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SAB 2912 1

ASSIGNMENT I
COURSE CODE
COURSE

:
:

SKAA2912

WATER TREATMENT

PROGRAMME

INSTRUCTION TO STUDENTS:
ANSWER ALL QUESTIONS.

SKAW

SAB 2912 2
Q1.
a)
(7 marks)

What is hardness in water and how is it caused?

Hardness is a measure of concentration of multivalent cations in water. Multivalent cations


are positively charged metal complexes with a charge greater than 1+ such as Ca2+, Mg2+,
Fe2+ and Mn3+. But only Ca2+ and Mg2+ are commonly found in hard water. Hardness occur
when there are too many minerals in the water. These ions enter a water supply by leaching
from minerals within an aquifer. There are two types of hardness.

b)

Carbonate Hardness

Non-Carbonate Hardness

Temporary in character

Permanent in character

e.g. Ca(HCO3)2, Mg(HCO3)2

e.g. CaCl2, CaSO4, MgCl2, MgSO4

Precipitated through boiling

Eliminated through chemical softness


method and/or ion exchange

A water sample has the following analysis:


Cations ( mg/L)

Anions ( mg/L)

Ca2+
K+
Mg2+
Al3+

Cl=
HCO3 =
SO4= =
NO3- =

=
=
=
=

5.5
1.75
3.45
0.55

0.75
15
10
15

Atomic weight, Given: Ca = 40; K= 39; Mg = 24; Al = 26.98; O = 16; H =1; C=12;
N =14, S = 32 and Cl = 35.5
What is the total hardness in mg/L as CaCO3? How do you compute the total hardness?
What is the degree of hardness?
(18 marks)

SAB 2912 3

Component

mg/L

Equivalent Mass

meq/L

Ca2+

5.5

20

0.28

K+

1.75

39.1

0.05

Mg2+

3.45

12.2

0.28

Al3+

0.55

0.06

Cl-

0.75

35.5

0.02

HCO3-

15

61

0.25

SO4=

10

48

0.21

NO3-

15

62

0.24

(25 marks)

SAB 2912 4
Q2.

(a)

List the criteria that should be taken into consideration for the selection of water

intake location.

(5 marks)

i.

Must have the best available water quality

ii.

Far from strong current adverse effect water intake potential

iii.

Quantity of water demand can be achieved even at a very low water flow rate

iv.

Near to water treatment plant

v.

Easily accessible & possess adequate space and facilities for maintenance works

(b)

Describe the purpose of the aeration process in water treatment.


(6 marks)

SAB 2912 5
(c)

The data below are for a mechanical type flocculator tank:

Flowrate

250 m3/ hr

Detention tine

30 minutes

Power input

0.5 kW

Drag coefficient

1.6

Density of water

1000 kg/m3

Dynamic viscosity

1.05 x 10-3 Ns/m2

Velocity of paddles

0.5 m/s

Determine:
i.
ii.
iii.
iv.

Area of the paddle blades


Velocity gradient
Camp Number
Dimensions of the tank if Length:Width:Depth ratio = 1:4:3
(14 marks)
(25 marks)

SAB 2912 6
Q3

(a)

Explain the different types of particle.


(4 marks)

(b)

A 75 MLD water treatment plant has one circular sedimentation tank (Tank A)
and one rectangular sedimentation tank (Tank B) arranged in parallel. Tank A and
Tank B has the following criteria:
Tank A :

Retention time is 3 hours


Depth = 2.5 m

Tank B :

Length: Width ratio = 3:1


Retention time is 2 hours 25 minutes
Overflow rate is 45% greater than Tank A

Assuming the flow rate into Tank A and Tank B is the same, determine:
(i)
(ii)

The diameter of Tank A


The length, width and depth of Tank B
(8 marks)

(c)

A settling analysis of water carried out in a 3 m column gave the following


results:
Retention Time
(minutes)

Percentage
Removal

Overflow Rate
(m/day)

Percentage
Removal

10

35

230

40

20

52

115

55

30

76

80

67

40

83

57

75

Using graphical method, determine the retention time and the overflow rate for an
actual rectangular sedimentation tank if 72% percent removal efficiency is to be
achieved. Assume scale-up factors of 1.75 for the retention time and 0.65 for the
overflow rate.
(8 marks)

SAB 2912 7

(d)

A 50 MLD water treatment plant has 6 filters. The size of each filter is 12.5 m by
6 m. If the maximum allowable filtration rate is 3.2 m3/m2.hour, determine the
number of filters that can be closed for maintenance purposes.
(5 marks)
(25 marks)

SAB 2912 8
Q4.

(a)

Describe clearly any two of the following advanced water treatment:

(i)

Adsorption

(ii)

Ion exchange

(iii)

Reverse Osmosis
(6 marks)

(b)

With the aid of a sketch, explain breakpoint chlorination.


(5 marks)

(c)

The water usage on the day of maximum consumption is as follows:

Time

Rate
m3/min

Time

Rate
m3/min

0:00
1:00
2:00
3:00
4:00
5:00
6:00
7:00
8:00
9:00
10:00
11:00
12:00

0
1
1.5
2.5
4
9
12.5
18
22.5
20
17
15
12.5

13:00
14:00
15:00
16:00
17:00
18:00
19:00
20:00
21:00
22:00
23:00
24:00

10
10
9
7.5
6
6
4
4
2.5
2
2
1.5

SAB 2912 9
(i)

Using graphical method, determine the pumping rate and the required
storage capacity to equalize demand over the 24 hour period.

(ii)

Compare the two pumping periods given below:


[1]

12 midnight to 12 noon

[2]

8:00 a.m. to 8:00 p.m.

Which pumping period requires the lesser storage capacity to equalize


demand?
Prove your answer.
(14 marks)
(25 marks)

SAB 2912 10

Equations

P G 2

FD 0.5C D AP P
2

P 0. 5C D A P 3P