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IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INDUSTRIAL ELECTRONICS, VOL. 62, NO.

10, OCTOBER 2015

6233

Range-Adaptive Wireless Power Transfer Using


Multiloop and Tunable Matching Techniques
Jungsik Kim and Jinho Jeong, Member, IEEE

AbstractIn this paper, a range-adaptive wireless power


transfer (WPT) system is proposed to achieve high efciency over a wide range of distances by using tunable impedance matching techniques. A multiloop topology
is employed to greatly reduce the variation in the input
impedance of the WPT system with respect to the distance,
where one of the four loops with a different size is selected,
depending on the distance. It enables the design of a simple
tunable matching circuit using a single variable capacitor.
An algorithm is written to nd the optimum loop and capacitance in the matching network, based on the measured
input return loss using a directional coupler and rectiers.
The fabricated WPT system shows a range-adaptive operation with high efciency over a wide range of distances.
It attains 48% efciency at a distance of 100 cm with a
maximum efciency of 92% at a distance of 10 cm.
Index TermsMagnetic resonance, range adaptation,
tunable impedance matching, wireless power transfer
(WPT).

I. I NTRODUCTION

IRELESS power transfer (WPT) using magnetic resonance coupling (MRC) can attain a high efficiency
for a midrange of a few meters; thus, it can be applied for
wireless charging of devices such as mobile phones, home
appliances, and biomedical implanted devices [1][9]. In this
technology, electric power is transferred by the magnetic resonance between coils with the same resonant frequency [10],
[11]. Power transfer efficiency varies with the distance between
the transmitter (Tx) and the receiver (Rx). Maximum efficiency
is obtained at a distance where the impedance of the system
is perfectly matched [12][15]. However, the efficiency rapidly
drops outside this optimum distance. That is, it decreases at a
shorter distance because of the frequency splitting effect, and
at a longer distance because of weak coupling and impedance
mismatches [2], [16][21].
WPT systems should maintain high efficiency even in the
case of misalignment and variable distance between Tx and
Rx coils for commercial applications [22]. For example, the
coupling between Tx and Rx coils in the wireless charging
of electrical vehicles can be easily affected by the improper

Manuscript received October 6, 2014; revised January 7, 2015 and


February 17, 2015; accepted March 10, 2015. Date of publication
April 6, 2015; date of current version September 9, 2015.
The authors are with the Department of Electronic Engineering,
Sogang University, Seoul 121-742, Korea (e-mail: jjeong@sogang.
ac.kr).
Color versions of one or more of the figures in this paper are available
online at http://ieeexplore.ieee.org.
Digital Object Identifier 10.1109/TIE.2015.2420041

parking [23]. In biomedical implanted devices, the different


body postures of the patients can change the coupling condition
and degrade the efficiency of WPT systems [7].
In order to solve these problems, there has been intensive
research on adaptive WPT systems [2], [7], [16][26]. In [2], a
frequency tuning method was used to maintain high efficiency
with the distance, where the operating frequency was varied
from 6.17 to 6.78 MHz over a distance range of 0.6 m. However,
this method requires a wide bandwidth, which can be problematic in practical applications, because the system bandwidth is
tightly limited by the regulations [19], [20].
By contrast, tunable impedance matching techniques can
attain high efficiency according to the distance using the same
operating frequency. The input impedance of a WPT system
changes with the distance, and thus, a tunable matching circuit
can be used to match the variable impedance with the distance
[19], [20], [24]. In this technique, the tunable range of the
matching circuit should be sufficiently large to accommodate
the variation in the input impedance of the WPT system with
respect to the distance. However, a widely tunable matching
circuit can lead to increased losses with complex topology [27],
[28]. In [19], a tunable matching circuit was designed for a
range-adaptive WPT by using 21 relays, a capacitor bank with
11 binary-weighted shunt capacitors and eight series capacitors,
and two inductors.
We have proposed a multiloop WPT that maintains high
efficiency over a wide range of distances [21]. Four loops with
different sizes were used, and one of the loops was selected,
depending on the distance to match the impedances. Therefore,
it achieved high efficiency at four different distances. However, the efficiency drops at distances deviating from these
four optimum distances, which are caused by impedance mismatches. In addition, the loop was manually switched, depending on the distance in [21].
In this paper, we propose a range-adaptive WPT system using
the multiloop topology in [21] and a tunable matching circuit at
a fixed operating frequency of 13.56 MHz. For this purpose,
the multiloop WPT system is analyzed for a range-adaptive
operation, including input impedance variation with respect to
the distance. Then, on the basis of the analysis of the multiloop
WPT, a tunable matching circuit is designed with minimum
tunable elements to reduce the matching losses. A searching
algorithm is also developed to control the loop switching and
tunable matching circuits, on the basis of the measured input
return loss (|S11 |) of the system. We introduce and compare
the conventional and multiloop WPTs in Section II, focusing
on the variation of input impedance and efficiency with respect

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IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INDUSTRIAL ELECTRONICS, VOL. 62, NO. 10, OCTOBER 2015

by self-inductance Lc , parasitic resistance Rc , and parasitic


capacitance Cc . For the simplicity of the analysis, Tx and Rx
resonators are assumed to be identical. The coupling coefficients between coils and loops are denoted by kij . For the
symmetric WPT system, k12 = k34 and k13 = k24 . The power
source in Tx is represented by the voltage source Vs and
resistance R0 , and the load in Rx by resistance R0 . Applying
Kirchoffs voltage law to the circuit in Fig. 1(b), we obtain
the following relation between the currents and voltages in the
resonators at 0 :
1

j0 M12 j0 M13
0
R0
Vs
I1

I2 j0 M12

R
j
M
j
M
c
0 23
0 13 0
=
I3 j0 M13 j0 M23
Rc
j0 M12 0
I4
0
j0 M13 j0 M12
R0
0
(1)

Fig. 1. (a) Conventional WPT system with four resonators. (b) Equivalent circuit of the WPT system.

to the distance. Then, a range-adaptive WPT is proposed in


Section III, including its operating principle, the design of the
tunable matching circuit, the (|S11 |) measurement circuit, and
the automatic searching algorithm. The experimental results are
presented and compared with the previously reported adaptive
WPT systems in Section IV. Finally, WPTs with simplified Rx
circuits are discussed in Section V.
II. WPT U SING M AGNETIC R ESONANCE C OUPLING
A conventional WPT using MRC consists of four resonators,
as shown in Fig. 1(a) [2], [11]. Both Tx and Rx have a
single-turn loop and multiple-turn coil with the same resonant
frequency, i.e., 0 . The WPT system can be analyzed by using
an equivalent circuit model shown in Fig. 1(b) [15], [29],
[30]. The loop is represented by self-inductance Ll , parasitic
resistance Rl , and external capacitance Cl . The coil is modeled

where Mij is mutual


inductance, and
0 is a resonant frequency
given by 0 = (1/ Ll Cl ) = (1/ Lc Cc ). In this relation, k14
is ignored, because it has a minimal effect on the performance.
R0 + Rl is approximated to be R0 , because quality (Q)-factors
of the loops are sufficiently high.
Power transfer efficiency at 0 (the power delivered to
the load divided by the available power from the source) can
be derived as (2), shown at the bottom of the page, where
Q1 and Q2 represent Q-factors of the loop and coil, respectively. It can be found from (2) that the efficiency varies
with respect to d23 , the distance between transmitter and receiver, because k23 is proportional to 1/d323 by the Neumann
formula [21], [31]. This can be also explained by the variation of input impedance of the WPT system depending on
d23 . From the equivalent circuit [see Fig. 1(b)], the input
impedance of the WPT system, Zin , at 0 can be calculated
to be (3), shown at the bottom of the page. It indicates
that Zin changes with k23 (or d23 ) and it is matched to R0
at only a single k23 (k23,matched ), or d23 (d23,matched), for a
fixed k12 . The k23,matched , where WPT exhibits the maximum
efficiency, is given as (4)

2 k 2 )2 Q2 1/Q2 .
k23,matched = (k12
(4)
13
1
2
The efficiency decreases as d23 deviates from d23,matched
because of impedance mismatches. However, the WPT system
should maintain a high efficiency over a wide range of distances
for practical applications. We can find from (4) that there can
exist more than one k23 (or d23 ) that results in impedance
matching, if k12 can be adjusted with respect to d23 . In [18],
k12 was adjusted by manually varying the spacing between the
loop and coil (d12 ) with respect to d23 , to satisfy (4) over a wide

2
2


2
2
2
4Q1 Q2 k12 k23 Q2 + 2jk12 k13 + k13 k23 Q2
|VL |2 /R0


=
=





2 (2)
|Vs |2 /4R0
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
j (1 + k12 Q1 Q2 ) + k23 Q2 + k13 Q1 Q2 (k13 Q1 Q2 2k12 Q1 Q2 + 2) + 4k12 k13 k23 Q1 Q2


4
2 2
2
4
2
Q1 Q2 Q1 Q2 k12
2Q1 Q2 k12
k13 + k12
2jQ2 k23 k12 k13 + Q1 Q2 k13
+ k13
(3)
Zin = R0
2 + Q Q k2 + Q Q k2 + 1
2jQ1 Q22 k23 k12 k13 + Q22 k23
1 2 12
1 2 13

KIM AND JEONG: RANGE-ADAPTIVE WPT USING MULTILOOP AND TUNABLE MATCHING TECHNIQUES

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Fig. 2. Proposed range-adaptive WPT system.


TABLE I
PARAMETERS OF THE FABRICATED R ESONATORS

range of d23 . However, it is not practical to manually move the


loop. The multiloop WPT proposed by the authors in [21] used
four loops with different diameters achieving four different
values of k12 . Then, one of the four loops was manually selected
to achieve impedance matching depending on d23 . Therefore,
there were four d23 points satisfying (4). However, this multiloop WPT still exhibits impedance mismatches except at these
four distances, resulting in efficiency drops. Furthermore, the
loop should be automatically switched depending on d23 in real
applications.
III. R ANGE -A DAPTIVE WPT S YSTEM
A. Operating Principle
In this paper, a range-adaptive WPT system is proposed
using a multiloop topology and tunable impedance matching.
Fig. 2 shows a proposed range-adaptive WPT system. Compared with the conventional WPT system, this system employs
four loops in the Tx and Rx, respectively [21]. Ll,n and Rl,n
represent the self-inductance and parasitic resistance of the
loop, respectively, and Cl,n represents the series capacitance,
where n = 1 4. Each coil and loop is designed to resonate at
the same frequency of f0 = 13.56 MHz.
Table I lists the dimensions of each resonator (coil and loop),
which was fabricated by using a copper wire with a diameter of
0.3 cm. It also includes the extracted parameters (inductance,
capacitance, and resistance) of each resonator from the measured data by a vector network analyzer. The diameters of loop 1,
loop 2, loop 3, and loop 4 are determined so that impedance
matching can be achieved at a distance d23 = 30, 50, 70, and
90 cm, respectively, whereas d12 is fixed to 0.5 cm. Inner
diameter and pitch of the coils are 45 and 3 cm, respectively.

The capacitances of the loops in this table are the externally


connected series capacitors Cl,n for each loop to resonate at f0 .
One of the loops is selected by using a single-pole four-throw
(SP4T) switch, depending on the distance d23 ; that is, loop 1
is selected for d23 30 cm, loop 2 for 30 cm < d23 50 cm,
loop 3 for 50 cm < d23 70 cm, and loop 4 for d23 > 70 cm.
The multiloop topology can be effectively used in the rangeadaptive WPT. This fact is verified by the comparison of the
performance of the multiloop and the conventional WPTs. Only
one loop, for example, loop 1, is used in the conventional WPT.
Fig. 3(a) shows the simulated S-parameters at f0 = 13.56 MHz
of the conventional and multiloop WPT systems as a function
of d23 . The simulation was performed using the parameters of
the fabricated resonators presented in Table I. As expected, the
conventional WPT system shows a good impedance match only
at d23 = 30 cm, with |S11 | = 40 dB and |S21 | = 0.4 dB
( = 91.2%). However, the efficiency drops as d23 deviates
from 30 cm. On the contrary, the multiloop WPT system
exhibits four impedance-matched distances (d23 = 30, 50, 70,
and 90 cm). Therefore, it maintains high efficiency over a wide
range of d23 .
The advantage of the multiloop WPT can be more clearly
found in the variation of the input impedance Zin , depending
on the distance, as shown in Fig. 3(b) and (c). The conventional WPT with a single loop shows an impedance match
(Zin = 50 ) at d23 = 30 cm with very large variation of Zin
from 5 to 850 in real part and from j18.7 to j192 in
imaginary part for d23 from 10 to 90 cm. This fact implies
that a widely tunable matching circuit is required, which, in
general, can be designed by using a number of tunable elements
with a large variation in element value. This approach leads to
higher matching losses and an increase in circuit complexity,
which, in turn, complicates the searching algorithm. On the
contrary, the Zin variation in the multiloop WPT is dramatically
reduced, that is, from 5 to 50 in real part and from j18.7 to
j2.8 in imaginary part over the same range of d23 . Therefore,
the multiloop topology is well suited for the design of tunable
matching circuits.

B. Design of the Tunable Matching Circuit


On the basis of the simulation results aforementioned, we
design a tunable matching circuit for a multiloop WPT system,

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IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INDUSTRIAL ELECTRONICS, VOL. 62, NO. 10, OCTOBER 2015

Fig. 4. Zin variation as d23 increases from 10 to 90 cm with the


corresponding loop selected.

Fig. 5. (a) Designed tunable matching circuit. (b) Zin trajectory as Cp


increases from 110 to 357 pF at various d23 s with loop 1 selected.

Fig. 3. Simulation results of conventional and multiloop WPT systems.


(a) S-parameters. (b) Real part of Zin . (c) Imaginary part of Zin . Dotted
and solid lines represent the conventional and multiloop WPT systems,
respectively.

to achieve impedance matching even when d23 deviates from


the four matched distances. Fig. 4 shows Zin variation on Smith
chart as d23 increases from 10 to 90 cm with the corresponding
loop selected. It can be found from this figure that tunable
elements are required for the impedance matching according to
the distance. To minimize the number of tunable elements and
simplify the circuit topology, the loop capacitances in Table I
are adjusted as follows: Cl,1 = 150 pF, Cl,2 = 160 pF, Cl,3 =
180 pF, and Cl,4 = 200 pF. Then, Zin with adjusted loop
capacitances exhibits an inductive part, as well as a resistive
part, as shown in Fig. 4. Therefore, a single shunt variable
capacitor is sufficient to match Zin to 50 for the entire range
of interest of d23 .
Fig. 5(a) shows the designed tunable matching circuit using a
varactor Cp , where Rb and Cb are used as a bias circuit for the

Fig. 6. Required Cp for the impedance matching as function of the


distance. Corresponding |S11 | and |S21 | at 13.56 MHz are included.

varactor. Capacitance of the varactor is controlled by voltage


Vd . Fig. 5(b) shows Zin trajectory when the capacitance Cp
increases from 110 to 357 pF at various d23 s, whereas loop 1
is selected. It shows how Zin changes and matches to 50
according to the value of Cp . Note that Cp s at Tx and Rx are
varied with the same value. Fig. 6 shows the required Cp for
the impedance matching as a function of d23 . It demonstrates

KIM AND JEONG: RANGE-ADAPTIVE WPT USING MULTILOOP AND TUNABLE MATCHING TECHNIQUES

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Fig. 7. |S11 | measurement circuit. (a) Block diagram. (b) Schematic of


the rectifier.

that a single tunable capacitor from 110 to 357 pF is sufficient


to achieve the impedance matching for 10 cm d23 90 cm.
The capacitance variation ratio is only 1:3.25, which can be
easily obtained from a commercial varactor. The |S11 | and |S21 |
of the multiloop WPT are simulated at 13.56 MHz using the
selected capacitance, resulting in |S11 | < 33 dB and |S21 | <
2.3 dB for 10 cm d23 90 cm.
C. Automated WPT System: |S11 | Measurement
In a range-adaptive WPT system, the optimum loop and
Cp achieving impedance matching should be automatically
selected depending on the distance d23 . This can be conducted
by measuring |S11 | of the system, and finding the optimum
loop and Cp that minimize |S11 | (see Fig. 2). Therefore, we
need to design a |S11 | measurement circuit. In the proposed
system, |S11 | is measured by using a directional coupler and
rectifiers, as shown in Fig. 7(a). Power levels at the coupled and
isolated ports of the directional coupler are proportional to the
incident and reflected power, respectively, under the assumption
of high directivity. In this paper, we used a direction coupler
with a directivity of 41.3 dB and coupling factor of 20.5 dB.
The rectifiers convert these powers to dc voltages, which are
read by the computer through a data acquisition (DAQ) board.
Then, the computer estimates the incident and reflected power
from the dc voltages, and computes |S11 |.
As shown in Fig. 7(b), the rectifiers are designed using
a diode (Skyworks SMS7621), a 50- matching resistor, a
100-nF capacitor, and a 10-M load resistor. An accurate
relationship between input power and output dc voltage of the
rectifier is required to determine |S11 |. For this purpose, this
relationship is measured, as shown in Fig. 8, and is curve fitted
by a seventh-order polynomial. Then, the inverse polynomial
is used to determine the input power from the measured dc
voltage of the rectifiers. To verify the performance of the
|S11 | measurement circuit, |S11 | values were measured with the
coupler terminated by several resistors [Ztm from 1 to 100 in
Fig. 7(a)]. Fig. 8(b) shows a good agreement of the measured
and theoretical |S11 |, where theoretical values were calculated
from (Ztm 50)/(Ztm + 50).
D. Automated WPT System: Algorithm for Finding an
Optimum Loop and Capacitance
Now, we need an algorithm for finding the optimum loop and
capacitance Cp to achieve impedance matching or to minimize

Fig. 8. (a) Measured output dc voltage (VDC ) versus input power (Pin )
of the rectifier). (b) Theoretical and measured |S11 | versus termination
impedance (Ztm ).

|S11 | for varying d23 . Fig. 9 shows the simulated |S11 | for each
loop as a function of d23 at Vd = 10, 3, 0.5, and 0 V. For loop 1,
|S11 | at Vd = 10 V exhibits a minimum value at d23 = 30 cm.
As Vd decreases to 0 V, the distance exhibiting a minimum |S11 |
moves to d23 = 10 cm. We can make the similar observation of
|S11 | variation with respect to Vd for other loops. Therefore, the
optimum loop and capacitance can be searched by finding the
inflection point of |S11 | versus Vd while switching the loops as
follows.
Step 1) Initially, Vd is set to be 10 V, that is, Cp is at the
lowest value of 110 pF. Then, |S11 | values are measured while switching the loops, and the loop with a
minimum |S11 | is selected for the Vd sweep.
Step 2) For a selected loop, |S11 | values are measured while
sweeping Vd from 10 to 0 V in steps of 1 V. If the
measured |S11 | values are concave with respect to Vd ,
a fine tuning for Vd (in steps of 0.2 V) is performed
around an inflection point to find a minimum |S11 |.
If the minimum |S11 | is less than 0.1, the algorithm
ends.
Step 3) Step 2 is repeated by switching the loops until a
minimum |S11 | is less than 0.1. If |S11 | is not less
than 0.1 for any combination of the loop and Vd , the
algorithm selects the loop and Vd at which the |S11 |
is a minimum, and the algorithm ends.

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IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INDUSTRIAL ELECTRONICS, VOL. 62, NO. 10, OCTOBER 2015

Fig. 10. (a) Photograph of the fabricated range-adaptive WPT system.


(b) Fabricated circuit board consisting of the |S11 | measurement circuit,
tunable impedance matching circuit, and SP4T switch.

IV. E XPERIMENTAL R ESULTS

Fig. 9. Simulated |S11 | as a function of d23 for each loop. (a) Vd =


10 V. (b) Vd = 3 V. (c) Vd = 0.5 V. (d) Vd = 0 V.

Note that Tx and Rx have identical loop switching and


tunable matching circuits, as shown in Fig. 2. In the aforementioned algorithm, the optimum loop and Cp are searched,
whereas the same loop and the same Vd to Tx and Rx are
selected.

The performance of the proposed range-adaptive WPT system was verified by the experiments. Fig. 10(a) shows the
fabricated WPT system. A signal source (Rohde & Schwarz
SML03) is used to generate an input power of 17 dBm at
13.56 MHz. The output waveform is measured by an oscilloscope (Agilent DSO-X2012A). The computer reads the dc
output voltages of the two rectifiers through a DAQ board,
and computes |S11 |. Then, it runs the algorithm to find an
optimum loop and varactor control voltage (Vd ). Finally, it
emits the control voltages for the SP4T switches and varactors
through an arbitrary waveform generator. The S-parameters of
the fabricated WPT system were also measured by a using
vector network analyzer.
Fig. 10(b) shows the fabricated circuit board consisting of the
|S11 | measurement circuit, tunable matching circuit, and SP4T
switch. The tunable matching circuit was implemented by using
a fixed capacitor of 80 pF and four varactors in parallel. Each
varactor (Skyworks SMV1212) exhibits a capacitance variation

KIM AND JEONG: RANGE-ADAPTIVE WPT USING MULTILOOP AND TUNABLE MATCHING TECHNIQUES

Fig. 11. (a) Selected loop and varactor control voltage (Vd ). Dotted
lines represent the optimum Cp obtained from the simulation (see
Fig. 6). (b) The measured S-parameters of the WPT system. Solid and
dotted lines represent measurement and simulation, respectively.

from 4.7 to 72.4 pF for Vd from 10 to 0 V. It has a parasitic


series resistance of 0.8 . The SP4T switch is composed of
three relays (Panasonic ARE10A06) with an insertion loss of
0.02 dB. The size of the circuit in Fig. 10(b) is 6 cm 4 cm.
The performance of the fabricated WPT system was measured while increasing the distance d23 in 5-cm increments
from 10 to 100 cm. At each distance, the system automatically
measures |S11 | and finds the optimum loop and Vd for minimizing the |S11 |. Fig. 11(a) shows the selected loop and Vd
by the developed algorithm as a function of the distance d23 .
The corresponding Cp is also included in this figure, which is
calculated from the relationship between the capacitance and
the bias voltage of the varactor. This figure shows that the
developed algorithm can properly find the optimum loop and
Cp for 10 cm d23 100 cm.
Fig. 11(b) shows the measured S-parameters of WPT system.
It shows that the system was well matched over a wide range
of the distance, that is, |S11 | is below 32 dB for 10 cm
d23 90 cm. The measured |S11 | and |S21 | agree well with the
optimized performance predicted by the simulation.
Fig. 12(a) shows the measured efficiency of the proposed
WPT system as a function of the distance d23 . The previous
multiloop WPT system in [21] shows efficiency drops at the
distances deviating from 30, 50, 70, and 90 cm. As shown in
this figure, these efficiency drops were recovered in [21] by

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Fig. 12. Measured efficiency of the proposed WPT system. (a) Efficiency versus distance d23 . (b) Efficiency versus the normalized distance with coil diameter.

manually tuning the frequency of the transmitter from 10.60 to


13.56 MHz. However, the frequency tuning should be automatically carried out in real applications, so that it requires the
circuit to detect the distance, algorithm to find the optimum
frequency, and the circuit to control the frequency of Tx. In
addition, it needs wide bandwidth of 2.96 MHz. Unfortunately,
only 14-kHz bandwidth is permitted in the 13.56-MHz industrial, scientific and medical band [14]. On the contrary, the
WPT system in this work operates at a fixed frequency of
13.56 MHz and accomplished an automatic range adaptation by
using tunable impedance matching, so that it is more practical.
It maintains high efficiency across the entire distance from 10 to
100 cm, as shown in Fig. 12(a). The efficiency was calculated as
the power delivered to the load divided by the power available
from the source. Note that the efficiency in Fig. 12 includes loss
of every component of the system: |S11 | measurement circuit
(directional coupler), loop selection circuits (relays), and tunable impedance matching circuits (varactors), resonators (loops
and coils), and impedance mismatches. It shows a maximum
efficiency of 92% at d23 = 10 cm, which corresponds to a 52%
increase compared with the multiloop WPT system in [21]. It
also attains an efficiency of 48% at d23 = 100 cm. At d23 = 30,
50, 70, and 90 cm, the proposed WPT systems exhibits about
3% lower efficiency, which is caused by the losses of the
tunable matching circuits.
The efficiency of the proposed WPT system is also compared
with other range-adaptive WPT systems in [19], [20], as shown

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TABLE II
C OMPARISON OF R EPORTED A DAPTIVE WPT S YSTEMS AT 13.56 MH Z

in Fig. 12(b). For fair comparison, the efficiency is plotted with


respect to the normalized distance with coil diameter. It can be
found from this figure that the proposed WPT system maintains
high efficiency over a wider range of the normalized distance.
This improvement of the range adaptation was accomplished by
combining the multiloop and tunable matching techniques.
Table II compares the reported range-adaptive WPT systems.
The WPT systems in [19], [20] employed switching capacitors
to obtain wide tunability from the impedance matching circuit,
where many switches (relays) and capacitors are used to obtain a capacitance variation ratio higher than 1:1000. On the
contrary, the tunable matching circuit in the proposed systems
could be designed by using a varactor with a capacitance
variation ratio of only 1:3.25, because the multiloop topology
greatly reduces the variation of the input impedance. Therefore,
the searching algorithm to maximize the efficiency was also
simplified in the proposed system. It took less than 1.2 s to
find the optimum loop and capacitance and settle the system.
The simplified tunable matching circuits and algorithm are
beneficial in real applications.
V. M ODIFIED WPT S W ITH S IMPLIFIED RX C IRCUIT
The proposed WPT system in the aforementioned requires
a radio-frequency (RF) communication channel between Tx
and Rx, to control the switch in the loop selection circuit and
varactor in tunable matching circuit of Rx. Although WPT
standard such as Rezence by Alliance for Wireless Power
includes an RF communication channel operating at 2.4 GHz
[32], there still exists a need of a simplified Rx circuit for more
practical, reliable and robust operations. In order to see if the
proposed WPT system can handle this issue, the simulation is
carried out for the modified WPT systems with a simplified Rx.
Two modified WPTs with simplified Rx are considered in
the simulation: modified WPT 1 with single loop and tunable
matching Rx, and modified WPT 2 with single loop and fixed
matching Rx. Four Tx loops in modified WPTs are resized from
original ones in Table I to achieve best efficiency performance.
Note that loop 3 is only used in Rx of the modified WPTs 1
and 2. That is, k34 is fixed to 0.10. In the modified WPT 2, the
varactor capacitor Cp in Rx is fixed to 80 pF.
The efficiency of each WPT system is simulated by using an
equivalent circuit shown in Fig. 2. Fig. 13 shows the simulated
efficiency as a function of d23 . The modified WPT 1 recovers
the efficiency across the distance range of interest, even though

Fig. 13. Simulated efficiency of WPT systems.

the efficiency slightly drops at the distances (between 10 and


50 cm), which were covered by loops 1 and 2 in the original
WPT system. This efficiency drop is more serious in the modified WPT 2, as shown in Fig. 13, because there are no tuning
or control elements in Rx of WPT 2. However, the efficiency
is still high (higher than 76.6%) at this range of distances. This
simulation result verifies that the proposed WPT system can
maintain relatively high efficiency across a wide range of distances without any control of Rx. Note that Tx tunable matching
circuit in WPT 2 was modified to improve the tunability; that
is, a series varactor Cs was added to a parallel varactor Cp ,
where Cs was varied from 150 to 175 pF, whereas Cp from 80 to
670 pF.
VI. C ONCLUSION
In this paper, a range-adaptive WPT has been proposed,
achieving high efficiency over a wide range of distances. Multiloop topology was utilized to simplify the design of a tunable
matching network and a searching algorithm. The optimum
loop and capacitance were determined by using the measured
input return losses. The fabricated WPT system showed a
range-adaptive operation with high efficiency greater than 48%
up to a distance of 100 cm.
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Jungsik Kim received the B.S. degree in


wireless communications engineering from
Kangwoon University, Seoul, Korea, in 2011. He
is currently working toward the Ph.D. degree
in electronic engineering at Sogang University,
Seoul, Korea.
His research interests include wireless power
transfers, monolithic microwave integrated circuits, and terahertz integrated circuits.

Jinho Jeong (S00M05) received the B.S.,


M.S., and Ph.D. degrees in electrical engineering from Seoul National University, Seoul,
Korea, in 1997, 1999, and 2004, respectively.
From 2004 to 2007, he was with the University of California at San Diego, La Jolla,
CA, USA, as a Postdoctoral Scholar, where he
was involved with the design of high-efficiency
and high-linearity radio-frequency power amplifiers. In 2007, he was with the Department of
Electronics and Communications Engineering,
Kwangwoon University, Seoul. Since 2010, he has been with the Department of Electronic Engineering, Sogang University, Seoul. His research
interests include monolithic microwave integrated circuits, terahertz
integrated circuits, high-efficiency/high-linearity power amplifiers and
oscillators, and wireless power transfers.