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trigonometry 4/15/03 10:02 AM Page 1

SPARKCHARTSTM

TRIGONOMETRY

SPARK

A FI
INTE

CHARTS

TM

TRIGO

MEASURING ANGLES

Trigonometry is the study of relationships between angles and


lengths, especially in triangles.

We measure angles to see how wide or narrow they are. There are
two standard ways of measuring angles:
Degree ( ): A unit of angular
y
measure in which a complete
revolution is 360 ; each degree
is subdivided into 60 minutes,
counterclockwise
and each minute is subdivided
into 60 seconds.
x
Radians (rad): A unit of angular

clockwise
measure in which a complete
revolution measures 2 radians. The radian measure of an
angle is the length of an arc of the
unit circle cut off by that angle.
and are both in
Converting between degrees
standard position.
and radians:

THE COORDINATE PLANE


The Cartesian (or coordinate) plane is an infinite plane with two
special perpendicular lines (called axes). A point on the plane is
identified by an ordered pair of coordinatesthe distances from
the two axes.
x-axis: Usually, the horizontal axis of the coordinate plane.
y-axis: Usually, the vertical axis of the coordinate plane.
Origin: (0, 0) ; the point of intersection of the x-axis and the
y -axis.
+y
Quadrants: The four
regions of the coorQuadrant
Quadrant
dinate plane creatI
II
ed by the intersec(a, b)
b
tion of the two axes.
+x
x
By convention, they
origin a x-axis
(0, 0)
are numbered I, II,
III, and IV counterQuadrant
Quadrant
clockwise starting
III
IV
with the upper right
quadrant.
y

FUNCTIONS
For more about functions, see the SparkChart on Pre-calculus.
Function: A rule for generating values: for every value you
plug into the function, theres a unique value that comes out.
Often denoted as f (x): for every value x = a that you plug
in, f (a) is the result.
Domain: The set of possible incoming values, x, for a function f (x).
Range: The set of possible outcomes of f (x).

Graphing a function: The process of plotting all the points
x, f (x) in the coordinate plane.
Vertical line test: Checks if something is a function by looking at its graph: any vertical line in the coordinate plane
must intersect the graph no more than once. For every xvalue, there is at most one y -value.

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ANGLES

Copyright 2002 by SparkNotes LLC.


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TRIGONOMETRY DEFINED

y-axis

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TM

BACKGROUND AND DEFINITIONS

Ray: Part of a line with one fixed endpoint extending without bound in one direction.
Two rays that share a common endpoint create an angle.
The common endpoint is called the vertex of the angle.
Often we think of an angle as being formed by rotating
a ray clockwise or counterclockwise . We then
terminal
distinguish between the
side
initial side (starting position of the ray) and the
terminal side (end position of the ray) of the
vertex initial
angle.
side

Zero angle: 0 = 0 rad. The initial


side and the terminal side coincide.
In standard position, the terminal
side is on the positive x-axis.

ANGLES IN THE COORDINATE PLANE


Standard position: An angle is in standard position when its
vertex lies at the origin and its
y
initial side lies along the positive
x-axis.
P
Unit circle: The circle of radius 1
+2
centered at the origin.
x
Any angle gives a point on the unit
circle.
Negative and positive angles: By convention, positive angles are measured counterclockwise; negative
angles are measured clockwise.
and + 2 both give
point P on the unit circle.
Multiple rotations: The angles
, + 2, 2, 4, . . . etc.,
all define the same point on the unit circle.
Reference angle: For any angle in standard position, the reference angle is the positive acute angle formed by its terminal side and the x-axis.

ref

=0

Func. Uni
circl

Zero angle

sin

Acute angle: less than 90 = 2 rad.


Between a zero angle and a right
angle. In standard position the terminal side is in Quadrant I.

cos

tan

y
x

csc

1
y

sec

1
x

cot

x
y

<2

Acute angle
y

1
2 revolution
1
360 revolution

Labeling angles: When viewed as geometric shapes, angles


are usually named with capital lettersoften after the vertex
(Ex: A)and often measured in degrees. When viewed as
rotations, angle measures are often given Greek letters (Ex:
, ) and are usually specified in radians. In trigonometry
unlike in geometrythe distinction between angles and
their measure is often not made (Ex: A = 45 ).

The rightnitions for


definition

1 revolution = 360 = 2 rad


1 rad = 180
=

rad =
1 = 180

COMP

TYPES OF ANGLES

Right angle: 90 = 2 rad. The initial


side is perpendicular to the terminal
side. In standard position, the terminal side is on the positive y -axis.

=2

Right angle
y

Obtuse

angle:
greater
than
90 = rad
and
less
than

180 = rad. Between a right angle


and a straight angle. In standard position, the terminal side is in Quadrant
II.

Straight angle: 180 = rad. The


initial side and the terminal side lie on
the same line. In standard position,
the terminal side is on the negative
x-axis.

2 <

<

Obtuse angle

MNEMON
which of
cosine, a
Quadrant:
Cosine on

y
=
0

Straight angle

Oblique angle: either acute or obtuse (not zero, right, or


straight).

Complementary angles: Two angles that sum to a right


angle.

GRA

A sinusoid
cosine cur

Amplitude

vertical dis
point).

Supplementary angles: Two angles that sum to a straight


angle.

ref
ref

II

ref

III

IV

Coterminal angles: Two angles in standard position whose


terminal sides coincide. Angles and are coterminal if
= + 2k for some integer k (positive or negative).

and its reference angle ref

TRIGONOMETRIC FUNCTIONS
The two ways of thinking about anglesas rotations from the
standard position, or as static shapes in a geometric figure
give two ways of thinking about trigonometric functions.

Manipulating the coordinates of


this point give the trigonometric
functions of .

P = (x, y)

1
O

Sine and cosine of

x = cos

1
1
=
sin
y

Cotangent: cot =

BASED ON THE UNIT CIRCLE


Any angle defines a point
P = (x, y) on the unit circle.

Cosecant: csc =

y = sin

(1, 0) x

Sine: sin = y,
the y -coordinate of P. For all , 1 sin 1.

Because and + 2k define the same point on the unit circle, all trigonometric functions are periodic with a period of 2
(sin, cos, sec, csc), or (tan, cot).

BASED ON A RIGHT TRIANGLE


For an acute angle A, we can dene the trigonometric functions by
looking at the ratios of the side lengths of a right triangle ABC with
a right angle at C. We will use A to refer to the point A, the angle
CAB, and the measure of angle CAB.
B

1 cos 1.

hypotenuse
c

Tangent: tan =

This downloadable PDF copyright 2004 by SparkNotes LLC.

b
adjacent
side

sin A =

opposite side
a
=
hypotenuse
c

Here, sin A < 1 for all acute angles A.

cos
1
x
=
=
sin
tan
y

Cosine: cos = x, the x -coordinate of P. For all ,

y
, the slope of the line OP .
x
1
1
=
Secant: sec =
cos
x

Sine:

opposite
side

Cosine:

cos A =

adjacent side
b
=
hypotenuse
c

Again, cos A < 1 for all acute angles A.


Tangent:

tan A =

Period: Th

smallest r
such that f

opposite side
a
=
adjacent side
b

MNEMONIC: SOHCAHTOA: Sine is Opposite over Hypotenuse;


Cosine is Adjacent over Hypotenuse; Tangent is Opposite over
Adjacent.
Cosecant:

csc A =

c
hypotenuse
1
=
=
a
opposite side
sin A

Secant:

sec A =

c
hypotenuse
1
=
=
b
adjacent side
cos A

b
adjacent side
1
=
=
Cotangent: cot A =
a
opposite side
tan A

SPARKCHARTS Trigonometry page 1 of 4

SPARK

A FIGURE WITH CURVES ALWAYS OFFERS A LOT OF


INTERESTING ANGLES.

WESLEY RUGGLES

CHARTS

TM

TRIGONOMETRIC FUNCTIONS (CONTINUED)


COMPARING THE TWO DEFINITIONS

Sign in quadrant
I II III IV

sin

opp
hyp

all real
numbers

[1, 1]

+ +

cos

adj
hyp

all real
numbers

[1, 1]

+ +

rad.

d a right
n the terI.

tan

Acute angle

all reals
except

opp
adj

y
x

k +

all real
numbers

csc

. The initial

he terminal
, the termi-

y -axis.

hyp
opp

1
x

hyp
adj

all reals
except k

(, 1]

[1, +)

(, 1]

[1, +)

+ +

=2

sec

Right angle
y

ter
than
ess
than
right angle
andard posiin Quadrant

1
y

cot
2 <

all reals
except

k +

adj
opp

x
y

all reals
except k

all real
numbers

+ +

+ +

Obtuse angle

MNEMONIC: All Students Take Calculus tells you


which of the three primary trig functions (sine,
cosine, and tangent) are positive in which
Quadrant: I: All; II: Sine only; III: Tangent only; IV:
Cosine only.

Sine

135

3
4

150

5
6

1
2

1=

180

210

7
6

12

225

5
4

240

4
3

270

3
2

300

5
3

315

7
4

330

11
6

360 = 0

<

2
3

60

+ +

120

1
2

45

<2
0

90

2
2

23

csc

sec

cot

undened

3
2

2
2

3
3

2 3
3

undened

1
2

12

2
2

23

3
2

22

21

2 = 0

2
2

3
2

Tangent Cosine

Two angles that sum to a right

vertical distance from a crest (highest point) to a trough (lowest


point).

wo angles that sum to a straight

y = 2sinx
y = sinx
y = 1 sinx
3

ngles in standard position whose


Angles and are coterminal if
eger k (positive or negative).

1
1
3

is the period. There are B cycles in every interval of length


B
2 is the frequency.

The basic shape of the function will stay the same. The sine
curve will start at (h, k) as though it were the origin and go up
if A is positive (down if A is negative). A cosine curve will start

te angles A.

adjacent side
hypotenuse

ute angles A.

Period: The period of any repeating function is the length of the

smallest repeating unit. The period p is the smallest number


such that f (x) = f (x + p) for all x.

period
y = A sin B(x h) + k

y = cos 2x
y = cos x
y = cos x

y
1

ine is Opposite over Hypotenuse;


otenuse; Tangent is Opposite over

1
hypotenuse
=
sin A
opposite side

1
adjacent side
=
tan A
opposite side

(h, k)

opposite side
adjacent side

1
hypotenuse
=
cos A
adjacent side

amplitude

The periods of these functions are , 2, and 6.


The amplitude is 1 for all three functions.

2
B

CONVERTING EQUATIONS
Cosine and sine functions differ only by a phase shift.

cos = sin +
2

sin = cos
2

undened

( 21 , 23 )
( 22 , 22 )
( 23 , 21 )

30

y
(0, 1)
90

0
21

and the minimum value of the function.

The amplitudes of these functions are 2, 1, and 13 .


The period is 2 for all three functions.

( 23 , 21)
( 22 , 22)
( 21 , 23 )

k is the is the average value: halfway between the maximum

at (h, k) at the crest if A is positive (trough if A is negative).

opposite side
hypotenuse

undened

1 , 3
2 2
2, 2
2 2
3, 1
15
2 2
0

|A| is the amplitude.

h is the phase shift, or how far the beginning of the cycle is


from the y -axis.

(1, 0) 180

2; so

2 3
3

Common angles and the points they dene on the unit circle

GRAPHING y = A sinB(x h) + k
AND y = A cosB(x h) + k

2
B

(0, 0)

3
2
270

0 0 (1, 0)
x
360 2
33
0
3 , 1
2
2
2 , 2
2
2
1, 3
2
2

11
15
6 7 3 300
4

Amplitude: The amplitude of a sinusoidal function is half the

3
3

te or obtuse (not zero, right, or

3
3

undened

33

GRAPHING SINUSOIDAL FUNCTIONS


A sinusoidal function is any function that looks like a sine or
cosine curve.

Straight angle

233

233

(
x

233

undened

3
3

233

undened

undened

=
0

0
12 5
13

l side lie on
d position,
he negative

undened

rad. The

2 3
3

The angle multiples of 30 and 45 have easy-to-write


trig functions and come up often. The trig functions of
most other angles are difficult to write exactly; they are
most often given as decimal approximations.

All

3
3

3
3

3
2

22

1
2

33

12

2 3
3

undened

22
5
7
0 5 6
4

30

tan

60

45

Period

cos

5
6 43

Range

0
2

1
2

2
2

3
2

4
2

3
2

2
2

0=

24

Domain

sin

4
3

Right
triangle

(rad)

Func. Unit
circle

( )

=0
0

Zero angle

SPECIAL TRIGONOMETRIC VALUES

The right-triangle definitions give the same trig values as the unit-circle definitions for acute angles. For angles greater than 90 , apply the right-triangle
definition to a reference angle and attach the appropriate sign.

The initial
coincide.
terminal
is.

(0, 1)

INVERSE FUNCTIONS
INVERSE TRIGONOMETRIC FUNCTIONS
An inverse function f 1 undoes what the original functions
did: if y = f (x), then x = f 1 (y). The domain of f 1 (x) is
the range of f (x) and vice versa. Ex: The inverse function of
f (x) = 2x + 3 is f 1 (x) = x3
2 .
If the original function does not pass the horizontal line
testi.e., if it takes on the same value more than once
we restrict the domain of the original function before we
take the inverse. Ex: f (x) = x2 on the whole real line has
no inverse, but the function f (x) = x2 on only the posi
tive reals has the inverse f 1 (x) = x.

Graphically, the inverse function y = f 1 (x) has the


same shape as the original function, but is reflected over
the slanted line y = x.

All the trig functions take on the same value many times. To construct inverse functions, we restrict the domains as follows:
Function

Domain

sin1 x = arcsin x

[1, 1]

cos1 x = arccos x

[1, 1]

tan1 x = arctan x all real numbers

csc

x = arccscx

cot

= arccotx

2 , 2

2 , 2

[0, ]

(, 1] [1, +) 0, 2 , 3
2

sec1 x = arcsecx (, 1] [1, +)


1

Range

all real numbers

3
0, 2 , 2

(0, )

*There is no uniform agreement about which branch of cosecant and secant the inverse functions should follow for x < 0.
Those given here work well with slope formulas from calculus.

CONTINUED ON OTHER SIDE

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SPARKCHARTS Trigonometry page 2 of 4

trigonometry 4/15/03 10:02 AM Page 2

TR

TRIGONOMETRIC IDENTITIES
These identities are true for all angles.

PYTHAGOREAN IDENTITIES
sin2 A + cos2 A = 1

RECIPROCAL AND
QUOTIENT IDENTITIES
sin =

1 + tan2 A = sec2 A

cot2 A + 1 = csc2 A

sin

tan
1
=
sec
csc

cot
1
=
cos =
sec
csc

ANGLE SUM IDENTITIES

1
sin
=
cot
cos

sin(A + B) = sin A cos B + cos A sin B

tan =

cos(A + B) = cos A cos B sin A sin B

1
cot
csc =
=
sin
cos

tan(A + B) =

COFUNCTION IDENTITIES

tan A + tan B
1 tan A tan B

sec =

ANGLE DIFFERENCE
IDENTITIES

cot =

sin(A B) = sin A cos B cos A sin B

1
tan
=
cos
sin

sin 2A = 2 sin A cos A

1
cos
=
tan
sin

cos = cos( + 2k)

Odd functions
Unchanged if rotated 180 . Equivalently, ipping
over x-axis is the same as ipping over y -axis.

sin() = sin

sin 3A = 3 sin A 4 sin A


3

tan() = tan

cos 3A = 4 cos3 A 3 cos A

= cot

cot

= tan

cos

sec

= csc

csc

= sec

tan

A
=
2

1 cos A
2

1 + cos A
2

A
=
2

cot() = cot SU

A, B,

A
1 cos A
=
2
1 + cos A
sin A
1 cos A
=
=
1 + cos A
sin A

SUM
In any

Choice of sign depends on the quadrant in


which A
2 lies.

SQUARE-TO-LINEAR IDENTITIES
1 cos 2A
2

sin2 A =

SO

cos2 A =

1 + cos 2A
2

Solving a
of the thre

tan2 A =

1 cos 2A
1 + cos 2A

BASIC

ANGLE BETWEEN TWO LINES


A line with slope m makes an angle of
arctan m with the positive x-axis.

30 6
slope m1

SO

slope m2

slope m

TECH

Suppos

One sid
angles

Two si
angle b
(say, a

GRAPHING TRIGONOMETRIC FUNCTIONS


y

Two si
not bet
(say, a

y = csc1 x

All thre

y = sin x
2

y = csc x

y = sin1 x

1
0

An o
An o
obtu

SINE

ARCSINE

COSECANT

ARCCOSECANT

y = cos1 x

y = sec x

y = sec1 x

y = cos x

1
0

COSINE

ARCCOSINE

SECANT

AR

ARCSECANT

It is po

y = tan x

Suppo

y = cot x

y = cot1 x

y = tan1 x

SPEC

m2 m1
.
1 + m1 m2

tan =

sin A sin B =

A+B
AB
2 cos
sin
2
2
cos A + cos B =

A+B
AB
2 cos
cos
2
2

Adjac
Oppo
Hypo

The (counterclockwise) angle from a line of


slope m1 to a line of slope m2 is defined by

cos A cosB =

A+B
AB
2 sin
sin
2
2

csc() = csc

3 tan A tan3 A
tan 3A =
1 3 tan2 A

sin

Triangl

HALF-ANGLE IDENTITIES

tan

sin A + sin B =

A+B
AB
2 sin
cos
2
2

tan = tan( + k)

cos() = cos

TRIPLE-ANGLE IDENTITIES

= sin

SUM-TO-PRODUCT
IDENTITIES

sec() = sec

2 tan A
tan 2A =
1 tan2 A

Products of like terms use cosines; unlike terms


use sines.

Even functions
Unchanged if ipped over the x-axis.

cos 2A = cos2 A sin2 A


= 2 cos2 A 1 = 1 2 sin2 A

cos

sin A sin B =
1
(cos(A B) cos(A + B))
2
cos A cos B =
1
(cos(A B) + cos(A + B))
2

sin = sin( + 2k)

DOUBLE-ANGLE IDENTITIES

= cos

sin A cos B =
1
(sin(A B) + sin(A + B))
2

Periodicity

tan A tan B
tan(A B) =
1 + tan A tan B

PRODUCT-TO-SUM
IDENTITIES

SYMMETRIES

cos(A B) = cos A cos B + sin A sin B

One s

Two si
(say, a

Two si
them (

All thr
TANGENT

ARCTANGENT

This downloadable PDF copyright 2004 by SparkNotes LLC.

COTANGENT

ARCCOTANGENT

SPARKCHARTS Trigonometry page 3 of 4

TRIANGLE FORMULAS

PYTHAGOREAN THEOREM
The Law of Cosines reduces to the Pythagorean theorem when
the angle cosined is a right angle. If C = 90 , then

sin C
sin B
sin A
=
=
c
b
a

a2 + b2 = c2 .

The side of a triangle is proportional to the sine of the opposite angle.

Beware of ambiguity when using the Law of Sines to calculate


angles, since sin A = sin(180 A).
The largest angle is always opposite the longest side.

a
C

In any triangle, the sum of the angles is the same:

1
(a + b + c)(a + b c)(a b + c)(a + b + c)
4
= s(s a)(s b)(s c),

where s is the semiperimeter: s =

b 2 + c2 a2
.
2bc

Also, cos A =

a+b+c
.
2

SOLVING RIGHT TRIANGLES


Adjacent side: Side adjacent to a given acute angle.
Opposite side: Side opposite a given acute angle.
Hypotenuse: Side opposite the right angle.

60

a 3

30 60 90 right triangle

B = 90 A Trig functions give ratios of any two sides.

Use inverse trig function to nd one angle: tan A = ab .


Use A + B = 90 to find the other angle.

Use Pythagorean theorem to find hypotenuse c = a2 + b2 .

Both side lengths a and b

45 45 90 right triangle

c = cosb A
a = b tan A
B = 90 A

Acute angle only (say, A)

45
a

30

45

B
c

b=
B = 90 A

Acute angle and adjacent side (say, A and b)

a 2

Lets say C = 90 . There are ve unknown quantities: a, b, c, A, B.


If you know
you can use
c = sina A
Acute angle and opposite side (say, A and a)

SOLVING OBLIQUE TRIANGLES


TECHNIQUES FOR SOLVING OBLIQUE TRIANGLES
Suppose you know

Type

No solution if

To solve the triangle...

One side and any two


angles (say, A and B )

ASA
SAA

A + B 180

1. Use A + B + C = 180 to find the third angle.


2. Use Law of Sines to find the other two sides.

Two sides and the


angle between them
(say, a, b, and C )

SAS

Two sides and an angle ASS


not between them
(say, a, b, and A)

= csc1 x

SSS

All three sides

1. Use Law of Cosines to find the third side: c = a2 + b2 2ab cos C.


2. Less work: Use Law of Sines to calculate one unknown angle. Choose angle so that largest angle opposite longest side.
Less thinking: Alternatively, use Law of Cosines a second time to find that angle.
3. Use A + B + C = 180 to find the third angle.

A is acute and a < b sin A


A is obtuse and a < b

A
1. Use Law of Sines to find B : sin B = b sin
a . Potential ambiguity (see ASS: Ambiguous case, below).
2. Use A + B + C = 180 to find C.
3. Use Law of Sines to find c.

a+bc
a+cb
b+ca

a
.
1. Use Law of Cosines to find one angle: A = arccos b +c
2bc

A
. Choose angle so largest angle is opposite
2. Less work: Use the Law of Sines to find a second angle: B = arcsin b sin
a
longest side.
Less thinking: Alternatively, use Law of Cosines one more time.
3. Use A + B + C = 18 to compute the third angle.

Cases:

a < b sin A

A < 90

none

a = b sin A
1 right triangle
B = 90 and

C = 90 A.

none

b<a

1 triangle:

1 triangle:

C = 180 2A and C < 90 C


C
B = A.

A 90

b=a

2 triangles:
C < 90 ,

C > 90 .

b > a > b sin A

none

B'

none

none

1 triangle:

cos C =

b
a.

= sec1 x

ASS: Ambiguous case: When two sides and an angle opposite one of them are known (say, a, b, A) and that angle is acute,
A < 90 , the triangle is not always uniquely determined; there may be no solutions or there may be two solutions.

An oblique triangle is a triangle with no right angles.


An oblique triangle either has three acute angles, or one
obtuse angle and two acute angles.

$7.95 CAN

2a

TECHNIQUES FOR SOLVING RIGHT TRIANGLES

a
tan A

SPECIAL RIGHT TRIANGLES

om a line of
defined by

em

c2 = a2 + b2 2ab cos C

BASICS

LINES

A =

b = a + c 2ac cos B

Solving a triangle means knowing all six measurementsthe lengths


of the three sides and the measures of the three angles.

n angle of
.

Herons Formula:

$4.95

NTITIES

LAW OF COSINES
a2 = b2 + c2 2bc cos A
2

A + B + C = 180

1
1
1
ab sin C = bc sin A = ac sin B.
2
2
2

20593 36251

quadrant in

Area =

Contributors: Jason Whitlow, Anna Medvedovsky


Design: Dan O. Williams
Illustration: Matt Daniels, Scott Griebel
Series Editors: Sarah Friedberg, Justin Kestler

A
SUM OF ANGLES

AREA FORMULAS

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TIES

For more about triangles, see the SparkChart on Geometry.

LAW OF SINES

TM

Triangle with sides of length a, b, c with opposite angles of measure


A, B, C, respectively.

AREA OF A TRIANGLE
It is possible to calculate the area of a triangle knowing three of the six measurements (three sides, three angles), provided that one of them is a side.

= cot1 x

Suppose you know

Type

To calculate the area...

One side (say, a) and any two angles

ASA
SAA

Use A + B + C = 180 to find the third angle.


2
B sin C
Area = a sin
2 sin A

Two sides and the angle between them


(say, a, b, and C )

SAS

Area =

ASS

to find B . Keep in mind potential ambiguity since sin B = sin (180 B) .


Use sin B =
Use A + B + C = 180 to find C.
Area = 12 ab sin C

SSS

Area =

Two sides and an angle not between


them (say, a, b, and A)

All three sides

B
c

1
2 ab sin C

b sin A
a

1
4

(a + b + c)(a + b c)(a b + c)(a + b + c)

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SPARKCHARTS Trigonometry page 4 of 4