Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 5

Experiment No-01

Name of the experiment


Study on chemical function required in various process.

Scouring & Bleaching


Scouring
The terms scouring applies to the removal of impurities such as oil, wax, fats from textile
materials.
Bleaching
Destruction of natural coloring matters to impart a pure permanent and basic white effect suitable
for the production of white finishes, level dyeing & desired printed shade with the minimum or
no tendering (degradation) or without diminishing the tensile strength.
Recipe for scouring & bleaching
Wetting agent

:0.5-1.0g/l

Detergent

:1.0-2.0g/l

Sequestering agent

:1.0-3.0g/l

Caustic soda (NaOH)

:2.0-4.0g/l

Stabilizer

:0.3-0.8g/l

Hydrogen peroxide (35%)

: 4.0-8.0g/l

Temperature

:95-1000C

Time

:15-45min

PH

:10-11

M: L

:1:10

Function of chemicals & auxiliaries of scouring


Chemicals & Auxiliaries
Wetting agent
Prepared For Shahidul Islam

Function
It accelerates the wet ability of material in
Page 1

solution; thus helps to easy penetration of


chemicals into substrate. Usually it is used in
scouring, bleaching & dyeing processes. It is
available in market in form of clear or
yellowish liquid.
Caustic soda(NaOH)

Neutralizes
acidic
materials,
saponify
glycerides (waxes & oils), solubilizes silicate.

Sodium silicate

Penetrate & breakdown lignin in motes. These


are added, commonly when fabrics have large
contents of motes & other assorted materials.

Detergents

Emulsify fats, oils & waxes; remove oil borne


stains; suspend materials after they have been
removed.

Sequestering agent

Deactivate metal ions/reduce hardness of


water.

Surfactants

Reduce surface tension & interfacial tension;


helps to wet out the materials with liquid.

Anti creasing agent

Usually used in dye bath or in finishing stage


to prevent creasing of fabric or garments.

Builder

Causes detergents to become increasingly


effective.

Solvent

Assists emulsification by dissolving oily


materials

Function of chemicals & auxiliaries of bleaching


Chemicals & Auxiliaries
Wetting agent

Prepared For Shahidul Islam

Function
It accelerates the wet ability of material in
solution; thus helps to easy penetration of
chemicals into substrate. Usually it is used in
scouring, bleaching & dyeing processes. It is
available in market in form of clear or
Page 2

yellowish liquid.
Hydrogen peroxide (35%) or (50%)

It ionises as follows:

H2O2 H+ + H O 2

Here, H O 2

is responsible for bleaching

Stabilizer

It makes complex compound with catalyst but


not reac & stop the oxygen generation into
solution & preserved the strength loss of H2O2.
Generally, sodium silicate used as stabilizer.

Catalyst

The water used in bleaching may present Cu,


Zn etc. which acts as catalyst & destroy H 2O2
by generation oxygen but this oxigen have no
bleaching power.

Alkali

Without alkali H O2

producing is slower.

On the other hand, huge alkali present in


solution, H2O2 decompose & produce O2. The
function of alkali (Caustic soda) is to maintain
PH 9.2-11.5.
To also maintain PH & more whiteness

Soda ash

Why/When we use chemicals & auxiliaries?

Enzyme wash
Definition:
After scouring & bleaching the cellulosic goods (usually knit fabric) are treated with acetic acid
for neutralization; then the fabric is treated with a suitable enzyme within a recommended
conditions (temperature,time,PH, etc.) for polishing the fabric surface by removing the short &
immature fibers from the substrate. This process can be applied before or after dyeing (normally
before dyeing) operation.
Prepared For Shahidul Islam

Page 3

Typical Recipe of Enzyme wash


Acetic acid

:0.5-2g/l

Enzyme (e.g. Bio-polish AL)

:1-2 g/l

Temperatue

: 60-700C

Time

: 10-15min

PH

: 4-5

M: L

: 1:10

Function of chemicals & auxiliaries


Why/When we use chemicals & auxiliaries?

Dyeing
Definition:
The process by which a material is changed physically or chemically so that it looks colourful is
called dyeing.
Typical Recipe of reactive dyeing
Wetting agent

:1.0-2.0 g/l

Sequestering agent

:1.0-2.0 g/l

Antifoaming agent

:0.5-1.0 g/l

Lubricating agent

:1.0-2.0 g/l (Usually used for garment dyeing)

Dyes

:X%

Glauber salt or common salt

:Y g/l

Alkali (Soda ash)

:Z g/l

Temperature

:85+50C

Prepared For Shahidul Islam

Page 4

Time

:30-40min

PH:

:10+0.5

M: L:

:1:10

Function of chemicals & auxiliaries


Chemicals & Auxiliaries
Wetting agent

Function
It accelerates the wet ability of material in
solution; thus helps to easy penetration of
chemicals into substrate. Usually it is used in
scouring, bleaching & dyeing processes. It is
available in market in form of clear or
yellowish liquid.
It gives very high & stable degree of
whiteness.
Neutralizes
acidic
materials,
saponify
glycerides (waxes & oils), solubilizes silicate.
Penetrate & breakdown lignin in motes. These
are added, commonly when fabrics have large
contents of motes & other assorted materials.
Deactivate metal ions/reduce hardness of
water.

Hydrogen peroxide (35%)


Caustic soda
Stabilizer (Sodium silicate)

Sequestering agent

Why/When we use chemicals & auxiliaries?

Prepared For Shahidul Islam

Page 5