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6233

Multiloop and Tunable Matching Techniques

Jungsik Kim and Jinho Jeong, Member, IEEE

transfer (WPT) system is proposed to achieve high efciency over a wide range of distances by using tunable impedance matching techniques. A multiloop topology

is employed to greatly reduce the variation in the input

impedance of the WPT system with respect to the distance,

where one of the four loops with a different size is selected,

depending on the distance. It enables the design of a simple

tunable matching circuit using a single variable capacitor.

An algorithm is written to nd the optimum loop and capacitance in the matching network, based on the measured

input return loss using a directional coupler and rectiers.

The fabricated WPT system shows a range-adaptive operation with high efciency over a wide range of distances.

It attains 48% efciency at a distance of 100 cm with a

maximum efciency of 92% at a distance of 10 cm.

Index TermsMagnetic resonance, range adaptation,

tunable impedance matching, wireless power transfer

(WPT).

I. I NTRODUCTION

IRELESS power transfer (WPT) using magnetic resonance coupling (MRC) can attain a high efficiency

for a midrange of a few meters; thus, it can be applied for

wireless charging of devices such as mobile phones, home

appliances, and biomedical implanted devices [1][9]. In this

technology, electric power is transferred by the magnetic resonance between coils with the same resonant frequency [10],

[11]. Power transfer efficiency varies with the distance between

the transmitter (Tx) and the receiver (Rx). Maximum efficiency

is obtained at a distance where the impedance of the system

is perfectly matched [12][15]. However, the efficiency rapidly

drops outside this optimum distance. That is, it decreases at a

shorter distance because of the frequency splitting effect, and

at a longer distance because of weak coupling and impedance

mismatches [2], [16][21].

WPT systems should maintain high efficiency even in the

case of misalignment and variable distance between Tx and

Rx coils for commercial applications [22]. For example, the

coupling between Tx and Rx coils in the wireless charging

of electrical vehicles can be easily affected by the improper

February 17, 2015; accepted March 10, 2015. Date of publication

April 6, 2015; date of current version September 9, 2015.

The authors are with the Department of Electronic Engineering,

Sogang University, Seoul 121-742, Korea (e-mail: jjeong@sogang.

ac.kr).

Color versions of one or more of the figures in this paper are available

online at http://ieeexplore.ieee.org.

Digital Object Identifier 10.1109/TIE.2015.2420041

body postures of the patients can change the coupling condition

and degrade the efficiency of WPT systems [7].

In order to solve these problems, there has been intensive

research on adaptive WPT systems [2], [7], [16][26]. In [2], a

frequency tuning method was used to maintain high efficiency

with the distance, where the operating frequency was varied

from 6.17 to 6.78 MHz over a distance range of 0.6 m. However,

this method requires a wide bandwidth, which can be problematic in practical applications, because the system bandwidth is

tightly limited by the regulations [19], [20].

By contrast, tunable impedance matching techniques can

attain high efficiency according to the distance using the same

operating frequency. The input impedance of a WPT system

changes with the distance, and thus, a tunable matching circuit

can be used to match the variable impedance with the distance

[19], [20], [24]. In this technique, the tunable range of the

matching circuit should be sufficiently large to accommodate

the variation in the input impedance of the WPT system with

respect to the distance. However, a widely tunable matching

circuit can lead to increased losses with complex topology [27],

[28]. In [19], a tunable matching circuit was designed for a

range-adaptive WPT by using 21 relays, a capacitor bank with

11 binary-weighted shunt capacitors and eight series capacitors,

and two inductors.

We have proposed a multiloop WPT that maintains high

efficiency over a wide range of distances [21]. Four loops with

different sizes were used, and one of the loops was selected,

depending on the distance to match the impedances. Therefore,

it achieved high efficiency at four different distances. However, the efficiency drops at distances deviating from these

four optimum distances, which are caused by impedance mismatches. In addition, the loop was manually switched, depending on the distance in [21].

In this paper, we propose a range-adaptive WPT system using

the multiloop topology in [21] and a tunable matching circuit at

a fixed operating frequency of 13.56 MHz. For this purpose,

the multiloop WPT system is analyzed for a range-adaptive

operation, including input impedance variation with respect to

the distance. Then, on the basis of the analysis of the multiloop

WPT, a tunable matching circuit is designed with minimum

tunable elements to reduce the matching losses. A searching

algorithm is also developed to control the loop switching and

tunable matching circuits, on the basis of the measured input

return loss (|S11 |) of the system. We introduce and compare

the conventional and multiloop WPTs in Section II, focusing

on the variation of input impedance and efficiency with respect

0278-0046 2015 IEEE. Personal use is permitted, but republication/redistribution requires IEEE permission.

See http://www.ieee.org/publications_standards/publications/rights/index.html for more information.

6234

IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INDUSTRIAL ELECTRONICS, VOL. 62, NO. 10, OCTOBER 2015

capacitance Cc . For the simplicity of the analysis, Tx and Rx

resonators are assumed to be identical. The coupling coefficients between coils and loops are denoted by kij . For the

symmetric WPT system, k12 = k34 and k13 = k24 . The power

source in Tx is represented by the voltage source Vs and

resistance R0 , and the load in Rx by resistance R0 . Applying

Kirchoffs voltage law to the circuit in Fig. 1(b), we obtain

the following relation between the currents and voltages in the

resonators at 0 :

1

j0 M12 j0 M13

0

R0

Vs

I1

I2 j0 M12

R

j

M

j

M

c

0 23

0 13 0

=

I3 j0 M13 j0 M23

Rc

j0 M12 0

I4

0

j0 M13 j0 M12

R0

0

(1)

Fig. 1. (a) Conventional WPT system with four resonators. (b) Equivalent circuit of the WPT system.

Section III, including its operating principle, the design of the

tunable matching circuit, the (|S11 |) measurement circuit, and

the automatic searching algorithm. The experimental results are

presented and compared with the previously reported adaptive

WPT systems in Section IV. Finally, WPTs with simplified Rx

circuits are discussed in Section V.

II. WPT U SING M AGNETIC R ESONANCE C OUPLING

A conventional WPT using MRC consists of four resonators,

as shown in Fig. 1(a) [2], [11]. Both Tx and Rx have a

single-turn loop and multiple-turn coil with the same resonant

frequency, i.e., 0 . The WPT system can be analyzed by using

an equivalent circuit model shown in Fig. 1(b) [15], [29],

[30]. The loop is represented by self-inductance Ll , parasitic

resistance Rl , and external capacitance Cl . The coil is modeled

inductance, and

0 is a resonant frequency

given by 0 = (1/ Ll Cl ) = (1/ Lc Cc ). In this relation, k14

is ignored, because it has a minimal effect on the performance.

R0 + Rl is approximated to be R0 , because quality (Q)-factors

of the loops are sufficiently high.

Power transfer efficiency at 0 (the power delivered to

the load divided by the available power from the source) can

be derived as (2), shown at the bottom of the page, where

Q1 and Q2 represent Q-factors of the loop and coil, respectively. It can be found from (2) that the efficiency varies

with respect to d23 , the distance between transmitter and receiver, because k23 is proportional to 1/d323 by the Neumann

formula [21], [31]. This can be also explained by the variation of input impedance of the WPT system depending on

d23 . From the equivalent circuit [see Fig. 1(b)], the input

impedance of the WPT system, Zin , at 0 can be calculated

to be (3), shown at the bottom of the page. It indicates

that Zin changes with k23 (or d23 ) and it is matched to R0

at only a single k23 (k23,matched ), or d23 (d23,matched), for a

fixed k12 . The k23,matched , where WPT exhibits the maximum

efficiency, is given as (4)

2 k 2 )2 Q2 1/Q2 .

k23,matched = (k12

(4)

13

1

2

The efficiency decreases as d23 deviates from d23,matched

because of impedance mismatches. However, the WPT system

should maintain a high efficiency over a wide range of distances

for practical applications. We can find from (4) that there can

exist more than one k23 (or d23 ) that results in impedance

matching, if k12 can be adjusted with respect to d23 . In [18],

k12 was adjusted by manually varying the spacing between the

loop and coil (d12 ) with respect to d23 , to satisfy (4) over a wide

2

2

2

2

2

4Q1 Q2 k12 k23 Q2 + 2jk12 k13 + k13 k23 Q2

|VL |2 /R0

=

=

2 (2)

|Vs |2 /4R0

2

2

2

2

2

2

2

2

j (1 + k12 Q1 Q2 ) + k23 Q2 + k13 Q1 Q2 (k13 Q1 Q2 2k12 Q1 Q2 + 2) + 4k12 k13 k23 Q1 Q2

4

2 2

2

4

2

Q1 Q2 Q1 Q2 k12

2Q1 Q2 k12

k13 + k12

2jQ2 k23 k12 k13 + Q1 Q2 k13

+ k13

(3)

Zin = R0

2 + Q Q k2 + Q Q k2 + 1

2jQ1 Q22 k23 k12 k13 + Q22 k23

1 2 12

1 2 13

KIM AND JEONG: RANGE-ADAPTIVE WPT USING MULTILOOP AND TUNABLE MATCHING TECHNIQUES

6235

TABLE I

PARAMETERS OF THE FABRICATED R ESONATORS

loop. The multiloop WPT proposed by the authors in [21] used

four loops with different diameters achieving four different

values of k12 . Then, one of the four loops was manually selected

to achieve impedance matching depending on d23 . Therefore,

there were four d23 points satisfying (4). However, this multiloop WPT still exhibits impedance mismatches except at these

four distances, resulting in efficiency drops. Furthermore, the

loop should be automatically switched depending on d23 in real

applications.

III. R ANGE -A DAPTIVE WPT S YSTEM

A. Operating Principle

In this paper, a range-adaptive WPT system is proposed

using a multiloop topology and tunable impedance matching.

Fig. 2 shows a proposed range-adaptive WPT system. Compared with the conventional WPT system, this system employs

four loops in the Tx and Rx, respectively [21]. Ll,n and Rl,n

represent the self-inductance and parasitic resistance of the

loop, respectively, and Cl,n represents the series capacitance,

where n = 1 4. Each coil and loop is designed to resonate at

the same frequency of f0 = 13.56 MHz.

Table I lists the dimensions of each resonator (coil and loop),

which was fabricated by using a copper wire with a diameter of

0.3 cm. It also includes the extracted parameters (inductance,

capacitance, and resistance) of each resonator from the measured data by a vector network analyzer. The diameters of loop 1,

loop 2, loop 3, and loop 4 are determined so that impedance

matching can be achieved at a distance d23 = 30, 50, 70, and

90 cm, respectively, whereas d12 is fixed to 0.5 cm. Inner

diameter and pitch of the coils are 45 and 3 cm, respectively.

connected series capacitors Cl,n for each loop to resonate at f0 .

One of the loops is selected by using a single-pole four-throw

(SP4T) switch, depending on the distance d23 ; that is, loop 1

is selected for d23 30 cm, loop 2 for 30 cm < d23 50 cm,

loop 3 for 50 cm < d23 70 cm, and loop 4 for d23 > 70 cm.

The multiloop topology can be effectively used in the rangeadaptive WPT. This fact is verified by the comparison of the

performance of the multiloop and the conventional WPTs. Only

one loop, for example, loop 1, is used in the conventional WPT.

Fig. 3(a) shows the simulated S-parameters at f0 = 13.56 MHz

of the conventional and multiloop WPT systems as a function

of d23 . The simulation was performed using the parameters of

the fabricated resonators presented in Table I. As expected, the

conventional WPT system shows a good impedance match only

at d23 = 30 cm, with |S11 | = 40 dB and |S21 | = 0.4 dB

( = 91.2%). However, the efficiency drops as d23 deviates

from 30 cm. On the contrary, the multiloop WPT system

exhibits four impedance-matched distances (d23 = 30, 50, 70,

and 90 cm). Therefore, it maintains high efficiency over a wide

range of d23 .

The advantage of the multiloop WPT can be more clearly

found in the variation of the input impedance Zin , depending

on the distance, as shown in Fig. 3(b) and (c). The conventional WPT with a single loop shows an impedance match

(Zin = 50 ) at d23 = 30 cm with very large variation of Zin

from 5 to 850 in real part and from j18.7 to j192 in

imaginary part for d23 from 10 to 90 cm. This fact implies

that a widely tunable matching circuit is required, which, in

general, can be designed by using a number of tunable elements

with a large variation in element value. This approach leads to

higher matching losses and an increase in circuit complexity,

which, in turn, complicates the searching algorithm. On the

contrary, the Zin variation in the multiloop WPT is dramatically

reduced, that is, from 5 to 50 in real part and from j18.7 to

j2.8 in imaginary part over the same range of d23 . Therefore,

the multiloop topology is well suited for the design of tunable

matching circuits.

On the basis of the simulation results aforementioned, we

design a tunable matching circuit for a multiloop WPT system,

6236

IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INDUSTRIAL ELECTRONICS, VOL. 62, NO. 10, OCTOBER 2015

corresponding loop selected.

increases from 110 to 357 pF at various d23 s with loop 1 selected.

(a) S-parameters. (b) Real part of Zin . (c) Imaginary part of Zin . Dotted

and solid lines represent the conventional and multiloop WPT systems,

respectively.

the four matched distances. Fig. 4 shows Zin variation on Smith

chart as d23 increases from 10 to 90 cm with the corresponding

loop selected. It can be found from this figure that tunable

elements are required for the impedance matching according to

the distance. To minimize the number of tunable elements and

simplify the circuit topology, the loop capacitances in Table I

are adjusted as follows: Cl,1 = 150 pF, Cl,2 = 160 pF, Cl,3 =

180 pF, and Cl,4 = 200 pF. Then, Zin with adjusted loop

capacitances exhibits an inductive part, as well as a resistive

part, as shown in Fig. 4. Therefore, a single shunt variable

capacitor is sufficient to match Zin to 50 for the entire range

of interest of d23 .

Fig. 5(a) shows the designed tunable matching circuit using a

varactor Cp , where Rb and Cb are used as a bias circuit for the

distance. Corresponding |S11 | and |S21 | at 13.56 MHz are included.

Vd . Fig. 5(b) shows Zin trajectory when the capacitance Cp

increases from 110 to 357 pF at various d23 s, whereas loop 1

is selected. It shows how Zin changes and matches to 50

according to the value of Cp . Note that Cp s at Tx and Rx are

varied with the same value. Fig. 6 shows the required Cp for

the impedance matching as a function of d23 . It demonstrates

KIM AND JEONG: RANGE-ADAPTIVE WPT USING MULTILOOP AND TUNABLE MATCHING TECHNIQUES

6237

the rectifier.

to achieve the impedance matching for 10 cm d23 90 cm.

The capacitance variation ratio is only 1:3.25, which can be

easily obtained from a commercial varactor. The |S11 | and |S21 |

of the multiloop WPT are simulated at 13.56 MHz using the

selected capacitance, resulting in |S11 | < 33 dB and |S21 | <

2.3 dB for 10 cm d23 90 cm.

C. Automated WPT System: |S11 | Measurement

In a range-adaptive WPT system, the optimum loop and

Cp achieving impedance matching should be automatically

selected depending on the distance d23 . This can be conducted

by measuring |S11 | of the system, and finding the optimum

loop and Cp that minimize |S11 | (see Fig. 2). Therefore, we

need to design a |S11 | measurement circuit. In the proposed

system, |S11 | is measured by using a directional coupler and

rectifiers, as shown in Fig. 7(a). Power levels at the coupled and

isolated ports of the directional coupler are proportional to the

incident and reflected power, respectively, under the assumption

of high directivity. In this paper, we used a direction coupler

with a directivity of 41.3 dB and coupling factor of 20.5 dB.

The rectifiers convert these powers to dc voltages, which are

read by the computer through a data acquisition (DAQ) board.

Then, the computer estimates the incident and reflected power

from the dc voltages, and computes |S11 |.

As shown in Fig. 7(b), the rectifiers are designed using

a diode (Skyworks SMS7621), a 50- matching resistor, a

100-nF capacitor, and a 10-M load resistor. An accurate

relationship between input power and output dc voltage of the

rectifier is required to determine |S11 |. For this purpose, this

relationship is measured, as shown in Fig. 8, and is curve fitted

by a seventh-order polynomial. Then, the inverse polynomial

is used to determine the input power from the measured dc

voltage of the rectifiers. To verify the performance of the

|S11 | measurement circuit, |S11 | values were measured with the

coupler terminated by several resistors [Ztm from 1 to 100 in

Fig. 7(a)]. Fig. 8(b) shows a good agreement of the measured

and theoretical |S11 |, where theoretical values were calculated

from (Ztm 50)/(Ztm + 50).

D. Automated WPT System: Algorithm for Finding an

Optimum Loop and Capacitance

Now, we need an algorithm for finding the optimum loop and

capacitance Cp to achieve impedance matching or to minimize

Fig. 8. (a) Measured output dc voltage (VDC ) versus input power (Pin )

of the rectifier). (b) Theoretical and measured |S11 | versus termination

impedance (Ztm ).

|S11 | for varying d23 . Fig. 9 shows the simulated |S11 | for each

loop as a function of d23 at Vd = 10, 3, 0.5, and 0 V. For loop 1,

|S11 | at Vd = 10 V exhibits a minimum value at d23 = 30 cm.

As Vd decreases to 0 V, the distance exhibiting a minimum |S11 |

moves to d23 = 10 cm. We can make the similar observation of

|S11 | variation with respect to Vd for other loops. Therefore, the

optimum loop and capacitance can be searched by finding the

inflection point of |S11 | versus Vd while switching the loops as

follows.

Step 1) Initially, Vd is set to be 10 V, that is, Cp is at the

lowest value of 110 pF. Then, |S11 | values are measured while switching the loops, and the loop with a

minimum |S11 | is selected for the Vd sweep.

Step 2) For a selected loop, |S11 | values are measured while

sweeping Vd from 10 to 0 V in steps of 1 V. If the

measured |S11 | values are concave with respect to Vd ,

a fine tuning for Vd (in steps of 0.2 V) is performed

around an inflection point to find a minimum |S11 |.

If the minimum |S11 | is less than 0.1, the algorithm

ends.

Step 3) Step 2 is repeated by switching the loops until a

minimum |S11 | is less than 0.1. If |S11 | is not less

than 0.1 for any combination of the loop and Vd , the

algorithm selects the loop and Vd at which the |S11 |

is a minimum, and the algorithm ends.

6238

IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INDUSTRIAL ELECTRONICS, VOL. 62, NO. 10, OCTOBER 2015

(b) Fabricated circuit board consisting of the |S11 | measurement circuit,

tunable impedance matching circuit, and SP4T switch.

10 V. (b) Vd = 3 V. (c) Vd = 0.5 V. (d) Vd = 0 V.

tunable matching circuits, as shown in Fig. 2. In the aforementioned algorithm, the optimum loop and Cp are searched,

whereas the same loop and the same Vd to Tx and Rx are

selected.

The performance of the proposed range-adaptive WPT system was verified by the experiments. Fig. 10(a) shows the

fabricated WPT system. A signal source (Rohde & Schwarz

SML03) is used to generate an input power of 17 dBm at

13.56 MHz. The output waveform is measured by an oscilloscope (Agilent DSO-X2012A). The computer reads the dc

output voltages of the two rectifiers through a DAQ board,

and computes |S11 |. Then, it runs the algorithm to find an

optimum loop and varactor control voltage (Vd ). Finally, it

emits the control voltages for the SP4T switches and varactors

through an arbitrary waveform generator. The S-parameters of

the fabricated WPT system were also measured by a using

vector network analyzer.

Fig. 10(b) shows the fabricated circuit board consisting of the

|S11 | measurement circuit, tunable matching circuit, and SP4T

switch. The tunable matching circuit was implemented by using

a fixed capacitor of 80 pF and four varactors in parallel. Each

varactor (Skyworks SMV1212) exhibits a capacitance variation

KIM AND JEONG: RANGE-ADAPTIVE WPT USING MULTILOOP AND TUNABLE MATCHING TECHNIQUES

Fig. 11. (a) Selected loop and varactor control voltage (Vd ). Dotted

lines represent the optimum Cp obtained from the simulation (see

Fig. 6). (b) The measured S-parameters of the WPT system. Solid and

dotted lines represent measurement and simulation, respectively.

series resistance of 0.8 . The SP4T switch is composed of

three relays (Panasonic ARE10A06) with an insertion loss of

0.02 dB. The size of the circuit in Fig. 10(b) is 6 cm 4 cm.

The performance of the fabricated WPT system was measured while increasing the distance d23 in 5-cm increments

from 10 to 100 cm. At each distance, the system automatically

measures |S11 | and finds the optimum loop and Vd for minimizing the |S11 |. Fig. 11(a) shows the selected loop and Vd

by the developed algorithm as a function of the distance d23 .

The corresponding Cp is also included in this figure, which is

calculated from the relationship between the capacitance and

the bias voltage of the varactor. This figure shows that the

developed algorithm can properly find the optimum loop and

Cp for 10 cm d23 100 cm.

Fig. 11(b) shows the measured S-parameters of WPT system.

It shows that the system was well matched over a wide range

of the distance, that is, |S11 | is below 32 dB for 10 cm

d23 90 cm. The measured |S11 | and |S21 | agree well with the

optimized performance predicted by the simulation.

Fig. 12(a) shows the measured efficiency of the proposed

WPT system as a function of the distance d23 . The previous

multiloop WPT system in [21] shows efficiency drops at the

distances deviating from 30, 50, 70, and 90 cm. As shown in

this figure, these efficiency drops were recovered in [21] by

6239

Fig. 12. Measured efficiency of the proposed WPT system. (a) Efficiency versus distance d23 . (b) Efficiency versus the normalized distance with coil diameter.

13.56 MHz. However, the frequency tuning should be automatically carried out in real applications, so that it requires the

circuit to detect the distance, algorithm to find the optimum

frequency, and the circuit to control the frequency of Tx. In

addition, it needs wide bandwidth of 2.96 MHz. Unfortunately,

only 14-kHz bandwidth is permitted in the 13.56-MHz industrial, scientific and medical band [14]. On the contrary, the

WPT system in this work operates at a fixed frequency of

13.56 MHz and accomplished an automatic range adaptation by

using tunable impedance matching, so that it is more practical.

It maintains high efficiency across the entire distance from 10 to

100 cm, as shown in Fig. 12(a). The efficiency was calculated as

the power delivered to the load divided by the power available

from the source. Note that the efficiency in Fig. 12 includes loss

of every component of the system: |S11 | measurement circuit

(directional coupler), loop selection circuits (relays), and tunable impedance matching circuits (varactors), resonators (loops

and coils), and impedance mismatches. It shows a maximum

efficiency of 92% at d23 = 10 cm, which corresponds to a 52%

increase compared with the multiloop WPT system in [21]. It

also attains an efficiency of 48% at d23 = 100 cm. At d23 = 30,

50, 70, and 90 cm, the proposed WPT systems exhibits about

3% lower efficiency, which is caused by the losses of the

tunable matching circuits.

The efficiency of the proposed WPT system is also compared

with other range-adaptive WPT systems in [19], [20], as shown

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IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INDUSTRIAL ELECTRONICS, VOL. 62, NO. 10, OCTOBER 2015

TABLE II

C OMPARISON OF R EPORTED A DAPTIVE WPT S YSTEMS AT 13.56 MH Z

respect to the normalized distance with coil diameter. It can be

found from this figure that the proposed WPT system maintains

high efficiency over a wider range of the normalized distance.

This improvement of the range adaptation was accomplished by

combining the multiloop and tunable matching techniques.

Table II compares the reported range-adaptive WPT systems.

The WPT systems in [19], [20] employed switching capacitors

to obtain wide tunability from the impedance matching circuit,

where many switches (relays) and capacitors are used to obtain a capacitance variation ratio higher than 1:1000. On the

contrary, the tunable matching circuit in the proposed systems

could be designed by using a varactor with a capacitance

variation ratio of only 1:3.25, because the multiloop topology

greatly reduces the variation of the input impedance. Therefore,

the searching algorithm to maximize the efficiency was also

simplified in the proposed system. It took less than 1.2 s to

find the optimum loop and capacitance and settle the system.

The simplified tunable matching circuits and algorithm are

beneficial in real applications.

V. M ODIFIED WPT S W ITH S IMPLIFIED RX C IRCUIT

The proposed WPT system in the aforementioned requires

a radio-frequency (RF) communication channel between Tx

and Rx, to control the switch in the loop selection circuit and

varactor in tunable matching circuit of Rx. Although WPT

standard such as Rezence by Alliance for Wireless Power

includes an RF communication channel operating at 2.4 GHz

[32], there still exists a need of a simplified Rx circuit for more

practical, reliable and robust operations. In order to see if the

proposed WPT system can handle this issue, the simulation is

carried out for the modified WPT systems with a simplified Rx.

Two modified WPTs with simplified Rx are considered in

the simulation: modified WPT 1 with single loop and tunable

matching Rx, and modified WPT 2 with single loop and fixed

matching Rx. Four Tx loops in modified WPTs are resized from

original ones in Table I to achieve best efficiency performance.

Note that loop 3 is only used in Rx of the modified WPTs 1

and 2. That is, k34 is fixed to 0.10. In the modified WPT 2, the

varactor capacitor Cp in Rx is fixed to 80 pF.

The efficiency of each WPT system is simulated by using an

equivalent circuit shown in Fig. 2. Fig. 13 shows the simulated

efficiency as a function of d23 . The modified WPT 1 recovers

the efficiency across the distance range of interest, even though

50 cm), which were covered by loops 1 and 2 in the original

WPT system. This efficiency drop is more serious in the modified WPT 2, as shown in Fig. 13, because there are no tuning

or control elements in Rx of WPT 2. However, the efficiency

is still high (higher than 76.6%) at this range of distances. This

simulation result verifies that the proposed WPT system can

maintain relatively high efficiency across a wide range of distances without any control of Rx. Note that Tx tunable matching

circuit in WPT 2 was modified to improve the tunability; that

is, a series varactor Cs was added to a parallel varactor Cp ,

where Cs was varied from 150 to 175 pF, whereas Cp from 80 to

670 pF.

VI. C ONCLUSION

In this paper, a range-adaptive WPT has been proposed,

achieving high efficiency over a wide range of distances. Multiloop topology was utilized to simplify the design of a tunable

matching network and a searching algorithm. The optimum

loop and capacitance were determined by using the measured

input return losses. The fabricated WPT system showed a

range-adaptive operation with high efficiency greater than 48%

up to a distance of 100 cm.

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[32] Alliance for wireless power, Rezence, Altamonte Springs, FL, USA,

2014. [Online]. Available: http://www.rezence.com

wireless communications engineering from

Kangwoon University, Seoul, Korea, in 2011. He

is currently working toward the Ph.D. degree

in electronic engineering at Sogang University,

Seoul, Korea.

His research interests include wireless power

transfers, monolithic microwave integrated circuits, and terahertz integrated circuits.

M.S., and Ph.D. degrees in electrical engineering from Seoul National University, Seoul,

Korea, in 1997, 1999, and 2004, respectively.

From 2004 to 2007, he was with the University of California at San Diego, La Jolla,

CA, USA, as a Postdoctoral Scholar, where he

was involved with the design of high-efficiency

and high-linearity radio-frequency power amplifiers. In 2007, he was with the Department of

Electronics and Communications Engineering,

Kwangwoon University, Seoul. Since 2010, he has been with the Department of Electronic Engineering, Sogang University, Seoul. His research

interests include monolithic microwave integrated circuits, terahertz

integrated circuits, high-efficiency/high-linearity power amplifiers and

oscillators, and wireless power transfers.

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