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EXPERIMENT 1: HEAT

CONDUCTION

AUTOMOTIVE
ENGINEERING LAB III
(MEC 3610)

FINAL LABORATORY REPORT


SECTION 1, GROUP 1 ,EXPERIMENT
3

PREPARED
BY:
EXPERIMEN
TERS:

Muhammad Qhuziel Bin Abdul


Mutalib
Muhammad Qhuziel Bin Abdul
Mutalib
Imad Al Din
Wan Mohd Tarmizi Bin Wan Isa
Muhammad Izzat

LECTURER:
DATE OF

Dr Hanan Mokhtar
12rd February 2016

121956
9
121956
9
121135
5
112912
1
121905
5

EXPERIMENT
:
DATE OF
19 March 2016
SUBMISSION
OBJECTIVE(S)
1 To demonstrate the working principles of industrial heat exchangers.
2 To investigate the efficiency of the heat exchanger when parallel
and counter flow arrangements shall be used.

INTRODUCTION
Heat exchangers are devices that facilitate the exchange of heat
between two mediums that are at different temperatures while keeping
them from mixing together. Heat transfer in a heat exchanger involves the
convection in the two mediums and conduction through the walls
separating the two mediums. Heat exchange between two flowing fluids is
one of the most common and important processes. Any temperature
difference across the dividing wall will result in the heat transfer of heat
between the two fluid streams. In the case of Shell and Tube Water Heat
Exchanger, a water stream flows through a pipe and exchange heat with a
second water stream that flows through an annulus surrounding the pipe.
When both water streams flow in the same direction, the system is known
as parallel-flow. However, the system is known as counter-flow if the water
streams in opposite direction.

EQUIPMENT
Concentric Tube Heat Exchanger Model FF104

PROCEDURE
Part A Parallel Flow Heat Exchanger
1 The circulation of cold water is started.
2 The flow of cold water is set to to the flow of hot water, using the
proper selector valve arrangement.
3 The main switch and the pump are switched on.

4 The temperature controller is set to 60C. * Note: Initially the cold


water flow rate is reduced to speed up the increasing temperature.
5 The hot water flow rate is set to 2 litres/min and the cold water too.
6 The temperature is needed to stabilise before it is recorded from T1
to T6.
Part B Counter Flow Heat Exchanger
1 The temperature controller is set to 60C, and the hot water flow
rate and the cold water flow rate to 2 litres/min, both of it.
2 Upon reaching steady-state condition, the temperature readings is
recorded from T1 to T6.
Part C Flow Rate Variation
1 A counter flow of the heat exchanger is set up.
2 The temperature controller is set to 60C.
3 The cold and hot water flow rate is set as in the table below:
Fhot (litres/min)
1
2
3
2
1
1

Fcold (litres/min)
1
1
1
2
2
3

Part D Water Temperature Variation


1
2
3
4

A counter flow of the heat exchanger is used.


Both cold and hot water flow rate is set to 2 litres/min.
The hot water temperatures is varied to 65C, 55C and 50C.
When the steady state condition is reached at each tempearature
setting, the temperatures of T1 to T6 are recorded.

RESULTS

Parallel Flow Heat Exchanger


Fhot
(L/Min)
2

Fcold
(L/Min)
2

T1 C

T2 C

T3 C

T4 C

T5 C

T6 C

56

48

47

30

31

31

Counter Flow Heat Exchanger


Fhot
(L/Min)
2

Fcold
(L/Min)
2

T1 C

T2 C

T3 C

T4 C

T5 C

T6 C

56

48

47

32

30

29

Flow Rate Variation(Counter Flow Heat Exchanger)


Fhot
(L/Min)

Fcold
(L/Min)

T1 C

T2 C

T3 C

T4 C

T5 C

T6 C

56

46

45

33

29

39

56

46

45

33

30

28

56

45

44

32

29

28

57

46

48

35

31

28

56

47

48

35

30

29

Water Temperature Variation (Counter Flow Heat Exchanger)


Water
Temparat
ure, C

Fhot
Fcold
(L/Min (L/Min
)
)

T1 C

T2 C

T3 C

T4 C

T5 C

T6 C

50

49

43

41

33

29

28

55

53

46

45

34

29

28

60

60

49

49

35

30

29

SAMPLE OF CALCULATIONS

Useful Formula:
Power emitted = Fhot * hot * Cphot (T1 T3)
Power absorbed = Fcold * cold * Cpcold (T6 T4)
Power lost = Power emitted Power absorbed
efficiency , E=

d T m ,=

( T 1 T 3 ) ( T 6T 4 )
ln

D m=

power absorbed
100
power emitted

T 1 T 3
T 6T 4

ID+OD
2

A= D m L

U=

power absorbed
d Tm A

Ec =

T 4T 6
100
T 1T 6

E h=

T 1T 3
100
T 1T 6

Emean=

Ec + E h
2

Part A: Parallel Flow Heat Exchanger


Power emitted =
(2 L/min)*(1min/60s)*(0.001m/1L)*(988.7kg/m)*(4180 J/kg C)*(56 47
C) = 1239.83 W
Power absorbed =
(2 L/min)*(1min/60s)*(0.001m/1L)*(996.4 kg/m)*(4178.8 J/kg C)*(31
-30C) = 138.79 W
Power loss =
1239.83-138.79 = 1101.038 W
Efficiency =
(138.79 /1239.83)* 100 = 11.19 %

dTm =

D m=

(56 47) (31 30)


(5647)
ln
(3130)

= 3.641 C

0.013+0.015
=0.014 m
2

L=2 390 mm=0.78 m

A= ( 0.014 )( 0.78 )=0.0343 m

U=

138.79W
0.0343 m 3.641 C

= 1111.34402 W /

Part D: Water Temperature Variation

Ec =

(32 26)
( 5226 )

x 100% = 23.1 %

m . C

Eh =

(52 43)
(5226)

Emean =

x 100% = 34.6 %

23.1+34.6
2

= 28.85 %

DISCUSSION
There are two types of flow that are being tested in this experiment
regarding its purpose of exchanging the heat from hot to cold. That is why
this experiment is called Concentric Tube Water Heat Exchanger.
In part A, the first type of flow is used which is the Parallel Flow. It
shows that the temperature of hot water going in is decreased as it
merges in the flow of the cold water from 56 degree celcius to 47 degree
celcius. While the cold water temperature is increased towards the system
from 27 degree celcius to 31 degree celcius. These are the temperatures
slightly after the two flows are emerged. However, when it goes out, the
temperature of hot water is 47 degree celcius and the cold water is at 33
degree celcius. Besides, in part B, the second type of flow is used which is
Counter Flow. This type of flow also made changes to the water
temperature for both hot and cold water. The hot water is decreasing from
56 degree celcius to 47 degree celcius and the cold water is increasing
from 26 degree celcius to 29 degree celcius. Then, when it goes out, the
temperature for the cold water is 33 degree celcius.
It shows that for the Counter Flow, the flow of exchanging heat is
higher than in the Parallel Flow as the changes between hot and cold in
Counter Flow is having a more uniform difference than in Parallel Flow.
This

is

linearly

as

same

as

the

theory.

Lastly, the variation of flow rate of the water and the temperature of
the water also will affect the rate of heat exchange. The higher the flow
rate of fluid, the higher the rate of heat exchange in the flow. This was the
technique that we use to quickly reach the desired temperature As well as

the temperature when it is increasing throughout the flow, the rate of heat
exchange also will increase.

CONCLUSION
In conclusion, the working principles of industrial heat exchangers
are well understood and demonstrated by using the concentric tube heat
exchanger. All the data needed in parallel and counter flow arrangements
are used in investigating for each case. The tables of results show the
data and the efficiency of each case is calculated and observed. Thus, all
objectives are achieved.