. 216-217, p. 1798).

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54 The American Journal of Numismatics

SILVER

THE HALV-PEGASOS TYPES

c. 510 b.c. or earlier

I. Forepart of Pegasos to 1. or r. Rev. Quadripartite incuse square. Pl. V, 1-7.

Denominations : didrachms, tetrobols and diobols.

THE JANIFORM HEAD TYPES

Group A. c. 500-470 b.c.

I. Archaic Janiform female head with round ear-ring, necklace a

Athena head in Corinthian helmet 1. within a square incuse. Pl.

Denominations : tetrobol Pl. V, 8 ; drachms, Pl. V, 9-13 ; obols

tritemorion, Pl. V, 17. Rev. details: 15, olive wreath on helmet ; 16, wheel, countermark

olive spray in field.

II. Similar head, more advanced style ; border of dots. Re

18-27.

Denominations : drachms, Pl. V, 18-23, and obols, Pl. V, 24-27.

Rev. details in lower r. field: 18, olive spray; 19, x ; 20, amphora; 22, cadu- ceus; 25, ī ; 26, f ; rev. details on helmet: 18, serpent; 19, 25, 26, olive wreath.

Group B. c. 400-300 b.c.

I. Archaistic Janiform head with round ear-ring and diadem. Rev. AAM, AAM Y, AAMYA Athena head in Corinthian helmet r. in circular incuse. Pl. VI, 1-21.

Denominations: tetrobols and diobols (Pl. VI, 1, triobol). Dr. Gaebler publishes

also a drachm, Nomisma XII, Pl. II, 1 ; an obol, Pl. 2; and a tritemorion, Pl. II, 3.

Obv. details: 1, border of dots; 13, dolphin to 1. on neck; 12-14, dolphin to r. on neck; 15, GEO; 16, IAO; 17, 18, KPI on neck; 21, later style with drop ear-ring.

Rev. details on helmet: 5, 17, 18, olive wreath ; rev. details in field : 9, ivy leaf ;

10, serpent; 17, 18, kantharos; 19, fly.

II. Similar head, not archaistic. Rev. AAM ; helmet usuitlly crested. Pl. VI,

22-32.

Denomination : tetrobols.

Obv. details: 22, pendant ear-ring and necklace.

Rev. details: 23-25, half-Pegasos on helmet; 28-32, serpent on helmet; 31, star