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ELECTRICALEngineeringInterviewQuestionsandAnswerspdf
freedownloadEEE:
1.Whatiselectrictraction?
Electrictractionmeansusingtheelectricpowerfortractionsystem(i.e.forrailways,trams,
trolleysetc).
Electrictractionmeansuseoftheelectricityforalltheabovemachines.Nowadays,
magnetictractionisalsousedforbullettrains.andbasicallydcmotorsareusedforelectric
tractionsystems.

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2.Howcanyoustartupthe40wtubelitewith230vAC/DCwithoutusingany
choke/Coil?
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ItspossiblebymeansofElectronicchokes,otherwiseitsnotpossibletoionizetheparticles
intubelightwithnormalvoltage.

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3.Whatispuinelectricalengineering?
Pustandsforperunitandthiswillbeusedinsinglelinediagramofpowerdistributionand
itislikeahugeelectricalcircuitwithnoofcomponents(generators,transformers,loads)
withdifferentratings(inMVAandKV).Tobringalltheratingsintocommonplatformwe
usepuconceptinwhich,ingenerallargestMVAandKVratingsofthecomponentis
consideredasbasevalues,thenallothercomponentratingswillgetbackintothis
basis.Thosevaluesarecalledaspuvalues.(p.u=actualvalue/basevalue).

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ELECTRICALEngineeringInterview
QuestionsandAnswers

4.OperationcarriedoutinThermalpowerstations?
Thewaterisobtainedintheboilerandthecoalisburntsothatsteamisobtainedthissteam
isallowedtohittheturbine,theturbinewhichiscoupledwiththegeneratorgeneratesthe
electricity.

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5.Whylinkisprovidedinneutralofanaccircuitandfuseinphaseofac
circuit?
LinkisprovidedataNeutralcommonpointinthecircuitfromwhichvariousconnection
aretakenfortheindividualcontrolcircuitandsoitisgiveninalinkformtowithstandhigh
Amps.ButinthecaseofFuseinthePhaseofACcircuititisdesignedsuchthatthefuse
ratingiscalculatedfortheparticularcircuit(i.eload)only.Soifanymalfunctionhappenthe
fuseconnectedintheparticularcontrolcircuitalonewillblowoff.
6.Howtubelightcircuitisconnectedandhowitworks?
Achokeisconnectedinoneendofthetubelightandastarterisinserieswiththecircuit.
Whensupplyisprovided,thestarterwillinterruptthesupplycycleofAC.Duetothesudden
changeofsupplythechockwillgeneratearound1000volts.Thisvoltwillcapableofto
breaktheelectronsinsidethetubetomakeelectronflow.oncethecurrentpassesthrough
thetubethestartercircuitwillbeoutofpart.nowthereisnochangeofsupplycauseschoke
voltagenormalizedandactasminimizethecurrent.
7.whatsisMARXCIRCUIT?
Itisusedwithgeneratorsforcharginganumberofcapacitorinparallelanddischarging
theminseries.Itisusedwhenvoltagerequiredfortestingishigherthantheavailable.
8.Whatisencoder,howitfunction?
Anencoderisadeviceusedtochangeasignal(suchasabitstream)ordataintoacode.The
codemayserveanyofanumberofpurposessuchascompressinginformationfor
transmissionorstorage,encryptingoraddingredundanciestotheinputcode,ortranslating
fromonecodetoanother.Thisisusuallydonebymeansofaprogrammed
algorithm,especiallyifanypartisdigital,whilemostanalogencodingisdonewithanalog
circuitry.

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9.Whataretheadvantagesofspeedcontrolusingthyristor?
Advantages:1.FastSwitchingCharactersticsthanMosfet,BJT,IGBT2.Lowcost3.Higher
Accurate.
10.WhyHumanbodyfeelElectricshock??ninanElectrictrainduring
running,WedidntfeelanyShock?why?
Unfortunatelyourbodyisaprettygoodconductorofelectricity,ThegoldenruleisCurrent
takesthelowestresistantpathifyouhaveinsulationtoourfeetasthecircuitisnot
complete(wearingrubberfootwearwhichdoingsomerepairsisadvisableasourfootwearis
ahighresistancepathnotmuchcurrentflowsthroughourbody).Theelectrictrainiswell
insulatedfromitselectricalsystem.
11.whatistheprincipleofmotor?
Wheneveracurrentcarryingconductorisplacedinanmagneticfielditproduceturningor
twistingmovemntiscalledastorque.
12.Why,whenbirdssitontransmissionlinesorcurrentwiresdoesntgetshock?
Itstruethatifbirdstouchthesingleoneline(phaseorneutral)theydontgetelectrical
shockifbirdstouch2linesthanthecircuitisclosedandtheygetelectricalshock..soifa
humantouchsingleoneline(phase)thenhedoesntgetshockifheisintheair(not
touchingstandingonthegroundifheisstandingonthegroundthentouchingtheline
(phase)hewillgetashockbecausethegroundonwhatwestandingislikeline(groundbed
likeneutral)?andinthemostofelectriclinestheneutralisgrounded..sothatmeansthat
humanwhotouchthelineclosesthecircuitbetweenphaseandneutral.
13.whatismeantbyarmaturereaction?
Theeffectofarmatureflutomainfluxiscalledarmaturereaction.Thearmaturefluxmay
supportmainfluxoropposesmainflux.
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14.whathappenifwegive220voltsdcsupplytodbulbrtubelight?
Bulbs[devices]forACaredesignedtooperatesuchthatitoffershighimpedancetoAC
supply.Normallytheyhavelowresistance.WhenDCsupplyisapplied,duetolow
resistance,thecurrentthroughlampwouldbesohighthatitmaydamagethebulbelement.
15.WhichmotorhashighStartingTorqueandStaringcurrentDCmotor,Inductionmotor
orSynchronousmotor?
DCSeriesmotorhashighstartingtorque.WecannotstarttheInductionmotorand
Synchronousmotorsonload,butcannotstarttheDCseriesmotorwithoutload.
16.whatisACSRcableandwhereweuseit?
ACSRmeansAluminiumconductorsteelreinforced,thisconductorisusedintransmission
&distribution.
17.Whatisvaccumcurrcuitbreaker.definewithcauseandwherebeuseitDevice?
Abreakerisnormallyusedtobreakaciruit.whilebreakingthecircuit,thecontactterminals
willbeseparated.
Atthetimeofseperationanairgapisformedinbetweentheterminals.Duetoexisting
currentflowtheairinthegapisionisedandresultsinthearc.variousmediumsareusedto
quenchthisarcinrespectiveCBs.butinVCBthemediumisvaccumgas.sincetheairinthe
CBishavingvaccumpressurethearcformationisinterrupted.VCBscanbeuseduptokv.
18.Whatwillhappenwhenpowerfactorisleadingindistributionofpower?
Iftheirishighpowerfactor,i.eifthepowerfactorisclosetoone:
1.lossesinformofheatwillbereduced,
2.cablebecomeslessbulkyandeasytocarry,andverycheaptoafford,&
3.italsoreducesoverheatingoftranformers.

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19.whatstheonemaindifferencebetweenUPS&inverter?Andelectricalengineering&
electronicsengineering?
uninterruptpowersupplyismainlyuseforshorttime.meansaccordingtoupsVAitgives
backup.upsisalsotwotypes:onlineandoffline.onlineupshavinghighvoltandampfor
longtimebackupwithwithhighdcvoltage.butupsstartwith2vdcwith7amp.butinverter
isstartwith2v,24,dcto36vdcand20ampto80ampbatterywithlongtimebackup.
20.Whatis2phasemotor?
Atwophasemotorisamotorwiththethestartingwindingandtherunningwindinghavea
phasesplit.
e.gacservomotor.wheretheauxiliarywindingandthecontrolwindinghaveaphasesplitof
90degree.
21.AdvantagesofvvvfdrivesovernonvvvfdrivesforEOTcranes?
1.smoothstartandstop.
2.nojerkingofload.
3.exactposiitoning
4.betterprotectionformotor.
5.high/lowspeedselection.
6.reliabilityofbreakshoe.
7.programmablebreakcontrol.
8.easycircutry
9.reductionincontrols
10.increasesmotorlife
22.WhatisthesignificanceofvectorgroupinginPowerTransformers?
Everypowertransformerhasavectorgrouplistedbyitsmanufacturer.Fundamentallyit
tellsyoutheinformationabouthowthewindingsareconnected(deltaorwye)andthe
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phacedifferencebetweentthecurrentandvoltage.EG.DYNmeansDeltaprimary,Wye
Secondryandthecurrentisatoclockrefferedtothevoltage.
23.WhichtypeofA.Cmotorisusedinthefan(ceilingfan,exhaustfan,padestalfan,
bracketfanetc)whicharefindinthehouses?
ItsSinglePhaseinductionmotorwhichmostlysquirrelcagerotorandarecapacitorstart
capacitorrun.
24.GivetwobasicspeedcontrolschemeofDCshuntmotor?
Byusingfluxcontrolmethod:inthismethodarheostatisconnectedacrossthefieldwinding
tocontrolthefieldcurrent.sobychangingthecurrentthefluxproducedbythefieldwinding
canbechanged,andsincespeedisinverselyproportionaltofluxspeedcanbecontrolled
.armaturecontrolmethod:inthismethodarheostatisconnectedacrossarmaturewinding
byvaryingtheresistancethevalueofresistivedrop(IaRa)canbevaried,andsincespeedis
directlyproportionaltoEbIaRathespeedcanbecontrolled.
25.whatistheprincipleofmotor?
Wheneveracurrentcarryingconductorisplacedinanmagneticfielditproduceturningor
twistingmovementiscalledastorque.
26.whatismeantbyarmaturereaction?
Theeffectofarmatureflutomainfluxiscalledarmaturereaction.Thearmaturefluxmay
supportmainfluxoropposesmainflux.
27.GivetwobasicspeedcontrolschemeofDCshuntmotor?
Byusingfluxcontrolmethod:inthismethodarheostatisconnectedacrossthefieldwinding
tocontrolthefieldcurrent.sobychangingthecurrentthefluxproducedbythefieldwinding
canbechanged,andsincespeedisinverselyproportionaltofluxspeedcanbecontrolled
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.armaturecontrolmethod:inthismethodarheostatisconnectedacrossarmaturewdg.by
varyingtheresistancethevalueofresistivedrop(IaRa)canbevaried,andsincespeedis
directlyproportionaltoEbIaRathespeedcanbecontrolled.
28.whatisthedifferencebetweensynchronousgenerator&asynchronousgenerator?
Insimple,synchronousgeneratorsupplysbothactiveandreactivepowerbutasynchronous
generator(inductiongenerator)supplysonlyactivepowerandobservereactivepowerfor
magnetizing.Thistypeofgeneratorsareusedinwindmills.
29.WhatisthePolarizationindexvalue?(pivalue)andsimpledefinitionofpolarization
index?
Itsratiobetweeninsulationresistance(IR)i.emeggarvaluefor0mintoinsulationresistance
formin.Itrangesfrom57fornewmotors&normallyformotortobeingoodconditionit
shouldbeGreaterthan.5.
30.Whysyn.generatorsareusedfortheproductionofelectricity?
synchronousmachineshavecapabilitytoworkondifferentpowerfactor(orsaydifferent
imaginarypowervaryingthefieldemf.Hencesyn.generatorsrusedfortheproductionof
electricity.
31.Whatisthedifferencebetweensynchronousgenerator&asynchronousgenerator?
Insimple,synchronousgeneratorsupplysbothactiveandreactivepowerbutasynchronous
generator(inductiongenerator)supplysonlyactivepowerandobservereactivepowerfor
magnetizing.Thistypeofgeneratorsareusedinwindmills.
32.1tonisequaltohowmanywatts?
1ton=12000BTU/hrandtoconvertBTU/hrtohorsepower,12,000*0.000929=4.715hp
therefore1ton=4.715*.746=.5KW.
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33.whysyn.generatorsrusedfortheproductionofelectricity?
synchronousmachineshavecapabilitytoworkondifferentpowerfactor(orsaydifferent
imaginarypowvaryingthefieldemf.Hencesyn.generatorsrusedfortheproductionof
electricity.
34.Enlisttypesofdcgenerator?
D.C.Generatorsareclassifiedintotwotypes:
1)separatlyexictedd.c.generator
2)selfexictedd.c.generator,
whichisfurtherclassifiedinto1)series2)shuntandcompound(whichisfurtherclassified
intocumulativeanddifferential).
35.WhatisAutomaticVoltageregulator(AVR)?
AVRisanabbreviationforAutomaticVoltageRegulator.ItisimportantpartinSynchronous
Generators,itcontrolstheoutputvoltageofthegeneratorbycontrollingitsexcitation
current.ThusitcancontroltheoutputReactivePoweroftheGenerator.
36.Whatisanexciterandhowdoesitwork?
Therearetwotypesofexciters,staticexciterandrotoryexciter.purposeofexcitoristo
supplytheexcitationdcvoltagetothefixedpolesofgenerator.Rotoryexcitorisan
additionalsmallgeneratormountedontheshaftofmaingenerator.ifitisdcgenerator,it
willsupplydctotherotorypolesthroughslipringandbrushes(conventionalalternator).if
itisanacexcitor,outputofacexcitorisrectifiedbyrotatingdiodesandsupplydctomain
fixedpoles.acexcitoristheacgeneratorwhosefieldwindingarestationaryandarmature
rotates.initialvoltageisbuiltupbyresidualmagnetism.Itgivesthestartingtorquetothe
generator.

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37.Differencebetweenafourpointstarterandthreepointstarter?
Theshuntconnectioninfourpointstaterisprovidedseparatelyformthelinewhereasin
threepointstateritisconnectedwithlinewhichisthedrawbackinthreepointstater
38.WhyusetheVCBatHighTransmissionSystem?WhycantuseACB?
ActuallythethingisvacuumhashigharcquechingpropertycomparetoairbecauseinVCB
,thedieelectricstrengthsequalto8timesofair.ThatyalwaysvaccumusedasinHT
breakerandairusedasinLT.
39.Whatisthedifferencebetweensurgearrestorandlightningarrestor?
LAisinstalledoutsideandtheeffectoflightningisgrounded,whereassurgearrestor
installedinsidepanelscomprisingofresistorswhichconsumestheenergyandnullifythe
effectofsurge.
40.Whathappensificonnectacapacitortoageneratorload?
Connectingacapacitoracrossageneratoralwaysimprovespowerfactor,butitwillhelp
dependsupontheenginecapacityofthealternator,otherwisethealternatorwillbeover
loadedduetotheextrawattsconsumedduetotheimprovementonpf.Secondly,dont
connectacapacitoracrossanalternatorwhileitispickinguporwithoutanyotherload.
41.Whythecapacitorsworksonaconly?
Generallycapacitorgivesinfiniteresistancetodccomponents(i.e.,blockthedc
components).itallowstheac
componentstopassthrough.
42.Explaintheworkingprincipalofthecircuitbreaker?
CircuitBreakerisonewhichmakesorbreaksthecircuit.Ithastwocontactsnamelyfixed
contact&movingcontact.undernormalconditionthemovingcontactcomesincontactwith
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fixedcontacttherebyformingtheclosedcontactfortheflowofcurrent.Duringabnormal&
faultyconditions(whencurrentexceedstheratedvalue)anarcisproducedbetweenthe
fixed&movingcontacts&therebyitformstheopencircuitArcisextinguishedbytheArc
Quenchingmedialikeair,oil,vaccumetc.
43.Howmanytypesofcollingsystemittransformers?
1.ONAN(oilnatural,airnatural)
2.ONAF(oilnatural,airforced)
3.OFAF(oilforced,airforced)
4.ODWF(oildirect,waterforced)
5.OFAN(oilforced,airforced)
44.Whatisthefunctionofantipumpingincircuitbreaker?
whenbreakeriscloseatonetimebyclosepushbutton,theantipumpingcontactorprevent
reclosethebreakerbyclosepushbuttonafterifitalreadyclose.
45.whatissteppermotor.whatisitsuses?
Steppermotoristheelectricalmachinewhichactuponinputpulseappliedtoit.itisone
typeofsynchronousmotorwhichrunsinstepsineitherdirectioninsteadofrunningin
completecycle.so,inautomationpartsitisused.
46.Howtocalculatecapacitorbankvaluetomaintainunitypowerfactorwithsomesuitable
example?
KVAR=KW(TAN(COS(1)#e)TAN(COS(1)#d))
#e=EXISTINGP.F.
#d=DESIREDP.F.

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47.Tellmeindetailaboutc.t.andp.t.?(Company:reliance)
ThetermC.Tmeanscurrenttransformer,andthetermP.Tmeanspotentialtransformer.In
circuitwheremeasurementsofhighvoltageandhighcurrentisinvolvedtheyareused
there.Particularlywhenameasuringdevicelikevoltmeterorammeterisnotableto
measuresuchhighvalueofquantitybecauseoflargevalueoftorqueduetosuchhighvalue
itcandamagethemeasuringdevice.so,CTandPTareintroducedinthecircuits.
Theyworkonthesameprincipleoftransformer,whichisbasedonlinkageof
electromagneticfluxproducedbyprimarywithsecondary.Theyworkontheratiototheyare
designed.E.gifCTisofratio50005Aandithastomeasuresecondarycurrentof8000A.then
ANS=8000*55000=8Aandthisresultwillbegiventoammeter.andaftermeasuring8Awe
cancalculatetheprimarycurrent.sameistheoperationofPTbutmeasuringvoltage.
48.ThereareaTransformerandaninductionmachine.Thosetwohavethesamesupply.
Forwhichdevicetheloadcurrentwillbemaximum?Andwhy?
Themotorhasmaxloadcurrentcomparetothatoftransformerbecausethemotor
consumesrealpower..andthetransformerisonlyproducingtheworkingfluxanditsnot
consuming..hencetheloadcurrentinthetransformerisbecauseofcorelosssoitis
minimum.
49.whatispowerfactor?whetheritshouldbehighorlow?why?
Powerfactorshouldbehighinordertogetsmoothoperationofthesystem.Lowpower
factormeanslosseswillbemore.itistheratiooftruepowertoapparentpower.ithastobe
ideally1.ifitistoolowthencableoverheating&equipmentoverloadingwilloccur.ifitis
greaterthan1thenloadwillactascapacitorandstartsfeedingthesourceandwillcause
tripping.(ifpfispoorex:0.17tomeetactualpowerloadhastodraw
morecurrent(Vconstant),resultinmorelossesifpfisgoodex:0.95tomeetactualpower
loadhastodrawlesscurrent(Vconstant),resultinlesslosses).

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50.WhatisthedifferencebetweenIsolatorandCircuitBreaker?
Isolatorisaoffloaddevicewhichisusedforisolatingthedownstreamcircuitsfrom
upstreamcircuitsforthereasonofanymaintenanceondownstreamcircuits.itismanually
operatedanddoesnotcontainanysolenoidunlikecircuitbreaker.itshouldnotbeoperated
whileitishavingload.firsttheloadonitmustbemadezeroandthenitcansafelyoperated.
itsspecificationonlyratedcurrentisgiven.Butcircuitbreakeris
onloadautomaticdeviceusedforbreakingthecircuitincaseofabnormalconditionslike
shortcircuit,overloadetc.,itishavingthreespecification1isratedcurrentand2isshort
circuitbreakingcapacityand3isinstantaneoustrippingcurrent.
51.whatisboucholzrelayandthesignificanceofitintothetransformer?
Boucholzrelayisadevicewhichisusedfortheprotectionoftransformerfromitsinternal
faults,itisagasbasedrelay.wheneveranyinternalfaultoccursinatransformer,the
boucholzrelayatoncegivesahornforsometime,ifthetransformerisisolatedfromthe
circuitthenitstopitssounditselfotherwiseittripsthecircuitbyitsowntripping
mechanism.
52.WhatisSF6CircuitBreaker?
SF6isSulpherhexaFlouridegas..ifthisgasisusedasarcquenchingmediumina
CircuitbreakermeansSF6CB.
53.Whatisfranticeffect?
Outputvoltageisgreaterthantheinputvoltageorreceivingendvoltageisgreaterthanthe
sendingendvoltage.
54.Whatismeantbyinsulationvoltageincables?explainit?
Itisthepropertyofacablebyvirtueofitcanwithstandtheappliedvoltagewithout
rupturingitisknownasinsulationlevelofthecable.
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55.Whywedo2typesofearthingontransformer(ie:)bodyearthing&neutralearthing,
whatisfunction.iamgoingtoinstallaookvatransformer&380kvaDGsetwhatshould
theearthingvalue?
ThetwotypesofearthingareFamiliarasEquipmentearthingandsystemearthing.In
Equipmentearthing:
body(nonconductingpart)oftheequipmentshoulddbeearthedtosafegaurdthehuman
beings.systemEarthing:Inthisneutralofthesupplysource(TransformerorGenerator)
shouldbegrounded.Withthis,incaseofunbalancedloadingneutralwillnotbeshifted.so
thatunbalancedvoltageswillnotarise.Wecanprotecttheequipmentalso.Withsizeofthe
equipment(transformeroralternator)andselectionofrelyingsystemearthingwillbe
furtherclassifiedintodirectlyearthed,Impedanceearthing,resistive(NGRs)earthing.
56.WhatisthedifferencebetweenMCB&MCCB,Whereitcanbeused?
MCBisminiaturecircuitbreakerwhichisthermaloperatedanduseforshortcircuit
protectioninsmallcurrentratingcircuit.MCCBmouldedcasecircuitbreakerandis
thermaloperatedforoverloadcurrentandmagneticoperationforinstanttripinshort
circuitcondition.undervoltageandunderfrequencymaybeinbuilt.Normallyitisused
wherenormalcurrentismorethan100A.
57.Whereshouldthelightingarrestorbeplacedindistributionlines?
Neardistributiontransformersandoutgoingfeedersof11kvandincommingfeederof33kv
andnearpowertransformersinsubstations.
58.DefineIDMTrelay?
Itisaninversedefiniteminimumtimerelay.InIDMTrelayitsoperatingisinversely
proportionalandalsoacharacteristicofminimumtimeafterwhichthisrelayoperates.Itis
inverseinthesense,thetrippingtimewilldecreaseasthemagnitudeoffaultcurrent
increase.
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59.Whatarethetransformerlosses?
TRANSFORMERLOSSESTransformerlosseshavetwosourcescopperlossandmagnetic
loss.Copperlossesarecausedbytheresistanceofthewire(I2R).Magneticlossesare
causedbyeddycurrentsandhysteresisinthecore.Copperlossisaconstantafterthecoil
hasbeenwoundandthereforeameasurableloss.
Hysteresislossisconstantforaparticularvoltageandcurrent.Eddycurrentloss,however,
isdifferentforeachfrequencypassedthroughthetransformer.
60.WhatisthecountofhvdctransmissionlinesinIndia?
Resolution:Atpresenttherearethreehvdctransmissionlinesinindia
1)chandrapurtopadghe(mumbai)(100MWat00kVDC)
2)rehandtodelhi(100MWat00kVDC)
3)talchaltokolar(200MW)
61.Whatismeantbyregenerativebraking?
Resolution:Whenthesupplyiscuttoffforarunningmotor,itstillcontinuerunningdueto
inertia.Inordertostopitquicklyweplaceaload(resitor)acrossthearmaturewindingand
themotorshouldhavemaintainedcontinuousfieldsupply.sothatbacke.m.fvoltageis
madetoapplyacrosstheresistorandduetoloadthemotorstopsquickly.Thistypeof
breakingiscalledasRegenerativeBreaking.
62.WhyisthestartingcurrenthighinaDCmotor?
Resolution:InDCmotors,VoltageequationisV=EbIaRa(V=Terminalvoltage,Eb=Back
emfinMotor,Ia=Armaturecurrent,Ra=Aramtureresistance).Atstarting,Ebiszero.
Therefore,V=IaRa,Ia=V/Ra,whereRaisverylesslike0.01ohm.i.e,Iawillbecome
enormouslyincreased.

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63.Whataretheadvantagesofstardeltastarterwithinductionmotor?
Resolution:
(1).Themainadvantageofusingthestardeltastarterisreductionofcurrentduringthe
startingofthemotor.Startingcurrentisreducedto34timesOfcurrentofDirectonline
starting.
(2).Hencethestartingcurrentisreduced,thevoltagedropsduringthestartingofmotorin
systemsarereduced.
64.WhyDeltaStarTransformersareusedforLightingLoads?
Resolution:Forlightingloads,neutralconductorismustandhencethesecondarymustbe
starwinding.andthislightingloadisalwaysunbalancedinallthreephases.Tominimize
thecurrentunbalanceintheprimaryweusedeltawindingintheprimary.Sodelta/star
transformerisusedforlightingloads.
65.Whyinathreepinplugtheearthpinisthickerandlongerthantheotherpins?
Resolution:ItdependsuponR=rhol/awherearea(a)isinverselyproportionaltoresistance
(R),soif(a)increases,Rdecreases&ifRislesstheleakagecurrentwilltakelowresistance
pathsotheearthpinshouldbethicker.ItislongerbecausetheTheFirsttomakethe
connectionandLasttodisconnnectshouldbeearthPin.ThisassuresSafetyfortheperson
whousestheelectricalinstrument.
66.Whyseriesmotorcannotbestartedonnoload?
Resolution:Seriesmotorcannotbestartedwithoutloadbecauseofhighstartingtorque.
SeriesmotorareusedinTrains,Craneetc.
67.WhyELCBcantworkifNinputofELCBdonotconnecttoground?
Resolution:ELCBisusedtodetectearthleakagefault.Oncethephaseandneutralare
connectedinanELCB,thecurrentwillflowthroughphaseandthatmuchcurrentwillhave
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toreturnneutralsoresultantcurrentiszero.Oncethereisagroundfaultintheloadside,
currentfromphasewilldirectlypassthroughearthanditwillnotreturnthroughneutral
throughELCB.Thatmeansoncesidecurrentisgoingandnotreturningandhence
becauseofthisdifferenceincurrentELCBwiltripanditwillsafeguardtheothercircuits
fromfaultyloads.Iftheneutralisnotgrounded,faultcurrentwilldefinitelyhighandthat
fullfaultcurrentwillcomebackthroughELCB,andtherewillbenodifferenceincurrent.
68.HowelectricalpowerisgeneratedbyanA.CGenerator?
Forthegenerationofelectpowerweneedaprimemoverwhichsuppliesmechanicalpower
inputtothe
alternator,canbesteamturbines,orhydroturbines.Whenpolesoftherotormovesunder
thearmature
conductorswhichareplacedonthestator,fieldfluxcutthearmatureconductor,therefore
voltageisgenerated
andisofsinusoidalinnatureduetopolaritychangeofrotorpoles(i,e)NSNS.
69.Whyanacsolenoidvalveattracttheplungereventhoughweinterchangestheterminal?
Willthepoleschanges?
YesbecausethepoleschangesforeveryhalfcycleofacvoltagesothepolarityofACvoltage
iscontinuouslychangingforeveryhalfcycle.so,interchangingofterminalsinacsystem
doesnotshowanydifference.Thatswhytheacsolenoidattracttheplungereventhoughits
terminalsareinterchanged.
70.Whatisderating?,whyitisnecessary,itissameforallmeansfordrives,motors,and
cables.
Thecurrentcurryingofcableswillchangedependinguponthesitetemperature(locationof
site),typeofrun(itwillrunthroughduct,trench,buriedetc.),numberoftray,depthof
trench,distancebetweencables.Consideringthisconditionactualcurrentcurryingcapacity
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ofcablereducethancurrentcurryingcapacity(whichgiventocableCatalogue)thisiscalled
derating.
71.Whytemperatureriseisconductedinbusbarsandisolators?
Busbarsandisolatorsareratedforcontinuouspowerflow,thatmeanstheycarryheavy
currentswhichrisestheirtemperature.soitisnecessarytotestthisdevicesfortemperature
rise.
72.Whenvoltageincreasesthencurrentalsoincreasesthenwhatistheneedofovervoltage
relayandovercurrentrelay?Canwemeasureovervoltageandovercurrentbymeasuring
currentonly?
No.Wecantsensetheovervoltagebyjustmeasuringthecurrentonlybecausethecurrent
increasesnotonlyforovervoltagesbutalsoforundervoltage(Asmostoftheloadsarenon
linearinnature).So,theovervoltageprotection&overcurrentprotectionarecompletely
different.Overvoltagerelaymeantforsensingovervoltages&protectthesystemfrom
insulationbreakdownandfiring.Overcurrentrelaymeantforsensingany
internalshortcircuit,overloadcondition,earthfaulttherebyreducingthesystemfailure&
riskoffire.So,forabetterprotectionofthesystem.Itshouldhavebothovervoltage&over
currentrelay.
73.Ifonelampconnectsbetweentwophasesitwillglowornot?
Ifthevoltagebetweenthetwophaseisequaltothelampvoltagethenthelampwillglow.
Whenthevoltagedifferenceisbigitwilldamagethelampandwhenthedifferenceis
smallerthelampwillglowdependingonthetypeoflamp.
74.Howdoyouselectacablesize(Cu&Al)foraparticularload?
Atfirstcalculatetheelectricalcurrentoftheload,afterthatderatetheelectricalcurrent
consideringderatingfactor(dependingonsiteconditionandlayingofcable)afterchoose
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thecablesizefromcablecatalogconsideringderatingelectricalcurrent.Afterthatmeasure
thelengthofcablerequiredfromsupplypointofloadtoloadpoin.Calculatethevoltage
dropwhichwillmax3%(resistanceandreactanceofcablefoundfrom
cablecatalogofselectingcable)ifvoltagedrop>3%thenchoosenexthighersizeofcable.
75.WhatareHRCfusesandwhereitisused?
HRCstandforhighrupturingcapacityfuseanditisusedindistributionsystemfor
electricaltransformers.
76.Whichpowerplanthashighloadfactor?
Allbaseloadpowerplantshaveahighloadfactor.Ifweusehighefficiencypowerplantsto
supplythebaseload,wecanreducethecostofgeneration.Hydelpowerplantshaveahigher
efficiencythanthermal&nuclearpowerplants.
77.Mentionthemethodsforstartinganinductionmotor?
Thedifferentmethodsofstartinganinductionmotor
DOL:directonlinestarter
Stardeltastarter
Autotransformerstarter
Resistancestarter
Seriesreactorstarter
78.Whatisthedifferencebetweenearthresistanceandearthelectroderesistance?
Onlyoneoftheterminalsisevidentintheearthresistance.Inordertofindthesecond
terminalweshouldrecoursetoitsdefinition:EarthResistanceistheresistanceexisting
betweentheelectricallyaccessiblepartofaburiedelectrodeandanotherpointoftheearth,
whichisfaraway.Theresistanceoftheelectrodehasthefollowingcomponents:

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(A)theresistanceofthemetalandthatoftheconnectiontoit.
(B)thecontactresistanceofthesurroundingearthtotheelectrode.
79.Whatisuseoflockoutrelayinhtvoltage?
Alockoutrelayisgenerallyplacedinlinebeforeoraftertheestopswitchsothepowercan
beshutoffatonecentrallocation.Thisrelayispoweredbythesameelectricalsourceasthe
controlpowerandisoperatedbyakeylockswitch.Therelayitselfmayhaveupto24
contactpointswithintheunititself.Thisallowsthecontrolpowerformultiplemachinesto
belockedoutbytheturnofasinglekeyswitch.
80.Whatisthepowerfactorofanalternatoratnoload?
AtnoloadSynchronousImpedanceofthealternatorisresponsibleforcreatingangle
difference.Soitshouldbezerolagginglikeinductor.
81.Howtodeterminecapacitortolerancecodes?
Resolution:Inelectroniccircuits,thecapacitortolerancecanbedeterminedbyacodethat
appearsonthecasing.Thecodeisaletterthatoftenfollowsathreedigitnumber(suchas
130Z).Thefirsttwoarethe1stand2ndsignificantdigitsandthethirdisamultipliercode.
Mostofthetimethelastdigittellsyouhowmanyzerostowriteafterthefirsttwodigitsand
thesearereadasPicoFarads.
82.Whymostofanalogo/pdeviceshavingo/prange4to20mAandnot0to20mA?
Resolution:420mAisastandardrangeusedtoindicatemeasuredvaluesforanyprocess.
Thereasonthat4maischoseninsteadof0mAisforfailsafeoperation.Forexamplea
pressureinstrumentgivesoutput4mAtoindicate0psi,upto20mAtoindicate100psi,or
fullscale.Duetoanyproblemininstrument(i.e)brokenwire,itsoutputreducesto0mA.
Soifrangeis020mAthenwecandifferentiatewhetheritisduetobroken
wireordueto0psi.
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83.Twobulbsof100wand40wrespectivelyconnectedinseriesacrossa230vsupplywhich
bulbwillglowbrightandwhy?
Resolution:Sincetwobulbsareinseriestheywillgetequalamountofelectricalcurrentbut
asthesupplyvoltageisconstantacrossthebulb(P=V^2/R).Sotheresistanceof40Wbulbis
greaterandvoltageacross40Wismore(V=IR)so40Wbulbwillglowbrighter.
84.Whatismeantbykneepointvoltage?
Resolution:KneepointvoltageiscalculatedforelectricalCurrenttransformersandisvery
importantfactortochooseaCT.ItisthevoltageatwhichaCTgetssaturated.(CTcurrent
transformer).
85.Whatisreversepowerrelay?
Resolution:ReversePowerflowrelayareusedingeneratingstationssprotection.A
generatingstationsissupposedtofedpowertothegridandincasegeneratingunitsare
off,thereisnogenerationintheplantthenplantmaytakepowerfromgrid.Tostoptheflow
ofpowerfromgridtogeneratorweusereversepowerrelay.
86.WhatwillhappenifDCsupplyisgivenontheprimaryofatransformer?
Resolution:Mainlytransformerhashighinductanceandlowresistance.IncaseofDCsupply
thereisnoinductance,onlyresistancewillactinthe>electricalcircuit.Sohighelectrical
currentwillflowthroughprimarysideofthetransformer.Soforthisreasoncoiland
insulationwillburnout.
87.Whatisthedifferencebetweenisolatorsand>electricalcircuitbreakers?Whatisbus
bar?
Resolution:Isolatorsaremainlyforswitchingpurposeundernormalconditionsbutthey
cannotoperateinfaultconditions.ActuallytheyusedforisolatingtheCBsformaintenance.

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WhereasCBgetsactivatedunderfaultconditionsaccordingtothefaultdetected.Busbaris
nothingbutajunctionwherethepowerisgettingdistributedforindependentloads.
88.WhataretheadvantageoffreewheelingdiodeinaFullWaverectifier?
Resolution:Itreducestheharmonicsanditalsoreducessparkingandarchingacrossthe
mechanicalswitchsothatitreducesthevoltagespikeseeninainductiveload
89.Whatisthefunctionofinterposingcurrenttransformer?
Resolution:Themainfunctionofaninterposingcurrenttransformeristobalancethe
currentssuppliedtotherelaywheretherewouldotherwisebeanimbalanceduetothe
ratiosofthemaincurrenttransformers.
Interposingcurrenttransformerareequippedwithawiderangeoftapsthatcanbeselected
bytheusertoachievethebalancerequired.
90.WhatareMotorGeneratorSetsandexplainthedifferentwaysthemotorgeneratorset
canbeused?
Resolution:MotorGeneratorSetsareacombinationofanelectricalgeneratorandanengine
mountedtogethertoformasinglepieceofequipment.Motorgeneratorsetisalsoreferred
toasagenset,ormorecommonly,agenerator.
Themotorgeneratorsetcanusedinthefollowingdifferentways:
1.Alternatingcurrent(AC)todirectcurrent(DC)
2.DCtoAC
3.DCatonevoltagetoDCatanothervoltage
4.ACatonefrequencytoACatanotherharmonicallyrelatedfrequency
91.Whatispowerqualitymeter?
PowerQualitymetersarecommoninmanyindustrialenvironment.Smallunitsarenow
availableforhomeuseaswell.Theygiveoperatorstheabilitytomonitortheboth
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perturbationsonthepowersupply,aswellaspowerusedwithinabuilding,orbyasingle
machineorappliance.Insomesituations,equipmentfunctionandoperationismonitored
andcontrolledfromaremotelocationwherecommunicationisviamodem,orhighspeed
communicationlines.Sowecanunderstandtheimportanceofpowermeasurementthrough
powerqualitymeters.
92.Whatisthedifferentbetweendigitalphaseconverterandordinaryphaseconverter?
Digitalphaseconverterarearecentdevelopmentinphaseconvertertechnologythatutilizes
proprietarysoftwareinapowerfulmicroprocessortocontrolsolidstatepowerswitching
components.Thismicroprocessor,calledadigitalsignalprocessor(DSP),monitorsthe
phaseconversionprocess,continuallyadjustingtheinputandoutputmodulesofthe
convertertomaintainperfectlybalancedthreephasepowerunderallloadconditions.
93.Explaintheoperationofvariablefrequencytransformer?
Avariablefrequencytransformerisusedtotransmitelectricitybetweentwoasynchronous
alternatingcurrentdomains.Avariablefrequencytransformerisadoublyfedelectric
machineresemblingaverticalshafthydroelectricgeneratorwithathreephasewoundrotor,
connectedbyslipringstooneexternalacpowercircuit.
Adirectcurrenttorquemotorismountedonthesameshaft.Changingthedirectionof
torqueappliedtotheshaftchangesthedirectionofpowerflowwithnoappliedtorque,the
shaftrotatesduetothedifferenceinfrequencybetweenthenetworksconnectedtotherotor
andstator.Thevariablefrequencytransformerbehavesasacontinuouslyadjustablephase
shiftingtransformer.Itallowscontrolofthepowerflowbetweentwo
networks.
94.Whatisthemainuseofrotaryphaseconverter?
Rotaryphaseconverterwillbeconvertingsinglephasepowerintotruebalanced3phase
power,soitisoftencalledassinglephasetothreephaseconverter.Oftentheadvantagesof
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3phasemotors,andother3phaseequipment,makeitworthwhiletoconvertsinglephaseto
3phasesothatsmallandlargeconsumersneednotwanttopayfortheextracostofa3
phaseservicebutmaystillwishtouse3phaseequipment.
95.Useofswitchmodepowerconverterinrealtimebasis?
Switchmodepowerconvertercanbeusedinthefollowing5differentways
1)stepdownanunregulateddcinputvoltagetoproducearegulateddcoutputvoltageusing
acircuitknownasBuckConverterorStepDownSMPS,
2)stepupanunregulateddcinputvoltagetoproducearegulateddcoutputvoltageusinga
circuitknownasBoostConverterorStepUpSMPS,
3)stepuporstepdownanunregulateddcinputvoltagetoproducearegulateddcoutput
voltage,
4)inverttheinputdcvoltageusingusuallyacircuitsuchastheCukconverter,and
5)producemultipledcoutputsusingacircuitsuchastheflybackconverter.
96.Whichtypeofoilisusedasatransformeroil?
Transformeroil,orinsulatingoil,isusuallyahighlyrefinedmineraloilthatisstableathigh
temperaturesandhasexcellentelectricalinsulatingproperties.Itisusedinoilfilled
transformers,sometypesofhighvoltagecapacitors,fluorescentlampballasts,andsome
typesofhighvoltageswitchesandcircuitbreakers.Itsfunctionsaretoinsulate,suppress
coronaandarcing,andtoserveasacoolant.
Wellintothe170s,polychlorinatedbiphenyls(PCB)swereoftenusedasadielectricfluid
sincetheyarenotflammable.Theyaretoxic,andunderincompletecombustion,canform
highlytoxicproductssuchasfuran.
Startingintheearly170s,concernsaboutthetoxicityofPCBshaveledtotheirbanningin
manycountries.
Today,nontoxic,stablesiliconbasedorfluoridatedhydrocarbonsareused,wherethe
addedexpenseofafireresistantliquidoffsetsadditionalbuildingcostforatransformer
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vault.Combustionresistantvegetableoilbaseddielectriccoolantsandsynthetic
pentaerythritoltetrafattyacid(C7,C8)estersarealsobecomingincreasinglycommonas
alternativestonaphthenicmineraloil.Estersarenontoxictoaquaticlife,readily
biodegradable,andhavealowervolatilityandhigherflashpointsthanmineraloil.
97.Ifwegive2334A,540VonPrimarysideof1.125MVAstepuptransformer,thenwhat
willbetheSecondaryCurrent,IfSecondaryVoltage=11KV?
AsweknowtheVoltage&currentrelationfortransformerV1/V2=I2/I1
WeKnow,VI=540VV2=11KVor11000VI1=2334Amps.
ByputtingthesevalueonRelation
540/11000=I2/2334
So,I2=114.5Amps
98.whatarethepointstobeconsiderforMCB(miniaturecircuitbreakerselection?
I(L)*1.25=I(MAX)maximumcurrent.Mcbspecificationaredoneonmaximumcurrentflow
incircuit.
99.whatisthefullformofKVAR?
WeknowtherearethreetypesofpowerinElectricalasActive,apparent&reactive.So
KVARisstandforKilo
VoltAmpswithReactivecomponent.
100.Whatisexcitation?
ExcitationisapplyinganexternalvoltagetoDCshuntcoilinDCmotors.
101.Inthreepinplug6Amp.220vACrating.whyearthpindiameterishigherthanother
twopin?whatitspurpose?
BecauseCurrentflowintheconductorisinverselyproportionaltotheconductordiameter.
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SoifanyshortcircuitsoccurinthesystemfirsthighcurrentsbypassedintheEarthling
terminal.(R=Pl/aareaoftheconductorincreasesresistancevaluedecreases)
102.Differencebetweenmeggertestequipmentandcontactresistancemetertest
instruments?
Meggertestequipmentusedtomeasurecableelectricresistance,conductorcontinuity,
phaseidentificationwhereascontactresistancemetertestinstrumentsusedtomeasurelow
resistancelikerelays,contactors.
103.Whenweconnectthelargecapacitorbankinseries?
weconnectlargecapacitorbankinseriestoimprovethevoltagepowersupplyattheload
endinbalancedtransmissionlinewhenthereisconsiderablevoltagedropalongthe
balancedtransmissionlineduetohighimpedanceoftheline.Soinordertobringthe
voltageattheloadterminalswithinitslimits(i.e(+or%6)oftheratedhighterminal
voltage)thelargecapacitorbankisusedinseries.
104.Whatiselectricaldiversityfactorinelectricalinstallations?
Electricaldiversityfactoristheratioofthesumoftheindividualmaximumdemandsofthe
varioussubdivisionsofasystem,orpartofasystem,tothemaximumdemandofthewhole
system,orpartofthesystem,underconsideration.Electricaldiversityfactorisusuallymore
thanone.
105.Whyfieldrheostatiskeptinminimumpositionwhilearmaturerheostatatmaximum
position?
Inmotorsatthetimeofstartingthearmatureresistanceisintroducedtoreducethehigh
startingcurrentandthefieldresistanceiskeptminimumtohavehighstartingtorque.

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106.WhycomputerhummingsoundoccurredinHTtransmissionline?
Thiscomputerhummingsoundiscomingduetoionization(breakdownofairintocharged
particles)ofairaroundtransmissionconductor.ThiseffectiscalledasCoronaeffect,andit
isconsideredaspowerloss.
107.Whatisratedspeed?
Atthetimeofmotortakingnormalcurrent(ratedcurrent)thespeedofthemotoriscalled
ratedspeed.Itisaspeedatwhichanysystemtakesmallcurrentandgivemaximum
efficiency.
108.Whatisdifferentbetweenresistancegroundingsystemandresistanceearthingsystem?
Resistancegroundingsystemmeansconnectingtheneutralpointoftheloadtotheground
tocarrytheresidualcurrentincaseofunbalancedconditionsthroughtheneutraltothe
groundwhereasresistanceearthingsystemisdoneinanelectricequipmentinorderto
protectheequipmentinoccurrenceoffaultinthesystem.
109.Whyshouldbethefrequency50Hz60Hzonlywhynototherslike45,9556or
anything,whyshouldwemaintainthefrequencyconstantifsowhyitisonly50Hz60Hz?
Wecanhavethefrequencyatanyfrequencyyoulike,butthanyoumustalsomakeyourown
motors,highvoltagetransformersoranyotherequipmentyouwanttouse.Wemaintainthe
frequencyat50hzor60hzbecausetheworldmaintainsastandardat50/60hzandthe
equipmentsarearemadetooperateatthesefrequency.
110.Howtodeterminealternatingcurrentfrequency?
Zerocrossingsofthesinewavetotriggeramonostable(pulsegenerator)isawayto
determinealternatingcurrentfrequency.Afixedwidthpulseisgeneratedforeachcycle.
Thustherearenpulsespersecond,eachwithwithaconstantenergy.Themorepulses
therearepersecond,themoretheenergy.Thepulsesareintegrated(filteredoraveraged)to
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getasteadyDCvoltagewhichisproportionaltofrequency.Thisvoltagecanthenbe
displayedonananalogueordigitalvoltmeter,indicatingfrequency.Thismethodismore
suitablethanadirectcounter,asitcangetgoodaccuracyinasecondorso.
111.WhyelectricityinIndiaisinthemultiplesof11like11kv,22kv,33kv?
TransformerInducedvoltageequationcontains4.44factor.
E=4.44*f*T*phi
EInducedemfperphase
Tnumberofturns
ffrequency
phimaximumfluxperpole
FromtheequationweseethatEisproportionalto4.4anditisinturnmultipleof11.
Soalwaystransmissionvoltageismultipleof11
112.WhyweuseacsysteminIndiawhynotdc?
Firstly,theoutputofpowerstationscomesfromarotaryturbine,whichbyitsnatureisAC
andthereforerequiresnopowerelectronicstoconverttoDC.Secondlyitismucheasierto
changethevoltageofACelectricityfortransmissionanddistribution.thirdlythecostof
plantassociatedwithACtransmission(circuitbreakers,transformersetc)ismuchlower
thantheequivilantofDCtransmissionACtransmissionprovidesanumberoftechnical
advantages.Whenafaultonthenetworkoccurs,alargefaultcurrentoccurs.InanAC
systemthisbecomesmucheasiertointerupt,asthesinewavecurrentwillnaturallytendto
zeroatsomepointmakingthecurrenteasiertointerrupt.
113.Whichtypeofmotorisusedintrains,whatistheratingofsupplyusedexplainWorking
principal?
Dcseriesisinthetrainstogethighstartingtorquewhilestartingofthetrainsandoperating
voltageis1500vdc.
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114.Batterybanksareinconnectedinseriesorparallelandwhy?
Batterybanksarealwaysconnectedinseriesinordertogetamultipliedvoltagewherethe
AHorcurrentcapacityremainingsame.Ex:24nos.2V,200Ahbatteriesconnectedinseries
willgive48V,200Ahoutput(AH=Amperehours)
115.Whatisinrushcurrent?
Inrushcurrentisthecurrentdrawnbyapieceofelectricallyoperatedequipmentwhen
powerisfirstapplied.ItcanoccurwithACorDCpoweredequipment,andcanhappeneven
withlowsupplyvoltages.
116.InaTapchangingtransformerwhereisthetapconnected,isitconnectedinthe
primarysideorsecondaryside?
Tapingsareconnectedtohighvoltagewindingside,becauseoflowcurrent.Ifweconnect
tapingstolowvoltageside,sparkswillproducewhiletapchangingoperationduetohigh
current.
117.Whytransformerratingsareinkva?
SincethepowerfactoroftransformerisdependentonloadweonlydefineVAratingand
doesnotincludepowerfactor.Incaseofmotors,powerfactordependonconstructionand
henceratingofmotorsisinKWattsandincludepowerfactor.
118.Whatisdifferencebetweenfuseandbreaker?
Fusesareburnedatthetimeofovercurrentflowsinthecircuitbutbreakersarejust
open(notburn)atthetimeofovercurrentflow.Fusesareusedinonlyonetimebut
breakersareusedbymultiplenumberoftimes.
119.Whatisthedifferencebetweendeltadelta,deltastartransformer?
DeltadeltatransformerisusedatgeneratingstationorareceivingstationforChangeof
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Voltage(i,e)generallyitisusedwheretheVoltageishigh&Currentislow.Deltastarisa
distributionkindoftransformerwherefromsecondarystarneutralistakenasareturnpath
andthisconfigurationisusedforStepdownvoltagephenomena.
120.Capacitorisloadfreecomponentbutwhyamperemetershowscurrentwhencapacitor
bankbreakerclose?
AsweknowthatElectricalishavingtwotypeofload,ActiveandReactive.Capacitorisa
reactiveloadwhichisnotconsideringasaload,&itsfactorisIsin@.Meterisdesignbased
onCurrentRMSvaluebecauseofitmeterisshowingthecurrentRMSvalue.
121.Whatselectrictraction?
Tractionimplieswiththeelectricpowerfortractionsystemi.e.forrailways,trams,trolleys
etc.electrictractionimpliesuseoftheelectricityforallthese.Nowaday,magnetictraction
isalsoutilisedforbullettrains.Essentiallydcmotorsareutilizedforelectrictraction
systems.
122.WhatispuinEE?
Pustandsforperunitinpowersystem.(pu=actualvalue/basevalue)
123.Definesteppermotor.Whatistheuseofsteppermotor?
Themotorwhichworkoractontheappliedinputpulseinit,iscalledassteppermotor.This
steppermotorisunderthecategoryofsynchronousmotor,whichoftendoesnotfully
dependofcompletecycle.Itlikestoworksineitherdirectionrelatedtosteps.forthis
purposeitmainlyusedinautomationparts.
124.Whatisadifferentialamplifier?Also,explainCMRR.
DifferentialAmplifier:Theamplifier,whichisusedtoamplifythevoltagedifference
betweentwoinputlinesneitherofwhichisgrounded,iscalleddifferentialamplifier.This
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reducestheamountofnoisewhichisinjectedintotheamplifier,becauseanynoise
appearingsimultaneouslyonboththeinputterminalsastheamplifyingcircuitryrejectsit
beingacommonmodesignal.
CMRR:Itcanbedefinedastheratioofdifferentialvoltagegaintocommonmadevoltage
gain.Ifadifferentialamplifierisperfect,CMRRwillbeinfinitebecauseinthatcase
commonmodevoltagegainwouldbezero.
125.Whatisuseoflockoutrelayinhtvoltage?
Alockoutrelayisgenerallyplacedinlinebeforeoraftertheestopswitchsothepowercan
beshutoffatonecentrallocation.Thisrelayispoweredbythesameelectricalsourceasthe
controlpowerwhichisoperatedbyakeylockswitch.Therelayitselfmayhaveupto24
contactpointswithintheunititself.Thisallowsthecontrolpowerformultiplemachinesto
belockedoutbytheturnofasinglekeyswitch.
126.Howcanyoustartupthe40wtubelitewith230vAC/DCwithoutusingany
choke/Coil?
ItspossiblewithElectronicchoke.otherwiseitsnotpossibletoionizetheparticlesintube.
light,withnormalvoltage.
127.WhattypesdomainofLaplacetransforms?WhatbehaviorcanLaplacetransform
predicthowthesystemwork?
TypesdomainofLaplacetransformsissdomain,Laplacetransformsprovideamethodto
findposition,accelerationorvoltagethesystemwillhave.
128.Inthemagneticfluxes,whatistheroleofarmaturereaction?
Thearmaturefluxhasanimportantrolefortherunningcondition.Thisarmaturefluxcan
opposethemainfluxoritmaysupportthemainfluxforbetterrunningcondition.This
effectofsupportingandopposingofmainfluxtoarmaturefluxiscalledarmaturereaction.
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129.Explainthinfilmresistorsandwirewoundresistors
ThinfilmresistorsItisconstructedasathinfilmofresistivematerialisdepositedonan
insulatingsubstrate.
Desiredresultsareobtainedbyeithertrimmingthelayerthicknessorbycuttinghelical
groovesofsuitablepitchalongitslength.Duringthisprocess,thevalueoftheresistanceis
monitoredcloselyandcuttingofgroovesisstoppedassoonasthedesiredvalueof
resistanceisobtained.
Wirewoundresistorslengthofwirewoundaroundaninsulatingcylindricalcoreare
knownaswirewoundresistors.ThesewiresaremadeofmaterialssuchasConstantanand
Manganinbecauseoftheirhighresistivity,andlowtemperaturecoefficients.Thecomplete
wirewoundresistoriscoatedwithaninsulatingmaterialsuchasbakedenamel
130.whatstheonemaindifferencebetweenUPS&inverter?Andelectricalengineering&
electronicsengineering?
uninterruptpowersupplyismainlyuseforshorttime.meansaccordingtoupsVAitgives
backup.upsisalsotwotypes:onlineandoffline.onlineupshavinghighvoltandampfor
longtimebackupwithwithhighdcvoltage.butupsstartwithvdcwith7amp.butinverter
isstartwithv,24,dcto36vdcand0ampto180ampbatterywithlongtimebackup.
131.WhataretheoperationcarriedoutinThermalpowerstation?
Thewaterisobtainedintheboilerandthecoalisburntsothatsteamisobtainedthissteam
isallowedtohittheturbine,theturbinewhichiscoupledwiththegeneratorgeneratesthe
electricity
132.WhatisthedifferencebetweenElectronicregulatorandordinaryrheostatregulatorfor
fans?
Thedifferencebetweentheelectronicandordinaryregulatoristhefactthatinelectronic
reg.powerlossestendtobelessbecauseasweminimizethespeedtheelectronicreg.give
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thepowernecessaryforthatparticularspeedbutincaseofordinaryrheostattypereg.the
powerwastageissameforeveryspeedandnopowerissaved.Inelectronicregulatortriacis
employedforspeedcontrol.byvaryingthefiringanglespeediscontrolledbutinrheostatic
controlresistanceisdecreasedbystepstoachievespeedcontrol.
133.Whatis2phasemotor?
Atwophasemotorisoftenamotorwiththethestartingwindingandtherunningwinding
haveaphasesplit.
e.gacservomotor.wheretheauxiliarywindingandthecontrolwindinghaveaphasesplit
of90degree.
134.Whatdoesqualityfactordependoninresonance?
Qualityfactorqdependsonfrequencyandbandwidth.
135.Whatarethetypesofpowerinelectricalpower?
Therearenormallythreetypesofpowerarecountedinelectricalpower.Theyare,
Apparentpower
Activepower
Reactivepower
136.WhataretheadvantagesofVSCFwindelectricalsystem?
AdvantagesofVSCFwindelectricalsystemare:
Nocomplexpitchchangingmechanismisneeded.
Aeroturbinealwayskeepsgoingatmaximumefficiencypoint.
Extraenergyinthehighwindspeedregionofthespeeddurationcurvecanbeextracted
Significantreductioninaerodynamicstresses,whichareassociatedwithconstantspeed
operation.

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137.Whatisslipinaninductionmotor?
Slipcanbedefinedasthedistinctionbetweenthefluxspeed(Ns)andtherotorspeed(N).
Speedoftherotorof
aninductionmotorisalwayslessthanitssynchronousspeed.Itisusuallyexpressedasa
percentageof
synchronousspeed(Ns)andrepresentedbythesymbolS.
138.Whylinkisprovidedinneutralofanaccircuitandfuseinphaseofaccircuit?
LinkisprovidedataNeutralcommonpointinthecircuitfromwhichvariousconnection
aretakenfortheindividualcontrolcircuitandsoitisgiveninalinkformtowithstandhigh
Amps.ButinthecaseofFuseinthePhaseofACcircuititisdesignedsuchthatthefuse
ratingiscalculatedfortheparticularcircuit(i.eload)only.Soifanymalfunctionhappenthe
fuseconnectedintheparticularcontrolcircuitalonewillblowoff.
139.Statethedifferencebetweengeneratorandalternator?
Generatorandalternatoraretwodevices,whichconvertsmechanicalenergyintoelectrical
energy.Bothhavethesameprincipleofelectromagneticinduction,theonlydifferenceis
thattheirconstruction.Generatorpersistsstationarymagneticfieldandrotatingconductor
whichrollsonthearmaturewithslipringsandbrushesridingagainsteachother,henceit
convertstheinducedemfintodccurrentforexternalloadwhereasanalternatorhasa
stationaryarmatureandrotatingmagneticfieldforhighvoltagesbutforlowvoltageoutput
rotatingarmatureandstationarymagneticfieldisused.
140.WhatisACSRcableandwhereweuseit?
ACSRmeansAluminiumconductorsteelreinforced,thisconductorisusedintransmission
&distribution.

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141.Whystardeltastarterispreferredwithinductionmotor?
Stardeltastarterispreferredwithinductionmotorduetofollowingreasons:
Startingcurrentisreduced34timesofthedirectcurrentduetowhichvoltagedropsand
henceitcauseslesslosses.
Stardeltastartercircuitcomesincircuitfirstduringstartingofmotor,whichreduces
voltage3times,thatiswhycurrentalsoreducesupto3timesandhencelessmotorburning
iscaused.
Inaddition,startingtorqueisincreasedanditpreventsthedamageofmotorwinding.
142.Statethedifferencebetweengeneratorandalternator
Generatorandalternatoraretwodevices,whichconvertsmechanicalenergyintoelectrical
energy.Bothhavethesameprincipleofelectromagneticinduction,theonlydifferenceis
thattheirconstruction.Generatorpersistsstationarymagneticfieldandrotatingconductor
whichrollsonthearmaturewithslipringsandbrushesridingagainsteachother,henceit
convertstheinducedemfintodccurrentforexternalloadwhereasanalternatorhasa
stationaryarmatureandrotatingmagneticfieldforhighvoltagesbutforlowvoltageoutput
rotatingarmatureandstationarymagneticfieldisused.
143.WhyACsystemsarepreferredoverDCsystems?
Duetofollowingreasons,ACsystemsarepreferredoverDCsystems:
a.ItiseasytomaintainandchangethevoltageofACelectricityfortransmissionand
distribution.
b.PlantcostforACtransmission(circuitbreakers,transformersetc)ismuchlowerthanthe
equivalentDCtransmission
c.Frompowerstations,ACisproducedsoitisbettertouseACthenDCinsteadof
convertingit.
d.Whenalargefaultoccursinanetwork,itiseasiertointerruptinanACsystem,asthe

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sinewavecurrentwillnaturallytendtozeroatsomepointmakingthecurrenteasierto
interrupt.
144.Howcanyourelatepowerengineeringwithelectricalengineering?
Powerengineeringisasubdivisionofelectricalengineering.Itdealswithgeneration,
transmissionanddistributionofenergyinelectricalform.Designofallpowerequipments
alsocomesunderpowerengineering.Powerengineersmayworkonthedesignand
maintenanceofthepowergridi.e.calledongridsystemsandtheymightworkonoffgrid
systemsthatarenotconnectedtothesystem.
145.Whatarethevariouskindofcablesusedfortransmission?
Cables,whichareusedfortransmittingpower,canbecategorizedinthreeforms:
Lowtensioncables,whichcantransmitvoltageupto1000volts.
Hightensioncablescantransmitvoltageupto23000volts.
Supertensioncablescantransmitvoltage66kVto132kV.
146.Whybackemfusedforadcmotor?highlightitssignificance.
Theinducedemfdevelopedwhentherotatingconductorsofthearmaturebetweenthepoles
ofmagnet,inaDCmotor,cutthemagneticflux,opposesthecurrentflowingthroughthe
conductor,whenthearmaturerotates,iscalledbackemf.Itsvaluedependsuponthespeed
ofrotationofthearmatureconductors.Instarting,thevalueofbackemfiszero.
147.Whatisslipinaninductionmotor?
Slipcanbedefinedasthedifferencebetweenthefluxspeed(Ns)andtherotorspeed(N).
Speedoftherotorofaninductionmotorisalwayslessthanitssynchronousspeed.Itis
usuallyexpressedasapercentageofsynchronousspeed(Ns)andrepresentedbythesymbol
S.

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148.Explaintheapplicationofstoragebatteries.
Storagebatteriesareusedforvariouspurposes,someoftheapplicationsarementioned
below:
Fortheoperationofprotectivedevicesandforemergencylightingatgeneratingstations
andsubstations.
Forstarting,ignitionandlightingofautomobiles,aircraftsetc.
Forlightingonsteamanddieselrailwaystrains.
Asasupplypowersourceintelephoneexchange,laboratoriesandbroadcastingstations.
Foremergencylightingathospitals,banks,ruralareaswhereelectricitysuppliesarenot
possible.
149.Explainadvantagesofstoragebatteries
Fewadvantagesofstoragebatteriesarementionedbelow:
Mostefficientformofstoringenergyportably.
Storedenergyisavailableimmediatelybecausethereisnolagoftimefordeliveringthe
storedenergy.
Reliablesourceforsupplyofenergy.
Theenergycanbedrawnatafairlyconstantrate.
160.Whatarethedifferentmethodsforthestartingofasynchronousmotor.
Startingmethods:Synchronousmotorcanbestartedbythefollowingtwomethods:
Bymeansofanauxiliarymotor:Therotorofasynchronousmotorisrotatedbyauxiliary
motor.Thenrotorpolesareexcitedduetowhichtherotorfieldislockedwiththestator
revolvingfieldandcontinuousrotationisobtained.
Byprovidingdamperwinding:Here,barconductorsareembeddedintheouterperiphery
oftherotorpolesandareshortcircuitedwiththeshortcircuitingringsatbothsides.The
machineisstartedasasquirrelcageinductionmotorfirst.Whenitpicksupspeed,

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excitationisgiventotherotorandtherotorstartsrotatingcontinuouslyastherotorfieldis
lockedwithstatorrevolvingfield.
161.Namethetypesofmotorsusedinvacuumcleaners,phonographicappliances,vending
machines,
refrigerators,rollingmills,lathes,powerfactorimprovementandcranes.
Followingmotorsareused:
VacuumcleanersUniversalmotor.
PhonographicappliancesHysteresismotor.
VendingmachinesShadedpolemotor.
RefrigeratorsCapacitorsplitphasemotors.
RollingmillsCumulativemotors.
LathesDCshuntmotors.
PowerfactorimprovementSynchronousmotors.
162.StateTheveninsTheorem:
Accordingtotheveninstheorem,thecurrentflowingthroughaloadresistanceConnected
acrossanytwoterminalsofalinearactivebilateralnetworkistheratioopencircuitvoltage
(i.e.thevoltageacrossthetwoterminalswhenRLisremoved)andsumofloadresistance
andinternalresistanceofthenetwork.ItisgivenbyVoc/(Ri+RL).
163.StateNortonsTheorem
TheNortonstheoremexplainsthefactthattherearetwoterminalsandtheyareasfollows:
Oneisterminalactivenetworkcontainingvoltagesources
Anotheristheresistancethatisviewedfromtheoutputterminals.Theoutputterminals
areequivalenttotheconstantsourceofcurrentanditallowsgivingtheparallelresistance.
TheNortonstheoremalsoexplainsabouttheconstantcurrentthatisequaltothecurrentof
theshortcircuitplacedacrosstheterminals.Theparallelresistanceofthenetworkcanbe
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viewedfromtheopencircuitterminalswhenallthevoltageandcurrentsourcesare
removedandreplacedbytheinternalresistance.
164.StateMaximumpowertransfertheorem
TheMaximumpowertransfertheoremexplainsabouttheloadthataresistancewillextract
fromthenetwork.
Thisincludesthemaximumpowerfromthenetworkandinthiscasetheloadresistanceis
beingisequaltotheresistanceofthenetworkanditalsoallowstheresistancetobeequalto
theresistanceofthenetwork.Thisresistancecanbeviewedbytheoutputterminalsandthe
energysourcescanberemovedbyleavingtheinternalresistancebehind.
165.Explaindifferentlossesinatransformer.
Therearetwotypesoflossesoccurringintransformer:
ConstantlossesorIronlosses:Thelossesthatoccurinthecoreareknownascorelossesor
ironlosses.
Twotypesofironlossesare:
oeddycurrentloss
oHysteresisloss.
Theselossesdependuponthesupplyvoltage,frequency,corematerialanditsconstruction.
Aslongassupplyvoltageandfrequencyisconstant,theselossesremainthesamewhether
thetransformerisloadedornot.Thesearealsoknownasconstantlosses.
Variablelossesorcopperlosses:whenthetransformerisloaded,currentflowsinprimary
andsecondarywindings,thereislossofelectricalenergyduetotheresistanceofthe
primarywinding,andsecondarywindingandtheyarecalledvariablelosses.Theselosses
dependupontheloadingconditionsofthetransformers.
Therefore,theselossesarealsocalledasvariablelosses.

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176.ExplaindifferenttypesofD.Cmotors?Givetheirapplications
DifferenttypeofDCmotorsandtheirapplicationsareasfollows:
Shuntmotors:Ithasaconstantspeedthoughitsstartingtorqueisnotveryhigh.
Therefore,itissuitableforconstantspeeddrive,wherehighstartingtorqueisnotrequired
suchaspumps,blowers,fan,lathemachines,tools,beltorchainconveyoretc.
Servicemotors:Ithashighstartingtorque&itsspeedisinverselyproportionaltothe
loadingconditionsi.e.whenlightlyloaded,thespeedishighandwhenheavilyloaded,itis
low.Therefore,motorisusedinlifts,cranes,tractionwork,coalloaderandcoalcutterin
coalminesetc.
Compoundmotors:Italsohashighstartingtorqueandvariablespeed.Itsadvantageis,it
canrunatNILloadswithoutanydanger.Thismotorwillthereforefinditsapplicationin
loadshavinghighinertialoadorrequiringhighintermittenttorquesuchaselevators,
conveyor,rollingmill,planes,presses,shearsandpunches,coalcutterandwinding
machinesetc.
177.Explaintheprocessofcommutationinadcmachine.Explainwhatareinterpolesand
whytheyarerequiredinadcmachine.
Commutation:Itisphenomenonwhenanarmaturecoilmovesundertheinfluenceofone
polepairitcarriesconstantcurrentinonedirection.Asthecoilmovesintotheinfluence
ofthenextpolepair,thecurrentinitmustreverse.Thisreversalofcurrentinacoilis
calledcommutation.Severalcoilsundergocommutationsimultaneously.Thereversalof
currentisopposedbythestaticcoilemfandthereforemustbeaidedinsome
fashionforsmoothcurrentreversal,whichotherwisewouldresultinsparkingatthe
brushes.
Theaidingemfisdynamicallyinducedintothecoilsundergoingcommutationbymeansof
compolesorinterpoles,whichareseriesexcitedbythearmaturecurrent.Thesearelocated

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intheinterpolarregionofthemainpolesandthereforeinfluencethearmaturecoilsonly
whentheseundergocommutation.
178.Commentontheworkingprincipleofoperationofasinglephasetransformer.
WorkingprincipleofoperationofasinglephasetransformercanbeexplainedasAnAC
supplypassesthroughtheprimarywinding,acurrentwillstartflowingintheprimary
winding.Asaresult,thefluxisset.Thisfluxislinkedwithprimaryandsecondarywindings.
Hence,voltageisinducedinboththewindings.Now,whentheloadisconnectedtothe
secondaryside,thecurrentwillstartflowingintheloadinthesecondarywinding,resulting
intheflowofadditionalcurrentinthesecondarywinding.Hence,accordingtoFaradays
lawsofelectromagneticinduction,emfwillbeinducedinboththewindings.Thevoltage
inducedintheprimarywindingisduetoitsselfinductanceandknownasselfinducedemf
and
accordingtoLenzeslawitwillopposethecausei.e.supplyvoltagehencecalledasbackemf.
Thevoltageinducedinsecondarycoilisknownasmutuallyinducedvoltage.Hence,
transformerworksontheprincipleofelectromagneticinduction.
179.Definethefollowingterms:
Reliability,
Maximumdemand,
Reservegeneratingcapacity,
Availability(operational).
Reliability:Itisthecapacityofthepowersystemtoserveallpowerdemandswithoutfailure
overlongperiods.
MaximumDemand:Itismaximumloaddemandrequiredinapowerstationduringagiven
period.
Reservegeneratingcapacity:Extragenerationcapacityinstalledtomeettheneedof
scheduleddowntimesforpreventivemaintenanceiscalledreservegeneratingcapacity.
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Availability:Asthepercentageofthetimeaunitisavailabletoproducepowerwhether
neededbythesystemornot.
180.Mentionthedisadvantagesoflowpowerfactor?Howcanitbeimproved?
Disadvantagesoflowpowerfactor:
Linelossesare1.57timesunitypowerfactor.
Largergeneratorsandtransformersarerequired.
Lowlaggingpowerfactorcausesalargevoltagedrop,henceextraregulationequipmentis
requiredtokeepvoltagedropwithinprescribedlimits.
Greaterconductorsize:Totransmitordistributeafixedamountofpoweratfixedvoltage,
theconductorswillhavetocarrymorecurrentatlowpowerfactor.Thisrequiresalarge
conductorsize.
181.Statethemethodsofimprovingpowerfactor?
Methodsofimprovingpowerfactor:
Byconnectingstaticcapacitorsinparallelwiththeloadoperatingatlaggingpowerfactor.
Asynchronousmotortakesaleadingcurrentwhenoverexcitedandthereforebehaveslike
acapacitor.
Byusingphaseadvancerstoimprovethepowerfactorofinductionmotors.Itprovides
excitingampereturnstotherotorcircuitofthemotor.Byprovidingmoreampereturns
thanrequired,theinductionmotorcanbemadetooperateonleadingpowerfactorlikean
overexcitedsynchronousmotor.
182.Statethefactors,forthechoiceofelectricalsystemforanaeroturbine.
Thechoiceofelectricalsystemforanaeroturbineisguidedbythreefactors:
Typeofelectricaloutput:dc,variablefrequencyac,andconstantfrequencyac.
Aeroturbinerotationalspeed:constantspeedwithvariablebladepitch,nearlyconstant
speedwithsimplerpitchchangingmechanismorvariablespeedwithfixedpitchblades.
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Utilizationofelectricalenergyoutput:inconjunctionwithbatteryorotherformofstorage,
orinterconnectionwithpowergrid.
183.WhataretheadvantagesofVSCFwindelectricalsystem?
AdvantagesofVSCFwindelectricalsystemare:
Nocomplexpitchchangingmechanismisneeded.
Aeroturbinealwaysoperatesatmaximumefficiencypoint.
Extraenergyinthehighwindspeedregionofthespeeddurationcurvecanbeextracted
Significantreductioninaerodynamicstresses,whichareassociatedwithconstantspeed
operation.
184.Explainthetermsrealpower,apparentpowerandreactivepowerforaccircuitsand
alsotheunitsused.
RealPower:Itistheproductofvoltage,currentandpowerfactori.e.P=VIcosjand
basicunitofrealpoweriswatt.i.e.ExpressedasWorkW.
Apparentpower:Itistheproductofvoltageandcurrent.Apparentpower=VIandbasic
unitofapparentpowerisvoltampere.ExpressedasVAorKVA.
ReactivePower:Itistheproductofvoltage,currentandsineofanglebetweenthevoltage
andcurrenti.e.
Reactivepower=voltageXcurrentXsinjorReactivepower=VIsinjandhasnoother
unitbutexpressedinVARorKVAR.
185.Definethefollowing:Averagedemand,Maximumdemand,Demandfactor,Load
factor.
AverageDemand:theaveragepowerrequirementduringsomespecifiedperiodoftimeof
considerabledurationiscalledtheaveragedemandofinstallation.
MaximumDemand:Themaximumdemandofaninstallationisdefinedasthegreatestof
allthedemand,whichhaveoccurredduringagivenperiod.Itismeasuredaccordinglyto
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specifications,overaprescribedtimeintervalduringacertainperiod.
DemandFactor:Itisdefinedastheratioofactualmaximumdemandmadebytheloadto
theratingoftheconnectedload.
LoadFactor:Itisdefinedastheratiooftheaveragepowertothemaximumdemand.
186.Explainforwardresistance,staticresistanceanddynamicresistanceofapnjunction
diode.
ForwardResistance:Resistanceofferedinadiodecircuit,whenitisforwardbiased,is
calledforwardresistance.
DCorStaticResistance:DCresistancecanbeexplainedastheratioofthedcvoltage
acrossthediodetothedirectcurrentflowingthroughit.
ACorDynamicResistance:Itcanbedefinedasthereciprocaloftheslopeoftheforward
characteristicofthediode.Itistheresistanceofferedbyadiodetothechangingforward
current.
187.HowdoesZenerphenomenondifferfromAvalanchebreakdown?
Thephenomenonwhenthedepletionregionexpandsandthepotentialbarrierincreases
leadingtoaveryhighelectricfieldacrossthejunction,duetowhichsuddenlythereverse
currentincreasesunderaveryhighreversevoltageiscalledZenereffect.Zenerbreakdown
orAvalanchebreakdownmayoccurindependentlyorbothofthesemayoccur
simultaneously.Diodejunctionsthatbreakdownbelow5varecausedbyZenerEffect.
Junctionsthatexperiencebreakdownabove5varecausedbyavalancheeffect.TheZener
breakdownoccursinheavilydopedjunctions,whichproducenarrowdepletionlayers.The
avalanchebreakdownoccursinlightlydopedjunctions,whichproducewidedepletion
layers.
191.CompareJFETsandMOSFETs.
ComparisonofJFETsandMOSFETs:
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JFETscanonlybeoperatedinthedepletionmodewhereasMOSFETscanbeoperatedin
eitherdepletionorinenhancementmode.InaJFET,ifthegateisforwardbiased,excess
carrierinjunctionoccursandthegatecurrentissubstantial.
MOSFETshaveinputimpedancemuchhigherthanthatofJFETs.Thusisdueto
negligiblesmallleakagecurrent.
JFETshavecharacteristiccurvesmoreflatthanthatofMOSFETisindicatingahigher
drainresistance.
WhenJFETisoperatedwithareversebiasonthejunction,thegatecurrentIGislarger
thanitwouldbeinacomparableMOSFET.
192.Explainthinfilmresistorsandwirewoundresistors
a.ThinfilmresistorsItisconstructedasathinfilmofresistivematerialisdepositedonan
insulatingsubstrate.
Desiredresultsareobtainedbyeithertrimmingthelayerthicknessorbycuttinghelical
groovesofsuitablepitchalongitslength.Duringthisprocess,thevalueoftheresistanceis
monitoredcloselyandcuttingofgroovesisstoppedassoonasthedesiredvalueof
resistanceisobtained.
b.Wirewoundresistorslengthofwirewoundaroundaninsulatingcylindricalcoreare
knownaswirewoundresistors.ThesewiresaremadeofmaterialssuchasConstantanand
Manganinbecauseoftheirhighresistivity,andlowtemperaturecoefficients.Thecomplete
wirewoundresistoriscoatedwithaninsulatingmaterialsuchasbakedenamel
193.Whatisadifferentialamplifier?Also,explainCMRR.
DifferentialAmplifier:Theamplifier,whichisusedtoamplifythevoltagedifference
betweentwoinputlinesneitherofwhichisgrounded,iscalleddifferentialamplifier.This
reducestheamountofnoiseinjectedintotheamplifier,becauseanynoiseappearing
simultaneouslyonboththeinputterminalsastheamplifyingcircuitryrejectsitbeinga
commonmodesignal.
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CMRR:Itcanbedefinedastheratioofdifferentialvoltagegaintocommonmadevoltage
gain.Ifadifferentialamplifierisperfect,CMRRwouldbeinfinitebecauseinthatcase
commonmodevoltagegainwouldbezero.

196.Whatisthedifferencebetweenelectronicregulatorandordinary
electricalrheostatregulatorforfans?
Thedifferencebetweentheelectronicandordinaryelectricalregulatoristhatinelectronic
regulatorpowerlossesarelessbecauseaswedecreasethespeedtheelectronicregulator
givesthepowerneededforthatparticularspeedbutincaseofordinaryrheostattype
regulator,thepowerwastageissameforeveryspeedandnopowerissaved.Inelectronic
regulator,triacisemployedforspeedcontrolbyvaryingthefiringanglespeedanditis
controlledbutinrheostatic,controlresistanceisdecreasedbystepstoachievespeed
control.
197.Whatisthevoltagegainortransferfunctionofamplifier?
Vout/Vin
198.WhatdoestheKVARmeans?
TheKVARindicatestheelectricalpower.KVARmeansKiloVoltAmpereswithReactive
components
199.WhyusetheVCBatHighTransmissionSystem?WhycantuseACB?
ActuallythethingisvacuumhashigharcquechingpropertycomparetoairbecauseinVCB
,thedieelectricstrengthsequalto8timesofair.ThatyalwaysvaccumusedasinHT
breakerandairusedasinLT.
200.WhatisthedifferencebetweenMCB&MCCB,Whereitcanbeused?
MCBisminiaturecircuitbreakerwhichisthermaloperatedanduseforshortcircuit
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protectioninsmallcurrentratingcircuit.MCCBmouldedcasecircuitbreakerandis
thermaloperatedforoverloadcurrentandmagneticoperationforinstanttripinshort
circuitcondition.undervoltageandunderfrequencymaybeinbuilt.Normallyitisused
wherenormalcurrentismorethan100A.

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