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Viscometer State-of-the-Art

Robert Kasameyer
Dan Airey
Jon Cole
January 22, 2010

2010 Cambridge Viscosity, Inc

Agenda

Comparison of commercially available high-pressure viscometers

Operating characteristics of a premier instrument: VISCOlab PVT

Development directions at Cambridge Viscosity

Need to extend viscosity standards for pressure and temperature

But first, a brief introduction to Cambridge Viscosity.

2010 Cambridge Viscosity, Inc

Cambridge Viscosity History


Founded in 1984 as Cambridge Applied
Systems
Cambridge Viscosity since 2006 to
emphasize our core business
Developed first high-pressure viscometer for
reservoir fluids in 1990
Technology leader in viscosity
Thousands of installations worldwide
Process and lab viscometers
Compliance with ASTM D7483-08
2010 Cambridge Viscosity, Inc

Comparison of Commercial Alternatives


Oscillating piston/
electromagnetic viscometer

2010 Cambridge Viscosity, Inc

Capillary

Rolling ball

Vibrational

Capabilities of Commercial Alternatives


Oscillating Piston

Capillary Tubes

Rolling Ball

Vibrational

Accuracy

1%

1%

12%

na

Sample per test

5 mL

25100 mL

500 mL +

50 mL+

Max. pressure rating

20,000 psi

15,000 psi

10,000 psi

Atmospheric

Mercury free

Yes

No

Yes

Yes

Clean in place

Yes

No

No

No

Measures gas viscosity

Yes

No

No

No

Temperature range

20 to 190 degC

Elevated only

Elevated only

40 to 150 degC

Published

literature: 13%
user survey: 515%
Not applicable
Elevated options are now available
Baths may be available
Informal

2010 Cambridge Viscosity, Inc

Source: Available Published Information

Oscillating Piston Viscometer Technology

Piston motion is a function of acceleration, velocity, and


displacement forces.

Line fluid

Of these, velocity dominates.

Sensor
Piston

Velocity is determined by the pistons drag due to shape and the


fluid dynamic viscosity.
The force due to piston wall overwhelms other drags.

Temp sensor

This simplifies the calculation of dynamic viscosity to

= f{(piston travel length)(gap : piston to chamber2)(travel


time)}.

Sensor Shown in Process Line

2010 Cambridge Viscosity, Inc

Coils

VISCOlab PVT Viscometer Overview


Key system characteristics
Pressure transducer
High-pressure
viscosity sensor

Isothermal control with


sensor, bath, and
encasing blanket

Integrated sensors
Viscosity
Temperature
Pressure
Fully enclosed system for
temperature control
Minimum sample volume
Repeatable by design
Easy piston range changing

2010 Cambridge Viscosity, Inc

VISCOlab PVT Single Integrating Interface


Traceable pressure and temperature
(PCV) compensation

On-screen statistical analysis


of test conditions
Single-click temperature
set
User-configurable
dashboard and automatic
storage of test data
2010 Cambridge Viscosity, Inc

Cambridge Development Directions


Recent sensor enhancements
Easy piston change with low-torque sealing system
Optional flow-through attachment for oven-based systems
Recent system developments
Extended pressure and temperature capabilities
Improved gas capabilities

2010 Cambridge Viscosity, Inc

Recent Enhancements for Current Sensors


Easy piston change with low-torque sealing system

Flow-through attachment for oven-based systems

2010 Cambridge Viscosity, Inc

Extend Instruments Temperature and Pressure Capability

40,000
Pressure,
psi

20,000

Currently
available
option

Not yet
available

Standard
Cambridge
product

Currently
available
option

190
Temperature, degC

2010 Cambridge Viscosity, Inc

300

Expand Gas Capabilities


2001: Initial proof of concept to extend to gas range (0.020.2 cP)
2005: Supported industry requests to extend availability
2008: CVI began calibrating gas range with N.4 (Hexane) and CO2
2009: Researchers report repeatable gas results

University of Calgary, IPN, Clemson, Aramco

Next steps:

2010 Cambridge Viscosity, Inc

Extend industry findings

Pressure and Temperature Standards


Instrument calibration is necessary.
Critical sensor feature: annular space between piston and chamber wall
Space to increase with temperature and/or pressure

Compensation factor based on


Published data on fluids characterized by NIST and others
Data to 20,000 psi and 150 degC, depending on the fluid and test, but limited by
viscosity, temperature, and pressure.

Compensation is based on best-fit correlations for


Temperature and pressure (linear)
Each piston range.

Fluid standards for extended pressures and temperatures are needed.


2010 Cambridge Viscosity, Inc

Traceable References >2 cP Lacking Above 10,000 psi


High-Pressure, High-Viscosity Measurements with Oscillating Piston Viscometer

40

Dodecane at 25C
NIST dodecane at 25C
S6 at 25C
S6 at 100C"

35
30

Viscosity, cP

25
20
15
10
5
0
0

5000

10000

15000

20000
25000
Pressure, psi

30000

35000

Characterization of NIST- traceable references boxed in red area


VISCOlab PVT measurements for Dodecane and S6
2010 Cambridge Viscosity, Inc

40000

45000

Summary: Viscometer State-of-the-Art


VISCOlab PVT:

Developed to meet industry requirements for:


Accuracy
Small sample size
Pressure and temperature
Ease of use

Continued enhancements for developing


needs

industry

The lack of appropriate viscosity reference standards is


becoming a more acute problem as pressure and
temperature requirements increase.

2010 Cambridge Viscosity, Inc